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Eleazar Wheelock, letter, to Nathaniel Mather, 1766 May 7

ms-number: 766307.2

[note (type: abstract): Wheelock writes that he will take Mather's son on as a trial pupil.][note (type: handwriting): Handwriting is not Wheelock's; it is largely clear and legible.][note (type: paper): Single sheet is in good condition, with light staining, creasing and wear. The paper appears to have been torn from a larger sheet.][note (type: ink): Brown-black.][note (type: noteworthy): As is marked, this letter is a copy.]

If you please I will take your Son[pers0361.ocp] for a
Season upon Trial — provided you will provide
sufficient Bonds that he shall [persue | pursue]persuepursue the [Buisneſs | business]Buisneſsbusiness
for which he is [design'd | designed]design'ddesigned among the Indians [unleſs | unless]unleſsunless
he is prevented by the [Providenne | Providence]ProvidenneProvidence of God. ie. By
[Sickneſs | sickness]Sickneſssickness or Death — Or Else that he shall
refund [w.t | what]w.twhat Shall be expended upon him for his
Education or So much as Shall be Judged reasona
‐ble —
[Whele | While]WheleWhile he is upon trial his Board [& | and]&and
Education Tuition [ſhall | shall]ſhallshall Cost him nothing —
but I will be under no Obligation to keep
him Longer than [till | 'til]till'til I [ſhall | shall]ſhallshall be [ſatisfied | satisfied]ſatisfiedsatisfied
that the money given Me for the pious
Use may be better [bestoed | bestowed]bestoedbestowed than upon his
Edudcation for that purpose —
I am in utmost [hast | haste]hasthaste

Yours to Serve
Eleazar [Wheelocke | Wheelock]WheelockeWheelock[pers0036.ocp]
[M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. [Nath.ll | Nathaniel]Nath.llNathaniel Mather[pers0362.ocp]

To [M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. [Nath.l | Nathaniel]Nath.lNathaniel [Marther | Mather]MartherMather[pers0362.ocp]
May 7. 1766[1766-05-07]

Hartford is the capital city of Connecticut, located in the central part of the state. The land that would become Hartford was first inhabited by the Saukiog Indians (Saukiog was also the name of a village on the Connecticut River) along with the Podunks to the east and the Tunxis to the west. The Dutch explorer Adriaen Block was the first European to visit Saukiog, and by the early 1620s, the Dutch had established a fort in the area. They brought with them a smallpox epidemic that killed many Native Americans. By the mid-17th century the Dutch, outnumbered by the English, had retreated south. In order to protect themselves against the powerful Mohawk and Pequot Indians, tribes around Saukiog allied with the English. By 1635, the Puritan preacher Thomas Hooker and one hundred of his followers moved into the area, first calling their new home Newtown but later changing it to Hartford after Hertford, England. In a 1638 sermon, Hooker claimed that the new Connecticut government should authorize itself according to the consent of the people, words that inspired Connecticut’s Fundamental Orders, considered America’s first written constitution. Missionaries began to preach to the Tunxis near Hartford in 1670. By 1734, Indians at Hartford requested and received English ministers for reading and religious instruction, and used the missionary interest in their community to their advantage in several ways. Minister Samuel Woodbridge reported that Indians at Hartford would attend his church and learn to read if they had the proper clothing, and the New England Company sent blankets and primers as encouragement. Hartford served as the meeting place for Congregational ministers associated with Wheelock and his School to examine the acceptability of Native missionaries, such as Mohegan minister Samuel Ashpo. In 1775, Joseph Johnson went to the Hartford Assembly to deliver letters declaring the allegiance to the colonists of the Indians who had moved to upstate New York.

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Mather, Nathaniel
Mather, Allyn

Allyn Mather was an Anglo-American charity scholar at Moor’s Indian Charity School who had a brief career as a minister before succumbing to illness. Mather arrived at Moor’s in 1766 and entered Yale in 1767. He had a strong distaste for the college: hazing bothered him, and he found the atmosphere singularly unreligious (his dislike was not fleeting: in 1778, he wrote to the Connecticut Courant to criticize the college course of study). Mather volunteered for missions in 1768. He accompanied Ralph Wheelock on his ill-fated third trek to Oneida territory, where Ralph acted intemperately at the tribal council at Onaquaga. Mather then attended Fort Stanwix with Rev. Ebenezer Cleaveland to try to patch up the damage done to Eleazar Wheelock’s agenda by Jacob Johnson. After his adventures, Mather returned to Yale, where he obtained his degree in 1771. However, he did not return to the missionary business: instead, in 1772, he became the pastor of Fair Haven Church, or Fourth Presbyterian, in New Haven, CT. It was a conservative Old Light (or more properly, Old Side) church, largely populated by parishioners who had defected from Jonathan Edwards’ congregation. It is unclear how strongly Mather himself identified with Old Side beliefs; he seems to have described the church to Wheelock as “despised” (773208), but he may have used strong language because he was trying to get out of paying his debt as a defunct charity scholar. Wheelock never seems to have collected from him, nor did he pursue Mather as vigorously as he pursued some other students. In 1779, Mather began having serious health issues, which forced him to travel south regularly. He died in 1784 on one such trip, in Savannah, Georgia.

Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers0361.ocp your Son mentioned Mather, Allyn
pers0036.ocp Eleazar Wheelocke Wheelock writer Wheelock, Eleazar
pers0362.ocp M. r Mr. Nath. ll Nathaniel Mather recipient Mather, Nathaniel
pers0362.ocp M. r Mr. Nath. l Nathaniel Marther Mather recipient Mather, Nathaniel

Places identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
place0097.ocp Hartford Hartford

This document does not contain any tagged organizations.

Dates identified in this document:

Standard Form Text
1766-05-07 May 7. 1766

Regularized text:

Type Original Regularized
variation persue pursue
variation Buisneſs business
modernization unleſs unless
variation Providenne Providence
modernization Sickneſs sickness
variation Whele While
modernization ſhall shall
variation till 'til
modernization ſatisfied satisfied
variation bestoed bestowed
variation hast haste
variation Wheelocke Wheelock
modernization M.r Mr.
variation Marther Mather

Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
design'd designed
w.t what
& and
Nath.ll Nathaniel
Nath.l Nathaniel

This document's header does not contain any mixed case attribute values.

Summary of errors found in this document:

Number of dates with invalid 'when' attributes: 0
Number of nested "hi" tags: (consider merging the @rend attributes, or using other tags) 0
Number of tags with invalid 'rend' attributes: 0 (out of 8)
Number of people/places/organizations with unknown keys: 0 (out of 5)
Number of "add" tags with unknown 'place' attributes: 0 (out of 0)
Mixed case attribute values in header (potential error): 0 (out of 87)
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