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Joseph Johnson, letter, to Eleazar Wheelock, 1768 December 28

ms-number: 768678.2

[note (type: abstract): Johnson writes a long and melancholy letter confessing his sins and failures, and asking forgiveness.][note (type: handwriting): Handwriting is small and somewhat uneven, but mostly clear and legible. The trailer is in an unknown hand.][note (type: paper): There are two separate sheets of paper: a large sheet folded in half to make four pages, and a large single sheet. The former is in good condition, with light staining, creasing and wear. The latter is also in good condition, but with more wear along the creases and some preservation work.][note (type: ink): Black-brown ink is slightly faded in spots.]
[Revd | Rev.]RevdRev. and Ever honoured [Doct.r | Dr.]Doct.rDr.
forgive me for my Repeated [preſumti
‐on | presumpti‐
in Writing to you; But this once more give me leave to
acquaint you my Once kind Benefactor, the [Caſe | Case]CaſeCase I at [pre‐
‐ſent | pres‐
am in; But as I have So often been found [deceitfull | deceitful]deceitfulldeceitful,
I know not as you will have [patiance | patience]patiancepatience to Read over this
my pretended [Confeſsion | Confession]ConfeſsionConfession, as I [ſaid | said]ſaidsaid, Seeing I have [ſhewed | showed]ſhewedshowed
So much [Deciitfullneſs | Deceitfulness]DeciitfullneſsDeceitfulness in my [pretentions | pretensions]pretentionspretensions, [& | and]&and Undertak
ings, Since I have been Capable of being Improved
in [ſome | some]ſomesome good way; But for Grant,— Which way, to Betake
[myſelf | myself]myſelfmyself — I know not, I am at a [ſtand | stand]ſtandstand. [hond | honoured]hondhonoured Sir; to retu‐
‐rn to you whom I have [ſo | so]ſoso greatly grieved, I dare not;
I am [aſhamed | ashamed]aſhamedashamed, [& | and]&and [Concience | Conscience]ConcienceConscience [ſtings | stings]ſtingsstings me to the very heart;
I am Sorry; my [ſperits | spirits]ſperitsspirits cast down, Methinks, I feel in
Some [meaſure | measure]meaſuremeasure the down Cast [ſpirits | spirits]ſpiritsspirits of Cain when
he received his curse; but no Equal to his; [tho | though]thothough my —
Crimes are more than Equal, the thoughts of your
haunts my mind [day-ly | daily]day-lydaily, and to turn my face
that way I dare not, I [ſee | see]ſeesee nothing but my Actions
in the deepest dye of Ingratitude [ſtare | stare]ſtarestare me in the face
which [Cauſes | Causes]CauſesCauses my heart to faint Under the thoughts
of Returning; but what [Courſe | Course]CourſeCourse to take, I know that
god is [Every whire | everywhere]Every whireeverywhere, and is Acquainted with Actions
past. and will punish without Mercy [thoſe | those]thoſethose that
Be [Dis Obedient | disobedient]Dis Obedientdisobedient to his Laws, and Commandment
[Er | ere]Erere long. — — —
But how, it [ſeems | seems]ſeemsseems as if there was [ſome | some]ſomesome probability, [ſome | some]ſomesome
glimpse of hope yet, Some way of Being Recovered from this
Unhappy State. [Tho | though]Thothough at other times all hopes Vanish
and [lave | leave]laveleave me Under the Unfortunate [Circumſtances | Circumstances]CircumſtancesCircumstances of a
[Disſolate | Dissolute]DisſolateDissolute mind, which Roams at large with an [Unſteady | Unsteady]UnſteadyUnsteady
temper. Once this [Courſe | Course]CourſeCourse of Life, at another that, but all
[ſeem | seem]ſeemseem to yield no Comfort nor Satisfaction to My [distitute | destitute]distitutedestitute
Condition. But this [Encourges | encourages]Encourgesencourages me at this time to make
this feeble Attempt, that you are ready to forgive when you
[ſee | see]ſeesee a true Real and hearty [ſorrow | sorrow]ſorrowsorrow for [there | their]theretheir Misconduct.
But how can I make my [ſorrow | sorrow]ſorrowsorrow Credible — which
none can Believe, but [thoſe | those]thoſethose that take Notice of me [& | and]&and
[ſee | see]ſeesee it in my [Countinence | countenance]Countinencecountenance which is Sad [day ly | daily]day lydaily — upon
the thoughts of my past Behaviour. with how little
Consideration have I [ſpent | spent]ſpentspent my past time little car‐
‐ing whether I did any good or no Either to [myſelf | myself]myſelfmyself or
[any One | anyone]any Oneanyone [Elſe | Else]ElſeElse. this I am [ſensable | sensible]ſensablesensible that your kind dispositi
‐on towards the Indians is very Great. neither am
I [leſs | less]leſsless [Sinsable | sensible]Sinsablesensible that my [Ungratfull | ungrateful]Ungratfullungrateful, [& | and]&and [Vitious | vicious]Vitiousvicious Actions
[deſerve | deserve]deſervedeserve Gods, and your highest [Displeaſure | Displeasure]DispleaſureDispleasure: —
it [ſeems | seems]ſeemsseems that I am forced to try [illegible]the best Endeavours
in order to get [my ſelf | myself]my ſelfmyself once more under your kind directi‐
‐on [tho | though]thothough I Undergo Ever [ſo | so]ſoso much that I Might at last at‐
‐tain my End; [tho | though]thothough you [ſentance | sentence]ſentancesentence me to Ever [ſo | so]ſoso [ſevere | severe]ſeveresevere pu
‐nishment, or Even Banish me to the Unknown corner of [ye | the]yethe
world. yet I Believe I will wholly Leave [my ſelf | myself]my ſelfmyself to your
[Intire | entire]Intire entire [dispoſal | disposal]dispoſaldisposal. had you punished me Ever [ſo | so]ſoso [ſevere | severe]ſeveresevere and after
‐wards, [ſent | sent]ſentsent or Bound me to an [auſtere | austere]auſtereaustere man. I [ſhould | should]ſhouldshould not
have been [ſo | so]ſoso Uncomfortable — for then I [ſhould | should]ſhouldshould have been
in my duty but now [ſeeme | seem]ſeemeseem to be lost no one to Order or di‐
‐rect me, but wholly trust to giddy chance of fate.
It is neither for want of Improvement, nor for want of good‐
living (for [booth | both]boothboth of [theſe | these]theſethese I have) or of [Induring | enduring]Induringenduring [hard ſhips | hardships]hard ſhipshardships (for I do
live well and [Eaſy | Easy]EaſyEasy as Ever I did during my whole Life) that I
want to Return to you, but [Intirely | entirely]Intirelyentirely [Becauſe | Because]BecauſeBecause I am not in
my duty or in the way that God [ Requ[above] iires. | requires] Requ[above] iires.requires
Good God [ſeems | seems]ſeemsseems to be yet [lenghtening | lengthening]lenghteninglengthening out his mercy to
me, [tho | though]thothough I have [ſo | so]ſoso openly [Rebeled | Rebelled]RebeledRebelled against Him, and has
[gracious ly | graciously]gracious lygraciously guided my [Doubtfull | doubtful]Doubtfulldoubtful [ſteps | steps]ſtepssteps and has kept me
In good health, and not only that but has this once more
put me under an advantage of gaining [Inſtruction | Instruction]InſtructionInstruction.
Here I am Under the Roof of the [ſarvant | servant]ſarvantservant of God, by [whoſe | whose]whoſewhose
kind advice, admonition, and precaution, [Reſtrained | Restrained]ReſtrainedRestrained me
from [ſeafaring | seafaring]ſeafaringseafaring way which if I [perſued | pursued]perſuedpursued would [Beyound | beyond]Beyoundbeyond
all doubt been the Ruin of me [booth | both]boothboth for time [& | and]&and Eternity.
here he has [perſuaded | persuaded]perſuadedpersuaded me to [ſtay | stay]ſtaystay and given me the [Previledg | privilege]Previledgprivilege
of his Library out of which this winter I hope to gain
[Inſtruction | Instruction]InſtructionInstruction. here I am Under great Advantage of [geting | getting]getinggetting
knowledge, [tho | though]thothough far Short of what I could get at your
[houſe | house]houſehouse. where I was as it were [day ly | daily]day lydaily Under the droopings
of the Sanctuary. what would I give Even all that I have
or all that my care or Industry [woud | would]woudwould [above] wouldwould gain dCould I Recall
[theſe | these]theſethese fatal hours which which I [conſumed | consumed]conſumedconsumed in [ſenſleſs | senseless]ſenſleſssenseless
vanities for now they [Increaſe | Increase]IncreaſeIncrease and Urge my pain and
trouble my Rest, Rest I have none in my Mind. I
am [day ly | daily]day lydaily [Vext | vexed]Vextvexed with [my ſelf | myself]my ſelfmyself for my [wickedneſs | wickedness]wickedneſswickedness I am
[Sensable | sensible]Sensablesensible that I have been guilty of the most heinous
Sins which has hurt and wounded the Redeemers [Cauſe | Cause]CauſeCause
and been of great disadvantage to your [ſchool | school]ſchoolschool[org0098.ocp] and dis‐
grace to the Religion of Christ. [altho | although]althoalthough great part has
been by [thoſe | those]thoſethose who wished me well and had tender
Regards for me, Upon my promising a [thurrow | thorough]thurrowthorough
Reformation, has been Concealed. to my [ſorrow | sorrow]ſorrowsorrow and
[ſhame | shame]ſhameshame do I now [Confeſs | Confess]ConfeſsConfess them, once, twice, yea three times
have I indulged [my ſelf | myself]my ſelfmyself in Brutish [Eaſe | Ease]EaſeEase whilst in the —
[wilderneſ | wilderness]wilderneſwilderness, first [Accidently | Accidentally]AccidentlyAccidentally and can well [anſwer | answer]anſweranswer for it.
[ſecond | second]ſecondsecond on [purpoſe | purpose]purpoſepurpose perhaps can as well [anſwer | answer]anſweranswer for that,
the Third and the Only one ([Beſides | Besides]BeſidesBesides that of the last fall
which you have already had an Account of.) was taken [illegible]
Notice of By the Indians which was [Occaſioned | Occasioned]OccaſionedOccasioned by the
temptation of the Devil and together with the [Diſtreſses | Distresses]DiſtreſsesDistresses of my
mind and [Uneaſsineſs | Uneasiness]UneaſsineſsUneasiness which perhaps you are altogether Ign
‐norant of or [any one | anyone]any oneanyone [Elſe | Else]ElſeElse [beſides | besides]beſidesbesides the Indians. which by [ye | the]yethe
advice of Thomas[pers0643.ocp] I [publickly | publicly]publicklypublicly made [Confeſsion | Confession]ConfeſsionConfession as is their
Custom. where they promised as it were to Bury in Oblivion
and let things be as if it never happened [ſo | so]ſoso. That of the last
fall I can [ſay | say]ſaysay no more than has already been [ſaid | said]ſaidsaid of it.
[Theſe | These]TheſeThese taken in Rank has been my misconduct [& | and]&and Ruin.
as well as in many other which are well known to you.
I am [ſensable | sensible]ſensablesensible but too late [tis | it is]tisit is no advantage to Cover things, under
deceit, as to any more of my Crimes they have perhaps already
[shewn | shown]shewnshown [themſelves | themselves]themſelvesthemselves or will [E'er | ever]E'erever long. — Thus have I in
few faint words [tryed | tried]tryedtried to Communicate my Thoughts to
you, with hopes and [raiſed | raised]raiſedraised Expectations of being [favourd | favoured]favourdfavoured
with an [Anſwer | Answer]AnſwerAnswer. [Tho | though]Thothough I [dont | do not]dontdo not [deſirve | deserve]deſirvedeserve the least Notice or
Regards taken of what I write or [ſay | say]ſaysay. yet this Once
grant that my mind may be at [Eaſe | Ease]EaſeEase in [ſome | some]ſomesome [meaſure | measure]meaſuremeasure
Either [ſo | so]ſoso much [Condeſend | Condescend]CondeſendCondescend as to give me a word of [Incourage
‐ment | encourage‐
. which will [afreſh | afresh]afreſhafresh Revive my Drooping [ſpirits | spirits]ſpiritsspirits
and kindle a [above] newnew flame of Gratitude in me, in which way
might kind heaven grant I might End my days.
But if on the other hand which I most justly [deſerve | deserve]deſervedeserve, that
you would turn a deaf Ear to my humble petition as I did
to your most kind Advices warnings, and Labours of love
for my own good and none [Elſe | Else]ElſeElse the Returns of the [ſame | same]ſamesame
is what I fear and justly Expect
 if this—
if this would Be the Event, I must in [ſilence | silence]ſilencesilence depart, and weep with
a Bitter cry as [Eſau | Esau]EſauEsau when he lost his [Bleſsing | Blessing]BleſsingBlessing. Then [ſhould | should]ſhouldshould I
in [ſadneſs | sadness]ſadneſssadness [ſpend | spend]ſpendspend the Remainder of my days, and would kind
Heaven grant, that I might be prepared to die; and then kind
‐ly put an End to my [Miſerys | Miseries]MiſerysMiseries. [Hond | honoured]Hondhonoured Sir; Should I [ſay | say]ſaysay that
this was from the [Boottom | bottom]Boottombottom of my Heart, perhaps like the [Reſt | Rest]ReſtRest
would be full of Deceit, but I [ſhall | shall]ſhallshall no longer trouble you with [th[above] isis | this]th[above] isisthis
Unhappy Subject. I would just [Enform | inform]Enforminform you that through the [Bound
‐leſs | bound‐
[goodneſs | goodness]goodneſsgoodness of god I have Enjoyed my Unprofitable health, and
I hope that God has Indulged you with your health as [Uſual | Usual]UſualUsual.
I am so guilty that I have no heart to write any more only
this whether I [ſhall | shall]ſhallshall be [ſo | so]ſoso happy as to be Indulged with a word
of [Incouragement | encouragement]Incouragementencouragement, or [ſo | so]ſoso Unhappy as to [Intirely | entirely]Intirelyentirely be Excluded I humbly
Beg that you would [Beſo | Be so]BeſoBe so kind as to [ſend | send]ſendsend me a word of [Anſwer | Answer]AnſwerAnswer
Between this and the [ſpring | spring]ſpringspring if you [pleaſe | please]pleaſeplease So as I might be [aſsured | assured]aſsuredassured
one way or the other. pardon me if I have wrote [any thing | anything]any thinganything that [ſeem | seem]ſeemseem to
have an air of pride for I feel much [otherwiſe | otherwise]otherwiſeotherwise [diſpoſed | disposed]diſpoſeddisposed. [Theſe | These]TheſeThese few
Lines with my best [wiſhes | wishes]wiſheswishes for the [proſperity | prosperity]proſperityprosperity of all your Vast Un
[gap: stain][guess (h-dawnd): der]dertakings I humbly Recommend to your [wiſe | wise]wiſewise [Conſideration | Consideration]ConſiderationConsideration
and now [ſuffer | suffer]ſuffersuffer me the honour of [ſubſcribing | subscribing]ſubſcribingsubscribing [myſelf | myself]myſelfmyself

once humble [ſervant | servant]ſervantservant [tho | though]thothough more the devils.

[Joſeph | Joseph]JoſephJoseph [Johnſon | Johnson]JohnſonJohnson[pers0288.ocp].
now living at providence[place0292.ocp]
at [Dr | Dr.]DrDr. [ſamuel | Samuel]ſamuelSamuel Carrews[pers0674.ocp] an
[Inholder | Inn holder]InholderInn holder [westſide | west side]westſidewest side of the
Great Bridge. —
To —
the [Revd | Rev.]RevdRev. [Doctr | Dr.]DoctrDr.
Eleazar Wheelock[pers0036.ocp].
[Jos: | Joseph]Jos:Joseph Johnson[pers0288.ocp]'s
[Dec.r | December]Dec.rDecember 28. 1768[1768-12-28]

To —
The Reverend,
[Eleazer | Eleazar]EleazerEleazar Wheelock[pers0036.ocp]
D. D.


[left] [pr | per]prper favour of
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): ] [ſalster | salster]ſalstersalster]] [ſalster | salster]ſalstersalster
[pr | per]prper favour of
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): ] [ſalster | salster]ſalstersalster]] [ſalster | salster]ſalstersalster
Moor’s Indian Charity School
Moor’s Indian Charity School was a grammar school for Native Americans that Eleazar Wheelock opened in North Lebanon, Connecticut in 1754. The school was named for Colonel Joshua Moor, also spelled More, who donated the land and school building. Moor’s was essentially an expansion of the grammar school that Wheelock opened in 1743 to support himself during the fallout from the First Great Awakening, when Wheelock, who'd participated in itinerant ministry during the Awakening, had his salary confiscated by the colony of Connecticut. In December of that year, Samson Occom asked Wheelock to teach him as well. Wheelock's work with Occom was so successful that Wheelock decided to replicate the experiment with other Native American boys. He accepted his first Indian students in 1754, and in 1761 began taking female students as well. Wheelock believed that in time, his school would become just one part of a larger missionary enterprise. He planned to send his Anglo American and Native American students to various tribes as missionaries and schoolmasters, with explicit instructions to pick out the best students and send them back to Moor’s to continue the cycle. His ultimate goal was to turn his school into a model Christian Indian town that would include farms, a college, and vocational training. However, Wheelock’s grand design did not survive the decade. Wheelock lost the vast majority of his Native American students; he fought with many of the best, including Samson Occom, Joseph Johnson, David Fowler, and Hezekiah Calvin, and other former and current students accused him of subjecting Native Americans to disproportionate amounts of manual labor. In 1769, perhaps due to concerns about corporal punishment, the Oneida withdrew all their children from Moor’s. When Wheelock relocated to Hanover in 1769, only two Native American students came with him, and it became clear that Wheelock’s focus was on Dartmouth and that Dartmouth was for white students. After Wheelock’s death in 1779, Moor’s Indian Charity School receded further into the background as John Wheelock, his father’s reluctant successor, stopped taking Indian students. Some Native American students were enrolled in Moor’s until 1850, when the school unofficially closed.

Lebanon is a town located in the state of Connecticut southwest of the town of Hartford. The land that became Lebanon was inhabited at least 10,000 years ago based on the archeological record. By the 1600s, the land was permanently inhabited by the Mohegan Indians, who used the area primarily for hunting. Lebanon was officially formed in 1700 when English settlers consolidated a number of land tracts, including several land grants by the Connecticut General Assembly and lands purchased from the Mohegans. However, these purchases were controversial. In 1659, the Mohegans entrusted their reserve land to Major John Mason, and in the following year, Mason transferred this land to the Connecticut colonial government with the understanding that there would be enough land left for the Mohegans to farm. The Mohegans claimed that they never authorized a transfer to the colonial government and only Mason’s heirs were entrusted with their land. In 1662, Connecticut, which included the Mohegan land that had been entrusted to the Masons, was incorporated by a royal charter. Based on this charter, the colony argued that the land was now the property of the government. In 1687, the colony began granting the Mohegan land to townships, and in 1704 the Masons petitioned the Crown on behalf of the Mohegans, claiming that such transfers of land to townships were illegal. Between the years of 1705 and 1773 legal disputes and controversies persisted, finally ending in a verdict by the Crown against the Mohegans. In 1755, Wheelock received property and housing in Lebanon that he would use as his house and school. While Lebanon was originally incorporated as a part of New London County in 1700, in 1724 it became a part of New Windham, before once again becoming a part of New London County in 1826. Lebanon was central to the American Revolution with half of its adult population fighting for the colonists and hundreds of meetings convened in the town for the revolutionary cause.


Connecticut is a state in southern New England that borders Massachusetts to the north and the Long Island Sound to the south. Its name is derived from the Algonquian "Quonehtacut," meaning "long river," referring to the Connecticut, which runs from the border with Canada into the Long Island Sound. The area was originally inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Pequots, Mohegans, and Quinnipiacs. European settlers took advantage of tribal divisions to establish dominance in the region. Dutch explorer Adrian Block sailed up the Connecticut River in 1614, establishing an active Dutch trading post at what is now Hartford. English claims to Connecticut began in 1630, but settlement truly began when Thomas Hooker, a Congregationalist minister now known as "The Father of Connecticut," left Boston to found Hartford in 1636. Hartford became the center of the Colony of Connecticut, which did not receive its charter until 1662 when Governor John Winthrop, Jr. secured it from Charles II. In 1665, the Colony of New Haven, established in 1638 by the Puritan minister John Davenport, joined the Colony of Connecticut under this charter. Early settler relations with local Indians were tense, and encouraged the New England colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven to unify as the "United Colonies" or "New England Confederation" and fight together, with Indian allies, in the Pequot War and again in King Philip's (Metacom's) War. These wars helped establish a specifically Connecticut and specifically American identity; the latter drove the colony to join the rebellion against Britain in 1776. Occom, born into a Mohegan household in Connecticut, was closely associated with the Colony and retained strong ties to the region throughout his life. He converted to Christianity in 1743 when the Great Awakening spread through Connecticut, and inspired Wheelock's Indian Charity School, which was founded in Lebanon, CT in 1754. He also became involved in the Mason Land Case, a long-standing dispute over the ownership of reserve Mohegan lands in Connecticut. Wheelock also had strong ties to Connecticut, moving his Indian Charity School only when the colony would not grant it a charter.

Johnson, Joseph

Joseph Johnson was a Mohegan who studied at Moor’s Indian Charity School and became one of the most important organizers of the Brothertown Movement (a composite tribe composed of Christian members of seven Southern New England Algonquian settlements). He was a prolific writer and his papers are relatively well-preserved. Johnson’s writing is especially noteworthy for his skillful use of Biblical allusion and his awareness of the contradiction that he, as an educated Native American, presented to white colonists. Johnson arrived at Moor’s in 1758, when he was seven years old, and studied there until 1766, when he became David Fowler’s usher at Kanawalohale. He continued teaching in Oneida territory until the end of 1768, when Samuel Kirkland sent him home in disgrace for drunkeness and bad behavior. After a stint teaching at Providence, Rhode Island, and working on a whaling ship, Johnson returned to Mohegan in 1771 and became a zealous Christian. He opened a school at Farmington, CT, in 1772, for which he seems to have received some minimal support from the New England Company. From his base at Farmington, he began organizing Southern New England Algonquians for the Brothertown project. The goal was to purchase land from the Oneidas, the most Christianized of the Six Nations, and form a Christian Indian town incorporating Algonquian and Anglo-American elements. Johnson spent the rest of his short life garnering necessary support and legal clearance for the Brothertown project. Johnson died sometime between June 10, 1776 and May 1777, at 25 or 26 years old, six or seven years before Brothertown was definitively established in 1783. He was married to Tabitha Occom, one of Samson Occom’s daughters. She lived at Mohegan with their children even after Brothertown’s founding, and none of their children settled at Brothertown permanently. Like most of Wheelock’s successful Native American students, Johnson found that he could not satisfy his teacher's contradictory standards for Native Americans. Although Johnson's 1768 dismissal created a hiatus in their relationship, Johnson reopened contact with Wheelock after his re-conversion to a degree that other former students, such as Samson Occom, David Fowler, and Hezekiah Calvin, never did.

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Carrews, Samuel

Thomas was an essential figure in Oneida Christianity and an important ally for Samuel Kirkland. While it is unclear when he converted to Christianity, by the 1750s he was preaching and leading services at Kanawalohale. By all accounts, he was a compelling speaker and talented at rendering Christian theology in terms compatible with Oneida cosmology. Thomas was instrumental in supporting Kirkland's mission: he often protected the Anglo-American missionary and helped him translate his ideas more effectively. Thomas also played an important role in the history of Moor's. His daughter, Hannah, was a student there, and in July 1768 he visited her. He returned the following January to pull her out of school following her mother's death, and he took the remaining five Oneida children with him. Later statements by Oneida chiefs (reported to Kirkland and David Avery) made clear that a large part of the Oneidas' reason for withdrawing their children was Wheelock's harsh discipline. Thomas was also present for Ralph Wheelock's 1768 outburst at Onaquaga, and was Avery's 1772 source for what had taken place there. Despite his disagreements with Wheelock, Thomas continued to support Kirkland's mission. Thomas was killed by British troops in 1779 while on a diplomatic visit to the Mohawks at Kahnawake (a site across the St. Lawrence River from Montreal). His murder gave the Oneidas yet another reason to side with the colonists during the Revolution.

Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers0643.ocp Thomas mentioned Thomas
pers0288.ocp Joſeph Joseph Johnſon Johnson writer Johnson, Joseph
pers0674.ocp ſamuel Samuel Carrews mentioned Carrews, Samuel
pers0036.ocp Eleazar Wheelock recipient Wheelock, Eleazar
pers0288.ocp Jos: Joseph Johnson writer Johnson, Joseph
pers0036.ocp Eleazer Eleazar Wheelock recipient Wheelock, Eleazar

Places identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
place0292.ocp Providence Providence
place0292.ocp providence Providence
place0122.ocp Lebanon Lebanon
place0048.ocp Connecticut Connecticut

Organizations identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
org0098.ocp your School Moor’s Indian Charity School
org0098.ocp your ſchoolschool Moor’s Indian Charity School

Dates identified in this document:

Standard Form Text
1768-12-28 DecembrDecember 28th28th 1768-9
1768-12-28 Dec.rDecember 28. 1768

Regularized text:

Type Original Regularized
modernization 28th 28th
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modernization Doct.r Dr.
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Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
Decembr December
& and
hond honoured
Requ[above] iires. requires
tis it is
E'er ever
favourd favoured
dont do not
Hond honoured
th[above] isis this
Jos: Joseph
Dec.r December
pr per

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Number of dates with invalid 'when' attributes: 0
Number of nested "hi" tags: (consider merging the @rend attributes, or using other tags) 1
Number of tags with invalid 'rend' attributes: 0 (out of 22)
Number of people/places/organizations with unknown keys: 0 (out of 12)
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Mixed case attribute values in header (potential error): 0 (out of 96)
HomeJoseph Johnson, letter, to Eleazar Wheelock, 1768 December 28
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