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Samson Occom, autobiography, undated

ms-number: 768517

[note (type: abstract): Occom writes a second draft of his autobiography.][note (type: handwriting): The legibility of Occom's usually clear hand is heavily mitigated by editorial additions and deletions, likely 19th-century.][note (type: paper): Several small sheets of paper are folded into a booklet. The booklet appears to have been bound with twine or thread at one time; however, this binding is missing and, aside from the two outside pages, the pages are loose. The inner edges of these loose pages appear to have been trimmed. The paper is in good-to-poor condition with light-to-heavy staining and wear, which results in a minor loss of text. There is some repair work on the outside pages.][note (type: ink): Brown.][note (type: noteworthy): An editor, likely 19th-century, has overwritten Occom's hand in several places. The transcriber has attempted to decipher Occom's original hand and ignore editorial editions and deletions. There are pencil marks on 13 verso.]

events: Occom leaves his studies, Occom’s Mission to the Montauketts, Occom’s Marriage, Occom’s Ordination, Fundraising Tour of Great Britain

[Haveng | Having]HavengHaving Seen and heard
Several [Repreſentations | representations]Repreſentationsrepresentations, in
England[place0068.ocp] and Scotland[place0203.ocp], [above] made wrotemade wrote by
Several [above] SomeSome gentlemen in America[place0003.ocp],
Concerning , me, and Finding many
[miſsrpreſentations | misrepresentations]miſsrpreſentationsmisrepresentations and
[groſs | gross]groſsgross [Miſtakes | mistakes]Miſtakesmistakes in their Ac‐
counts, I thought it my
Duty to give a Short Plain
and [Honeſt | honest]Honeſthonest Account of [my
ſelf | my
, that [thoſe | those]thoſethose who may [ſee | see]ſeesee
my Account hereafter [above] See itSee it, may
Know the [above] TruthTruth Concerning me. — —
[Tho' | Though]Tho'Though it is [againſt | against]againſtagainst my mind
to give a [Hiſtory | history]Hiſtoryhistory of [my ſelf | myself]my ſelfmyself [above] [& | and]&and [publiſh | publish]publiſhpublish it[& | and]&and [publiſh | publish]publiſhpublish it
[whilſt | whilst]whilſtwhilst I am alive, Yet to do
[Juſtice | Justice]JuſticeJustice to [my ſelf | myself]my ſelfmyself and to [th[gap: worn_edge][guess (h-dawnd): ]e | those]th[gap: worn_edge][guess (h-dawnd): ]ethose
who may [above] [deſire | desire]deſiredesire[deſire | desire]deſiredesire have [above] mindmind to know [Some
thing | some
[above] concerningconcerning of me— and for the Honor
[gap: hole][guess (h-dawnd): of]of Religion I will venture to
give a Short Narrative of
my Life. — —
From my birth [till | 'til]till'til I [receivd | received]receivdreceived
the [Chriſtian | Christian]ChriſtianChristian Religion.—
I was Born a Heathen and
Brought up in In [Heatheniſm | Heathenism]HeatheniſmHeathenism
[till | 'til]till'til I was between 16 [& | and]&and 17 years
of age, at a Place [Calld | called]Calldcalled Mohe
in New London[place0164.ocp] Connecti
, in New England[place0158.ocp]
my Parents [Livd | lived]Livdlived a wandering
life, So [above] asas did all the Indians at
Mohegan[place0143.ocp]; they chiefly Depended
upon Hunting, [Fiſhing | Fishing]FiſhingFishing, [above] [& | and]&and[& | and]&and Fowling
and Claming, for their Living
and had no Connections with
the [Engliſh | English]EngliſhEnglish, excepting to Tr[gap: worn_edge][guess (h-dawnd): af]af
fic with them, with the in [above] theirtheir Smal[gap: tear][guess (h-dawnd): l]l
Trifles — and they Strictly
[maintain'd | maintained]maintain'dmaintained and [follow'd | followed]follow'dfollowed their
[Heatheniſh | Heathenish]HeatheniſhHeathenish ways, [Cuſtoms | Customs]CuſtomsCustoms [& | and]&and
Religion — [tho' | though]tho'though there was Some
Preaching among [above] themthem [theſe | these]theſethese Indi
ans, once a Fortnight, in y[gap: tear][guess (h-dawnd): e]e
Summer [Seaſon | Season]SeaſonSeason, a [Miniſter | Minister]MiniſterMinister
from [N | New]NNew London[place0164.ocp] [illegible][uſed | used]uſedused to come
up — and the Indians [uſe | use]uſeuse to
attend; not that they regard
ed the [Chriſtian | Christian]ChriſtianChristian Religion,
But they had Blankets give[above] nn
to them every Fall of the year
and for [theſe | these]theſethese things they [wou[above] dd | would]wou[above] ddwould
attend — and there was a [above] SortSort
[above] of aof a School kept, when I was
quite young,. but I believe
there never was one that
even Learn to read [any
thing | any
— and when I was about
10 years of age there was a [above] SortSort
of a School again in our
— a man [above] who wentwho went [uſed | used]uſedused to go a
about among the Indian
Wigwams, and [where ever | wherever]where everwherever
he [Coud | could]Coudcould find the Indian [Child,r | children]Child,rchildren
he [woud | would]woudwould make them read —
but the Indian Children [uſd | used]uſdused
to take Care to keep out off
his way — and he [uſ'd | used]uſ'dused [above] toto Catch
me [Some times | sometimes]Some timessometimes and make me
Say over my Letters, and I be
believe I [Learnt | learned]Learntlearned Some of [illegible]them.
Litters, But this was soon over
too — and all this Time there was
[above] notnot one [amongſt | amongst]amongſtamongst us, that made a
[Chriſtian | Christian]ChriſtianChristian [Profeſsion | Profession]ProfeſsionProfession [above] of [Chriſtianity | Christianity]ChriſtianityChristianityof [Chriſtianity | Christianity]ChriſtianityChristianity — Neither
did we Cultivate our Land, [above] nornor and
kept any Sort of Creatures, excep[above] tt
Dogs, which we [uſed | used]uſedused in Hunting,
and Dwelt in Wigwams, [the[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): y]y | these]the[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): y]ythese
are [above] aa Sort of Tents [Coverd | covered]Coverdcovered with
[Matts | mats]Mattsmats, and [theſe | these]theſethese [Matts | mats]Mattsmats are made
of Flags — And to this Time
we were [above] [illegible][illegible] [unaquainted | unacquainted]unaquaintedunacquainted with the
[Engliſh | English]EngliſhEnglish [Tonug | tongue]Tonugtongue in general, [above] [tho' | though]tho'though[tho' | though]tho'though there
[above] werewere a few, who [underſtood | understood]underſtoodunderstood a little
of [above] itit the [Engliſh | English]EngliſhEnglish —–
From the Time of our Re‐
formation [till | 'til]till'til I left [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Wheelock[pers0036.ocp]
When I was 1[illegible]6 years of age—
we heard a Strange Rumor amon[above] gg
the [Engliſh | English]EngliſhEnglish, that there were Ex‐
traordinary [Miniſters | Ministers]MiniſtersMinisters Preaching
from Place to Place and that
there was
a Strange Concern a
mong the white People — this
was in the Spring of the year.
But we Saw nothing of [theſe | these]theſethese
things, [till | 'til]till'til [Some Time | sometime]Some Timesometime in the
Summer, then Some [Miniſters | Ministers]MiniſtersMinisters
began to [viſit | visit]viſitvisit us and Preachd
to us the Word of god; and the
[illegible]Common [illegible]People [above] [alſo | also]alſoalso[alſo | also]alſoalso Came [freequen[above] tt
ly | frequent
freequen[above] tt
to us, and exhorted [above] usus to the things
of god, and[above] whichwhich it [pleaſed | pleased]pleaſedpleased the [Ld | Lord]LdLord,
as I humbly hope, to [Bleſs | Bless]BleſsBless and
[acompaniy | accompany]acompaniyaccompany [above] withwith their Endeavours by
[above] withwithhim Divine Influences, to the
Conviction and Saving [Converſi
on | Conversi
of a Number of us; [Amongſt | Amongst]AmongſtAmongst
which I was one that was [Impreſ[above] tt | Impressed]Impreſ[above] ttImpressed
with the things, which we had hear[above] dd
and t[Theſe | These]TheſeThese Preachers did not only
Come to us, but we [above] frequentlyfrequently went to their
meetings and Churches [Conſtant
ly | Constant
, after I [above] was awakened convictedwas awakened convicted found Trouble of mind
I went to all the meetings I [above] [Coud | could]Coudcould[Coud | could]Coudcould Come
at; thus I[& | and]&and [Continud | continued]Continudcontinued under Trou‐
ble of Mind about 6 Months,
and [almoſt | almost]almoſtalmost as Soon as I found
[uneaſineſs | uneasiness]uneaſineſsuneasiness in my Mind,
so I
[above] at which time Iat which time I began to Learn the [Engliſh | English]EngliſhEnglish
Letters; Got me a [Primmer | primer]Primmerprimer
and [uſed | used]uſedused to go to my [Engliſh | English]EngliſhEnglish
Neighbours [freequently | frequently]freequentlyfrequently for
[Aſsiſtance | Assistance]AſsiſtanceAssistance in Reading, budt went
to no School — and my Neighbours
were very ready to help me

And when I was 1[illegible]7 years of
age, I hope I had [above] as I [truſt | trust]truſttrust,as I [truſt | trust]truſttrust, a [Diſcovery | Discovery]DiſcoveryDiscovery
of the way of Salvation through
J[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): esus]esus and was [enabl'd | enabled]enabl'denabled to put my
[truſt | trust]truſttrust in him alone for Life [& | and]&and
Salvation, From this Time
the [Diſtreſs | Distress]DiſtreſsDistress and Burden of my
mind was [removd | removed]removdremoved, and I found
Serenity and [Pleaſure | Pleasure]PleaſurePleasure of Soul.
in Serving god, by this time I
[Juſt | Just]JuſtJust began to try to Read in
the New [Teſtament | Testament]TeſtamentTestament without
Spelling,— and I had Stronger
[Deſire | Desire]DeſireDesire Still to Learn to read
the Word of god, and at the
Same Time, had an uncommon
Pity and [Compaſsion | Compassion]CompaſsionCompassion to my
Poor [Brethern | brethren]Brethernbrethren According to the
[Fleſh | Flesh]FleſhFlesh, I [uſd | used]uſdused to [wiſh | wish]wiſhwish, I was
Capable of [Inſtructing | Instructing]InſtructingInstructing my
poor Kindred, I [uſe | use]uſeuse to thin[illegible]k
if I [Coud | could]Coudcould once Learn to Read
I [woud | would]woudwould [Inſtruct | Instruct]InſtructInstruct poor Children
in Reading— and [uſd | used]uſdused [freequent‐
ly | frequent
to talk with our Indians Con‐
cerning Religion.— Thus I Con
tinued, [till | 'til]till'til I was in my [19th | 19th]19th19th year;
by this Time I [Coud | could]Coudcould Read a lit
tle in the B[illegible]ible, at this Time
my Poor Mother[pers0395.ocp] was going to
Lebanon[place0122.ocp], and having had
Some Knowledge of [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Wheeloc[above] kk[pers0036.ocp]
and hearing he had a Number
of [Engliſh | English]EngliſhEnglish [above] youthyouth under his Tuition,
I had a great Inclination to go
to him and to be with a week
or a Fortnight, and [Deſired | Desired]DeſiredDesired
my Mother[pers0395.ocp] to Ask [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Wheelock[pers0036.ocp],
whether he [woud | would]woudwould take me a little
while to [Inſtruct | Instruct]InſtructInstruct me in Reading;
Mother[pers0395.ocp] did So; and when She
Came Back, She Said [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
wanted to See me
as Soon as [poſsible | possible]poſsiblepossible,— So I wen[above] tt
up, thinking I [Shoud | should]Shoudshould be back
again in a few Days; when
I got up there, he [receivd | received]receivdreceived me
with [kindneſs | kindness]kindneſskindness and [Compaſsion | Compassion]CompaſsionCompassion
and [in Stead | instead]in Steadinstead of Staying a
Fortnight or 3 weeks, I
Spent 4 years with him —
After I had been with him
Some Time, he began to [a‐
quaint | ac
his Friends of my
being with him, and his Inten
tions of Educating me, and
my [Circumſtances | Circumstances]CircumſtancesCircumstances,— and the
good People began to give
Some [Aſsiſtance | Assistance]AſsiſtanceAssistance to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Wheelock[pers0036.ocp],
and gave me Some old and Some
New [Cloaths | clothes]Cloathsclothes — Then he [repreſted | represented]repreſtedrepresented
the [Caſe | Case]CaſeCase to the Honorable [Com‐
miſsioners | Com
at [Boſton | Boston]BoſtonBoston[org0095.ocp]
, who were
[Commiſsion'd | Commissioned]Commiſsion'dCommissioned by the Honorable Socie
ty in London for Propagating [ye | the]yethe
[goſpel | gospel]goſpelgospel among the Indians in
New England and parts adjacen[above] tt[org0095.ocp]

and they [alowed | allowed]alowedallowed him 60 £: [pr | per]prper
[An | annum]Anannum:
both in old [Tennor | tenor]Tennortenor, which
was about 6 £: Sterling, and
they [Continu'd | continued]Continu'dcontinued it 2: or 3: years
I Can't tell exactly — while I
was at [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Wheelock[pers0036.ocp]s, I was
very weakly and my Health
much [Empard | impaired]Empardimpaired, and at the
End of 4 years, I over [Straind | strained]Straindstrained
my Eyes to Degree, I [Coud | could]Coudcould
not [perſue | pursue]perſuepursue my Studies any
Longer; and out [off | of]offof [theſe | these]theſethese
4 years, I [Loſt | Lost]LoſtLost [Juſt | Just]JuſtJust about
one Year; — And was [obligd | obliged]obligdobliged
to quit my Studies — —
From the Time I left [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Wheel
[above] ockock[pers0036.ocp]
[till | 'til]till'til I went and [illegible] Europe[place0070.ocp]
As Soon as I left [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Wheelock[pers0036.ocp],
I [endeavourd | endeavoured]endeavourdendeavoured to find Some Em‐
ploy among the Indians; went
to [Nahantuck | Niantic]NahantuckNiantic[place0168.ocp], thinking, they
may want a [School Maſter | schoolmaster]School Maſterschoolmaster, bu[above] tt
they [above] hadhad one; then went to [Narogan
ſet | Narragan
, and they were [Indeferent | indifferent]Indeferentindifferent
about School, and went back
to Mohegan[place0143.ocp], and heard a Num‐
ber of our Indians were going
to Montauk[place0144.ocp] on Long Island[place0129.ocp],—
and I went with them, and the
Indians there were very [deſirou[above] ss | desirous]deſirou[above] ssdesirous
to have me keep a School [among[above] ſtſt | among[above] stst]among[above] ſtſtamong[above] stst
them, and I [Conſented | Consented]ConſentedConsented, and
went back a while to Moheg[above] anan[place0143.ocp]
and Some in November I wen[above] tt
on the [Iſland | Island]IſlandIsland[place0129.ocp], I think it is 17
17 years ago [laſt | last]laſtlast [Novr | November]NovrNovember
I agreed to keep a School with
them Half a year, and left it
with them to give [above] meme what they
[Pleaſd | pleased]Pleaſdpleased, and they took turns
to Provide Food for me — I had
near 30 Scholars this winter,
I had evening School too for [thoſe | those]thoſethose
that [Coud | could]Coudcould not attend Day School
— and began to Carry on their meet
ings, T[illegible] they [above] hadhad a [Miniſter | Minister]MiniſterMinister, one [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
, the Scotch Society[org0069.ocp]'s [Miſ
ſionary | Mis
, but he Spent, I think,
two thirds of his Time at [Sheene‐
cock | Shinne
, 30 Miles from Montauk[place0144.ocp],
We met together 3 times for Di‐
vine [Worſhip | worship]Worſhipworship every Sabbath
and once on [above] everyevery [Wedneſday | Wednesday]WedneſdayWednesday even‐
ing— I to read the Scriptures
to them and [uſed | used]uſedused to expound
upon Some [perticular | particular]perticularparticular [Paſ
ages | pass
in my own [Tonuge | tongue]Tonugetongue I
[viſited | visited]viſitedvisited the Sick and attended
their Burials — when the half
year [expird | expired]expirdexpired, they [Deſird | desired]Deſirddesired me
to [Continud | continue]Continudcontinue with them, which
I [Complyd | complied]Complydcomplied with, for another
half year, when I had [fulfild | fulfilled]fulfildfulfilled
that, they were urgent to have
me Stay Longer So I [Continud | continued]Continudcontinued
[till | 'til]till'til I was Married [amongſt | amongst]amongſtamongst ['em | them]'emthem
which was about 2 years after
I went there —
And I [Continu'd | continued]Continu'dcontinued to [Inſtruct | Instruct]InſtructInstruct them
in the Same manner as I did befor[above] ee
after I was [maried | married]mariedmarried a while, I found
there was [above] needneed of a Support, more, than
I needed while I was Single,— and
I made my [Caſe | Case]CaſeCase Known to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
and to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Wheelock[pers0036.ocp], and
[alſo | also]alſoalso the Needy [Circumſtances | circumstances]Circumſtancescircumstances,
and the [Deſires | desires]Deſiresdesires of [theſe | these]theſethese Indians
[above] [& | and]&and[& | and]&and of my [Continuence | continuance]Continuencecontinuance [amongſt | amongst]amongſtamongst
them, and [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Wheelock[pers0036.ocp] and
other gentlemen, [Repreſented | represented]Repreſentedrepresented
my [Circumſtances | circumstances]Circumſtancescircumstances and the [Cir
cumſtances | cir
, and the [Deſires | desires]Deſiresdesires of
[theſe | these]theſethese Indians of my Continuing
[amongſt | amongst]amongſtamongst them, and the [Com‐
miſsioners | Com
were So good as to
grant [above] ££15 per [An | annum]Anannum: Sterling — —
And I kept on in [above] mymy Service as
[uſual | usual]uſualusual, yea I had additional
Service, I kept School as I
did before and Carried on the
Religious meeting as often as
ever, and attended the Sick
and their Funerals, and did
what writings they wanted,
and often Sat as Judge
to reconcile and [Deſide | decide]Deſidedecide their
Matters between them, and
had [viſiters | visitors]viſitersvisitors of Indians, from
all Quarters; and, as our
[Cuſtom | custom]Cuſtomcustom is, we freely Entertain
all [viſiters | visitors]viſitersvisitors,— And was [fetchd | fetched]fetchdfetched
often from my Tribe and
from others [gap: stain] See into
their Affairs Both Religious
[above] [& | and]&and[& | and]&and Temporal,— [Beſides | besides]Beſidesbesides my
[Domeſtick | domestic]Domeſtickdomestic Concerns,— and
it [Pleaſed | pleased]Pleaſedpleased the Lord to [Increac[above] ee | increas[above] ee]Increac[above] eeincreas[above] ee
my Family [faſt | fast]faſtfast — and Soon
after I was [Maried | married]Mariedmarried, [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Horton[pers0262.ocp]
left [theſe | these]theſethese Indians, and the
[Sheenecock | Shinnecock]SheenecockShinnecock Indians[org0157.ocp] [above] [& | and]&and after this I was [licencd | licenced]licencdlicenced to [p | preach]ppreach[& | and]&and after this I was [licencd | licenced]licencdlicenced to [p | preach]ppreach and then
I had the whole Care of [theſe | these]theſethese
Indians at Montauk[place0144.ocp], and
[uſed | used]uſedused to [viſitd | visited]viſitdvisited the [Shenecock | Shinnecock]ShenecockShinnecock[org0157.ocp]
Indians often — [uſed | used]uſedused to Set
out Saturdays towards Night
and back again on Mondays
I have [above] beenbeen obliged to Set out from
Home after [Sun Set | sunset]Sun Setsunset, and Ride
30 Miles in the Night, to [Prea[above] hh | preach]Prea[above] hhpreach
to the[above] sese Indians at [Shenecock | Shinnecock]ShenecockShinnecock[place0423.ocp]
And Some Indians at [Shenecock | Shinnecock]ShenecockShinnecock[place0423.ocp]
Sent their Children to my School
at Montauk[place0144.ocp], I kept one
of ['em | them]'emthem Some Time, and had
a young Man half year from
Mohegan[place0143.ocp], A Lad from [Na‐
hantuck | Ni
, who was with me
[almoſt | almost]almoſtalmost a year,— [illegible] [& | and]&and had
had very little for all [theſe | these]theſethese
and had little or nothing
for Keeping them, —
My Method in the School
was, as Soon as the Children
got together, and have took
their proper Seats, I [Prayd | prayed]Praydprayed
with them, then began to
hear them, I [generaly | generally]generalygenerally began
(after some of ['em | them]'emthem [Coud | could]Coudcould Spell
and Read,) with [thoſe | those]thoſethose, that
were yet in their Alphabets;
So around, as they were pro‐
perly Seat, [till | 'til]till'til I got [thro' | through]thro'through
and I [obligd | obliged]obligdobliged them to Study
their Books, and to help one
another, when they [Coud | could]Coudcould not
make out a hard, they
Brought to me — and I [Uſu‐
ally | usu
heard them, in the Sum
mer [Seaſon | season]Seaſonseason 8 Times a Day
4 in the morning, and in [ye | the]yethe
[after Noon | afternoon]after Noonafternoon — In the MWinter
[Seaſon | season]Seaſonseason 6 Time a Day, as
Soon as they [coud | could]coudcould Spell, they
were [obligd | obliged]obligdobliged to spell [when ever | whenever]when everwhenever
they wanted to go out; [Conclud‐
ded | conclu
with Prayer, I [above] generallygenerally heard my
AEvening scholars 3 [above] [T | times]Ttimes[T | times]Ttimes Rou[above] nnd,
And as they [above] gogo out the School,
[every one | everyone]every oneeveryone that Can Spell,
is [obligd | obliged]obligdobliged to spell a word,
and So go out [Leaſurely | leisurely]Leaſurelyleisurely one
after another, — I [Catechiſed | Catechised]CatechiſedCatechised
3 or 4 Times a weeks accor
ding to the [Aſembly | Assembly]AſemblyAssembly's Shor[above] tt
er [C[illegible]atechiſm | C[illegible]atechism]C[illegible]atechiſmC[illegible]atechism, and many
Times [Propoſ'd | proposed]Propoſ'dproposed [Queſtions | questions]Queſtionsquestions
of my own, and in my
own [Tonugue | tongue]Tonuguetongue, — I found
Som D[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): e]efficulty with Some
Children, who were Some‐
what Dull, [moſt | most]moſtmost of [theſe | these]theſethese
Can Soon learn to say over
their Letters, they [Diſtingu[above] iſhiſh | Distinguish]Diſtingu[above] iſhiſhDistinguish
the Sounds by the Ear, but
their Eyes Can't [Diſtinguiſh | Distinguish]DiſtinguiſhDistinguish
the Letters, and the way
I took to cure ['em | them]'emthem, was
by taking making an
Alhphabet on Small bits
of paper, and glued them
on Small Chips of Cedar,
after this manner [illegible]
A B [right] [&c. | etc.]&c.etc. I put [theſe | these]theſethese on[&c. | etc.]&c.etc. I put [theſe | these]theſethese on
[right] Letters in order onLetters in order on
a Bench, [than | then]thanthen point to one Letter
and bid a Child to take notice
of it, and then I dorder the Child
to fetch me the Letter from [ye | the]yethe Ben[above] chch
if it Brings the Letter, it is well,
if not it [muſt | must]muſtmust go again and
again [till | 'til]till'til it bring [above] [ye | the]yethe[ye | the]yethe right [Lr | letter]Lrletter
[Wheny | When]WhenyWhen they Can bring any of
Letters, this way, then I [Juſt | Just]JuſtJust
Jumble them together, and
b[illegible]d them to Set them in Al‐
phabetical order, and it is
a [Pleaſure | pleasure]Pleaſurepleasure to ['em | them]'emthem; and they Soon
learn their letters this way —
I [freequently | frequently]freequentlyfrequently [Diſcouſd | discussed]Diſcouſddiscussed or [illegible]Exhor
ted my Scholars, in Religious
matters — My Method in
our Religious Meetings was
this; Sabbaths Mornings we
[Aſsemble | assemble]Aſsembleassemble together about 10:o.C.
and begin with Singing; we
[generaly | generally]generalygenerally Sung [Dr | Dr.]DrDr. Watts[pers0683.ocp]'s
Psalms or Hymns, I [diſting[above] lyly | distinctly]diſting[above] lylydistinctly,
read the Psalm or Hymn [firſt | first]firſtfirst,
and then give the meaning of
it to them, after that sing, then
Pray, and Sing again, after [Prayr | prayer]Prayrprayer
then proceed to Read Some
[Sutable | suitable]Sutablesuitable portion of Scripture,
and So [Juſt | Just]JuſtJust give the plain
[Senſe | Sense]SenſeSense of it, in Familiar [Diſcourſe | Discourse]DiſcourſeDiscourse
and [applyd | applied]applydapplied to them, [illegible]So Con
[illegible]clude with Pray, and Sing
ing, In the [after-Noon | afternoon]after-Noonafternoon and
Evening we Proceed in the
Same Manner, and So in
[Wedneſday | Wednesday]WedneſdayWednesday Evenings, — Some
Time after [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Horton[pers0262.ocp] left
[theſe | these]theſethese Indians, there was
a remarkable revival of
religion among [theſe | these]theſethese Indi
ans and many were hope
fully Converted to the Saving
knowledge of god a in J[illegible]
It is to be [obſerved | observed]obſervedobserved, before [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
left [theſe | these]theſethese Indians
they had Some Prejudices [infuſd | infused]infuſdinfused
in their minds, by Some
[Inthuſiaſtical | enthusiastical]Inthuſiaſticalenthusiastical Exhorters from
[N. | New]N.New England[place0158.ocp], [againſt | against]againſtagainst [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
, an[illegible] Many of ['em | them]'emthem
had left him, by this means
he was[illegible] [Diſcourag'd | discouraged]Diſcourag'ddiscouraged, and Su[illegible]d
a [Diſmiſsion | Dismission]DiſmiſsionDismission, and was [diſmiſt | dismissed]diſmiſtdismissed
from [theſe | these]theſethese Indians, — And being
acquainted with the [Enthu‐
Siaſts | Enthu
in New England[place0158.ocp], [& | and]&and
the make and the [Diſpoſiſti
ons | Dispositi
of the Indians, took a
mil[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): e]e way to reclaim them,
I [oppoſd | opposed]oppoſdopposed them not openly
but let them go on in their
way, and [when ever | whenever]when everwhenever I
had an opportunity, I
[woud | would]woudwould read Such [paſages | passages]paſagespassages
of the Scriptures, as I
thought, [woud | would]woudwould Confound
their Notions, [illegible] and I [woud | would]woudwould
come to them with all Au‐
thority, Saying thus Saith
the Lord, and by this
means, the Lord was
[pleaſd | pleased]pleaſdpleased to [Bleſs | Bless]BleſsBless my poor
Endeavours, and they were
reclaimed, and Brought to
hear [moſt | most]moſtmost any of the [Miniſ‐
ters | Minis
— I am now to
give an Account o[illegible]f my
[Circumſtances | Circumstances]CircumſtancesCircumstances and manner
of [Livineng | living]Livinengliving, — I Dwelt in
a wigwam, a Small [Hutt | hut]Hutthut, [fraim[above] dd | framed]fraim[above] ddframed
with Small Poles and [Coverd | covered]Coverdcovered
with [Matts | mats]Mattsmats made of Flags,
and I was [oblig'd | obliged]oblig'dobliged to move
twice a year, about 2 Miles
[Diſtance | Distance]DiſtanceDistance, by [reaſon | reason]reaſonreason of the
Scarcity of wood, for in our
Neck of Land they Planted
their Corn, and [above] inin [anather | another]anatheranother, they
had their wood,— and I was
[obligd | obliged]obligdobliged to hire my Corn Carted
and my Hay [alſo | also]alſoalso, — and
I got my Ground [Plow'd | plowed]Plow'dplowed every
year, which [Coſt | Cost]CoſtCost me about
[illegible][above] [illegible][illegible] 12 an Acre; and I kept
a Cow and a [Horſe | Horse]HorſeHorse, for
which I paid [above] ££ 21: every year
York Currency, And went 18
miles to Mill for every [Duſt | Dust]DuſtDust
of meal we [uſ'd | used]uſ'dused in my family
I Hired or Joined with my
Neighbours to go to Mill wit[illegible]h
a [Horſe | Horse]HorſeHorse or ox Cart, or on
[Horſe Back | horseback]Horſe Backhorseback, and [Some tim[above] eses | sometim[above] eses]Some tim[above] esessometim[above] eses
go[above] wentwent [my ſelf | myself]my ſelfmyself; my Family [In‐
creaſing | in
[faſt | fast]faſtfast, and my [viſiters | visitors]viſitersvisitors
[alſo | also]alſoalso, I was [obligd | obliged]obligdobliged to Continue
every way to Support my
Family; I took all [opper‐
tunities | oppor
, to get [Some thing | something]Some thingsomething,
to feed my Family daily, —
I Planted my own Corn, Po‐
tatoes and [illegible]Beans; I [uſe | use]uſeuse to
be out [whoeing | hoeing]whoeinghoeing my Corn
[Some times | sometimes]Some timessometimes before [Sun Riſe | sunrise]Sun Riſesunrise
and after my School is
[Diſmiſt | dismissed]Diſmiſtdismissed, and by this means I
was able to [raiſe | raise]raiſeraise my own
Pork, for I was [alowd | allowed]alowdallowed to keep
5 Swine, Some Mornings [& | and]&and
Evenings I woud be out with
my Hook and Line to Catch
[fiſh | fish]fiſhfish, and in the Fall of
year and in the Spring, I
[uſ'd | used]uſ'dused my [Gunn | gun]Gunngun, for we [livd | lived]livdlived
very handy for Fowl, and I
was very expert with [gunn | gun]gunngun,
and fed my Family with
Fowl, I [Coud | could]Coudcould more than pay
for my Powder [& | and]&and [Shott | shot]Shottshot, with
Feathers, at other Times I
Bound [above] oldold Books for [Eaſthamp[above] tonton | East Hamp[above] tonton]Eaſthamp[above] tontonEast Hamp[above] tonton[place0062.ocp]
People, Made wooden Spoons
and Ladles, [Stackd | stacked]Stackdstacked Guns, [& | and]&and
[workd | worked]workdworked on SCedar to make Pails,
[Piggans | piggins]Pigganspiggins and Churns [&c | etc.]&cetc.
[beſides | besides]beſidesbesides all [theſe | these]theſethese Difficulties
I wMet with [adverſe | adverse]adverſeadverse Providence[above] ss,
I bought a Mare, had it bu[above] tt
little while, and She fell into
the [Quick Sands | quicksands]Quick Sandsquicksands and Died, after
a while Bought another, I kep[above] tt
[above] herher about half Year, and She was
gone, and I never heard nor
Seen her from that Day to
this, it was [Suppoſd | supposed]Suppoſdsupposed Some
Rogue [Stold | stole]Stoldstole her, and got
another and [Dyed | died]Dyeddied with a [Diſ
temper | dis
, and [laſt | last]laſtlast of all I [Bou[above] tt | bought]Bou[above] ttbought
a Young Mare, and kept
her [till | 'til]till'til She had one Colt, and
She broke her Leg and Died
and [Preſently | Presently]PreſentlyPresently after the Coldt
Died [alſo | also]alſoalso, In the whole I
[Loſt | Lost]LoſtLost 5 [Horſe | Horse]HorſeHorse Kind, all [theſe | these]theſethese
[Loſes | losses]Loſeslosses helped to pull me down
and by this Time I got greatly
in Debt, and acquain[above] tted my
[Circumſtances | Circumstances]CircumſtancesCircumstances to Some of my
Friends, and they [Repreſented | Represented]RepreſentedRepresented
my [Caſe | Case]CaſeCase to the [Commiſsioners | Commissioners]CommiſsionersCommissioners
of [Boſton | Boston]BoſtonBoston[org0095.ocp]
, and [Interceeded | interceded]Interceededinterceded with
them for me, and [illegible]they [above] werewere [pleaſed | pleased]pleaſedpleased
to [illegible]Vote 15 for my Help; and
Soon after Sent a Letter to my
good Friend at [N. | New]N.New London[place0164.ocp],
acquainting him, that they
had [Superſeded | Superseded]SuperſededSuperseded their vote; [& | and]&and
my Friends were So good as to
[repreſent | represent]repreſentrepresent my Needy [Circumſta[above] ncesnces | Circumsta[above] ncesnces]Circumſta[above] ncesncesCircumsta[above] ncesnces
Still to them, and they were So
good at [Laſt | Last]LaſtLast, as to vote [above] ££15
and Sent it, for which I am
very thankful, and [above] the goodthe good [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Buell[pers0006.ocp]
was [above] SoSo Kind as to write in my
behalf to the gentlemen of Bos‐
; and he told me they
were much [Diſpleaſ'd | Displeased]Diſpleaſ'dDispleased with
him; and heard [alſo | also]alſoalso once
and again, that they [blaimed | blamed]blaimedblamed
me for being Extravagant, I
Cant Conceive how [theſe | these]theſethese [gentlen | gentlemen]gentlengentlemen
[woud | would]woudwould have me Live, I am rea
dy to [above] [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): i]imputed [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): it]it[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): i]imputed [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): it]it their Ignorance, and [woud | would]woudwould
[wiſh | wish]wiſhwish they had [Changd | changed]Changdchanged [Circumſtan[above] eses | circumstances]Circumſtan[above] esescircumstances
with me but one Month, that
they may know, by experience
what my [Caſe | case]Caſecase really was, but
I am now fully [Convincd | convinced]Convincdconvinced, that i[illegible]t
was not Ignorance For I believ[above] ee
it Can be [provd | proved]provdproved to the world, that
[theſe | these]theſethese Same Gentlemen, gave a
young [Miſsionary | Missionary]MiſsionaryMissionary, a Single
man, one Hundred Pounds for
one year, and fifty Pounds for
an Interpreter, and thirty Pounds
for an Introducer, So it [Coſt | Cost]CoſtCost them
[illegible]one [illegible]Hundred [& | and]&and Eighty Pounds
in one Single year, and they
Sent too where there was no
Need of a [Miſsionary | Missionary]MiſsionaryMissionary,
Now you See what difference
they made between [above] meme and other
[Miſsionarys | missionaries]Miſsionarysmissionaries, they gave me
180 Pounds for 12 years Service,
which they gave for one years
Service in another [Miſſion | Mission]MiſſionMission
In my Service, (I Speak like a
fool, but I am [Conſtrain'd | constrained]Conſtrain'dconstrained)
I was my own Int[illegible]erpreter
I was both a C[School maſter | schoolmaster]School maſterschoolmaster,
and [Miniſter | minister]Miniſterminister to the Indians,
yea I was their Ear, Eye [& | and]&and
Hand, as well Mouth, — I
leave it with world, as wick
ed as it is, to Judge, whether
I ought [illegible] not to have had haldf
as much, they gave a young
man [Juſt | Just]JuſtJust [mention'd | mentioned]mention'dmentioned, which
[woud | would]woudwould have been but [above] ££50 [above] aa Year;
and if they ought to have
given me that, I am not un
der obligations to them, I owe
them nothing at all; Now wha[above] tt
Can be the [Reaſon | Reason]ReaſonReason? that they
[uſed | used]uſedused me after [above] thisthis manner; I
Can't think of [any thing | anything]any thinganything, but
this as a poor Indian Boy
Said, who was Bound out to
an [Engliſh | English]EngliſhEnglish Family, and
he [uſ'd | used]uſ'dused to Drive Plow for a
young man, and he [whipt | whipped]whiptwhipped
and Beat him [allmoſt | almost]allmoſtalmost every
Day, and the young man
found fault with him, and
[Complaind | complained]Complaindcomplained of him to his [maſter | master]maſtermaster
and the poor boy was [Calld | called]Calldcalled to
[anſwere | answer]anſwereanswer for him[above] [ſelf | self]ſelfself[ſelf | self]ſelfself before his
[maſter | master]maſtermaster, — and he was [aſk'd | asked]aſk'dasked,
what it was he did, Cthat he
was So [Complaind | complained]Complaindcomplained of and beat
[almoſt | almost]almoſtalmost every Day? he Said,
he did not know, but he [Suppoſd | supposed]Suppoſdsupposed
it was, [becauſe | because]becauſebecause he [Coud | could]Coudcould not [above] drivedrive any
better, but Says he, I Drive as
well as I know [above] howhow and at other
Times he Beats me, [becauſe | because]becauſebecause he
is mind to beat me, but Says,
he, [above] I believeI believe he Beats for the [moſt | most]moſtmost of the
[illegible] Time, [becauſe | because]becauſebecause I am an In‐
So I am ready to Say, they have
[uſd | used]uſdused thus, [becauſe | because]becauſebecause I Cant [Inſtru[above] ctct | Instruct]Inſtru[above] ctctInstruct
they Indians So well as other
[Miſsionaries | Missionaries]MiſsionariesMissionaries, but I Can [aſure | assure]aſureassure
them I have [endearvourd | endearvoured]endearvourdendearvoured to teach
them as well as I how — but I
[muſt | must]muſtmust Say, I believe, it is,
[becauſe | because]becauſebecause I am poor Indian,
I Cant help that [illegible] God has
made me So; I did not make
my Se[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): ft]ft So —
[note (type: editorial): Blank page.]
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[note (type: editorial): Blank page.]
[note (type: editorial): Blank page.]
[note (type: editorial): Blank page.]
The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America
The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America was a missionary society active in America from 1649 until 1786. It was first called the "New England Company" in 1770. Most secondary literature uses that name for convenience and to distinguish it from other missionary societies. The company was first chartered in 1649 as the "President and Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England," largely in response to John Eliot's missionary efforts. After the Restoration (1660), it was rechartered as the "Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America." The New England Company was very powerful and influential, in large part because it was a coalition between Anglicans and Dissenters. It supported a range of missionaries from the Mayhews to the Sergeants to Moor's alumnus Samuel Kirkland. After the Revolution, the New England Company refocused its attentions on New Brunswick and Canadian Indians. Wheelock had a very rocky relationship with the New England Company. Initially, it supported Wheelock's efforts. The Company funded Occom's education at Moor's and paid him a small salary during his time among the Montauketts. However, from 1765 onwards, its relationship with Wheelock rapidly deteriorated. The Company opposed the fundraising tour of Great Britain and went so far as to interfere with it by sending a widely circulated letter to England questioning Occom's background. The New England Company also interferred with Titus Smith's mission to Onaquaga by sending a rival missionary, Mr. Moseley, and stealing Titus' interpreter, Elisha Gunn. In 1767 it formally withdrew its financial support from Wheelock on the grounds that the fundraising tour had raised sufficient money. It is unclear what led the New England Company to suddenly change its stance towards Wheelock. Perhaps it wanted exclusive power over missionary distribution in New England, or perhaps it was thought that focusing on education over numbers in the field was counterproductive. Most secondary sources have conflated the New England Company's Boston Board and the Society in Scotland for Promoting Christian Knowledge's Boston Board, an easy mistake to make since both are sometimes referred to as the Boston Board and both vigorously opposed Wheelock. Any secondary source's statement about either should be carefully researched.
The New York/New Jersey Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge
The New York/New Jersey Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge was the Presbyterian SSPCK board in the colonies and oversaw the Society's missionary efforts in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. It was established in 1741 at the request of Jonathan Dickinson, Aaron Burr (Sr.), and Ebenezer Pemberton, who employed several missionaries including Azariah Horton and both David and John Brainerd. Since these same men founded the College of New Jersey (Dickinson was the first president, Burr the second), the New York Board became somewhat conflated with the trustees of the College of New Jersey. The two bodies were not formally combined in the eyes of the SSPCK until February 1769, but as early as 1765, Wheelock wrote addressing the "Board of Correspondents in the Province of New York and New Jersey." The New York Board was almost exclusively Presbyterian, and many of Wheelock's Presbyterian acquaintances, including David Bostwick, Aaron Burr, John Brainerd, etc., were involved in it. The Board as a whole does not seem to have been particularly helpful or hostile towards Wheelock and his plans. They certainly supported missionary efforts for Native Americans, but refused to release John Brainerd from missionary obligations to accompany Occom to England.
Shinnecock Tribe
The Shinnecock Tribe is an Algonquian-speaking people descended from the Pequot and Narragansett Nations of southern New England. Their name means “people of the stony shore,” because their ancestral lands were on the southeastern edge of Long Island, south of Great Peconic Bay. They were a sea-faring people noted for their manufacture of beads from the Northern quahog clam and whelk shells called wampum, used by many Indians as currency, in trade, and for recording important events on ceremonial belts. European settlers arrived on eastern Long Island in the mid-17th century, bringing Presbyterianism, buying land, and creating homesteads and villages, which expanded through the 18th century, encroaching on Native lands. Diseases also decimated the Native population. The Shinnecocks and their neighbors to the east, the Montauketts, were targets of Christian missionizing early on, since it was an easy sail from southern Connecticut across the Long Island Sound. When the Society in Scotland for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge sent the Presbyterian missionary Azariah Horton to Long Island in 1741, he found a warm reception and evidence of previous missionizing among the Indians in the eastern half of the Island. Occom arrived a decade later after his education at Wheelock’s school, settling in Montauk and starting a school there, but also visiting and ministering to the nearby Shinnecock Indians in their various villages. Dwindling land and economic resources led many Shinnecock Indians to move to Brothertown on Oneida land in western New York after the Revolutionary War. In 1792, the New York State legislature imposed a system of tribal government that consisted of three elected trustees, whereas traditionally, decisions were made by consensus of all adult male members. Since the mid-19th century, the Shinnecocks have had a reservation of about 800 acres within the town of Southampton, a fraction of their traditional lands. In 2007, the Shinnecock Tribe went back to its traditional governing structure, now including adult women, and installed a Tribal Council. In 2010, they succeeded in a 30-year-long struggle for federal recognition, and now number over 1400 people.

Mohegan is a village in southeastern Connecticut at the site of the present-day town of Montville, and is the location of the Mohegan Indian Reservation. The village gets its name from the Mohegan Tribe, or wolf people, who split from the Pequots in the early 17th century under the leadership of the sachem Uncas. In the 1720s, the Mohegans requested the colony of Connecticut provide them with an English educator. An English minister and schoolteacher named John Mason (no relation to Captain John Mason) moved to Mohegan in order to provide English-styled education to the Mohegans, convinced his sponsors, the New England Company, to build a schoolhouse at Mohegan, which eventually served as a boarding school for other Native American children from the surrounding area. During the 17th century, the Mohegan Tribe became embroiled in a complicated controversy over control of Mohegan land — known as the Mason Land Case or, more specifically, Mohegan Indians v. Connecticut — that included the village of Mohegan. The Tribe claimed that it never authorized a transfer of their lands, held in trust by the Mason family, to the colonial government. In 1662, the colony of Connecticut was incorporated by a royal charter, which included the disputed tribal land. The land controversy was revived in 1704 when descendants of John Mason, the original trustee, petitioned the Crown on behalf of the Mohegans, but the suit was finally decided against the Tribe in 1773. Born in Mohegan, Occom became involved in the Mason Land Case and vehemently argued for the rights of the Mohegan Indians to maintain their land, opposing Eleazar Wheelock and other ministers in the area. Although Occom left Mohegan for a 12-year mission with the Montauk Indians of Long Island, he returned at the end of 1763 with his large family to build a house in Mohegan, establishing it as his base of operations. Even after the creation of the Brothertown settlement in Oneida country, for which he served as minister, Occom continued to commute back and forth from Mohegan; he didn't sell his house in Mohegan and move his family to Brothertown until 1789. Many members of his family remained in Mohegan, including his sister Lucy Tantaquidgeon, who lived there until her death at 99 in 1830.

New London

New London is a city located in southeastern Connecticut along an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean called Long Island Sound. The area that would become New London was inhabited by the Pequots who called it Nameaug when the Europeans arrived in North America. Pequot villages bordered Long Island Sound and the Tribe had authority over the neighboring Tribes of the Mohegans and Niantics (all Algonquian-speaking tribes). The Dutch first explored this land in 1614 and established trade with the Native peoples, but the English soon gained possession of the land east of the Hudson in the 1630s. English animosity toward their Indian neighbors led to the Pequot War (1634-38), part of which took place in the present city of New London. The Pequots lost the war and their population deteriorated due to the violence and disease. The General Court of Massachusetts granted John Winthrop possession of Pequot territory in 1644 after which it was to be opened for settlement. By 1646, which is considered the official year of its founding, New London had permanent colonial inhabitants and municipal laws, and jurisdiction was granted to the colony of Connecticut in 1647. In 1658, the inhabitants renamed the town New London after London, England. New London was the colony of Connecticut’s first trading port and was a hub of trade with the West Indies and other colonies. Though initially part of the town of New London when it was first settled by the colonists, Groton, Montville, and Waterford were each separated from New London in 1705, 1786, and 1801 respectively. Present-day Salem was also part of New London when it was settled, but in 1819, it became a separate incorporated town composed of parts of Lyme, Colchester, and Montville. Occom kept a school in New London in the winter in 1748. New London was the home of Captain Nathaniel Shaw, one of the wealthiest merchants in the area, who gave money to Occom in the 1750s for the missionary cause and also sold materials to Occom for the building of his home. However, their positive relationship ended when Shaw refused to provide supplies for Mary Occom while Occom was in England. New London served as the port from which Occom and other missionaries traveled to reach Long Island. During the American Revolution, New London’s location and its status as a seaport made it both vulnerable to invasion and integral to colonial naval operations as well as the exchange of prisoners.New London was incorporated as a city in 1784.


Connecticut is a state in southern New England that borders Massachusetts to the north and the Long Island Sound to the south. Its name is derived from the Algonquian "Quonehtacut," meaning "long river," referring to the Connecticut, which runs from the border with Canada into the Long Island Sound. The area was originally inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Pequots, Mohegans, and Quinnipiacs. European settlers took advantage of tribal divisions to establish dominance in the region. Dutch explorer Adrian Block sailed up the Connecticut River in 1614, establishing an active Dutch trading post at what is now Hartford. English claims to Connecticut began in 1630, but settlement truly began when Thomas Hooker, a Congregationalist minister now known as "The Father of Connecticut," left Boston to found Hartford in 1636. Hartford became the center of the Colony of Connecticut, which did not receive its charter until 1662 when Governor John Winthrop, Jr. secured it from Charles II. In 1665, the Colony of New Haven, established in 1638 by the Puritan minister John Davenport, joined the Colony of Connecticut under this charter. Early settler relations with local Indians were tense, and encouraged the New England colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven to unify as the "United Colonies" or "New England Confederation" and fight together, with Indian allies, in the Pequot War and again in King Philip's (Metacom's) War. These wars helped establish a specifically Connecticut and specifically American identity; the latter drove the colony to join the rebellion against Britain in 1776. Occom, born into a Mohegan household in Connecticut, was closely associated with the Colony and retained strong ties to the region throughout his life. He converted to Christianity in 1743 when the Great Awakening spread through Connecticut, and inspired Wheelock's Indian Charity School, which was founded in Lebanon, CT in 1754. He also became involved in the Mason Land Case, a long-standing dispute over the ownership of reserve Mohegan lands in Connecticut. Wheelock also had strong ties to Connecticut, moving his Indian Charity School only when the colony would not grant it a charter.

New England

Lebanon is a town located in the state of Connecticut southwest of the town of Hartford. The land that became Lebanon was inhabited at least 10,000 years ago based on the archeological record. By the 1600s, the land was permanently inhabited by the Mohegan Indians, who used the area primarily for hunting. Lebanon was officially formed in 1700 when English settlers consolidated a number of land tracts, including several land grants by the Connecticut General Assembly and lands purchased from the Mohegans. However, these purchases were controversial. In 1659, the Mohegans entrusted their reserve land to Major John Mason, and in the following year, Mason transferred this land to the Connecticut colonial government with the understanding that there would be enough land left for the Mohegans to farm. The Mohegans claimed that they never authorized a transfer to the colonial government and only Mason’s heirs were entrusted with their land. In 1662, Connecticut, which included the Mohegan land that had been entrusted to the Masons, was incorporated by a royal charter. Based on this charter, the colony argued that the land was now the property of the government. In 1687, the colony began granting the Mohegan land to townships, and in 1704 the Masons petitioned the Crown on behalf of the Mohegans, claiming that such transfers of land to townships were illegal. Between the years of 1705 and 1773 legal disputes and controversies persisted, finally ending in a verdict by the Crown against the Mohegans. In 1755, Wheelock received property and housing in Lebanon that he would use as his house and school. While Lebanon was originally incorporated as a part of New London County in 1700, in 1724 it became a part of New Windham, before once again becoming a part of New London County in 1826. Lebanon was central to the American Revolution with half of its adult population fighting for the colonists and hundreds of meetings convened in the town for the revolutionary cause.


Niantic is a village located in East Lyme, a seaside town in southeast Connecticut on the Long Island Sound. The land was occupied by the Niantic tribe when the Europeans arrived. The Dutch claimed the area in the 17th century, but when the British claimed this same land as part of their colonies, the Dutch forfeited it to the British in a 1627 trade agreement. The village housed both preachers and a schoolhouse, and missionaries came to the village for the purpose of converting and assimilating the tribe. This effort intensified in the 1740s with the influence of the First Great Awakening. Increasingly dispersed and dispossessed of land, many Niantic Indians followed Occom and Joseph Johnson to upstate New York in the 1770's where they settled Brothertown.


Narragansett is a town in Washington County, Rhode Island, covering a narrow strip of land along the eastern bank of the Pettaquamscutt River to the Narragansett Bay in the southeastern part of the state. Today, it is known for its summer recreation and beaches. It is named for the most powerful Indian tribe in the area, the Narragansetts (meaning people of the small point), who are descendants of the aboriginal inhabitants of the area. Known as warriors, the Narragansetts customarily offered protection to the smaller tribes, the Nipmuck bands, the Niantics, Wampanoags and Manisseans, who paid tribute to them. Their sachem, Canonicus, met and befriended the English dissenter Roger Williams as he fled the Massachusetts Bay colony in 1636 and founded the settlement of Providence Plantation. The mutual respect they achieved disappeared in 1658 and 1659 as two groups of English investors hungry for land purchased two tracts of valuable land, which became known as "Narragansett Country," including what would become the town of Narragansett. This consisted of three peninsulas called "Boston Neck," "Little Neck," and "Point Judith Neck," which were used for grazing, farming and fishing. In 1675, the Narragansett allied themselves with the Wampanoag leader Metacom (aka King Philip), in his effort to regain tribal land in Massachusetts. A military force of English Puritans from Plymouth, Massaschusetts Bay and Connecticut massacred a group of Narragansetts, mostly women, children and the elderly living in their winter camp in the Great Swamp. The survivors retreated deep into the forest lands, which make up today's Reservation; others who refused to be subjected to the authority of the United Colonies were hunted down and killed, sold into slavery in the Caribbean, or migrated to Brothertown in upstate New York and Wisconsin. For the next 200 years, the population of the town expanded slowly, large plantations emerged, commerce evolved and the area became known for its cheese, sheep, horses, and grain. The Narragensett Pier was built in 1781 in the center of the village to accommodate shipping in Narragansett Bay.

Long Island

Long Island is an island located in southeast New York State. In 1824, historian Silas Wood claimed that 13 different tribes inhabited the island when the Dutch and English arrived in 1639: the Canarsie, the Rockaway, the Matinecock, the Merrick, the Massapequa, the Nissequoge, the Secatoag, the Seatuket, the Patchoag, the Corchaug, the Shinnecock, the Manhasset, and the Montaukett. This is the commonly accepted tribal history of Long Island, and Wood’s theory is taught in New York textbooks today. Yet, in 1992, historian John Strong challenged this dominant narrative, arguing that tribal systems did not develop on Long Island until after Europeans arrived. Based on Dutch and English colonists’ accounts, the Algonquian communities on western Long Island likely spoke the Delaware-Munsee dialect and those to the east spoke languages related to the southern New England Algonquian dialects. These indigenous peoples organized themselves by language and kinship, but beyond village systems and the occasional alliance, there existed no formal tribal structure. Rather, internal structures arose among the Montauks, the Shinnecocks, the Poospatucks, and the Matinnocks to cope with English settlers, and became integral to these peoples’ survival. Although new diseases and land negotiations severely encroached on the freedom of Long Island’s Native population, these groups that developed tribal structures retain a sense of community today. By the 18th century, much of the island had fallen into the hands of the English, who were the sole European power on Long Island once the Dutch relinquished their claims to the land after the second Anglo-Dutch War in 1664. During the Great Awakening of the 18th century, Occom spent 12 years serving as a missionary to the Montaukett Indians of Long Island, along with Presbyterian minister Azariah Horton. Today, the western half of the island is densely populated due to its proximity to Manhattan, and its eastern half is mainly devoted to resort towns. The Shinnecocks and the Poospatucks retain autonomous reservations on Long Island.


Montauk is an unincorporated hamlet located on the eastern tip of Long Island in southeastern New York. The town was named after the Montaukett Indians who lived on much of eastern Long Island when Europeans first made contact in the 17th century. Archeological records show that Native Americans occupied eastern Long Island at least 3,000 years prior to European contact. The Montaukett Indians derived their name from the land they lived on, Montaukett meaning hilly country. The Montauketts made great use of Long Island’s abundant resources, and the nation subsisted by growing crops such as corn, squash, and beans as well as gathering berries, herbs, and roots. In addition to game such as deer and fish, the Montauketts also hunted whales and used every part of the whale, including its oil, which they burned in large clamshells. Living on an island at first isolated the Montaukett people, but they soon became a strong economic force in the region thanks to the production of the American Indian currency wampum. Wampum was constructed out of polished sea shells, which were found in abundance along Long Island’s beaches. The Montauketts' rich resources, however, led to wars with surrounding Indian nations, including the Pequots and Narragansetts to the north. The Pequots eventually forced the Montauketts to forfeit wampum as tribute. By the early 17th century, the Montauketts were faced with wars against surrounding Native Americans and an onslaught of European diseases, and in order to preserve his nation’s territorial integrity, the Montaukett sachem, Wyandanch, established an alliance with English settlers in Connecticut in 1637. Over time, however, the Montauketts' began selling off land to the English settlers, and disease further decimated their numbers. A 1650 smallpox epidemic killed around two-thirds of the Montaukett people. In 1665, Wyandanch granted the English permission to pasture livestock on Montaukett lands. In 1686 a group of East Hampton settlers known as the Proprietors bought the territory of Montauk from the Montauketts, and would continue to hold on to the land in a joint trust for the next 200 years. Despite attempts over the years, the town has never been incorporated as a village. Many years later, the Montauketts attempted to reassert their land rights on Long Island by petitioning New York State Judge Abel Blackmar in 1909. Blackmar refused to recognize the Montauketts as an Indian tribe, which has to this day left them without a reservation on the land that still bears their name.


Shinnecock, NY, was a village within the town of Southampton, NY occupied by the Shinnecock Indians. While this village no longer exists, the Shinnecocks have preserved some of their ancestral land through the Shinnecock Indian Reservation. The name Shinnecock means "people of the stony shore," in reference to the rocky southeastern edge of Long Island where the Shinnecocks lived. Shinnecock's proximity to Connecticut by way of the Long Island Sound meant that the village and its tribe experienced more missionary activity from New England than towns in the Western half of Long Island. European settlers first encountered the Shinnecocks in 1640, when they founded Southampton after purchasing land from the Tribe. During this period of colonization, the village of Shinnecock remained an enclave for the Tribe as the rest of Long Island was increasingly divided into English towns. Unlike the Montauketts to the East, the Shinnecocks were able to retain a land base, their own distinct village. From 1749 to 1761, Occom maintained a school and mission 30 miles east of Shinnecock in Montauk and often made trips to the village on his preaching tours of Long Island and New York, where he preached to largely Indian audiences. By the 1780s, however, English encroachment on Shinnecock land led many of the Shinnecocks, with Occom's encouragement, to leave Long Island for Brothertown. Those who remained in Shinnecock were subjected to a system of tribal governance that the New York State Legislature imposed in 1792, a system that lasted until 2007, when the Shinnecocks on the Shinnecock Indian Reservation reasserted their traditional governing structure.

East Hampton

East Hampton is a town in New York's Suffolk county on southeast Long Island, 14 miles southwest of Montauk. East Hampton was originally inhabited by the Algonquin-speaking Montauketts, who numbered over 10,000 and had a peaceful trading relationship with the nearby Pequots until early 17th century when English colonists played the two tribes off each other. In 1640, after the Pequot War, an English settler named Lion Gardiner purchased an island in the bay between the present-day towns of Montauk and East Hampton from the Montauketts, which began the English settlement, or seizure, of the land that would become East Hampton. The Montauketts called the island Manchonacke, or island where many died, while Gardiner named the island after himself. In 1648, the colonies of New Haven and Connecticut purchased more land from the Montauketts, spreading beyond Gardiner's Island onto Long Island and settling the town of East Hampton. In 1664, East Hampton was annexed to the colony of New York. As the number of English settlers increased, the Montauketts became increasingly dispossessed, economically tied to the English but relegated to the bottom of the social order. By 1687, the English had fenced off the majority of Montaukett land through a series of resolutions, changing the tribal structure of the Montauketts and leaving them open to conversion to Christianity. In 1749, Occom had been released from his preparatory studies for college because of poor eyesight and went on a summer fishing trip to Montauk; he decided to settle there and by November had established a school for the Montauketts. He frequented East Hampton on his travels to New York and New England from his home in Montauk beginning in 1750, often staying with Reverend Samuel Buell of the Presbytery of Suffolk County, who presided over Occom's 1759 ordination at the Presbytery. While traveling through East Hampton, Occom also stayed with William Hedges, a whaling captain and one of his benefactors. One of Occom's letters indicates that Hedges took care of Occom's family while he completed his mission to the Oneidas in 1761. Occom's relationship to East Hampton changed in the 1770s, however, when he started to believe that the pervasive English influence on Montaukett society had become corrosive. As a result of Occom's encouragement, many of the Montauketts of East Hampton moved to Brothertown in the late 1780s.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Occom, Sarah

Sarah Occom was Samson Occom's mother. There is some evidence that she was a member of the Groton Pequots, a remnant of the once powerful Pequot Tribe that was decimated by the war with the Puritans in 1636-37. (The Pequots and Mohegans were once a unified people until the Mohegan chief Uncas and a band of followers split off after a dispute with Sassacus, who became sachem of the Pequots.) One genealogy gives Sarah's birthdate as 1694, her maiden name as Wauby Sampson, her father as Sabientouset II (known as General Samson) and her mother as Hannah Wequot Uncas, of the line of the Mohegan's first sachem. Sarah married Joshua Occom (or Tomockham), a Mohegan, and they may have had up to five children: Joshua Jr., Samson, Jonathan, Lucy, and Sarah. In Samson's "Short Narrative" of his life, he notes that his parents "led a wandering Life up and down in the Wilderness" around Uncas Hill. Sarah was an early convert to Christianity during the revivals that swept the area, and Occom recounts that when he told her he wanted education in order to serve his Tribe, she went to Wheelock in nearby Lebanon, CT, because she heard "he had a Number of English youth under his Tuition," to request he take in her son. By 1743, Sarah was a widow, and Samson continued to visit and stay at his mother's house in Mohegan through the 1760s, though one source gives her death as 1782.

Horton, Azariah

Azariah Horton was an Anglo-American missionary who conducted a 10-year mission (1741-1751) to the Montauketts and Shinnecocks of Long Island before being replaced by Samson Occom in 1750. After graduating from Yale in 1735 and briefly preaching in Turkey, NJ, Horton was ordained and commissioned by the New York (later New Jersey) Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge (SSPCK) to serve as a missionary on Long Island. His territory was extensive: in addition to the Montauketts and the Shinnecocks, Horton ministered to Indian tribes on the Wyoming and Delaware rivers where the Brainerd brothers were later quite successful. Horton kept a diary during the first three years of his mission (1741-1744) in which he records his extensive travels between sites. By the late 1740s, however, he was residing solely at Shinnecock and spending almost all of his time there. Perhaps his health had decayed and he was unable to travel, or perhaps he had simply given up on his mission (the sources are unclear). Whatever the cause, his neglect left the Montauketts ripe for Samson Occom’s missionary efforts. Horton encouraged Occom’s ministry, and the two stayed in contact (Occom visited him at least once, in 1760). However, when Horton retired, the SSPCK retired his mission with him. They believed that it was a fairly fruitless enterprise, which is likely at least part of the reason why they were disinclined to pay Occom for his efforts. After leaving Montauk, Horton became the pastor at Bottle Hill, NJ (sometimes described as South Hanover). He retired of his own volition in October 1776 and moved to live with his son in Chatham, NJ, where he died in 1777 after being exposed to smallpox while ministering to the dead and dying in George Washington’s army.

Buell, Samuel

Buell was a popular Presbyterian minister during the second half of the 18th century in Long Island, as well as a close friend of Samson Occom. He was ordained in November 1743, and was a popular itinerant minister before settling at Easthampton. He preached at Occom's ordination, published the sermon in 1761 to raise funds for Occom (he also wrote the letter addressed to Bostwick prefacing his publication), and stayed in close contact with Occom even after Occom's public break from Wheelock. Occom's diary is full of references to visiting Buell and to their close friendship. During the Revolution, Buell was the only minister on Long Island for 40 miles, and was very active in assisting the American cause. He also founded Clinton Academy on Long Island in 1785, which was the first private school chartered by the New York Board of Regents. This academy was also remarkable in that it admitted women. Multiple historical sources have misconstrued Samuel Buell as Sol or Solomon Buell, likely because Buell sometimes signed his name Sa.l, a creative abbreviation of Samuel. However, there was no Reverend Solomon Buell in Easthampton, or, it seems, Long Island, in the second half of the 18th century: Samuel had no brothers, and were there to be two Reverend S. Buell's within 10 miles of one another during the same period, related or not, doubtlessly someone would have commented on it. In addition, the handwriting in letters ascribed to "Sol" and those assigned to Samuel is identical. Lastly, the only source besides collection manuscript 765530.3 describing a "Solomon Buell" is an anthology of letters from the Revolution, which contain letters from a Rev. Sol. Buell, or S. Buell, about aiding the American cause. These letters correspond well with descriptions of Samuel's life in an 1809 biography of his life, and, as he was the only Reverend but one for 40 miles during the Revolution, it is likely that these letters belong to him.

Watts, John
Occom leaves his studies
In 1747, after four years of schooling with Wheelock, Occom begins to prepare for entrance to Yale by studying Latin, Greek and Hebrew with Benjamin Pomeroy at Hebron, Connecticut. In the summer of 1749, he is officially released from his studies because of severe eyestrain.
Occom’s Mission to the Montauketts
After being released from his studies in the summer of 1749 because of acute eyestrain, Occom goes on a fishing expedition to Montauk, Long Island and decides to establish a school there and become a missionary to the Montaukett Indians. He serves in that role for 12 years.
Occom’s Marriage
In the fall of 1751, Occom marries Mary Fowler, daughter of a prominent Montaukett family on Long Island, where Occom has established a school and mission.
Occom’s Ordination
In November 1756, the Boston Board of Commissioners of the London Society for Propagating the Gospel recommends Occom for ordination as a Congregational minister. When he is recruited in 1758 by the Presbyterian minister Samuel Davies of Virginia for a mission to the Cherokees, Occom needs to be ordained quickly, and the task is referred to the Suffolk Presbytery on Long Island, where he is living. Occom is examined and ordained a Presbyterian minister on August 29 and 30, 1759.
Fundraising Tour of Great Britain
After many months of planning and shifting personnel, Occom, accompanied by the minister Nathaniel Whitaker, sets sail in December 1765 for a two-and-a-half year tour of England and Scotland in order to solicit contributions to Wheelock’s Indian Charity School and missionary efforts. Introduced to aristocrats and prominent clergy by the minister George Whitefield, Occom preaches many sermons, travels widely, and collects a large sum of money.
Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers0036.ocp M r Mr. Wheelock mentioned Wheelock, Eleazar
pers0395.ocp my Poor Mother mentioned Occom, Sarah
pers0395.ocp my Mother mentioned Occom, Sarah
pers0395.ocp Mother mentioned Occom, Sarah
pers0036.ocp M r Mr. Wheel ock mentioned Wheelock, Eleazar
pers0262.ocp M r Mr. Horton mentioned Horton, Azariah
pers0006.ocp M r Mr. Buell mentioned Buell, Samuel
pers0036.ocp M r Mr. Wheelock mentioned Wheelock, Eleazar
pers0683.ocp D r Dr. Watts mentioned Watts, John
pers0262.ocp M r Mr. Horton mentioned Horton, Azariah
pers0006.ocp M r Mr. Buell mentioned Buell, Samuel

Places identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
place0068.ocp England England
place0203.ocp Scotland Scotland
place0003.ocp America America
place0143.ocp Mohe gan Mohegan
place0164.ocp New London New London
place0048.ocp Connecti cut Connecticut
place0158.ocp New England New England
place0164.ocp N New London New London
place0122.ocp Lebanon Lebanon
place0070.ocp Europe Europe
place0168.ocp Nahantuck Niantic Niantic
place0150.ocp Narogan ſet Narragan sett Narragansett
place0144.ocp Montauk Montauk
place0129.ocp Long Island Long Island
place0129.ocp the Iſland Island Long Island
place0423.ocp Sheene‐ cock Shinne cock Shinnecock
place0423.ocp Shenecock Shinnecock Shinnecock
place0168.ocp Na‐ hantuck Ni antic Niantic
place0158.ocp N. New England New England
place0062.ocp Eaſthamp ton East Hamp ton East Hampton
place0164.ocp N. New London New London

Organizations identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
org0095.ocp the Honorable Com‐miſsionersCommissioners at BoſtonBoston The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America
org0095.ocp the Honorable Society in London for Propagating yethe goſpelgospel among the Indians in New England and parts adjacent The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America
org0069.ocp the Scotch Society The New York/New Jersey Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge
org0157.ocp SheenecockShinnecock Indians Shinnecock Tribe
org0157.ocp ShenecockShinnecock Shinnecock Tribe
org0095.ocp CommiſsionersCommissioners of BoſtonBoston The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America
org0095.ocp the gentlemen of Bos‐ ton The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America

This document does not contain any tagged dates.

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modernization againſt against
modernization Hiſtory history
modernization publiſh publish
modernization whilſt whilst
modernization Juſtice Justice
modernization th[gap: worn_edge][guess (h-dawnd): ]e those
modernization deſire desire
variation Some
variation till 'til
variation receivd received
modernization Chriſtian Christian
modernization Heatheniſm Heathenism
variation Calld called
variation Livd lived
modernization Fiſhing Fishing
modernization Engliſh English
modernization Heatheniſh Heathenish
modernization Cuſtoms Customs
modernization theſe these
modernization Seaſon Season
modernization Miniſter Minister
modernization uſed used
modernization uſe use
variation wou[above] dd would
variation any
variation where ever wherever
variation Coud could
variation uſd used
variation Some times sometimes
variation Learnt learned
modernization amongſt amongst
modernization Profeſsion Profession
modernization Chriſtianity Christianity
modernization the[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): y]y these
variation Coverd covered
variation Matts mats
variation unaquainted unacquainted
variation Tonug tongue
modernization underſtood understood
modernization Mr Mr.
modernization Miniſters Ministers
variation Some Time sometime
modernization viſit visit
modernization alſo also
variation freequen[above] tt
modernization pleaſed pleased
modernization Bleſs Bless
variation acompaniy accompany
modernization Converſi
modernization Amongſt Amongst
modernization Theſe These
modernization Conſtant
variation Continud continued
modernization almoſt almost
modernization uneaſineſs uneasiness
variation Primmer primer
modernization Aſsiſtance Assistance
modernization truſt trust
modernization Diſcovery Discovery
modernization Diſtreſs Distress
variation removd removed
modernization Pleaſure Pleasure
modernization Juſt Just
modernization Teſtament Testament
modernization Deſire Desire
modernization Compaſsion Compassion
variation Brethern brethren
modernization Fleſh Flesh
modernization wiſh wish
modernization Inſtructing Instructing
modernization Inſtruct Instruct
variation freequent‐
modernization 19th 19th
modernization Deſired Desired
modernization poſsible possible
variation Shoud should
modernization kindneſs kindness
variation in Stead instead
variation a‐
modernization Circumſtances Circumstances
variation Cloaths clothes
modernization Caſe Case
modernization Com‐
modernization Boſton Boston
modernization ye the
modernization goſpel gospel
variation alowed allowed
variation Tennor tenor
variation Empard impaired
variation Straind strained
variation perſue pursue
variation off of
modernization Loſt Lost
variation obligd obliged
variation endeavourd endeavoured
variation Nahantuck Niantic
variation School Maſter schoolmaster
modernization Narogan
variation Indeferent indifferent
modernization deſirou[above] ss desirous
modernization Conſented Consented
modernization Iſland Island
modernization laſt last
variation Pleaſd pleased
modernization Miſ
variation Sheene‐
modernization Worſhip worship
modernization Wedneſday Wednesday
variation perticular particular
variation Paſ
variation Tonuge tongue
modernization viſited visited
variation expird expired
variation Deſird desired
variation Continud continue
variation Complyd complied
variation fulfild fulfilled
variation maried married
modernization Circumſtances circumstances
modernization Deſires desires
variation Continuence continuance
modernization Repreſented represented
modernization uſual usual
variation Deſide decide
variation viſiters visitors
modernization Cuſtom custom
variation fetchd fetched
modernization Beſides besides
variation Domeſtick domestic
modernization Pleaſed pleased
variation Increac[above] ee increas[above] ee
modernization faſt fast
variation Maried married
variation Sheenecock Shinnecock
variation licencd licenced
variation viſitd visited
variation Shenecock Shinnecock
variation Sun Set sunset
variation Na‐
variation Prayd prayed
variation generaly generally
modernization Uſu‐
modernization Seaſon season
variation after Noon afternoon
variation coud could
variation when ever whenever
variation Conclud‐
variation every one everyone
variation Leaſurely leisurely
modernization Catechiſed Catechised
variation Aſembly Assembly
modernization C[illegible]atechiſm C[illegible]atechism
modernization Queſtions questions
variation Tonugue tongue
modernization moſt most
modernization Diſtingu[above] iſhiſh Distinguish
modernization &c. etc.
variation than then
modernization muſt must
modernization Pleaſure pleasure
variation Diſcouſd discussed
modernization Aſsemble assemble
modernization Dr Dr.
modernization diſting[above] lyly distinctly
modernization firſt first
variation Sutable suitable
modernization Senſe Sense
modernization Diſcourſe Discourse
variation applyd applied
variation after-Noon afternoon
modernization obſerved observed
variation infuſd infused
variation Inthuſiaſtical enthusiastical
modernization Diſmiſsion Dismission
variation diſmiſt dismissed
modernization Enthu‐
modernization Diſpoſiſti
variation oppoſd opposed
variation paſages passages
variation pleaſd pleased
modernization Miniſ‐
variation Livineng living
variation Hutt hut
modernization Diſtance Distance
modernization reaſon reason
variation anather another
modernization Coſt Cost
modernization Horſe Horse
modernization Duſt Dust
variation Horſe Back horseback
modernization In‐
variation opper‐
variation whoeing hoeing
variation Sun Riſe sunrise
variation Diſmiſt dismissed
modernization raiſe raise
variation alowd allowed
modernization fiſh fish
variation Gunn gun
variation livd lived
variation gunn gun
variation Shott shot
variation Eaſthamp[above] tonton East Hamp[above] tonton
variation Stackd stacked
variation workd worked
variation Piggans piggins
modernization &c etc.
modernization beſides besides
modernization adverſe adverse
variation Quick Sands quicksands
variation Suppoſd supposed
variation Stold stole
variation Dyed died
modernization Diſ
modernization Preſently Presently
variation Loſes losses
modernization Repreſented Represented
modernization Commiſsioners Commissioners
variation Interceeded interceded
modernization Superſeded Superseded
modernization repreſent represent
modernization Laſt Last
variation blaimed blamed
variation Changd changed
variation Circumſtan[above] eses circumstances
modernization Caſe case
variation Convincd convinced
variation provd proved
modernization Miſsionary Missionary
variation Miſsionarys missionaries
modernization Miſſion Mission
variation School maſter schoolmaster
modernization Miniſter minister
modernization Reaſon Reason
variation whipt whipped
variation allmoſt almost
variation Complaind complained
modernization maſter master
variation anſwere answer
modernization ſelf self
modernization becauſe because
modernization Miſsionaries Missionaries
variation aſure assure
variation endearvourd endearvoured

Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
Tho' Though
& and
maintain'd maintained
follow'd followed
tho' though
N New
Child,r children
uſ'd used
Ld Lord
Impreſ[above] tt Impressed
enabl'd enabled
uſd used
repreſted represented
Commiſsion'd Commissioned
pr per
An annum
Continu'd continued
Novr November
'em them
p preach
Prea[above] hh preach
thro' through
T times
Propoſ'd proposed
Lr letter
Prayr prayer
N. New
Diſcourag'd discouraged
fraim[above] dd framed
oblig'd obliged
Plow'd plowed
Bou[above] tt bought
Diſpleaſ'd Displeased
gentlen gentlemen
Conſtrain'd constrained
mention'd mentioned
aſk'd asked

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