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Samson Occom, letter, to Eleazar Wheelock, 1771 July 24

ms-number: 771424

[note (type: abstract): Occom notes his disinclination to go into the wilderness, and complains bitterly of having been used as an agent and a curiosity in England to collect money for the college. He points out that there are no Indians at the school at present (except "two or three Mollatoes") and that this confirms his suspicion that Wheelock was scheming all along to use the charity for whites.][note (type: paper): Large sheet is folded into four pages. There is repair tape along all the outside edges of paper; otherwise the paper is in good condition.][note (type: ink): Ink is very light, yet bleeds heavily through the paper.][note (type: noteworthy): The trailer and text added to the left margin of one verso are in Wheelock’s hand.][note (type: signature): Letter is signed twice, once in full, once with initials.]

events: Fundraising Tour of Great Britain


[Revd | Rev.]RevdRev. Sir
Yours of [Janr | January]JanrJanuary 22[1771-01-22]: I [receivd | received]receivdreceived but
a few Days ago, wherein You Speak of mu[above] cch
Sorrow on my account, I am obliged to you
So far as it is [agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable to god, You Seem to think
that it is a sort of Reproof from God, that I was
Left to Stray, for my Staying at Home so much,
But I don’t think with You, — God [woud | would]woudwould Certain
ly gave me [Strenght | strength]Strenghtstrength Sufficient to go Such Long
[Journeis | journeys]Journeisjourneys, but I [han’t | haven't]han’thaven't been able to Ride far
Now two whole Years, and I have been [Con‐
fin’d | con‐
to my [Houſe | house]Houſehouse good Deal this Spring, I am
greatly [Exerciſ’d | exercised]Exerciſ’dexercised with my old Pains — As to my [Pre‐
ſent | pre‐
Standing with the Indians, I need not Say
more than this, I am as well, if not better [recei[above] vdvd | received]recei[above] vdvdreceived
by them than ever, if I [woud | would]woudwould only Comply with
their [Deſire | desire]Deſiredesire, the Indians [above] atat Mohegan[place0143.ocp], groton[place0092.ocp],
[Nahanteck | Niantic]NahanteckNiantic[place0168.ocp], Stonington[place0226.ocp], and even at Charles
in general [woud | would]woudwould put [themſelves | themselves]themſelvesthemselves un‐
der my [Inſtructions | instructions]Inſtructionsinstructions — as to my [illegible] being
under a [Miſtake | mistake]Miſtakemistake about my and David[pers0155.ocp]s going
into the [wilderneſs | wilderness]wilderneſswilderness I am not, I [woud | would]woudwould have gone
up and David[pers0155.ocp] too, the Spring after I got Home
from England[place0068.ocp], but you Said, you had no
money to [AſSiſt | assist]AſSiſtassist me with, and You [yourſelf | yourself]yourſelfyourself [Diſ‐
couragd | dis‐
David[pers0155.ocp] from going, — Indeed I have
always [Declin’d | declined]Declin’ddeclined to remove my Family into
the [wilderneſs | wilderness]wilderneſswilderness, but David[pers0155.ocp] [woud | would]woudwould have gone up
to Settle there — had he a proper Encourage‐
ment he [woud | would]woudwould go now — but he will not go
for what you offer — he has Some thoughts of
offering his Service to the [Comiſsrs | Commissioners]ComiſsrsCommissioners of [Boſton | Boston]BoſtonBoston[org0095.ocp] to go
into the [wilderneſs | wilderness]wilderneſswilderness, if they [woud | would]woudwould give him £30 [Lawf | lawful]Lawflawful
per [Am | annum]Amannum he [woud | would]woudwould go into the [wilderneſs | wilderness]wilderneſswilderness with his Family
to Settle — I am very Jealous that [inſtead | instead]inſteadinstead of Your [Seme‐
nary | semi‐
Becoming alma Mater, She will be too alba
mater to Suckle the [Tawnees | Tawnies]TawneesTawnies, for She is already [a
Dorn’d | a
up too much like the [Popiſh | popish]Popiſhpopish Virgin Mary
She’ll be Naturally [aſham’d | ashamed]aſham’dashamed to Suckle the [Tawnees | Tawnies]TawneesTawnies
for She is already equal in Power Honor and Autho
rity to and any College in Europe[place0070.ocp], I think your
College has too much [wordly | worldly ]wordly worldly [Grandure | grandeur]Granduregrandeur for the Poor
Indians they’ll never have much [benefet | benefit]benefetbenefit of it, — In
So Saying I Speak the general Sentiment of Indians
and [Engliſh | English]EngliſhEnglish too in [theſe | these]theſethese parts; [above] a.a. [so | also]soalso many of your [Miſsi
onaries | missi
and [School maſters | schoolmasters]School maſtersschoolmasters and Indian Scholars
Leaving You and Your Service Confirms me in this
opinion, — [above] bb Your having So many white Scholars
and So few or no Indian Scholars, gives me great
[Diſcouragement | discouragement]Diſcouragementdiscouragement — I verily thought once that your
[Inſtitution | institution]Inſtitutioninstitution was Indtended Purely for the poor Indians
with this thought I [Chearfully | cheerfully]Chearfullycheerfully [Ventur’d | ventured]Ventur’dventured my Body [& | and]&and
Soul, left my Country my poor Young Family
all my Friends and Relations, to Sail over the
[Boiſterous | boisterous]Boiſterousboisterous Seas to England[place0068.ocp], to help forward your
School, Hoping, that it may be a [laſting | lasting]laſtinglasting [Bene‐
fet | bene‐
to my poor [Tawnee | tawny]Tawneetawny Brethren, with this View
I went a Volunteer — I was quite willing to
become a Gazing stock, Yea Even a Laughing
Stock, in Strange Countries to Promote your
[Cauſe | cause]Cauſecause — we Loudly [Proclaimd | proclaimed]Proclaimdproclaimed before Multitudes
of People from Place to Place, that there was a
[moſt | most]moſtmost glorious [Proſpect | prospect]Proſpectprospect of Spreading the [goſpel | Gospel]goſpelGospel
of the Lord [Jeſus | Jesus]JeſusJesus to the [furthereſt | furtherest]furthereſtfurtherest Savage Nations
in the [wilderneſs | wilderness]wilderneſswilderness, [thro’ | through]thro’through your [Inſtitution | institution]Inſtitutioninstitution, we told
them that there were So many [Miſsionaries | missionaries]Miſsionariesmissionaries [& | and]&and
So many [Schoolmaſters | schoolmasters]Schoolmaſtersschoolmasters already Sent out, and
a greater Number [woud | would]woudwould Soon follow
[left] a: N.B. none have left me [ſince | since]ſincesince I got a Charter. b. I [ha’ | have]ha’have no white Charity Scholars but such as [above] areare [illegible][fittg | fitting]fittgfitting for a [miſsion | mission]miſsionmissiona: N.B. none have left me [ſince | since]ſincesince I got a Charter. b. I [ha’ | have]ha’have no white Charity Scholars but such as [above] areare [illegible][fittg | fitting]fittgfitting for a [miſsion | mission]miſsionmission
But when we got Home behold all the glory had [decayd | decayed]decayddecayed
and now I am [afr’aid | afraid]afr’aidafraid, we Shall [above] bebe [Deem’d | deemed]Deem’ddeemed as Liars and
Deceivers in Europe[place0070.ocp], [unleſs | unless]unleſsunless you gather Indians
quickly to your College, in great Numbers and
not to have So many Whites in the Charity, — I [under
ſtand | under
you have no Indians at [Preſent | present]Preſentpresent except two or
three [Mollatoes | mulattoes]Mollatoesmulattoes — — this I think is quite Contrary to
the Minds of the Donors, we told them, that we were
[Beging | begging]Begingbegging for poor [Miſerable | miserable]Miſerablemiserable Indians, — as for my part
I went, purely for the poor Indians, and I Should be as
ready as ever to promote your School according to my
poor Abilities [above] ifif I [coud | could]coudcould be [Convinc’d | convinced]Convinc’dconvinced by ocular [Demon‐
ſtration | demon‐
, that your pure Intention is to help, the poor
help[above] [leſs | less]leſsless[leſs | less]leſsless Indians, but as long as you have no Indians,
I am full of Doubts, — Your writing to [Esqr | Esq.]EsqrEsq. Thornton[pers0541.ocp]
to my [Diſadvantage | disadvantage]Diſadvantagedisadvantage and not [above] oneone word in my favour,
gave me to think, that your Indian Scholars had
[reaſon | reason]reaſonreason to [with Draw | withdraw]with Drawwithdraw from You, and Your [Miſsio
naries | missio
and [Schol, Maſters | schoolmasters]Schol, Maſtersschoolmasters too, the opinion of many
white People about here is that You have been
[Scheeming | scheming]Scheemingscheming [altogather | altogether]altogatheraltogether, and that it was a [Po[illegible]llicy | policy]Po[illegible]llicypolicy to
Send me over to England[place0068.ocp], for (Say they) now
they don’t Care any[above] thingthing ab[above] oout you, You have [anſwerd | answered]anſwerdanswered
their Ends, now you may Sink or Swim it is all
one to them, this makes me think of what that
great man of god Said to me, [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Whitefield[pers0038.ocp], [juſt | just]juſtjust
before I left England[place0068.ocp] in the [above] hearing ofhearing of Some gentlemen —
ah, Says he, [illegible]You have been a fine Tool to get
Money for them, but when you get home, they
won’t Regard you [the’ll | they will]the’llthey will S[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): e]et you [a Drift | adrift]a Driftadrift, —
I am ready to believe it Now — I am going to Say
Some thing further, which is very [Diſagreeable | disagreeable]Diſagreeabledisagreeable
[Modiſty | modesty]Modiſtymodesty [woud | would]woudwould forbid me, but I am [Conſtraind | constrained]Conſtraindconstrained
So to write, — Many Gentlemen in England[place0068.ocp]
and in this Country too, Say, if [above] youyou had not this
Indian Bait, you [woud | would]woudwould not Collected a quarter
of the Money you did, one gentleman in Parti
cular in England[place0068.ocp] Said to me, if [above] hehe hadn’t Seen
my face he [woud | would]woudwouldn’t have given [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): [ye | the]yethe][ye | the]yethe [happence | ha'pence]happenceha'pence
but now I have £50 freely — This one [Conſideration | consideration]Conſiderationconsideration
gives me great [Quietneſs | quietness]Quietneſsquietness, I think I went to En‐
with [Honeſt | honest]Honeſthonest Heart, I think I have [dont | done]dontdone
that which I think was my Duty to Do — I mig[above] htht
write more but I have no time, — I [wiſh | wish]wiſhwish I
[coud | could]coudcould give you one [viſit | visit]viſitvisit, to have a [ful | full]fulfull talk
but you got so [above] farfar up, I Shall never be able —
if I am under any [Miſtake | mistake]Miſtakemistake, [Pleaſe | please]Pleaſeplease to enlight
en me, — I am better in Health than I’ve been
and my Family is well [thro’ | through]thro’through Divine Favour
[Pleaſe | Please]PleaſePlease to [above] givegive my [Compts | compliments]Comptscompliments to all under your Care
and Accept Duty from
Your [moſt | most]moſtmost unworthy
[Servt | Servant]ServtServant

[Samſon | Samson]SamſonSamson Occom[pers0030.ocp]
PS I have not wrote this Sort to any one
in England[place0068.ocp], I [Chuſe | choose]Chuſechoose to let you know my
mind [firſt | first]firſtfirst
From [M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. Occom[pers0030.ocp]
July 23. 1771[1771-07-23]
The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America
The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America was a missionary society active in America from 1649 until 1786. It was first called the "New England Company" in 1770. Most secondary literature uses that name for convenience and to distinguish it from other missionary societies. The company was first chartered in 1649 as the "President and Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England," largely in response to John Eliot's missionary efforts. After the Restoration (1660), it was rechartered as the "Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America." The New England Company was very powerful and influential, in large part because it was a coalition between Anglicans and Dissenters. It supported a range of missionaries from the Mayhews to the Sergeants to Moor's alumnus Samuel Kirkland. After the Revolution, the New England Company refocused its attentions on New Brunswick and Canadian Indians. Wheelock had a very rocky relationship with the New England Company. Initially, it supported Wheelock's efforts. The Company funded Occom's education at Moor's and paid him a small salary during his time among the Montauketts. However, from 1765 onwards, its relationship with Wheelock rapidly deteriorated. The Company opposed the fundraising tour of Great Britain and went so far as to interfere with it by sending a widely circulated letter to England questioning Occom's background. The New England Company also interferred with Titus Smith's mission to Onaquaga by sending a rival missionary, Mr. Moseley, and stealing Titus' interpreter, Elisha Gunn. In 1767 it formally withdrew its financial support from Wheelock on the grounds that the fundraising tour had raised sufficient money. It is unclear what led the New England Company to suddenly change its stance towards Wheelock. Perhaps it wanted exclusive power over missionary distribution in New England, or perhaps it was thought that focusing on education over numbers in the field was counterproductive. Most secondary sources have conflated the New England Company's Boston Board and the Society in Scotland for Promoting Christian Knowledge's Boston Board, an easy mistake to make since both are sometimes referred to as the Boston Board and both vigorously opposed Wheelock. Any secondary source's statement about either should be carefully researched.

Mohegan is a village in southeastern Connecticut at the site of the present-day town of Montville, and is the location of the Mohegan Indian Reservation. The village gets its name from the Mohegan Tribe, or wolf people, who split from the Pequots in the early 17th century under the leadership of the sachem Uncas. In the 1720s, the Mohegans requested the colony of Connecticut provide them with an English educator. An English minister and schoolteacher named John Mason (no relation to Captain John Mason) moved to Mohegan in order to provide English-styled education to the Mohegans, convinced his sponsors, the New England Company, to build a schoolhouse at Mohegan, which eventually served as a boarding school for other Native American children from the surrounding area. During the 17th century, the Mohegan Tribe became embroiled in a complicated controversy over control of Mohegan land — known as the Mason Land Case or, more specifically, Mohegan Indians v. Connecticut — that included the village of Mohegan. The Tribe claimed that it never authorized a transfer of their lands, held in trust by the Mason family, to the colonial government. In 1662, the colony of Connecticut was incorporated by a royal charter, which included the disputed tribal land. The land controversy was revived in 1704 when descendants of John Mason, the original trustee, petitioned the Crown on behalf of the Mohegans, but the suit was finally decided against the Tribe in 1773. Born in Mohegan, Occom became involved in the Mason Land Case and vehemently argued for the rights of the Mohegan Indians to maintain their land, opposing Eleazar Wheelock and other ministers in the area. Although Occom left Mohegan for a 12-year mission with the Montauk Indians of Long Island, he returned at the end of 1763 with his large family to build a house in Mohegan, establishing it as his base of operations. Even after the creation of the Brothertown settlement in Oneida country, for which he served as minister, Occom continued to commute back and forth from Mohegan; he didn't sell his house in Mohegan and move his family to Brothertown until 1789. Many members of his family remained in Mohegan, including his sister Lucy Tantaquidgeon, who lived there until her death at 99 in 1830.


Groton is a town located in southeastern Connecticut between the Thames and Mystic Rivers. This land was originally settled by the Niantic tribe, who were forced out in the early 1600s by the Pequots. During the Pequot War in 1637, Captain John Mason’s soldiers and Indian allies attacked the Pequot’s Mystic fort, burning down the fort, killing mostly women and children, and largely displacing the Pequots. John Winthrop Jr. and his Puritan followers first settled Groton in 1646 as part of New London. In 1705, the General Court allowed the Groton inhabitants to incorporate as a separate town due to its increased population. The town was named Groton after Winthrop’s England estate. Farming, shipbuilding, and maritime trading sustained the Groton economy throughout the eighteenth century. Beginning in 1712, land disputes between the Connecticut government and the Pequot tribe in Groton ensued, and the Pequots sent many petitions and grievances to the Connecticut government. Legal battles concerning the colonists’ leasing of the 1,700 acres on which the Pequots lived continued throughout the 18th century, as missionaries came to the area to teach religion and establish schools. After the Revolutionary War, many Groton Pequots joined other Connecticut tribes and moved to the Brothertown settlement in upstate New York.


Niantic is a village located in East Lyme, a seaside town in southeast Connecticut on the Long Island Sound. The land was occupied by the Niantic tribe when the Europeans arrived. The Dutch claimed the area in the 17th century, but when the British claimed this same land as part of their colonies, the Dutch forfeited it to the British in a 1627 trade agreement. The village housed both preachers and a schoolhouse, and missionaries came to the village for the purpose of converting and assimilating the tribe. This effort intensified in the 1740s with the influence of the First Great Awakening. Increasingly dispersed and dispossessed of land, many Niantic Indians followed Occom and Joseph Johnson to upstate New York in the 1770's where they settled Brothertown.


Stonington is a town on the Long Island Sound by the Pawcatuck River in the southeastern corner of Connecticut. Before colonists arrived, the Algonquin-speaking Pequots who originally inhabited the area referred to it as “Mistack.” In 1649, however, Europeans opened a trading house near the Pawcatuck, and in 1666 they named the town Stonington. Relations between the Pequots and colonists were tense, especially because of the 1637 massacre of Pequot Indians at nearby Mystic, CT. Eventually, settlers set aside North Stonington for the Pequots, establishing one of the earliest Indian reservations that the Pequots have continually occupied since 1670. The town grew in the years leading up to the Revolution as a result of the shipbuilding and fishing industries. Occom visited Stonington to preach, often to crowds of Pequots in North Stonington, which became its own town in 1724. Its high Pequot population led some to call North Stonington “Stonington Indian Town.” Occom was acquainted with Joseph Fish, a Congregationalist minister, who in the 1760s opened a school for local Pequots and Narragansetts in Stonington. Moor’s alumni John Shattock Jr. and Jacob Fowler both spent time as schoolmasters there. During the Revolutionary War, Stonington was the site where patriots successfully deterred two British naval attacks. Following the war, many Stonington Pequots, along with other New England tribes, settled in Brothertown, in central New York.


Charlestown is located in Washington County in southwestern Rhode Island along the Block Island sound. For thousands of years before European settlement, the area was inhabited by Native Americans who lived by hunting, fishing and agriculture. When the English dissenter, Roger Williams, fled Massachusetts Bay in 1636 and stepped ashore in what would become the Plantation of Providence, he was welcomed by Canonicus, sachem of the Narragansett Indians. From Canonicus, Williams purchased a large tract of land that included the settlement of Misquamicut, which would become the site of an English settlement named Charlestown after King Charles II. It was incorporated in 1783. After the Great Swamp Fight in which the United Colonies massacred many Narragansetts — and hunted down and killed or enslaved those who escaped — 500 survivors (from a pre-war population of 5,000) signed a 1682 peace treaty and received permission to join with the Eastern Niantic tribe, which had remained neutral throughout the war and had a small reservation near Charlestown. Settlers continued to acquire land from the Naragansetts, and by 1880, the tribe ceased to exist as a legal entity. A portion of tribal lands were returned to Narragansett ownership in 1978 by the courts and state legislation, and the tribe was officially recognized in 1983. Charlestown is the present-day headquarters of the Narragansett Tribe and the location of their reservation.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Fowler, David

David Fowler was Jacob Fowler's older brother, Samson Occom's brother-in-law, and an important leader of the Brothertown Tribe. He came to Moor's in 1759, at age 24, and studied there until 1765. While at school, he accompanied Occom on a mission to the Six Nations in 1761. He was licensed as a school master in the 1765 mass graduation, and immediately went to the Six Nations to keep school, first at Oneida and then at Kanawalohale. Fowler saw himself as very close to Wheelock, but their relationship fragmented over the course of Fowler's mission, primarily because Wheelock wrote back to Kirkland, with whom Fowler clashed, but not to Fowler, and because Wheelock refused to reimburse Fowler for some expenses on his mission (767667.4 provides the details most clearly). Fowler went on to teach school at Montauk, and played a major role in negotiations with the Oneidas for the lands that became Brothertown. He was among the first wave of immigrants to that town, and held several important posts there until his death in 1807.

Thornton, John

John Thornton was born in Yorkshire on April 1, 1720. As a young man, Thornton inherited money from his father Robert Thornton, who was the Director of the Bank of England, which he used to begin his career as a merchant. In 1753, Thornton married Lucy Watson, with whom he had four children. Watson had a Christianizing influence on Thornton, which ultimately led to his 1754 conversion to evangelical Anglicanism under Henry Venn, the curate of Clapham. Thornton's and Venn’s sons would continue their fathers’ religious traditions, going on to form the “Clapham sect,” an influential group of evangelical Christians who championed social reforms. As a result of his conversion, Thornton pursued charity just as much as trade, a major part of which involved managing the English Trust that oversaw the funds Occom and Whitaker collected for Wheelock’s Indian Charity School. Thornton met and hosted Occom several times during his stay in England, and eventually became the Treasurer of the Trust. After Wheelock moved the School to Hanover, however, he focused on the establishment of Dartmouth College to educate Anglo-American men as missionaries, and was accused of using the Trust's funds to this end. This shift in focus contributed to the rift that developed between Occom and Wheelock upon Occom’s return to America –- a rift Thornton tried to repair. Thornton thought of Occom as an equal and, in his role as Treasurer of the Trust, often reminded Wheelock of Occom's vital role in securing the funds that made the School possible. Thornton financed Occom's further missionary activities and insured that Wheelock did not forget Occom's hard work and Christian morals. In addition, Wheelock –- who knew that Occom respected Thornton –- often called upon the merchant when he himself could not convince Occom to undertake further missionary activity. The exchanges between Wheelock and Thornton ended once Wheelock had used up the funds that Occom had raised in England, yet Occom and Thornton kept in touch up through the Revolutionary War, with Thornton remaining one of Occom's most prominent supporters. He died on November 7th, 1790 as one of the wealthiest men in England, despite giving away nearly half his salary each year. In 1828, Thornton's role in the establishment of Dartmouth was memorialized in the College's naming of Thornton Hall.

Whitefield, George

George Whitefield, the English itinerant preacher who helped spark the Great Awakening, was an essential supporter of Eleazar Wheelock’s project. Whitefield studied at Pembroke College, Oxford, where he met the pioneers of Methodism, John and Charles Wesley. He was ordained in 1736, and he made the first of his seven trips to America two years later. While abroad in 1740, Whitefield founded an orphanage in Georgia, and went on a preaching tour during which he met Wheelock and spread ideals that prompted the Great Awakening. Although Whitefield was ordained in the Church of England, his enthusiastic preaching style and charismatic personality made him a controversial figure, and traditional clergyman on both sides of the Atlantic censured him. Nonetheless, he continued to be an important contact and friend of Wheelock’s, and his dedication to Wheelock’s vision was evident. He contributed money to the cause, secured various other funders, and donated an eighty-pound prayer bell to the school. More importantly, Whitefield not only suggested to Wheelock the idea of a fundraising tour in Great Britain, he hosted Occom and Whitaker shortly after they arrived in England, provided a house for them to reside in for the remainder of their tour, and introduced the pair to influential figures such as William Legge, the Earl of Dartmouth. Whitefield tabernacle’s was the setting of Occom’s first sermon in England on February 16, 1766, and many believe that Whitefield wrote the introduction to a pamphlet printed in London during the campaign (although he was not credited). Whitefield continued to be involved in Wheelock’s work until he died in Newburyport, MA in September of 1770.

Fundraising Tour of Great Britain
After many months of planning and shifting personnel, Occom, accompanied by the minister Nathaniel Whitaker, sets sail in December 1765 for a two-and-a-half year tour of England and Scotland in order to solicit contributions to Wheelock’s Indian Charity School and missionary efforts. Introduced to aristocrats and prominent clergy by the minister George Whitefield, Occom preaches many sermons, travels widely, and collects a large sum of money.
Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers0155.ocp David mentioned Fowler, David
pers0541.ocp Esq r Esq. Thornton mentioned Thornton, John
pers0038.ocp M r Mr. Whitefield mentioned Whitefield, George
pers0030.ocp Samſon Samson Occom writer Occom, Samson
pers0030.ocp SO writer Occom, Samson
pers0030.ocp M. r Mr. Occom writer Occom, Samson

Places identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
place0143.ocp Mohegan Mohegan
place0092.ocp groton Groton
place0168.ocp Nahanteck Niantic Niantic
place0226.ocp Stonington Stonington
place0031.ocp Charles town Charlestown
place0068.ocp England England
place0070.ocp Europe Europe
place0068.ocp En‐ gland England

Organizations identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
org0095.ocp ComiſsrsCommissioners of BoſtonBoston The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America

Dates identified in this document:

Standard Form Text
1771-07-24 July 24: 1771
1771-01-22 JanrJanuary 22
1771-07-23 July 23. 1771

Regularized text:

Type Original Regularized
modernization Revd Rev.
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variation agreable agreeable
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modernization Houſe house
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modernization Deſire desire
variation Nahanteck Niantic
modernization themſelves themselves
modernization Inſtructions instructions
modernization Miſtake mistake
modernization wilderneſs wilderness
modernization AſSiſt assist
modernization yourſelf yourself
variation Diſ‐
modernization Boſton Boston
modernization inſtead instead
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modernization Popiſh popish
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variation Grandure grandeur
variation benefet benefit
modernization Engliſh English
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variation School maſters schoolmasters
modernization Diſcouragement discouragement
modernization Inſtitution institution
variation Chearfully cheerfully
modernization Boiſterous boisterous
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modernization Jeſus Jesus
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modernization under
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variation Mollatoes mulattoes
variation Beging begging
modernization Miſerable miserable
variation coud could
modernization Demon‐
modernization leſs less
modernization Esqr Esq.
modernization Diſadvantage disadvantage
modernization reaſon reason
variation with Draw withdraw
variation Schol, Maſters schoolmasters
variation Scheeming scheming
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modernization juſt just
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modernization Pleaſe please
modernization Pleaſe Please
modernization Samſon Samson
variation Chuſe choose
modernization firſt first
modernization M.r Mr.

Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
Janr January
Exerciſ’d exercised
recei[above] vdvd received
Declin’d declined
Comiſsrs Commissioners
Lawf lawful
Am annum
aſham’d ashamed
so also
Ventur’d ventured
& and
thro’ through
ha’ have
fittg fitting
decayd decayed
Deem’d deemed
Convinc’d convinced
the’ll they will
Compts compliments
Servt Servant

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Summary of errors found in this document:

Number of dates with invalid 'when' attributes: 0
Number of nested "hi" tags: (consider merging the @rend attributes, or using other tags) 0
Number of tags with invalid 'rend' attributes: 0 (out of 14)
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HomeSamson Occom, letter, to Eleazar Wheelock, 1771 July 24
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