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David Crosby, letter, to Eleazar Wheelock, 1767 November 4

ms-number: 767604.1

[note (type: abstract): Crosby writes to Wheelock about a conversation among gentlemen who suspected Wheelock of insincerity, and criticized his plan for converting Indians before “civilizing" them by means other than force.][note (type: handwriting): Formal, somewhat stylized handwriting is largely clear and legible.][note (type: paper): Large sheet folded in half to make four pages is in good condition, with light staining, creasing and wear.][note (type: ink): Black.][note (type: noteworthy): The date at the top of one recto appears to have been added in a different hand and ink.]
[Opener]
Reverend, [& | and]&and dear [ſir | Sir]ſirSir

The [unmeritted | unmerited]unmerittedunmerited [above] [friendſhip | friendship]friendſhipfriendship[friendſhip | friendship]friendſhipfriendship you have [ſhewn | shown]ſhewnshown to me, [& | and]&and the generous
regard you [ſeem | seem]ſeemseem to have for [Man-kind | mankind]Man-kindmankind in general; [eſpecia‐
ly | especial‐
ly]
eſpecia‐
ly
especial‐
ly
[ye | the]yethe poor Heathen of [ye | the]yethe Land, [diſcover'd | discovered]diſcover'ddiscovered in [yr | your]yryour [indefatuga‐
ble | indefatiga‐
ble]
indefatuga‐
ble
indefatiga‐
ble
[endevours | endeavours]endevoursendeavours after [thir | their]thirtheir [ſalvation | salvation]ſalvationsalvation, has, I [confeſs | confess]confeſsconfess, brought
me under [ſome | some]ſomesome obligations of love [& | and]&and [friendſhip | friendship]friendſhipfriendship to [yourſelf | yourself]yourſelfyourself,
And [I'm | I am]I'mI am [conſtrain'd | constrained]conſtrain'dconstrained to own, (that while you [ſeem | seem]ſeemseem [diſintruſted | disinterested]diſintruſteddisinterested
in [yr | your]yryour views, while [exerciſing | exercising]exerciſingexercising [yr | your]yryour kind offices to others) that
I feel [myſelf | myself]myſelfmyself, [ſtrongly | strongly]ſtronglystrongly [atteched | attached]attechedattached to [yr | your]yryour [Intruſt | interest]Intruſtinterest in all its Branch
es: [accomponied | accompanied]accomponiedaccompanied, with my [conſtent | constant]conſtentconstant Prayers. for [ye | the]yethe
[bleſsing | blessing]bleſsingblessing of Heaven on [yr | your]yryour [Perſon | person]Perſonperson, [& | and]&and [Famoly | family]Famolyfamily, and that
your [above] [endevours | endeavours]endevoursendeavours[endevours | endeavours]endevoursendeavours for [ye | the]yethe [convertion | conversion]convertionconversion of [ye | the]yethe Poor Heathen might meet
with [ſucceſs | success]ſucceſssuccess. I could willing, at this time give you
a [Naritive | narrative]Naritivenarrative of [ſome | some]ſomesome [converſation | conversation]converſationconversation which [Paſ'd | passed]Paſ'dpassed at a [gentelman' | gentleman's]gentelman'gentleman's
[Tabel | table]Tabeltable, the other Day, at Middletown[place0135.ocp], concerning [yr | your]yryour [Perſon | person]Perſonperson
and [Intruſt | interest]Intruſtinterest, as [alſo | also]alſoalso [ſome | some]ſomesome [acount | account]acountaccount, of [ye | the]yethe mortification, [& | and]&and
pain I [induer'd | endured]induer'dendured [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): an]an [illegible] [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): account this [Mallevelant | malevolent]Mallevelantmalevolent]account this [Mallevelant | malevolent]Mallevelantmalevolent at [ye | the]yethe [diſcove‐
ry | discove‐
ry]
diſcove‐
ry
discove‐
ry
of that [mallevelant | malevolent]mallevelantmalevolent [diſpoſition | disposition]diſpoſitiondisposition, [harber'd | harboured]harber'dharboured in [ye | the]yethe [Breſt | breast]Breſtbreast's of
[left] tootoo too many [gentelmen | gentlemen]gentelmengentlemen, pretenders to honour, [& | and]&and [Chriſtianity | Christianity]ChriſtianityChristianity.
Did I not [foreſee | foresee]foreſeeforesee how much my [officiousneſs | officiousness]officiousneſsofficiousness might be liable
to be [miſconſtru'd | misconstrued]miſconſtru'dmisconstrued into a [meenneſs | meanness]meenneſsmeanness, which rather becomes
a meddling Fool, than a hearty Friend. but [ye | the]yethe confidence
I place in [yr | your]yryour charitable [diſpoſition | disposition]diſpoſitiondisposition, [join'd | joined]join'djoined with the [Teſtemo
‐nies | testimo
nies]
Teſtemo
‐nies
testimo
nies
of [above] mymy [greatful | grateful]greatfulgrateful [friendſhip | friendship]friendſhipfriendship as [expreſ'd | expressed]expreſ'dexpressed above [ſhall | shall]ſhallshall [ſerve | serve]ſerveserve in
[ye | the]yethe room of any further [apoligy | apology]apoligyapology at this time.
I [Din'd | dined]Din'ddined the other Day with several [Gentelmen | gentlemen]Gentelmengentlemen [whoes | whose]whoeswhose
[converſation | conversation]converſationconversation ran for [ſome | some]ſomesome time on [indeferent | indifferent]indeferentindifferent things, and
finding my place quite at [ye | the]yethe lower end of [ye | the]yethe Table, I thought
my [wiſeſt | wisest]wiſeſtwisest part to learn my [Diſtence | distance]Diſtencedistance [& | and]&and to [uſe | use]uſeuse my Knife
[& | and]&and fork [hanſomly | handsomely]hanſomlyhandsomely, than to let my Tongue run, [Eſpecially | especially]Eſpeciallyespecially, as
[left] II heard nothing [utter'd | uttered]utter'duttered [worthey | worthy]wortheyworthy of my attention [untill | until]untilluntil [ye | the]yethe
[Reverand | Reverend]ReverandReverend [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Whelock | Wheelock]WhelockWheelock[pers0036.ocp]'s Name was brought on [ye | the]yethe Board
neither can I [perſwaid | persuade]perſwaidpersuade [myſelf | myself]myſelfmyself I [ſhould | should]ſhouldshould then have [ben | been]benbeen [ſo | so]ſoso
[ſaucy | saucy]ſaucysaucy, had you been [Preſent | present]Preſentpresent to have [ſpoake | spoken]ſpoakespoken for [yourſelf | yourself]yourſelfyourself.
While the [gentelman | gentleman]gentelmangentleman of [ye | the]yethe [Houſe | house]Houſehouse was only [Pleaſd | pleased]Pleaſdpleased to
to [obſerve | observe]obſerveobserve that [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Whelock | Wheelock]WhelockWheelock[pers0036.ocp] was a very [cuning | cunning]cuningcunning
Man, and one who took care to Look before he [Leep'd | leaped]Leep'dleaped
and that he did not [commenly | commonly]commenlycommonly act [with out | without]with outwithout [diſsigne | design]diſsignedesign
I dont know but I could have [bourn | borne]bournborne that well [anough | enough]anoughenough
but when he came to deride [yr | your]yryour Plan for [Chriſtianiſing | Christianizing]ChriſtianiſingChristianizing
[ye | the]yethe [Heathing | heathen]Heathingheathen, and [above] toto [Inſinnuat | insinuate]Inſinnuatinsinuateting as [tho | though]thothough [yr | your]yryour love for [ye | the]yethe [Heathing | heathen]Heathingheathen was
a pretence only, and [ſpran | spran]ſpransprandg from [ye | the]yethe [meen | mean]meenmean Motives of
[Avorice | avarice]Avoriceavarice, [& | and]&and a [deſire | desire]deſiredesire of worldly [welth | wealth]welthwealth [Priccipelly | principally]Priccipellyprincipally, I [muſt | must]muſtmust
[confeſs | confess]confeſsconfess I [loſt | lost]loſtlost all patience. 'Tiswas well [ye | the]yethe [ſeveral | several]ſeveralseveral [gentelmen | gentlemen]gentelmengentlemen
were [ſo | so]ſoso well [pleaſ'd | pleased]pleaſ'dpleased with [ye | the]yethe [countenances | countenance]countenancescountenance of each other
as that they took no notice of mine: [other ways | otherways]other waysotherways they would
have [diſcoverd | discovered]diſcoverddiscovered [ye | the]yethe emotion of my Heart by [ye | the]yethe Blood in my face
[Whiſe | while]Whiſewhile I was chiding my Heart for having offered to have [betray'd | betrayed]betray'dbetrayed
an [angrey perty | angry party]angrey pertyangry party— the [aforeſaid | aforesaid]aforeſaidaforesaid [gentelman | gentleman]gentelmangentleman was giving it
as his humble Opinion; that [ye | the]yethe only way to [Chriſtian‐
iſe | Christian‐
ize]
Chriſtian‐
iſe
Christian‐
ize
[ye | the]yethe Heathens was [firſt | first]firſtfirst to [ſiveliſe | civilize]ſiveliſecivilize them. The other [gentelman | gentleman]gentelmangentleman
[repli'd | replied]repli'dreplied, that he humbly [conciv'd | conceived]conciv'dconceived that Powder [& | and]&and Ball [ware | were]warewere
[ye | the]yethe [beſt | best]beſtbest [ingreediences | ingredients]ingreediencesingredients to affect either. Havindg [baniſhed | banished]baniſhedbanished as I
hoped, that [above] officiousofficious g [illegible] thing could anger, who is apt [ſometimes | sometimes]ſometimessometimes
to intrude [himſelf | himself]himſelfhimself, when his [componny | company]componnycompany would do more hurt
than good, and [ſomened | summoned]ſomenedsummoned [reaſon | reason]reaſonreason into her office, I boldly de‐
manded of them what they thought would have become of
us gentiles: if [ſo | so]ſoso be the Lord [Jeſus | Jesus]JeſusJesus [& | and]&and his [Apoſtels | Apostles]ApoſtelsApostles had [ſayd | said]ſaydsaid [ye | the]yethe
[ſame | same]ſamesame of us [& | and]&and [ſo | so]ſoso have [denigh'd | denied]denigh'ddenied us [ye | the]yethe [Meens | means]Meensmeans of [ſalvation | salvation]ſalvationsalvation.
Upon this bold [queſtion | question]queſtionquestion, the [compony | company]componycompany [ſem'd | seemed]ſem'dseemed to [ſtart | start]ſtartstart, and look
at each other, as much as to [ſay | say]ſaysay, who have we got here? but
[ye | the]yethe [gentelman | gentleman]gentelmangentleman who was [juſt | just]juſtjust now, [ſo | so]ſoso free with his Powder [& | and]&and Ball,
having recollected [himſelf | himself]himſelfhimself, as boldly demanded of me if I [ware | were]warewere a
Married Man? upon my [anſwer | answer]anſweranswer in [ye | the]yethe [afermative | affirmative]afermativeaffirmative, he demand
ed again; [thaf | that]thafthat if in [caſe | case]caſecase I [ware | were]warewere [ſingle | single]ſinglesingle, could I [conſent | consent]conſentconsent to Marry
an Indian [ſquaw | squaw]ſquawsquaw? I am [ſure | sure]ſuresure you will not [blaim | blame]blaimblame me, if I own
I took time to d[above] eeliberate what [anſwer | answer]anſweranswer to give. My [Antagoniſt | antagonist]Antagoniſtantagonist [perciving | perceiving]percivingperceiving
me, [firſt | first]firſtfirst to [paus | pause]pauspause, then about to reply; prevented me, with an [heir | air]heirair of
[inſult | insult]inſultinsult, Why ([ſaid | said]ſaidsaid he) [yr | your]yryour put to [yr | your]yryour Trumps, now, it [ſeems | seems]ſeemsseems?
Why, I thought by [ſhuch | such]ſhuchsuch a [queſtion | question]queſtionquestion, I [ſhou'd | should]ſhou'dshould [ſoon | soon]ſoonsoon f?[proove | prove]prooveprove [yr | your]yryour
Love to [ye | the]yethe Indians? but let me inform you (continued he)
that [ye | the]yethe only way to [ſiviliſe | civilize]ſiviliſecivilize [ye | the]yethe Indians, is [firſt | first]firſtfirst to Marry [& | and]&and in‐
ter-marry with them: [unleſs | unless]unleſsunless we have [recorſe | recourse]recorſerecourse to Powder [& | and]&and Ball
as I [juſt | just]juſtjust now hinted. Ah [rejin'd | rejoined]rejin'drejoined [ye | the]yethe other [gentelman | gentleman]gentelmangentleman. you per‐
fectly [acord | accord]acordaccord with my Judgment, 'twas ever my opinion they
[muſt | must]muſtmust in this way, [firſt | first]firſtfirst be [ſiviliſed | civilized]ſiviliſedcivilized, before [Chriſtianiſ'd | Christianized]Chriſtianiſ'dChristianized: but
as I am we [ſo | so]ſoso well acquainted with human [nater | nature]naternature, as to know
the [ireconſilable | irreconcilable]ireconſilableirreconcilable [avertion | aversion]avertionaversion, that white people [muſt | must]muſtmust ever have
to black, I think [I'm | I am]I'mI am warranted to judge of [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Whelock | Wheelock]WhelockWheelock[pers0036.ocp]'s [attemps | attempts]attempsattempts
as altogether [abſurd | absurd]abſurdabsurd [& | and]&and [fruitlis | fruitless]fruitlisfruitless. For continued he,— [ſo | so]ſoso long as [ye | the]yethe Indians
are [diſpiſed | despised]diſpiſeddespised by [ye | the]yethe [illegible][Engliſh | English]EngliſhEnglish we may never expect [ſucceſs | success]ſucceſssuccess in [Chriſ‐
tianiſing | Chris‐
tianizing]
Chriſ‐
tianiſing
Chris‐
tianizing
of them. I [reply'd | replied]reply'dreplied that what he [ſaid | said]ſaidsaid [laſt | last]laſtlast might
probably be true, but then I was at a [loſs | loss]loſsloss to [acount | account]acountaccount for [ye | the]yethe
[concluſion | conclusion]concluſionconclusion they [ſeem'd | seemed]ſeem'dseemed to draw from this [premiſe | premise]premiſepremise, viz. That [becauſe | because]becauſebecause
I could not Marry a [ſquaw | squaw]ſquawsquaw, I [muſt | must]muſtmust therefore of [above] [neceſaty | necessity]neceſatynecessity[neceſaty | necessity]neceſatynecessity [conſequence | consequence]conſequenceconsequence [deſpiſe | despise]deſpiſedespise
the Indians. They both warmly [reply'd | replied]reply'dreplied, that this [muſt | must]muſtmust be
[ye | the]yethe [neceſary | necessary]neceſarynecessary, [& | and]&and [unavidable | unavoidable]unavidableunavoidable [conſequyene | consequence]conſequyeneconsequence of not Marrying and
inter-marrying with them, and that for [thir | their]thirtheir own parts
they could never [reſpect | respect]reſpectrespect an Indian, [Chriſtian | Christian]ChriſtianChristian or no [Chriſtian | Christian]ChriſtianChristian [ſo | so]ſoso as
to put him on a level with white people on any account [eſpecially | especially]eſpeciallyespecially
to eat at [ye | the]yethe [ſame | same]ſamesame Table. no— not with [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Ocham | Occom]OchamOccom[pers0030.ocp] [himſelf | himself]himſelfhimself be
he ever [ſo | so]ſoso much a [Chriſtian | Christian]ChriſtianChristian or ever [ſo | so]ſoso Learned. I was not [ſuffed | suffered]ſuffedsuffered
to make a reply neither can I [ſay | say]ſaysay I much [deſir'd | desired]deſir'ddesired it, but was more
glad to make my Exit [ſo | so]ſoso [ſoon | soon]ſoonsoon as [ye | the]yethe Table was [diſmiſ'd | dismissed]diſmiſ'ddismissed. I [muſ | most]muſmost [deſir | desire]deſirdesire giv‐
ing you my [privet | private]privetprivate reflections on this [diſcorſe | discourse]diſcorſediscourse ['till | 'til]'till'til further [opertunity | opportunity]opertunityopportunity

[Closer]
[mean time | Meantime]mean timeMeantime beg [leve | leave]leveleave, dear [ſir | Sir]ſirSir— to [ſubſcribe | subscribe]ſubſcribesubscribe [myſelf | myself]myſelfmyself [yr | your]yryour affectionate
Friend [& | and]&and very Humble [Sarv.t | Servant]Sarv.tServant
David [Croſby | Crosby]CroſbyCrosby[pers0145.ocp]
[Eaſt | East]EaſtEast Hartford[place0063.ocp] 1767.
[Postscript]
PS I've not [forgo't | forgotten]forgo'tforgotten the [incuregement | encouragement]incuregementencouragement [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Whelock | Wheelock]WhelockWheelock[pers0036.ocp] gave me of an [honarable | honourable]honarablehonourable
[Imployment | employment]Imploymentemployment, nor [ye | the]yethe [reaſons | reasons]reaſonsreasons for which I [ſoſpected | suspected]ſoſpectedsuspected he might alter his mind
[Trailer]
From David [Crosbe | Crosby]CrosbeCrosby[pers0145.ocp]
East Hartford[place0063.ocp]. 1767[1767].
[top] [Rec.d | Received]Rec.dReceived [Nov.r | November]Nov.rNovember 4th 1767[1767-11-04]
To
[Rec.d | Received]Rec.dReceived [Nov.r | November]Nov.rNovember 4th 1767[1767-11-04]
To

To the [Reverand | Reverend]ReverandReverend
[Elezar | Eleazar]ElezarEleazar [Whelock | Wheelock]WhelockWheelock[pers0036.ocp]
[att | at]attat
Lebanon Crank[place0123.ocp]
Middletown
East Hartford

As its name suggests, East Hartford is located east of the town of Hartford, Connecticut. What were known as the River Tribes, including the Podunks, lived in what would become East Hartford. Thomas Burnham purchased “a large tract of land of Tantinomo, the ‘one-eyed’ Sachem of the Podunks” that covered East Hartford (Goodwin 58). The residents of East Hartford petitioned the Connecticut General Assembly to grant East Hartford the privileges of a distinct town on five separate occasions (1726, 1728, 1737, 1769, and 1774), but East Hartford did not officially become a town separate from Hartford until 1783. An aspiring minister for the Connecticut Indians, David Crosby, wrote Eleazar Wheelock several correspondences from East Hartford.

Lebanon Crank

Lebanon Crank was the name of an area in the northwest part of the town of Lebanon, Connecticut, on both sides of the Hop River, which was created by the Connecticut legislature in 1716, in response to the demand of residents who did not want to travel to the First Church in Lebanon proper for services. It was also known as Lebanon North Parish and the Second Society or Second Church in Lebanon, names that refer to religious organizations of the Congregational Church. The two dozen families who started the parish built their first meetinghouse near the site of the present structure, around which the religious and political life of the community revolved. Eleazar Wheelock served as minister in this parish from 1735 to 1769, and his house, built around 1735, is the oldest building still standing. Lebanon Crank played a major role in his life. It was his base of operations when he became an itinerant mininster during the religious awakenings of the 1730s and 1740s, and he presided over a revival in the Second Church in 1740. His Indian Charity school was located nearby in Lebanon, and his students attended the Second Church in Lebanon Crank as part of their education. The parish was so invested in Wheelock's School that they tried to keep him from moving it up to New Hampshire when he founded Dartmouth College, but failed. Lebanon Crank was subsequently renamed Columbia and established as a separate town in May 1804.

Crosby, David

David Crosby was born, 1729, in Billerica, MA to David Crosby and Sarah Foster. There is very little information about his life. He married Elizabeth [Unknown] in 1756. They would have three children. By Sept. 1766, Crosby was acquainted with Eleazar Wheelock, whom Crosby admired and championed. He wrote and visited Wheelock at least through the late 1760’s. It is likely that Elizabeth died within the few months following November 1767. Mentioning his own mortality and his wish for a useful life, Crosby writes to Wheelock in March 1768 offering to indenture himself in order to join Wheelock’s school and be prepared as a missionary. Sometime after June 10, 1768, he married Anne Thomas of Lebanon, CT. They would have four children together. Crosby then returned to or settled in East Hartford where he died in 1819; Anne died there also the following year.

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers0036.ocp M r Mr. Whelock Wheelock recipient Wheelock, Eleazar
pers0030.ocp M r Mr. Ocham Occom mentioned Occom, Samson
pers0145.ocp David Croſby Crosby writer Crosby, David
pers0036.ocp M r Mr. Whelock Wheelock recipient Wheelock, Eleazar
pers0145.ocp David Crosbe Crosby writer Crosby, David
pers0036.ocp Elezar Eleazar Whelock Wheelock recipient Wheelock, Eleazar

Places identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
place0135.ocp Middletown Middletown
place0063.ocp Eaſt East Hartford East Hartford
place0063.ocp East Hartford East Hartford
place0123.ocp Lebanon Crank Lebanon Crank

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Dates identified in this document:

Standard Form Text
1767-11-04 4th4th Nov.November 1767
1767 1767
1767-11-04 Nov.rNovember 4th 1767

Regularized text:

Type Original Regularized
modernization 4th 4th
modernization ſir Sir
variation unmeritted unmerited
modernization friendſhip friendship
variation ſhewn shown
modernization ſeem seem
variation Man-kind mankind
variation eſpecia‐
ly
especial‐
ly
modernization ye the
variation indefatuga‐
ble
indefatiga‐
ble
variation endevours endeavours
variation thir their
modernization ſalvation salvation
modernization confeſs confess
modernization ſome some
modernization yourſelf yourself
variation diſintruſted disinterested
modernization exerciſing exercising
modernization myſelf myself
modernization ſtrongly strongly
variation atteched attached
variation Intruſt interest
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variation conſtent constant
modernization bleſsing blessing
modernization Perſon person
variation Famoly family
variation convertion conversion
modernization ſucceſs success
variation Naritive narrative
modernization converſation conversation
variation gentelman' gentleman's
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modernization alſo also
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variation Mallevelant malevolent
modernization diſcove‐
ry
discove‐
ry
variation mallevelant malevolent
modernization diſpoſition disposition
variation harber'd harboured
variation Breſt breast
variation gentelmen gentlemen
modernization Chriſtianity Christianity
modernization foreſee foresee
modernization officiousneſs officiousness
variation meenneſs meanness
variation Teſtemo
‐nies
testimo
nies
variation greatful grateful
modernization ſhall shall
modernization ſerve serve
variation apoligy apology
variation Gentelmen gentlemen
variation whoes whose
variation indeferent indifferent
modernization wiſeſt wisest
variation Diſtence distance
modernization uſe use
variation hanſomly handsomely
modernization Eſpecially especially
variation worthey worthy
variation untill until
variation Reverand Reverend
modernization Mr Mr.
variation Whelock Wheelock
variation perſwaid persuade
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variation ben been
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modernization ſaucy saucy
modernization Preſent present
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modernization obſerve observe
variation cuning cunning
variation Leep'd leaped
variation commenly commonly
variation with out without
variation diſsigne design
variation bourn borne
variation anough enough
variation Chriſtianiſing Christianizing
variation Heathing heathen
variation Inſinnuat insinuate
variation tho though
modernization ſpran spran
variation meen mean
variation Avorice avarice
modernization deſire desire
variation welth wealth
variation Priccipelly principally
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modernization loſt lost
modernization ſeveral several
variation countenances countenance
variation other ways otherways
variation diſcoverd discovered
variation angrey perty angry party
modernization aforeſaid aforesaid
variation Chriſtian‐
iſe
Christian‐
ize
modernization firſt first
variation ſiveliſe civilize
variation conciv'd conceived
variation ware were
modernization beſt best
variation ingreediences ingredients
modernization baniſhed banished
modernization ſometimes sometimes
modernization himſelf himself
variation componny company
variation ſomened summoned
modernization reaſon reason
modernization Jeſus Jesus
modernization Apoſtels Apostles
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modernization ſame same
variation denigh'd denied
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variation rejin'd rejoined
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tianiſing
Chris‐
tianizing
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modernization deſpiſe despise
variation neceſary necessary
variation unavidable unavoidable
variation conſequyene consequence
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modernization Chriſtian Christian
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variation Ocham Occom
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variation mean time Meantime
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modernization ſubſcribe subscribe
modernization Croſby Crosby
modernization Eaſt East
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variation Imployment employment
modernization reaſons reasons
variation ſoſpected suspected
variation Crosbe Crosby
variation Elezar Eleazar
variation att at

Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
Nov. November
& and
diſcover'd discovered
yr your
I'm I am
conſtrain'd constrained
Paſ'd passed
miſconſtru'd misconstrued
join'd joined
expreſ'd expressed
Din'd dined
utter'd uttered
Pleaſd pleased
pleaſ'd pleased
betray'd betrayed
repli'd replied
ſhou'd should
ſeem'd seemed
deſir'd desired
Sarv.t Servant
forgo't forgotten
Rec.d Received
Nov.r November

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Number of nested "hi" tags: (consider merging the @rend attributes, or using other tags) 0
Number of tags with invalid 'rend' attributes: 0 (out of 57)
Number of people/places/organizations with unknown keys: 0 (out of 12)
Number of "add" tags with unknown 'place' attributes: 0 (out of 10)
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HomeDavid Crosby, letter, to Eleazar Wheelock, 1767 November 4
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