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Thomas Ludlow, letter, to Nathaniel Whitaker, 1766 October 3

ms-number: 766553.3

[note (type: abstract): Ludlow writes regarding shipments to Boston for Whitaker and Occom, and relates business regarding the fundraising tour.][note (type: handwriting): Formal handwriting is small, but clear and legible.][note (type: paper): Small single sheet is in fair condition, with moderate staining, creasing and wear that results in a minor loss of text.][note (type: ink): Black-brown ink is faded.][note (type: noteworthy): On one verso, the writer's intention regarding the ⅌ symbol is uncertain, and so it has been left unmodified in the modernized transcription.]

events: Fundraising Tour of Great Britain

Dear Sir
[Yo.r | Your]Yo.rYour favor from — dated the [29th | 29th]29th29th [ult.o | ultimo]ult.oultimo [1766-09-29] came duly and [ſtill | still]ſtillstill find you in a
hurry I wish you [ma'n't | may not]ma'n'tmay not make more [hast | haste]hasthaste than good [ſpeed | speed]ſpeedspeed. May the Lord direct [& | and]&and guide
you, giving great [ſucceſs | success]ſucceſssuccess in [yo.r | your]yo.ryour important undertaking, [bleſsing | blessing]bleſsingblessing you [& | and]&and dear [M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. Occom[pers0030.ocp]
both in Soul and Body. Your piece of Cloth came to hand yesterday which with [M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. Occom[pers0030.ocp]s [ſhall | shall]ſhallshall
take care of ['till | until]'tilluntil it is [ſhip'd | shipped]ſhip'dshipped for Boston[place0013.ocp], I don't think it prudent if it was [poſsible | possible]poſsiblepossible to put all
your things on board the Devonshire for fear of an accident and as it is probable your or [M.r | Mr.]M.rMr.
Occom[pers0030.ocp] may have [ſomething | something]ſomethingsomething else by [& | and]&and by which you may want to [ſend | send]ſendsend, it may go with
the Cloth, therefore [ſhall | shall]ſhallshall keep it back a little while [unleſs | unless]unleſsunless you order to the Contrary. We rejoice
to hear [M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. Occom[pers0030.ocp] is better to whom we all beg kindly to be [remember'd | remembered]remember'dremembered. [Tho | Though]ThoThough you hadn't a
copy of [yo.r | your]yo.ryour Letter to [M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. Towgood[pers0547.ocp], perhaps you could have recollected the [ſubstance | substance]ſubstancesubstance of it. Last
Sabbath day I [receiv'd | received]receiv'dreceived a Letter from [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Jos: | Joseph]Jos:Joseph Keech[pers0300.ocp] of Ilminster[place0104.ocp] [ſignifying | signifying]ſignifyingsignifying he had in conse‐
‐quence of a Letter from you communi[gap: tear][guess (h-dawnd): ca]cated your Affair [& | and]&and had collected of his Congregation
£4.11.2 which he wanted to know how to convey to you, I wrote him for answer that as it
was [ſomewhat | somewhat]ſomewhatsomewhat uncertain [were | where]werewhere to find you I thought it [wou'd | would]wou'dwould be better for him to remit it
to me, he [ſends | sends]ſendssends his Compliments [& | and]&and best wishes to you both adding that if you come into that [above] part of thepart of the Country
he [ſhall | shall]ſhallshall be glad to be [favor'd | favored]favor'dfavored with your Complany. [ | Mrs.]M.rsMrs. Ludlow[pers0340.ocp] and my Daughter[pers1561.ocp] join me in best
Respects who am
Dear good Sir.
[Yo.r | your]Yo.ryour [ſincere | sincere]ſinceresincere Friend [& | and]&and [hble | humble]hblehumble [Servt | servant]Servtservant
[Tho.s | thomas]Tho.sthomas Ludlow[pers0341.ocp]
Bristol[place0020.ocp] [3rd | 3rd]3rd3rd [Octo.r | October]Octo.rOctober 1766[1766-10-03]
To the [Rev.d | Rev.]Rev.dRev.
[M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. [Nath: | Nathaniel]Nath:Nathaniel Whitaker[pers0037.ocp]
[right] From [mr | Mr.]mrMr. T. Ludlow[pers0341.ocp]
of [Briſtol | Bristol]BriſtolBristol[place0020.ocp], oct. 3. 1766[1766-10-03]
From [mr | Mr.]mrMr. T. Ludlow[pers0341.ocp]
of [Briſtol | Bristol]BriſtolBristol[place0020.ocp], oct. 3. 1766[1766-10-03]

The first English immigrant to settle on a peninsula in a harbor on the northeastern coast of North America the local Algonquin Indians called "Shawmet" was William Blackstone in 1629. A year later, John Winthrop arrived with a group of English Puritans and other settlers and named the area Boston after his hometown in Lincolnshire, England. The colony quickly developed representative political institutions that would help shape a democratic nation. Over the next few centuries, Boston emerged as an intellectual and educational center, and, because of its excellent harbor, became a leading commercial hub and a primary port for North America. It is the capital and largest city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and the largest city in New England. Boston was the home for the Boards of Commissioners of several overseas religious societies who sent missionaries throughout the colonies in the 18th century, and was the site of many important events of the American Revolution.


A city in the southwest of England. In the mid-18th century, Bristol became England's second biggest city due to its thriving importation of sugar cane, tobacco, rum, and cocoa, all products of the slave trade. Its affluence made it an important and lucrative stop for Occom and Whitaker on the fundraising trip to the west of England.


Ilminster is a town located in the southwest of England, and takes its name from the River Ile and its longstanding church, The Minster, also known as St. Mary’s Church. The town has been home to a market since the Middle Ages. In the Georgian period, Ilminster housing expanded thanks to resources from nearby Ham Hill. Ilminster parish was a stop on Whitaker and Occom’s fundraising tour of England, and even prior to their arrival, the town church donated money to the Indian education cause.

Ludlow, Thomas
Whitaker, Nathaniel

Nathaniel Whitaker was an outspoken Presbyterian minister with a long and wide-ranging career. Between his ordination in 1755 and his death in 1795, Whitaker ministered to five different congregations. His longest tenure was at Chelsea, CT (near Norwich), from 1761-1769, during which he joined Occom on his two-and-a-half-year fundraising tour of Britain. While in Chelsea, Whitaker was very involved in Wheelock's project. The two engaged in frequent correspondence, and Whitaker served on Eleazar Wheelock's Board of Correspondents in Connecticut, as well as on the Board of Trustees of Moor's Indian Charity School. At one time, he was Wheelock's presumed successor, but Dartmouth's Trustees demanded that Wheelock appoint another. Wheelock, in part due to his strongly-held belief that Native Americans were childlike and rash, was convinced that Occom needed an Anglo-American supervisor on his fundraising tour. After several candidates turned down the job, Wheelock selected Whitaker. He proved to be a poor choice; he was, by many accounts, a difficult man to get along with, and many of Wheelock’s British allies, including George Whitefield and the English Trust (the organization that took control of the money Occom raised in England) preferred to deal with Occom, although Whitaker insisted on handling the tour’s logistics. Furthermore, in Britain, Occom was the obvious star of the tour, and it was unclear to many why Whitaker asserted himself so prominently. Whitaker’s poor decisions seriously alienated the English Trust and increased their suspicion of Wheelock’s later dealings and treatment of Occom. He gave the English Trust the impression that they would have control over money raised in Scotland (which was in fact lodged with the parent organization of the SSPCK), and he was the executor of the “Eells Affair,” a plan initiated by the CT Board of the SSPCK to bring the money that Occom and Whitaker raised back to the colonies by investing it in trade goods and selling them at a profit (Eells was one of the merchants who was to help with the resale of goods). The English Trust learned about the plan by reading letters that Whitaker had given them permission to open in his absence, and were immediately shocked. The wording of certain letters made it appear that only a percentage of the profit from the resale of the goods would go towards Moor’s Indian Charity School, but beyond that detail, the English Trust was scandalized at the thought of money raised for charity being invested in trade. The English Trust blamed Whitaker entirely for these affairs, and issued specific instructions for Occom to notarize all documents requiring Whitaker’s signature. In short, they wanted Occom to supervise Whitaker, when Wheelock had envisioned the opposite relationship (both Occom and Whitaker seem to have ignored their instructions, preferring to have as little contact with one another as possible). In 1769, a year after his return to Connecticut in 1768, Whitaker found himself dismissed by his Chelsea congregation (likely because he had spent two and a half years away from them). He went on to serve several more congregations before his death in 1795. Whitaker was an outspoken Whig, and during the Revolution he published several pamphlets on his political opinions.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Towgood, Micaiah
Keech, Joseph
Fundraising Tour of Great Britain
After many months of planning and shifting personnel, Occom, accompanied by the minister Nathaniel Whitaker, sets sail in December 1765 for a two-and-a-half year tour of England and Scotland in order to solicit contributions to Wheelock’s Indian Charity School and missionary efforts. Introduced to aristocrats and prominent clergy by the minister George Whitefield, Occom preaches many sermons, travels widely, and collects a large sum of money.
Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers0030.ocp M. r Mr. Occom mentioned Occom, Samson
pers0030.ocp Occom mentioned Occom, Samson
pers0547.ocp M. r Mr. Towgood mentioned Towgood, Micaiah
pers0300.ocp M r Mr. Jos: Joseph Keech mentioned Keech, Joseph
pers0340.ocp M. rs Mrs. Ludlow mentioned Ludlow
pers1561.ocp my Daughter mentioned Ludlow
pers0341.ocp Tho. s thomas Ludlow writer Ludlow, Thomas
pers0037.ocp M. r Mr. Nath: Nathaniel Whitaker recipient Whitaker, Nathaniel
pers0341.ocp m r Mr. T. Ludlow writer Ludlow, Thomas

Places identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
place0013.ocp Boston Boston
place0104.ocp Ilminster Ilminster
place0020.ocp Bristol Bristol
place0020.ocp Briſtol Bristol Bristol

This document does not contain any tagged organizations.

Dates identified in this document:

Standard Form Text
1766-09-29 29th29th ult.oultimo
1766-10-03 3rd3rd Octo.rOctober 1766
1766-10-03 oct. 3. 1766

Regularized text:

Type Original Regularized
modernization 29th 29th
modernization ſtill still
variation hast haste
modernization ſpeed speed
modernization ſucceſs success
modernization bleſsing blessing
modernization M.r Mr.
modernization ſhall shall
modernization poſsible possible
modernization ſomething something
modernization ſend send
modernization unleſs unless
variation Tho Though
modernization ſubstance substance
modernization Mr Mr.
modernization ſignifying signifying
modernization ſomewhat somewhat
variation were where
modernization ſends sends
modernization Mrs.
modernization ſincere sincere
modernization 3rd 3rd
modernization Rev.d Rev.
modernization mr Mr.
modernization Briſtol Bristol

Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
Yo.r Your
ult.o ultimo
ma'n't may not
& and
yo.r your
'till until
ſhip'd shipped
remember'd remembered
receiv'd received
Jos: Joseph
wou'd would
favor'd favored
Yo.r your
hble humble
Servt servant
Tho.s thomas
Octo.r October
Nath: Nathaniel

This document's header does not contain any mixed case attribute values.

Summary of errors found in this document:

Number of dates with invalid 'when' attributes: 0
Number of nested "hi" tags: (consider merging the @rend attributes, or using other tags) 0
Number of tags with invalid 'rend' attributes: 0 (out of 22)
Number of people/places/organizations with unknown keys: 0 (out of 15)
Number of "add" tags with unknown 'place' attributes: 0 (out of 2)
Mixed case attribute values in header (potential error): 0 (out of 104)
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