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Samson Occom, journal, date unknown

ms-number: 771101.2

[note (type: abstract): Occom describes his travels around the East coast and in Philadelphia.][note (type: handwriting): Handwriting is clear and legible.][note (type: paper): Several small sheets folded together into a booklet and bound with twine or thread are in poor conditon, with significant fading, staining and wear that leads to a significant loss of text. The tops of six verso and seven recto, and 10 verso and 11 recto, are uncut and thus impossible to scan. There are no images for these pages; however, they are blank.][note (type: noteworthy): An editor, likely 19th-century, has overwritten portions of faded text; in instances where Occom’s original hand is impossible to discern, these edits have been transcribed. This editor appears to be the originator of the date listed for the document in the Dartmouth archives. Although the year is likely, the actual date is uncertain. There are red and grey pencil marks on one recto.][note (type: ink): Brown ink is heavily faded in spots.]
[gap: stain] and we lodged
at the Same [Houſe | house]Houſehouse again

[Tueſday | Tuesday]TueſdayTuesday [Decr | December]DecrDecember 18[](Error: 'when' attribute not in YYYY, YYYY-MM, or YYYY-MM-DD format)

[gap: faded] got up
early and to took Victuals
and then took leave of the
Family and went on our way

[Sabb: | Sabbath]Sabb:Sabbath 24[](Error: 'when' attribute not in YYYY, YYYY-MM, or YYYY-MM-DD format)

was at [Quakſon | Quakson]QuakſonQuakson[place0502.ocp]

[Sab | Sabbath]SabSabbath March [above] 22[](Error: 'when' attribute not in YYYY, YYYY-MM, or YYYY-MM-DD format)

at Burdentown[place0559.ocp]

[Sab | Sabbath]SabSabbath march 9[](Error: 'when' attribute not in YYYY, YYYY-MM, or YYYY-MM-DD format):

[New Ark | Newark]New ArkNewark Mountain[above] ss[place0498.ocp]

[Sab | Sabbath]SabSabbath March 16[](Error: 'when' attribute not in YYYY, YYYY-MM, or YYYY-MM-DD format)

New York[place0308.ocp]

[illegible][Sab | Sabbath]SabSabbath March [above] 1313[](Error: 'when' attribute not in YYYY, YYYY-MM, or YYYY-MM-DD format)

New York[place0308.ocp]

[Sab | Sabbath]SabSabbath march 16[](Error: 'when' attribute not in YYYY, YYYY-MM, or YYYY-MM-DD format):

New York[place0308.ocp]

[Sab | Sabbath]SabSabbath March 13[](Error: 'when' attribute not in YYYY, YYYY-MM, or YYYY-MM-DD format)

[Eliſabeth Town | Elizabeth]Eliſabeth TownElizabeth[place0067.ocp]

[Sab | Sabbath]SabSabbath March 30[](Error: 'when' attribute not in YYYY, YYYY-MM, or YYYY-MM-DD format):

[Saild | Sailed]SaildSailed from [N | New]NNew York[place0308.ocp]

[Sab: | Sabbath]Sab:Sabbath April 6[](Error: 'when' attribute not in YYYY, YYYY-MM, or YYYY-MM-DD format):

at Mohegan[place0143.ocp]

[Tueſday | Tuesday]TueſdayTuesday [Janr | January]JanrJanuary 1[1771-01-01]:

got up
early and went on our
way and got to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Balwin[pers0073.ocp]s
towards Night, in And Lodge[above] dd
there — —

[Wedneſday | Wednesday]WedneſdayWednesday [Janr | January]JanrJanuary 2[1771-01-02]:

here all Day, in the
evening had a meeting
in the Place, and there
was great Number of
People and I Spoke
from and the People at
tended well, wa Lodged
at the Same[ſe | se]ſese [Houſe | house]Houſehouse — —

[Thirdsday | Thursday]ThirdsdayThursday [Janr | January]JanrJanuary 3[1771-01-03]:

to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. grover[pers1210.ocp]s in [P[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): a]arſepaney | Parsippany]P[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): a]arſepaneyParsippany[place0501.ocp]
and in the evening Preach
in [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Beaverrout[pers1191.ocp]'s, and
Lodged there — —

[Fryday | Friday]FrydayFriday [Janr | January]JanrJanuary 4[1771-01-04]

[Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast we [Sot | set]Sotset [of | off]ofoff and
[Calld | called]Calldcalled at the [Revd | Rev.]RevdRev. [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. green[pers0631.ocp]s
and from [thre | there]threthere [paſt | passed]paſtpassed on to
Newark Mountans[place0498.ocp], got
to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Chapman[pers1194.ocp]'s a [illegible: [guess (h-dawnd): [llitle | little]llitlelittle][llitle | little]llitlelittle] [paſt | past]paſtpast
12: and took Dinner there,
and Soon after we went on
to Crain Town[place0492.ocp],— and in the
evening had a meeting in
a [School Houſe | schoolhouse]School Houſeschoolhouse, and there
was a large number of
People, and I Spoke from
1 John V: 10: and the People
were very Solemn many were
much affected — Lodgd at
one [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Crain[pers1201.ocp]s. — —

Saturday [Janr | January]JanrJanuary 5[1771-01-05]:

eating we went on to [Horſ | Horse]HorſHorse
, and we put up at
[Esqr | Esq.]EsqrEsq. Crain[pers1201.ocp]s and it was
very Cold weather —
[Sab. | Sabbath]Sab.Sabbath [Janr | January]JanrJanuary 6[1771-01-06]
[note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.]

[Tueſday | Tuesday]TueſdayTuesday [Janr | January]JanrJanuary 22[1771-01-22]:

we [arrivd | arrived]arrivdarrived
to Philadelphia[place0186.ocp], and we went
to [Docr | Dr.]DocrDr. Sprout[pers0512.ocp]'s, and [Devuldgd | divulged]Devuldgddivulged
our [Buſineſs | business]Buſineſsbusiness to him, and he
[appeard | appeared]appeardappeared very Friendly to us, [& | and]&and
So went on to [viſit | visit]viſitvisit, [Miniſters | ministers]Miniſtersministers of all
Denominations, and they were
all very Friendly, [Dind | dined]Dinddined with
DGentlemen [allmost | almost]allmostalmost every Day
we Lodged 2 Nights at [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
[Buſhel | Bushel]BuſhelBushel[pers1193.ocp]
s, and then we were
invited by [mr | Mr.]mrMr. Innes[pers1213.ocp] a Brewer
a Scotchman and a good man
and the whole Family is very
[agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable we were treated with
great [Kindneſs | kindness]Kindneſskindness. — —

[Sabb | Sabbath]SabbSabbath [Janr | January]JanrJanuary 27[1771-01-27]

in the [after noon | afternoon]after noonafternoon
[Preachd | preached]Preachdpreached in [Docr | Dr.]DocrDr. Duffield[pers0173.ocp]s [m | meeting]mmeeting
in the evening [Preachd | preached]Preachdpreached in [Docr | Dr.]DocrDr.
s meeting, and they
made Collections for me. — —
This week [viſited | visited]viſitedvisited every
Day and found [kindneſs | kindness]kindneſskindness
by all Sorts of People— —

[Febr | February]FebrFebruary 3:[1771-02-03]

on [Sabb: | Sabbath]Sabb:Sabbath in the
morning [Preachd | preached]Preachdpreached at [Docr | Dr.]DocrDr.
s, in the [after noon | afternoon]after noonafternoon
[Preahd | preached]Preahdpreached in a [Baptiſt | Baptist]BaptiſtBaptist meeting
and there was a large [Numbr | number]Numbrnumber
of People. — — —

[Sabb | Sabbath]SabbSabbath [Febr | February]FebrFebruary [Fryday | Friday]FrydayFriday [Frebr | February]FrebrFebruary 8[1771-02-08]

This evening a number of Ladies
and gentlemen, and we, went
to take Tea with [Capt | Capt.]CaptCapt. [Dehoſe | Dehose]DehoſeDehose[pers1202.ocp]
in his Ship, he is a Dutch [illegible]
and had a genteel entertain
ment — and after Teat the
Company [Plaid | played]Plaidplayed, a [litle | little]litlelittle man
which died very often — [Stayd | stayed]Staydstayed
[till | 'til]till'til near 9: and we Indians
took good leave of the Company
and [returnd | returned]returndreturned to our [Quaters | quarters]Quatersquarters

[Sabb. | Sabbath]Sabb.Sabbath [Februr | February]FebrurFebruary 10[1771-02-11]:

[Preahd | preached]Preahdpreached in
in the morning, in [Docr | Dr.]DocrDr. Duffield[pers0173.ocp]s
meeting [Houſe | house]Houſehouse,— in the Evening
[Preach'd | preached]Preach'dpreached in [Docr | Dr.]DocrDr. Ewing[pers0774.ocp]s meeting
and they made me a Collection —
This week went on in our [Viſits | visits]Viſitsvisits
[amongſt | amongst]amongſtamongst all Denominations; and
were kindly treated by all: — —

[Sabb | Sabbath]SabbSabbath [Febr | February]FebrFebruary 17[1771-02-17]

I went in the morn
ing to [Docr | Dr.]DocrDr. Sprout[pers0512.ocp]s and it was a
Sacrament Day [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Green[pers0631.ocp] [Preachd | preached]Preachdpreached
and I partook the [ordernance | ordinance]ordernanceordinance
with them and it was a Solemn
Day with me, and I believe with
others. in the [after Noon | afternoon]after Noonafternoon, I went
to [Baptiſt | Baptist]BaptiſtBaptist Meeting, and heard
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Enſtick | Enstick]EnſtickEnstick[pers1204.ocp] [above] oneone of the [Baptiſt | Baptist]BaptiſtBaptist
[Miniſters | ministers]Miniſtersministers in the City and we were
now [geting | getting]getinggetting ready to leave the
City. and it was hard work to
take leave of the People. for all
Denominations were exceeding
kind to us. [uſe | use]uſeuse us with great
[Friendſhip | friendship]Friendſhipfriendship, and had good [Suc
ceſs | suc
in our applications: and
the Friends or Quakers[org0153.ocp] were
Friends indeed to us they Com
municated their [Su[illegible]bſtance | substance]Su[illegible]bſtancesubstance to
us more than any People
in this great City, [were | we]werewe ate
and Drank with them from
Day to Day —

[Fryday | Friday]FrydayFriday [Febr | February]FebrFebruary 22[1771-02-22]:

About 10
we left Philadelphia[place0186.ocp], and
it was bad [Croſsing | crossing]Croſsingcrossing the
[note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.]
Religious Society of Friends
The Religious Society of Friends, more popularly known as Quakers, is a Christian group founded in mid-17th century England, who believed that all people contained a spark of the divine, which they called the "inward light," a direct apprehension of God that must guide all their actions. From this central belief flowed many influential practices that distinguish Quakers from other Protestant sects: they are pacifists, dress simply, believe in the equality of all people and religious toleration, and worship together in silent "meeting" until the spirit moves someone to talk. This movement began in the 1640s during the Puritian Revolution against King Charles I, when several charismatic ministers, including George Fox and James Nayler, galvanized the small groups of "Seekers" that had gathered together, unhappy with both the Church of England and the various forms of Puritan reform churches. They converted people mostly from all social classes except the aristocracy, and were persecuted savagely by Puritan clergy in England and in North America, where Quakerism was beginning to spread. Quakerism took hold in Massachusetts, in Rhode Island where they were a majority for a long time, and in New Jersey and North Carolina. Charles II granted a charter to Willian Penn in 1681 to found the colony of Pennsylvania along Quaker principles. Often speaking out as witnesses to injustice, Quakers have been in the forefront of many campaigns for social reform. One of the best known Quakers is John Woolman, who in the mid-18th century persuaded Pennsylvania Quakers to free their slaves and advocated the abolition of slavery. It is not surprising that Occom was strongly drawn to the Quakers he met on a preaching and fundraising tour in winter 1771 to Philadelphia. He notes "the Friends or Quakers were Friends indeed to us they Communicated thier Substance to us more than any People in this great City, we ate and Drank with them from Day to Day" (manuscript 771101.2). Similarly, on another preaching tour in 1787, Occom noted that Quakers in New York "were exceeding kind to us and Freely Communicated their Substance to help our People in the Wilderness," especially the Indian children of families who had moved up to Oneida land (manuscript 787660.1).
Newark Mountains
New York City

Located just northwest of Staten Island, Elizabeth, New Jersey, was originally called Elizabethtown. Richard Nicolls, governor of the territories of North America, gave permission to John Bailey, Daniel Denton, and Luke Watson to purchase 500,000 acres from the Indians of Staten Island in 1664; however, the whole of New Jersey had been conveyed to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, who commissioned his relative Philip Carteret to be governor. Governor Carteret established Elizabethtown, named after George Carteret’s wife, as the capital of the province of New Jersey. In 1855 the legislature of New Jersey officially established this land as the City of Elizabeth. Josiah Wolcott wrote a letter from Elizabethtown to Eleazar Wheelock asking to enroll his son into Wheelock’s school.


Mohegan is a village in southeastern Connecticut at the site of the present-day town of Montville, and is the location of the Mohegan Indian Reservation. The village gets its name from the Mohegan Tribe, or wolf people, who split from the Pequots in the early 17th century under the leadership of the sachem Uncas. In the 1720s, the Mohegans requested the colony of Connecticut provide them with an English educator. An English minister and schoolteacher named John Mason (no relation to Captain John Mason) moved to Mohegan in order to provide English-styled education to the Mohegans, convinced his sponsors, the New England Company, to build a schoolhouse at Mohegan, which eventually served as a boarding school for other Native American children from the surrounding area. During the 17th century, the Mohegan Tribe became embroiled in a complicated controversy over control of Mohegan land — known as the Mason Land Case or, more specifically, Mohegan Indians v. Connecticut — that included the village of Mohegan. The Tribe claimed that it never authorized a transfer of their lands, held in trust by the Mason family, to the colonial government. In 1662, the colony of Connecticut was incorporated by a royal charter, which included the disputed tribal land. The land controversy was revived in 1704 when descendants of John Mason, the original trustee, petitioned the Crown on behalf of the Mohegans, but the suit was finally decided against the Tribe in 1773. Born in Mohegan, Occom became involved in the Mason Land Case and vehemently argued for the rights of the Mohegan Indians to maintain their land, opposing Eleazar Wheelock and other ministers in the area. Although Occom left Mohegan for a 12-year mission with the Montauk Indians of Long Island, he returned at the end of 1763 with his large family to build a house in Mohegan, establishing it as his base of operations. Even after the creation of the Brothertown settlement in Oneida country, for which he served as minister, Occom continued to commute back and forth from Mohegan; he didn't sell his house in Mohegan and move his family to Brothertown until 1789. Many members of his family remained in Mohegan, including his sister Lucy Tantaquidgeon, who lived there until her death at 99 in 1830.

Crain Town
Horse Neck
Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Duffield, George

George Duffield was a Presbyterian minister who served as pastor to the famous "Church of the Patriots" in Philadelphia, a missionary, and a faithful supporter of Occom and the Brothertown movement. He was born in Lancaster County, PA in 1732, and educated at Newark Academy in Delaware and the College of New Jersey (now Princeton), a Presbyterian stronghold. Graduating in 1752, he served as tutor there for two years and was ordained in 1759. Duffield married Elizabeth Blair in 1756, but after her early death in 1757, he remarried Margaret Armstrong in 1759. That same year, Duffield was appointed minister to Presbyterian churches on the Pennsylvania frontier in Carlisle, Big Spring (now Newville) and Monaghan (now Dillsburg). In the summer and fall of 1766, he and Reverend Charles Clinton Beatty conducted a missionary tour through the western valleys of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, establishing churches, converting Indians, and ministering to the scattered settlers. Duffield published an account of this tour in 1766. In 1771, he was offered the pulpit of the Pine Street (now Third) Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, which he almost did not take because Old Side (Old Light) members objected to his adherence to New Side (New Light) revivalist ideas. Weathering the controversy, Duffield served at Pine Street until his death in 1790, preaching American independence from the pulpit with fervor and eloquence, and leaving during the War to serve as both Chaplain of the Pennsylvania Militia and co-Chaplain of the Continental Congress. Sixty of his parishoners followed him, and the British put a price on his head. After the war, Pine Street Church became known as "The Church of the Patriots."

Ewing, John

John Ewing was an influential Presbyterian minister in Philadelphia, a professor, and a noted mathematician. He and a twin brother, James, were born on June 22, 1732 in Nottingham, Maryland to Nathaniel and Rachel (Porter), who had emigrated from Ireland. He received his early education with Francis Alison, a noted Presbyterian clergyman, and remained at Alison's academy for three years as a tutor in Latin, Greek and mathematics, in which he excelled; he graduated the year he matriculated at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton) in 1754. He served as tutor at the College for two years and was licensed to preach. In 1759, he was called to pastor at the First Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, where he served as a popular and eloquent preacher until his death in 1802. He also joined the faculty of the College of Philadelphia as Professor of Ethics from 1758 to 1762 and Professor of Natural Philosophy from 1762 to 1778. Joining the American Philosophical Society in 1768, he contributed to several noted scientific experiments (charting the transit of Venus) and public works (surveying the boundary with Delaware). In 1773, he was commissioned to travel to Great Britain to solicit funds for the Academy of Newark, in Delaware, where he received an honorary Doctorate of Divinity from University of Edinburgh and met with promiment figures (including Lord North, the prime minister, and Samuel Johnson) to advance the cause of American independence. When the College of Philadelphia was reorganized as the University of Pennsylvania, Ewing became its first provost in 1780. Occom preached and collected funds in Ewing's Church on his tour of Philadelphia in 1771. While in London, Ewing likely met members of the Trust for Wheelock's Indian School, because Occom reports to John Thornton in 1777 that he learned about the exhaustion of the Trust from Ewing (manuscript 761290), one of the influential ministers who collected money for Occom and Brothertown in 1771.

Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers0073.ocp M r Mr. Balwin mentioned Baldwin
pers1210.ocp M r Mr. grover mentioned Grover
pers1191.ocp M r Mr. Beaverrout mentioned Beaverrout
pers0631.ocp Rev d Rev. M r Mr. green mentioned Green
pers1194.ocp M r Mr. Chapman mentioned Chapman
pers1201.ocp M r Mr. Crain mentioned Crain
pers1201.ocp Esq r Esq. Crain mentioned Crain
pers0512.ocp Doc r Dr. Sprout mentioned Sprout
pers1193.ocp M r Mr. Buſhel Bushel mentioned Bushel
pers1213.ocp m r Mr. Innes mentioned Innes
pers0173.ocp Doc r Dr. Duffield mentioned Duffield, George
pers1202.ocp Cap t Capt. Dehoſe Dehose mentioned Dehose
pers0774.ocp Doc r Dr. Ewing mentioned Ewing, John
pers0631.ocp M r Mr. Green mentioned Green
pers1204.ocp M r Mr. Enſtick Enstick mentioned Enstick

Places identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
place0502.ocp Quakſon Quakson Quakson
place0559.ocp Burdentown Bordentown
place0498.ocp New Ark Newark Mountain s Newark Mountains
place0308.ocp New York New York City
place0067.ocp Eliſabeth Town Elizabeth Elizabeth
place0308.ocp N New York New York City
place0143.ocp Mohegan Mohegan
place0501.ocp P a rſepaney Parsippany Parsippany
place0498.ocp Newark Mountans Newark Mountains
place0492.ocp Crain Town Crain Town
place0495.ocp Horſ Horse Neck Horse Neck
place0186.ocp Philadelphia Philadelphia

Organizations identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
org0153.ocp Friends or Quakers Religious Society of Friends

Dates identified in this document:

Standard Form Text
TueſdayTuesday DecrDecember 18
Sabb:Sabbath 24
SabSabbath March 2
SabSabbath march 9
SabSabbath March 16
SabSabbath March 13
SabSabbath march 16
SabSabbath March 30
Sab:Sabbath April 6
1771-01-01 TueſdayTuesday JanrJanuary 1
1771-01-02 WedneſdayWednesday JanrJanuary 2
1771-01-03 ThirdsdayThursday JanrJanuary 3
1771-01-04 FrydayFriday JanrJanuary 4
1771-01-05 Saturday JanrJanuary 5
1771-01-06 Sab.Sabbath JanrJanuary 6
1771-01-22 TueſdayTuesday JanrJanuary 22
1771-01-27 SabbSabbath JanrJanuary 27
1771-02-03 FebrFebruary 3:
1771-02-08 SabbSabbath FebrFebruary FrydayFriday FrebrFebruary 8
1771-02-11 Sabb.Sabbath FebrurFebruary 10
1771-02-17 SabbSabbath FebrFebruary 17
1771-02-22 FrydayFriday FebrFebruary 22

Regularized text:

Type Original Regularized
modernization Houſe house
modernization Tueſday Tuesday
modernization Quakſon Quakson
variation New Ark Newark
modernization Eliſabeth Town Elizabeth
variation Saild Sailed
modernization Mr Mr.
modernization Wedneſday Wednesday
modernization ſe se
variation Thirdsday Thursday
variation P[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): a]arſepaney Parsippany
variation Fryday Friday
modernization Breakfaſt breakfast
variation Sot set
variation of off
variation Calld called
modernization Revd Rev.
variation thre there
variation paſt passed
variation llitle little
modernization paſt past
variation School Houſe schoolhouse
variation Horſ Horse
modernization Esqr Esq.
variation arrivd arrived
modernization Docr Dr.
variation Devuldgd divulged
modernization Buſineſs business
variation appeard appeared
modernization viſit visit
modernization Miniſters ministers
variation Dind dined
variation allmost almost
modernization Buſhel Bushel
modernization mr Mr.
variation agreable agreeable
modernization Kindneſs kindness
variation after noon afternoon
variation Preachd preached
modernization viſited visited
modernization kindneſs kindness
variation Preahd preached
modernization Baptiſt Baptist
modernization Capt Capt.
modernization Dehoſe Dehose
variation Plaid played
variation litle little
variation Stayd stayed
variation till 'til
variation returnd returned
variation Quaters quarters
modernization Viſits visits
modernization amongſt amongst
variation ordernance ordinance
variation after Noon afternoon
modernization Enſtick Enstick
variation geting getting
modernization uſe use
modernization Friendſhip friendship
modernization Suc
modernization Su[illegible]bſtance substance
modernization Croſsing crossing

Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
Decr December
Sabb: Sabbath
Sab Sabbath
N New
Sab: Sabbath
Janr January
Sab. Sabbath
& and
Sabb Sabbath
m meeting
Febr February
Numbr number
Frebr February
Sabb. Sabbath
Februr February
Preach'd preached

This document's header does not contain any mixed case attribute values.

Summary of errors found in this document:

Number of dates with invalid 'when' attributes: 10
Number of nested "hi" tags: (consider merging the @rend attributes, or using other tags) 0
Number of tags with invalid 'rend' attributes: 0 (out of 35)
Number of people/places/organizations with unknown keys: 0 (out of 35)
Number of "add" tags with unknown 'place' attributes: 0 (out of 5)
Mixed case attribute values in header (potential error): 0 (out of 131)
HomeSamson Occom, journal, date unknown
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