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Joseph Johnson, letter, to Eleazar Wheelock, 1768 February 10

ms-number: 768160

[note (type: abstract): Johnson writes to Wheelock about his life among the Oneidas and the progress of his school. He notes that Kirkland is very ill.][note (type: handwriting): Johnson's hand is small yet clear and legible.][note (type: paper): Large single sheet is in fair condition, with moderate-to-heavy staining, creasing and wear.][note (type: ink): Brown-black.][note (type: noteworthy): An unknown, likely 19th-century, hand has added the note “Ind. mis.” to the bottom of one recto; this note has not been transcribed.]
[Opener]
[Revd | Rev.]Revd Rev. [& | and]&and much [Hond | Honoured ]Hond Honoured [Doct.r | Dr.]Doct.rDr.
I would once more attempt to write a few lines to you my kind
and [hond | honoured]hondhonoured Benefactor as it is not only your Order, but my [Indiſpenſable | indispensable]Indiſpenſableindispensable
Duty to write you at every opportunity this being the third attempt, that
I have made Since I left your [houſe | house]houſehouse ([firſt | first]firſtfirst by David[pers0155.ocp], next William[pers0763.ocp],
David [pers0155.ocp] [paſsed | passed]paſsedpassed by, William[pers0763.ocp] came back) but have had the [Miſfortune | misfortune]Miſfortunemisfortune
of Seeing them [booth | both]boothboth, yet this once more will I [trie | try]trietry [per adventure | peradventure]per adventureperadventure it
may reach you; in which I Shall Endeavour to acquaint you of the State
of my School, and of the Indians; and Little of the manner in which
I live at [preſent | present]preſentpresent. Sir I have had By the [goodneſs | goodness]goodneſsgoodness of God my health
as [Uſual | usual]Uſualusual; and would hope that you have had your much Valuble
health allowed you. Sir, I have lived very well the fore part of the
Winter, but the Latter begins to come on [heard | hard]heardhard. Sometimes Glutted
to the full at other times half [Stearved | starved]Stearvedstarved never Steady, at [priſent | present]priſentpresent
they now begin to cook Some good dried Guts of [Dear | deer]Deardeer and what is
in it. (Dung if I may So call it.) to [Seaſon | season]Seaſonseason the corn; [likewiſe | likewise]likewiſelikewise Some
rotten [fiſh | fish]fiſhfish which they have [keept | kept]keeptkept Since [laſt | last]laſtlast fall to [Seaſon | season]Seaſonseason their
Samps, rottener the better they Say as it will [Seaſon | season]Seaſonseason more broth.
corn they have plenty yet, but nothing to [ſeaſon | season]ſeaſonseason it. Little calf
Died for hunger was Soon [quarterd | quartered ]quarterd quartered [& | and ]& and [boild | boiled]boildboiled and Eat the other day
in this [houſe | house]houſehouse, [alſo | also]alſoalso Some hens dying of Some [Diſtemper | distemper]Diſtemperdistemper was
Served [prety | pretty]pretypretty much the Same trick but not quite So quick.
I have Lived [Interely | entirely]Interelyentirely upon the [affare | affair]affareaffair of the Indians this Winter
Such times Excepted as when I was at [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Kirtland[pers0315.ocp]s—
The Indians are very much Engaged at [preſent | present]preſentpresent and have given
me 14 children, this is Since I wrote you [laſt | last]laſtlast and have [Shewn | shown]Shewnshown
their [Reſpects | respects]Reſpectsrespects to the [Deſign | design]Deſigndesign as I [Suppoſe | suppose ]Suppoſe suppose [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Kirtland[pers0315.ocp] will
Acquaint you to the full. [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Kirtland[pers0315.ocp] had [propoſed | proposed]propoſedproposed I Should
come down the Next week but the headmen [Requeſted | requested]Requeſtedrequested that
I Should Stay with them longer to which I [agredd | agreed]agreddagreed with the [chearfull | cheerful]chearfullcheerful
heart to See them So much Engaged.
Kind Sir, I would [Enform | inform]Enforminform you that [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Kirtland[pers0315.ocp] is
very Sick I fear unto Death this being the [10th | 10th]10th10th Day Since
he has been Sick he has been [moſt | most]moſtmost of the time confined to his bed
and is [intirely | entirely ]intirely entirely [Indiſpoſed | indisposed]Indiſpoſedindisposed for any manner of [buſineſs | business]buſineſsbusiness whatever.
I would [alſo | also ]alſo also [Enform | inform]Enforminform you that I keep Singing School every
Evening very full meetings. two of my Scholars are married
­men, one is Old Enough for my father. they all Learn very
[faſt | fast ]faſt fast [booth | both]boothboth Singing [& | and]&and Reading. I dont know Sir, when
I Shall come home the great men give me leave to go in the
Spring. the Small-pox is very Brief in Albany[place0001.ocp] and
Schenectady[place0202.ocp], [vaſt | vast]vaſtvast numbers have [dyed | died]dyeddied out of [booth | both]boothboth places.
[alſo | also]alſoalso; [Beaſts | beasts]Beaſtsbeasts, they have a [Diſtemper | distemper]Diſtemperdistemper and die [dayly | daily ]dayly daily [booth | both ]booth both [horſes | horses]horſeshorses
and cows, the [diſtemper | distemper]diſtemperdistemper is [almoſt | almost]almoſtalmost got up here. —
The Indian [horſes | horses]horſeshorses fare very [heard | hard]heardhard this Winter, I have Seen where they
have gnawed little Elm trees to Eat the [beark | bark ]beark bark [therof | thereof]therofthereof, the Indians have
given Mr Kirtland[pers0315.ocp] Some corn for his creatures from [booth | both]boothboth places.
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Kirtland[pers0315.ocp] preached twice here before his [Sickneſs | sickness]Sickneſssickness came on, and
[propoſed | proposed]propoſedproposed to come down again but the Self Same week he was —
taken Sick. Thomas[pers0643.ocp] [carrys | carries]carryscarries on [amongſt | amongst]amongſtamongst us now Sabbath Days.
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Dodge [pers0169.ocp] [Enforms | informs]Enformsinforms me that he [open'ed | opened]open'edopened a [ſchool | school]ſchoolschool about one week he Says
he [keept | kept]keeptkept it before [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Kirtland[pers0315.ocp] was Sick and was [Oblig'ed | obliged]Oblig'edobliged to [brake | break]brakebreak up —
William[pers0763.ocp] [keept | kept]keeptkept it Some time [after wards | afterwards ]after wards afterwards [Laſt | last]Laſtlast Monday I went in to
See the School and Saw [vaſt | vast]vaſtvast number of children in it [almoſt | almost]almoſtalmost [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): 30]30
lacking very few, it Seemed as if with [pleaſure | pleasure]pleaſurepleasure I could wait on Such
Number. then I turned my mind and thoughts of my little number
I had at [Onoida | Oneida]OnoidaOneida[place0179.ocp]. yet I think I cant think to have them few as
they be. So long as they Seem to be Engaged.
I have nothing more to acquaint you of at [preſent | present]preſentpresent only I want to
hear from you my ever [hond | honoured]hondhonoured Benefactor [aſ | as]aſas I have not heard any
thing from you Since I came from your [houſe | house]houſehouse.
So [Revd | Rev.]RevdRev. Sir, I [deſire | desire]deſiredesire Still to be under your direction [& | and]&and advice at all
times, as I am not yet capable of [manageing | managing ]manageing managing [my ſelf | myself]my ſelfmyself So I would
not undertake any thing without your kind advice [& | and]&and approbation.
[Pleaſe | Please]PleaſePlease to Remember me Still in your prayers; that God would
keep me humble and fill my heart with Gratitude [booth | both]boothboth to Him
and to Man. that I may put my whole [truſt | trust]truſttrust in him [booth | both ]booth both fo[gap: tear][guess (h-dawnd): r]r
Time [& | and]&and Eternity, for in him alone can I be [ſafe | safe ]ſafe safe [amidſt | amidst]amidſtamidst ten [thouſa­
­nd | thousa
nd]
thouſa­
­nd
thousa
nd
Malicious [Dearts | darts]Deartsdarts of the [Divil | Devil]DivilDevil. So I would remain your
[faithfull | faithful]faithfullfaithful and Obedient pupil, and good for nothing not quite
Old Indian.
[Closer]
[Joſeph | Joseph ]Joſeph Joseph [Johnſon | Johnson]JohnſonJohnson.[pers0288.ocp]
[Onoida | Oneida]OnoidaOneida[place0179.ocp]. february [10.th | 10th]10.th10th 1768.[1768-02-10]
[Postscript]
PS. this Letter if I may So call it was
wrote in [haſt | haste]haſthaste I dont know as if you
can make out to read it if you can I
Should be Exceeding glad, not only in
[haſt | haste]haſthaste but under many [Diſadvantages | disadvantages]Diſadvantagesdisadvantages.

[Trailer]
From Joseph Johnson[pers0288.ocp]
[Feb.y | February]Feb.yFebruary 10. 1768[1768-02-10]
To— the [Revd | Rev.]Revd Rev. [Doctr | Dr.]DoctrDr. Wheelock[pers0036.ocp].
in
[N | New]NNew England.[place0158.ocp]

[bottom] a Grand [miſtake | mistake]miſtakemistake or [reather | rather]reatherrather great [miſtake | mistake]miſtakemistake, a Letter
turned [upſide | upside]upſideupside down. as I was reagding it over I took notice
of it not before.—
a Grand [miſtake | mistake]miſtakemistake or [reather | rather]reatherrather great [miſtake | mistake]miſtakemistake, a Letter
turned [upſide | upside]upſideupside down. as I was reagding it over I took notice
of it not before.—
New England
Oneida

Oneida is a city in Madison County located at the geographical center of New York state. Before European settlement of the area, the Oneida Tribe, one of the Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy, inhabited a large territory adjacent to nearby Oneida Lake. Around 1533, they built their first village on the south shore of the lake, at or near the mouth of Oneida Creek. At the end of the 17th century, this area began suffering raids by parties from the French colony of Quebec, in a battle to control the fur trade. In 1696, Oneida village was burned by the French. As a result, the Oneidas moved their chief village east of the original site, called Old Oneida, to a new site called Kanawalohale, also known as Oneida Castle, which was fortified by tall palisades and a moat. This is the site of the present-day village of Oneida Castle, a small hamlet west of the city of Oneida in the northwest corner of the town of Vernon. When used in Occom Circle documents, the place name "Oneida" usually refers to the territory inhabited by the Tribe east of Oneida Lake, but can also refer specifically to Oneida Castle. Although the Oneidas sided with the patriots during the Revolutionary War, much of their territory was sold or appropriated by the state of New York. In 1790, the first European settlers moved into the area of Old Oneida village, and the district began to expand. In the 1830s, the state built a feeder from Oneida Creek through the present city site to provide water for the new canal system, which enabled canal boats to ship freight into the town. Eventually, the railroad came through the town and helped with its expansion. This led to the incorporation of the Village of Oneida in 1848 and the establishment of the Town of Oneida in 1896. The town was chartered as the City of Oneida in 1901, and with two more railroad lines transecting the area, it became a thriving manufacturing center for the first half of the 20th century.

Schenectady

Schenectady is a city located in eastern New York State. The area that would become Schenectady was originally controlled by the Mohawk Indians, the easternmost and most powerful of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy. The land making up Schenectady was one stop on the much larger Mohawk Trail, which extended from Schenectady to what would become Albany, New York. The name of Schenectady was a derivation of the Mohawk word, Schau-naugh-ta-da, which meant the place beyond the open pines. The first Europeans to arrive at Schenectady were the Dutch who established a settlement there in 1661. Schenectady would come under British control as Dutch power in the Americas waned and the British established the colony of New York. In 1690 during King William’s War, Schenectady became the target of French and Indian soldiers who attacked the town and killed 60 of its residents, an event that became known as the Schenectady Massacre. There was a smallpox outbreak in Schenectady in 1767, as noted in this collection’s documents. In 1780, Oneidas found refuge from Loyalist and Mohawk attacks in Schenectady, and the town served as a stop on the way to Brothertown, the pan-Indian settlement founded by Occom and other graduates of Wheelock’s school. Schenectady was designated a borough in 1765 and eventually incorporated as a city 1798.

Albany

Albany is a city located in eastern New York. When Netherlander Henry Hudson arrived in what would become Albany in 1609, the Mohican Indians lived in several villages in the area. The Mohicans gave Hudson’s crew furs, and the Dutch East India Company sent representatives to trade with the Native peoples. The Dutch established the village of Beverwyck within the territory of the New Netherlands. Beverwyck hosted a diverse population of Germans, French, Swedes, English, Irish, Scots, Dutch, and Africans. After the fall of New Netherlands to Britain in 1664, Beverwyck was renamed Albany in honor of the colony’s proprietor James, Duke of York and Albany. In 1686, Albany was granted a charter that incorporated the city and provided it the sole right to negotiate trade with Native Americans. During the French and Indian War, Albany was designated as the British military headquarters in the Americas. During the Revolutionary War, most Albany residents supported the revolution because of their opposition to British trade restrictions.

Johnson, Joseph

Joseph Johnson was a Mohegan who studied at Moor’s Indian Charity School and became one of the most important organizers of the Brothertown Movement (a composite tribe composed of Christian members of seven Southern New England Algonquian settlements). He was a prolific writer and his papers are relatively well-preserved. Johnson’s writing is especially noteworthy for his skillful use of Biblical allusion and his awareness of the contradiction that he, as an educated Native American, presented to white colonists. Johnson arrived at Moor’s in 1758, when he was seven years old, and studied there until 1766, when he became David Fowler’s usher at Kanawalohale. He continued teaching in Oneida territory until the end of 1768, when Samuel Kirkland sent him home in disgrace for drunkeness and bad behavior. After a stint teaching at Providence, Rhode Island, and working on a whaling ship, Johnson returned to Mohegan in 1771 and became a zealous Christian. He opened a school at Farmington, CT, in 1772, for which he seems to have received some minimal support from the New England Company. From his base at Farmington, he began organizing Southern New England Algonquians for the Brothertown project. The goal was to purchase land from the Oneidas, the most Christianized of the Six Nations, and form a Christian Indian town incorporating Algonquian and Anglo-American elements. Johnson spent the rest of his short life garnering necessary support and legal clearance for the Brothertown project. Johnson died sometime between June 10, 1776 and May 1777, at 25 or 26 years old, six or seven years before Brothertown was definitively established in 1783. He was married to Tabitha Occom, one of Samson Occom’s daughters. She lived at Mohegan with their children even after Brothertown’s founding, and none of their children settled at Brothertown permanently. Like most of Wheelock’s successful Native American students, Johnson found that he could not satisfy his teacher's contradictory standards for Native Americans. Although Johnson's 1768 dismissal created a hiatus in their relationship, Johnson reopened contact with Wheelock after his re-conversion to a degree that other former students, such as Samson Occom, David Fowler, and Hezekiah Calvin, never did.

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

William

William Oneida was the son of the Oneida preacher Deacon Thomas. He attended Moor’s briefly between November 1767 (when he left Kanawalohale) and November 1768, when he accompanied his sister Hannah Hail back to Kanawalohale. William Oneida does not seem to have returned after his visit home. In Wheelock’s estimation, he learned no English while at Moor’s, and the following January his father withdrew the remaining Oneida children from the school.

Thomas

Thomas was an essential figure in Oneida Christianity and an important ally for Samuel Kirkland. While it is unclear when he converted to Christianity, by the 1750s he was preaching and leading services at Kanawalohale. By all accounts, he was a compelling speaker and talented at rendering Christian theology in terms compatible with Oneida cosmology. Thomas was instrumental in supporting Kirkland's mission: he often protected the Anglo-American missionary and helped him translate his ideas more effectively. Thomas also played an important role in the history of Moor's. His daughter, Hannah, was a student there, and in July 1768 he visited her. He returned the following January to pull her out of school following her mother's death, and he took the remaining five Oneida children with him. Later statements by Oneida chiefs (reported to Kirkland and David Avery) made clear that a large part of the Oneidas' reason for withdrawing their children was Wheelock's harsh discipline. Thomas was also present for Ralph Wheelock's 1768 outburst at Onaquaga, and was Avery's 1772 source for what had taken place there. Despite his disagreements with Wheelock, Thomas continued to support Kirkland's mission. Thomas was killed by British troops in 1779 while on a diplomatic visit to the Mohawks at Kahnawake (a site across the St. Lawrence River from Montreal). His murder gave the Oneidas yet another reason to side with the colonists during the Revolution.

Dodge, Phineas

Phineas Dodge was an Anglo-American charity scholar at Moor’s Indian Charity School who served Samuel Kirkland as a schoolmaster at Kanawalohale twice, in 1767/8 and again in 1771. Phineas was the youngest son of Amos Dodge, a carpenter in Windham, CT. As was the case for other charity scholars, Moor’s afforded Dodge with an education he likely could not have accessed otherwise. While many of Dodge’s classmates attended Yale, Dodge himself did not, though it is unclear why. Dodge was sent to Oneida in 1767 to replace David Fowler as schoolmaster at Kanawalohale, but returned that spring as both he and Samuel Kirkland, the missionary in charge, were ill. He did not work for Wheelock again. However, he stayed in close contact with Kirkland, and served as his schoolmaster in 1771. Again, his health cut his mission short, and he retired from missionary service to keep school in Windham, CT, until his death in 1773. Dodge seems to have been exceptionally religious: his letters to Kirkland are predominantly abstract and religious in nature, with local news thrown in and little personal information.

Kirkland, Samuel

Samuel Kirkland (b. Kirtland) was Eleazar Wheelock’s most famous Anglo American student. He conducted a 40-year mission to the Oneidas and founded Hamilton College (established in 1793 as Hamilton Oneida Academy). Kirkland won acclaim as a missionary at a young age by conducting an adventurous and risky mission to the Senecas, the westernmost of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Six Nations. After his year and a half among them, which was well publicized by Wheelock, he was ordained and sent as a missionary to the Oneidas under the auspices of the Connecticut Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. He spent most of the rest of his life serving the Oneidas as a minister. Kirkland’s sincere devotion to serving as a missionary was excellent publicity for Wheelock’s program, but it also brought the two men into conflict. Wheelock became jealous of Kirkland when the school’s British benefactors began urging Wheelock to make Kirkland his heir, and Kirkland, meanwhile, was upset that Wheelock had failed to provide him with sufficient supplies on his mission — a complaint that he was unafraid to publicize (and that almost all of Wheelock’s other students shared). The breaking point came in 1770, when Kirkland split from Wheelock’s Connecticut Board and affiliated with the New England Company, a missionary society that had abruptly turned against Wheelock in 1765. Wheelock and Kirkland briefly made up in 1771, but their relationship quickly dissolved into further acrimony. Although Kirkland spent most of his life as a missionary to the Six Nations, he generally held disparaging views of Native Americans. He did not approve of Wheelock’s plan to educate Indians as missionaries, and was haughty towards the Moor’s alumni that worked with him (notably David Fowler, Joseph Johnson, and Joseph Woolley). Prior to the Revolution, Kirkland had been stringent in his refusals to take Oneida land, even when offered to him. The Revolution seems to have shifted his loyalties from the Oneidas to local Anglo Americans. Kirkland served as a chaplain in the American army and was instrumental in convincing the Oneidas to remain neutral (or, more accurately, to side with the Americans). At one point he was the chaplain with General Sullivan’s army, the force sent to ransack Seneca and Cayuga territory in 1779. It is unclear what emotions this aroused in Kirkland, who had served the Senecas less than 15 years earlier, yet after the war, Kirkland freely engaged in Oneida dispossession. Along with James Dean, another Wheelock alumnus with close ties to the Oneidas, Kirkland played a pivotal role in urging the Oneidas to sell land illegally to the state of New York. The land deals that resulted gave Kirkland the property, financial capital, and connections to establish Hamilton Oneida Academy. The last decades of Kirkland’s life were difficult. He found himself in a three-way battle with Samson Occom and John Sergeant Jr., who were also ministers in Oneida territory, for the hearts and minds of their congregations; he was fired as a missionary in 1797, although he continued to serve sans salary; one of his son’s business enterprises failed, leaving Kirkland nearly destitute; and two of his three sons died unexpectedly. Hamilton Oneida Academy, like Moor’s Indian Charity School, largely failed at its goal of educating Indians, and in 1812, four years after Kirkland’s death, it was re-purposed as Hamilton College, a largely Anglo-American institution. At some point in the mid-to-late 18th century, Kirkland changed his name from Kirtland, although the reasons for this are uncertain.

Fowler, David

David Fowler was Jacob Fowler's older brother, Samson Occom's brother-in-law, and an important leader of the Brothertown Tribe. He came to Moor's in 1759, at age 24, and studied there until 1765. While at school, he accompanied Occom on a mission to the Six Nations in 1761. He was licensed as a school master in the 1765 mass graduation, and immediately went to the Six Nations to keep school, first at Oneida and then at Kanawalohale. Fowler saw himself as very close to Wheelock, but their relationship fragmented over the course of Fowler's mission, primarily because Wheelock wrote back to Kirkland, with whom Fowler clashed, but not to Fowler, and because Wheelock refused to reimburse Fowler for some expenses on his mission (767667.4 provides the details most clearly). Fowler went on to teach school at Montauk, and played a major role in negotiations with the Oneidas for the lands that became Brothertown. He was among the first wave of immigrants to that town, and held several important posts there until his death in 1807.

Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers0155.ocp David mentioned Fowler, David
pers0763.ocp William mentioned William
pers0155.ocp David mentioned Fowler, David
pers0315.ocp M r Mr. Kirtland mentioned Kirkland, Samuel
pers0315.ocp M r Kirtland mentioned Kirkland, Samuel
pers0643.ocp Thomas mentioned Thomas
pers0169.ocp M r Mr. Dodge mentioned Dodge, Phineas
pers0288.ocp Joſeph Joseph Johnſon Johnson . writer Johnson, Joseph
pers0288.ocp Joseph Johnson writer Johnson, Joseph
pers0036.ocp Doct r Dr. Wheelock recipient Wheelock, Eleazar

Places identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
place0001.ocp Albany Albany
place0202.ocp Schenectady Schenectady
place0179.ocp Onoida Oneida Oneida
place0158.ocp N New England. New England

This document does not contain any tagged organizations.

Dates identified in this document:

Standard Form Text
1768-02-10 february 10.th10th 1768.
1768-02-10 Feb.yFebruary 10. 1768

Regularized text:

Type Original Regularized
modernization Revd Rev.
modernization Doct.r Dr.
modernization Indiſpenſable indispensable
modernization houſe house
modernization firſt first
modernization paſsed passed
modernization Miſfortune misfortune
variation booth both
variation trie try
variation per adventure peradventure
modernization preſent present
modernization goodneſs goodness
modernization Uſual usual
variation heard hard
variation Stearved starved
modernization priſent present
variation Dear deer
modernization Seaſon season
modernization likewiſe likewise
modernization fiſh fish
variation keept kept
modernization laſt last
modernization ſeaſon season
variation quarterd quartered
variation boild boiled
modernization alſo also
modernization Diſtemper distemper
variation prety pretty
variation Interely entirely
variation affare affair
modernization Mr Mr.
variation Shewn shown
modernization Reſpects respects
modernization Deſign design
modernization Suppoſe suppose
modernization propoſed proposed
modernization Requeſted requested
variation agredd agreed
variation chearfull cheerful
variation Enform inform
modernization 10th 10th
modernization moſt most
variation intirely entirely
modernization Indiſpoſed indisposed
modernization buſineſs business
modernization alſo also
modernization faſt fast
modernization vaſt vast
variation dyed died
modernization Beaſts beasts
variation dayly daily
variation booth both
modernization horſes horses
modernization diſtemper distemper
modernization almoſt almost
variation beark bark
variation therof thereof
modernization Sickneſs sickness
variation carrys carries
modernization amongſt amongst
variation Enforms informs
variation open'ed opened
modernization ſchool school
variation Oblig'ed obliged
variation brake break
variation after wards afterwards
modernization Laſt last
modernization pleaſure pleasure
variation Onoida Oneida
modernization aſ as
modernization Revd Rev.
modernization deſire desire
variation manageing managing
modernization my ſelf myself
modernization Pleaſe Please
modernization truſt trust
modernization ſafe safe
modernization amidſt amidst
modernization thouſa­
­nd
thousa
nd
variation Divil Devil
variation faithfull faithful
modernization Joſeph Joseph
modernization Johnſon Johnson
modernization 10.th 10th
modernization haſt haste
modernization Diſadvantages disadvantages
modernization Revd Rev.
modernization Doctr Dr.
modernization miſtake mistake
variation reather rather
modernization upſide upside

Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
& and
Hond Honoured
hond honoured
& and
Feb.y February
N New

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Number of nested "hi" tags: (consider merging the @rend attributes, or using other tags) 0
Number of tags with invalid 'rend' attributes: 0 (out of 23)
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Mixed case attribute values in header (potential error): 0 (out of 108)
HomeJoseph Johnson, letter, to Eleazar Wheelock, 1768 February 10
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