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Samson Occom, confession, to The Connecticut Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, 1769 January 4

ms-number: 769104

[note (type: abstract): Occom confesses to being overtaken by strong drink, begs forgiveness and vows to “keep a better watch” over his conduct.][note (type: handwriting): Handwriting is formal and clear. The trailer is in an unknown hand.][note (type: paper): Single sheet is in good condition, with light staining, creasing and wear. The watermark is prominent.][note (type: ink): Brown-black.]
[Opener]
[Revd | Rev.]RevdRev. [above] [& | and]&and Honorable[& | and]&and Honorable gentlemen

As I Stand in Connection to you,
So I find it my Duty to make my Faults known to
you,— I have been shamefully, [over taken | overtaken]over takenovertaken with Strong
Drink, by which I have greatly wounded the [Cauſe | cause]Cauſecause of
gGod, and [illegible][blemiſhed | blemished]blemiſhedblemished the Pure Religion of [Jeſus | Jesus]JeſusJesus [Chriſt | Christ]ChriſtChrist
and illegibleblackened my own Character, and function [above] brought a reproach on the [miniſtry | ministry]miniſtryministrybrought a reproach on the [miniſtry | ministry]miniſtryministry, and
[illegible]hurt my own Soul:— For which, as in the Sight of
gGod, I [above] amam ashamed, I am Sorry, and Sincerely, Repent —
And I humbly Beg your [forgiveneſs | forgiveness]forgiveneſsforgiveness—and [Prey | pray]Preypray [ye | you]yeyou to
gGod for me.— I Resolve, relying u upon the grace of
gGod, to keep a better guard and watch over [my
Self | my
self]
my
Self
my
self
in Time to [illegible]Come [& | and]&and [deſire | desire]deſiredesire to be [reſtored | restored]reſtoredrestored to the
charity of all all, who have been offended thereby.
[Closer]
[Samſon | Samson]SamſonSamson Occom[pers0030.ocp]

[Postscript]
Mohegan[place0143.ocp],
[Jan.[illegible] | January]Jan.[illegible]January 4: 1769[1769-01-04]
[Trailer]
[M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. Occom[pers0030.ocp]'s [Confeſsion | Confession]ConfeſsionConfession
[Jan.y | January]Jan.yJanuary [4th | 4th]4th4th 1769—
To
The Honorable Board
of [Correſpondents | Correspondents]CorreſpondentsCorrespondents of the Society
in Scotland[org0034.ocp]
, Now [illegible][setting | sitting]settingsitting
at Norwich[place0174.ocp].
Connecticut Board of Correspondents of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge
The Connecticut Board of Correspondents of the SSPCK was founded in 1764 at Wheelock's request. He wanted a public board's support so that his school would seem more credible since it was a private organization with no charter. The Boston Board of the SSPCK would not do since they generally opposed Wheelock, so his solution was to petition the SSPCK for his own board. The SSPCK acquiesed, and the board met for the first time on July 4, 1764. While the board was nominally separate from Wheelock's school, in practice, he exercised considerable control over it. The members of the board were Wheelock's handpicked friends and supporters: Jonathan Huntington, Elisha Sheldon, Samuel Huntington, Solomon Williams, Joseph Fish, William Gaylord, Samuel Moseley, Benjamin Pomeroy, Richard Salter, Nathaniel Whitaker, David Jewett, and Wheelock himself. Wheelock used this board to send Occom and Whitaker to England, hold exams for Moor's Indian Charity School, and generally support his designs. When Wheelock moved to New Hampshire, he tried to establish a New Hampshire Board as well, but by that point the SSPCK was much more cautious when it came to Wheelock's plans and refused. The Connecticut Board dissolved in 1771 as Wheelock was its raison d'etre.
Norwich

Norwich is a city in New London County in the southeast corner of Connecticut. It was founded in 1659 when Major John Mason and Reverend James Fitch led English settlers inland from Old Saybrook, CT, on the coast. They bought land from Uncas, sachem of the local Mohegan tribe, and divided it into farms and businesses mainly in the three-mile area around the Norwichtown Green. In 1668, a wharf was built at Yantic Cove and in 1694 a public landing was built at the head of the Thames River, which allowed trade with England to flourish. The center of Norwich soon moved to the neighborhood around the harbor called "Chelsea." During the revolutionary period, when transatlantic trade was cut off, Norwich developed large mills and factories along the three rivers that cross the town: the Yantic, Shetucket and Thames, and supported the war effort by supplying soldiers, ships, and munitions. Norwich was the largest town in the vicinity in which Occom, Wheelock and their associates lived and worked, and it was possible to get there by water because of the harbor and access to the Long Island Sound. Lebanon, CT, the site of Wheelock's school, is 11 miles north and present-day Uncasville, the center of the Mohegan tribe, is a few miles south of Norwich. James Fitch did missionary work among the Mohegans in Norwich until his death in 1702, and Samuel Kirkland, the most important Protestant missionary to the Six Nations trained by Wheelock, was born in Norwich in 1741. On his evangelical tour of North America in 1764, George Whitefield planned to travel to Norwich to meet with Wheelock. The Connecticut Board of Correspondents of the Scottish Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge frequently met in Norwich, and many letters by people involved in the missionary efforts of Wheelock were written from Norwich.

Mohegan

Mohegan is a village in southeastern Connecticut at the site of the present-day town of Montville, and is the location of the Mohegan Indian Reservation. The village gets its name from the Mohegan Tribe, or wolf people, who split from the Pequots in the early 17th century under the leadership of the sachem Uncas. In the 1720s, the Mohegans requested the colony of Connecticut provide them with an English educator. An English minister and schoolteacher named John Mason (no relation to Captain John Mason) moved to Mohegan in order to provide English-styled education to the Mohegans, convinced his sponsors, the New England Company, to build a schoolhouse at Mohegan, which eventually served as a boarding school for other Native American children from the surrounding area. During the 17th century, the Mohegan Tribe became embroiled in a complicated controversy over control of Mohegan land — known as the Mason Land Case or, more specifically, Mohegan Indians v. Connecticut — that included the village of Mohegan. The Tribe claimed that it never authorized a transfer of their lands, held in trust by the Mason family, to the colonial government. In 1662, the colony of Connecticut was incorporated by a royal charter, which included the disputed tribal land. The land controversy was revived in 1704 when descendants of John Mason, the original trustee, petitioned the Crown on behalf of the Mohegans, but the suit was finally decided against the Tribe in 1773. Born in Mohegan, Occom became involved in the Mason Land Case and vehemently argued for the rights of the Mohegan Indians to maintain their land, opposing Eleazar Wheelock and other ministers in the area. Although Occom left Mohegan for a 12-year mission with the Montauk Indians of Long Island, he returned at the end of 1763 with his large family to build a house in Mohegan, establishing it as his base of operations. Even after the creation of the Brothertown settlement in Oneida country, for which he served as minister, Occom continued to commute back and forth from Mohegan; he didn't sell his house in Mohegan and move his family to Brothertown until 1789. Many members of his family remained in Mohegan, including his sister Lucy Tantaquidgeon, who lived there until her death at 99 in 1830.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers0030.ocp Samſon Samson Occom writer Occom, Samson
pers0030.ocp M. r Mr. Occom writer Occom, Samson

Places identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
place0143.ocp Mohegan Mohegan
place0174.ocp Norwich Norwich

Organizations identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
org0034.ocp Honorable Board of CorreſpondentsCorrespondents of the Society in Scotland Connecticut Board of Correspondents of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge

Dates identified in this document:

Standard Form Text
1769-01-04 Jan.January 4: 1769

Regularized text:

Type Original Regularized
modernization Revd Rev.
variation over taken overtaken
modernization Cauſe cause
modernization blemiſhed blemished
modernization Jeſus Jesus
modernization Chriſt Christ
modernization miniſtry ministry
modernization forgiveneſs forgiveness
variation Prey pray
modernization ye you
variation my
Self
my
self
modernization deſire desire
modernization reſtored restored
modernization Samſon Samson
modernization M.r Mr.
modernization Confeſsion Confession
modernization 4th 4th
modernization Correſpondents Correspondents
variation setting sitting

Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
& and
Jan.[illegible] January
Jan.y January

This document's header does not contain any mixed case attribute values.

Summary of errors found in this document:

Number of dates with invalid 'when' attributes: 0
Number of nested "hi" tags: (consider merging the @rend attributes, or using other tags) 0
Number of tags with invalid 'rend' attributes: 0 (out of 6)
Number of people/places/organizations with unknown keys: 0 (out of 5)
Number of "add" tags with unknown 'place' attributes: 0 (out of 3)
Mixed case attribute values in header (potential error): 0 (out of 90)
HomeSamson Occom, confession, to The Connecticut Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, 1769 January 4
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