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Eleazar Wheelock, letter, to David Jewett, 1765 June 20

ms-number: 765370.2

[note (type: abstract): Wheelock writes to Jewett asking him to settle the charges he has brought against Occom immediately as they are harming the missionary work. He assures Jewett of his friendly intentions.][note (type: handwriting): Handwriting is not Wheelock's. It is mostly clear and legible.][note (type: paper): Small single sheet is in good condition, with very light creasing, staining and wear.][note (type: ink): Black-brown.][note (type: signature): The signature is not Wheelock's, and it is misspelled.][note (type: noteworthy): The fact that this letter is not in Wheelock's hand, and that it does not bear an address, suggests that it is a contemporary copy, likely Wheelock's own for his records.]

events: Jewett Controversy

I have lately returned from my [succeſsful | successful]succeſsfulsuccessful journey to
[Boſton | Boston]BoſtonBoston[place0013.ocp], much worried [& | and]&and fatigued, in [conſequence | consequence]conſequenceconsequence of [wch | which]wchwhich our two
[miſſ.rs | missionaries]miſſ.rsmissionaries Set out on [yr | their]yrtheir long tour [yeſterday | yesterday]yeſterdayyesterday [wth | with]wthwith £25 [law: | lawful money]law:lawful money each, [& | and]&and
£20 for Kirtland[pers0315.ocp]; the School [maſters | masters]maſtersmasters are to Set off next monday
While I was at [Boſton | Boston]BoſtonBoston[place0013.ocp] I had opportunity to hear of the influ­
ence of your letter [againſt | against]againſtagainst [mr | Mr.]mrMr. [Occ.m | Occom]Occ.mOccom[pers0030.ocp], [& | and]&and [ye | the]yethe great prejudice to his
Character [& | and]&and Strong prejudices imbibed [againſt | against]againſtagainst him, [& | and]&and I apprehend
[againſt | against]againſtagainst our Board of [Comſſrs | Commissioners]ComſſrsCommissioners[org0034.ocp] on [yt | that]ytthat [acc.t | account]acc.taccount — And if [yr | there]yrthere be nothing
more to [juſtify | justify]juſtifyjustify [wt | what]wtwhat you have done than [wt | what]wtwhat we have heard, I [earneſtly | earnestly]earneſtlyearnestly
[adviſe | advise]adviſeadvise you as a [B.r | brother]B.rbrother to Settle [yt | that]ytthat matter according to your [agreem.t | agreement]agreem.tagreement
[wth | with]wthwith [ye | the]yethe Board[org0034.ocp] as Soon as may be — Their honour, [& | and]&and [ye | the]yethe whole Indian [cauſe | cause]cauſecause
lies at Stake — And I apprehend [muſt | must]muſtmust be vindicated Some way or
other, as well as [mr | Mr.]mrMr. [ | Occom]Occ.msOccom[pers0030.ocp] — If you [Suſpect | suspect]Suſpectsuspect I am not friendly in
this matter, I am [perſwaded | persuaded]perſwadedpersuaded [ye | the]yethe [conſequence | consequence]conſequenceconsequence will [above] fullyfully convince you of the
contrary, [& | and]&and very brotherly too. I don't See but [mr | Mr.]mrMr. Occom[pers0030.ocp] is really
[diſpoſed | disposed]diſpoſeddisposed to peace [& | and]&and [friendſhip | friendship]friendſhipfriendship, [& | and]&and to be a great friend to you, if he
knew how to be So in a chan[above] nnel to be understood. There is a meeting
of the Board of [Comiſſ.rs | Commissioners]Comiſſ.rsCommissioners [Correſpondents | Correspondents]CorreſpondentsCorrespondents[org0034.ocp] appointed to be at my [houſe | house]houſehouse[place0102.ocp]
next [tueſday | Tuesday]tueſdayTuesday come 7 nights at 12. O'clock; pray dont fail.
I am your cordial [Br | Brother]BrBrother
[Eleazer | Eleazar]EleazerEleazar Wheelock[pers0036.ocp]
[Revd | Rev.]RevdRev. David [Jewet | Jewett]JewetJewett[pers0023.ocp]
To [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Jewett [pers0023.ocp] June [20th | 20th]20th20th
Connecticut Board of Correspondents of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge
The Connecticut Board of Correspondents of the SSPCK was founded in 1764 at Wheelock's request. He wanted a public board's support so that his school would seem more credible since it was a private organization with no charter. The Boston Board of the SSPCK would not do since they generally opposed Wheelock, so his solution was to petition the SSPCK for his own board. The SSPCK acquiesed, and the board met for the first time on July 4, 1764. While the board was nominally separate from Wheelock's school, in practice, he exercised considerable control over it. The members of the board were Wheelock's handpicked friends and supporters: Jonathan Huntington, Elisha Sheldon, Samuel Huntington, Solomon Williams, Joseph Fish, William Gaylord, Samuel Moseley, Benjamin Pomeroy, Richard Salter, Nathaniel Whitaker, David Jewett, and Wheelock himself. Wheelock used this board to send Occom and Whitaker to England, hold exams for Moor's Indian Charity School, and generally support his designs. When Wheelock moved to New Hampshire, he tried to establish a New Hampshire Board as well, but by that point the SSPCK was much more cautious when it came to Wheelock's plans and refused. The Connecticut Board dissolved in 1771 as Wheelock was its raison d'etre.

Lebanon is a town located in the state of Connecticut southwest of the town of Hartford. The land that became Lebanon was inhabited at least 10,000 years ago based on the archeological record. By the 1600s, the land was permanently inhabited by the Mohegan Indians, who used the area primarily for hunting. Lebanon was officially formed in 1700 when English settlers consolidated a number of land tracts, including several land grants by the Connecticut General Assembly and lands purchased from the Mohegans. However, these purchases were controversial. In 1659, the Mohegans entrusted their reserve land to Major John Mason, and in the following year, Mason transferred this land to the Connecticut colonial government with the understanding that there would be enough land left for the Mohegans to farm. The Mohegans claimed that they never authorized a transfer to the colonial government and only Mason’s heirs were entrusted with their land. In 1662, Connecticut, which included the Mohegan land that had been entrusted to the Masons, was incorporated by a royal charter. Based on this charter, the colony argued that the land was now the property of the government. In 1687, the colony began granting the Mohegan land to townships, and in 1704 the Masons petitioned the Crown on behalf of the Mohegans, claiming that such transfers of land to townships were illegal. Between the years of 1705 and 1773 legal disputes and controversies persisted, finally ending in a verdict by the Crown against the Mohegans. In 1755, Wheelock received property and housing in Lebanon that he would use as his house and school. While Lebanon was originally incorporated as a part of New London County in 1700, in 1724 it became a part of New Windham, before once again becoming a part of New London County in 1826. Lebanon was central to the American Revolution with half of its adult population fighting for the colonists and hundreds of meetings convened in the town for the revolutionary cause.

Eleazar Wheelock's House

In 1765, Wheelock’s house was located in Lebanon, Connecticut. After a 1755 visit from Wheelock, Mr. Joshua More -- a Mansfield, Connecticut farmer -- purchased “a place contiguous to the minister’s mansion, containing about two acres, and having upon it a ‘small dwelling-house and a shop or schoolhouse’” for 500 pounds (Love 59). This property was soon after deeded to Wheelock among others for the education of Native Americans. In 1763 Wheelock gained full possession of the land through a conveyance from More’s widow. The schoolhouse became an Indian school in Lebanon, and Wheelock’s mansion served as a dormitory. The school was named Moor’s Indian Charity School in More’s honor but was also referred to as Wheelock’s Indian Charity School. The sky-blue dwelling served as a meeting-house and was located at the convergence of the two main roads that ran through the two-acre plot of land. Several meetings took place at Wheelock’s house in 1765 among the Board of Correspondents in the Colony of Connecticut to discuss issues related to Occom and the Indian Charity School. These issues included Occom’s involvement in the Mason Controversy, Occom’s dispute with David Jewett over Occom securing Jewett’s congregants, and Occom’s alleged threats to convert to Episcopalianism. Wheelock’s 1765 letters and the Board of Correspondents’ 1765 minutes refer to several of these meetings at Wheelock’s home.


The first English immigrant to settle on a peninsula in a harbor on the northeastern coast of North America the local Algonquin Indians called "Shawmet" was William Blackstone in 1629. A year later, John Winthrop arrived with a group of English Puritans and other settlers and named the area Boston after his hometown in Lincolnshire, England. The colony quickly developed representative political institutions that would help shape a democratic nation. Over the next few centuries, Boston emerged as an intellectual and educational center, and, because of its excellent harbor, became a leading commercial hub and a primary port for North America. It is the capital and largest city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and the largest city in New England. Boston was the home for the Boards of Commissioners of several overseas religious societies who sent missionaries throughout the colonies in the 18th century, and was the site of many important events of the American Revolution.

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Jewett, David

David Jewett was a white minster at Mohegan who developed a hostile relationship with Samson Occom. He become the pastor of the North Church in New London, CT (now Montville) in 1739. Jewett initially served as the clergyman for the English congregation, and attempts to merge the white church with the local Indians were unsuccessful. In 1742, when plans to establish a pastor for the Indians also proved to be futile, Jewett became the minister for them as well, supported by the Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America (New England Company). Indians received religious materials, and many, including Sarah Occom, Samon's mother, became members of his parish. In 1756 when Connecticut gathered a regiment to go to Crown Point, Jewett served as chaplain. He also became a member of the Connecticut Board of Correspondents of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge (SSPCK) when Wheelock assembled it in 1764. In addition to his role as minister, Jewett oversaw Robert Clelland’s school at Mohegan, which became one source of his animosity toward Occom. Occom criticized Clelland’s performance as schoolmaster, implicating Jewett as the supervisor, and Jewett rejected Occom’s intrusion. Furthermore, since Occom had been appointed to preach at Mohegan, several Indians as well as English, primarily those who sided with the Indians in the Mason Case, left Jewett’s church to follow Occom, as Jewett supported the Colony due to his land interests. Jewett brought charges against Occom to the Boston Board of the SSPCK and to the New England Company Commissioners, and the Connecticut Board of the SSPCK tried Occom in March of 1765. They found Occom to be innocent except for his involvement in the Mason Case; therefore, the Board declared that Jewett must write to the Boston Commissioners again to clear Occom. Although Jewett assented to the task, he did not pen the letter until Wheelock pressured him that June. While Jewett and Occom’s relationship was officially mended, bitterness remained until Jewett’s death in 1783.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Kirkland, Samuel

Samuel Kirkland (b. Kirtland) was Eleazar Wheelock’s most famous Anglo American student. He conducted a 40-year mission to the Oneidas and founded Hamilton College (established in 1793 as Hamilton Oneida Academy). Kirkland won acclaim as a missionary at a young age by conducting an adventurous and risky mission to the Senecas, the westernmost of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Six Nations. After his year and a half among them, which was well publicized by Wheelock, he was ordained and sent as a missionary to the Oneidas under the auspices of the Connecticut Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. He spent most of the rest of his life serving the Oneidas as a minister. Kirkland’s sincere devotion to serving as a missionary was excellent publicity for Wheelock’s program, but it also brought the two men into conflict. Wheelock became jealous of Kirkland when the school’s British benefactors began urging Wheelock to make Kirkland his heir, and Kirkland, meanwhile, was upset that Wheelock had failed to provide him with sufficient supplies on his mission — a complaint that he was unafraid to publicize (and that almost all of Wheelock’s other students shared). The breaking point came in 1770, when Kirkland split from Wheelock’s Connecticut Board and affiliated with the New England Company, a missionary society that had abruptly turned against Wheelock in 1765. Wheelock and Kirkland briefly made up in 1771, but their relationship quickly dissolved into further acrimony. Although Kirkland spent most of his life as a missionary to the Six Nations, he generally held disparaging views of Native Americans. He did not approve of Wheelock’s plan to educate Indians as missionaries, and was haughty towards the Moor’s alumni that worked with him (notably David Fowler, Joseph Johnson, and Joseph Woolley). Prior to the Revolution, Kirkland had been stringent in his refusals to take Oneida land, even when offered to him. The Revolution seems to have shifted his loyalties from the Oneidas to local Anglo Americans. Kirkland served as a chaplain in the American army and was instrumental in convincing the Oneidas to remain neutral (or, more accurately, to side with the Americans). At one point he was the chaplain with General Sullivan’s army, the force sent to ransack Seneca and Cayuga territory in 1779. It is unclear what emotions this aroused in Kirkland, who had served the Senecas less than 15 years earlier, yet after the war, Kirkland freely engaged in Oneida dispossession. Along with James Dean, another Wheelock alumnus with close ties to the Oneidas, Kirkland played a pivotal role in urging the Oneidas to sell land illegally to the state of New York. The land deals that resulted gave Kirkland the property, financial capital, and connections to establish Hamilton Oneida Academy. The last decades of Kirkland’s life were difficult. He found himself in a three-way battle with Samson Occom and John Sergeant Jr., who were also ministers in Oneida territory, for the hearts and minds of their congregations; he was fired as a missionary in 1797, although he continued to serve sans salary; one of his son’s business enterprises failed, leaving Kirkland nearly destitute; and two of his three sons died unexpectedly. Hamilton Oneida Academy, like Moor’s Indian Charity School, largely failed at its goal of educating Indians, and in 1812, four years after Kirkland’s death, it was re-purposed as Hamilton College, a largely Anglo-American institution. At some point in the mid-to-late 18th century, Kirkland changed his name from Kirtland, although the reasons for this are uncertain.

Jewett Controversy
This crisis comes to a head in 1764 when Occom returns to Mohegan from Montauket and gains a following among the Indians and English. Robert Clelland, schoolmaster at Mohegan, fears he is being supplanted, and his patron, the minister David Jewett, thinks Occom is interfering and not sufficiently respectful. More importantly, Occom supports the Mohegan tribe’s claims in the Mason Land Case, in which Jewett, who opposes them, stands to lose considerable property. Finally, Jewett brings an official complaint to the Boston Board of Correspondents for the Society in Scotland for progagating Christian Knowledge (SSPCK), which employs Clelland, and to his own employers, the New England Company. The Connecticut Board of Correspondents for the SSPCK (of which Jewett was a member) tries Occom, and acquits him on all charges except that of involvement in the Mason Case. Despite a nominal reconciliation, bitter feelings linger between Occom and Jewett.
Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers0315.ocp Kirtland mentioned Kirkland, Samuel
pers0030.ocp m r Mr. Occ. m Occom mentioned Occom, Samson
pers0030.ocp m r Mr. Occ. ms Occom mentioned Occom, Samson
pers0030.ocp m r Mr. Occom mentioned Occom, Samson
pers0036.ocp Eleazer Eleazar Wheelock writer Wheelock, Eleazar
pers0023.ocp Rev d Rev. David Jewet Jewett recipient Jewett, David
pers0023.ocp M r Mr. Jewett recipient Jewett, David

Places identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
place0122.ocp Lebanon Lebanon
place0013.ocp Boſton Boston Boston
place0102.ocp my houſe house Eleazar Wheelock's House

Organizations identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
org0034.ocp Board of ComſſrsCommissioners Connecticut Board of Correspondents of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge
org0034.ocp Board Connecticut Board of Correspondents of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge
org0034.ocp Board of Comiſſ.rsCommissioners CorreſpondentsCorrespondents Connecticut Board of Correspondents of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge

Dates identified in this document:

Standard Form Text
1765-06-20 June 20th20th 1765

Regularized text:

Type Original Regularized
modernization 20th 20th
modernization succeſsful successful
modernization Boſton Boston
modernization conſequence consequence
modernization yr their
modernization yeſterday yesterday
modernization maſters masters
modernization againſt against
modernization mr Mr.
modernization ye the
modernization yt that
modernization yr there
modernization juſtify justify
modernization earneſtly earnestly
modernization adviſe advise
modernization cauſe cause
modernization muſt must
modernization Suſpect suspect
variation perſwaded persuaded
modernization diſpoſed disposed
modernization friendſhip friendship
modernization Correſpondents Correspondents
modernization houſe house
modernization tueſday Tuesday
variation Eleazer Eleazar
modernization Revd Rev.
variation Jewet Jewett
modernization Mr Mr.

Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
Br Brother
& and
wch which
miſſ.rs missionaries
wth with
law: lawful money
Occ.m Occom
Comſſrs Commissioners
acc.t account
wt what
B.r brother
agreem.t agreement Occom
Comiſſ.rs Commissioners

This document's header does not contain any mixed case attribute values.

Summary of errors found in this document:

Number of dates with invalid 'when' attributes: 0
Number of nested "hi" tags: (consider merging the @rend attributes, or using other tags) 0
Number of tags with invalid 'rend' attributes: 0 (out of 32)
Number of people/places/organizations with unknown keys: 0 (out of 14)
Number of "add" tags with unknown 'place' attributes: 0 (out of 2)
Mixed case attribute values in header (potential error): 0 (out of 102)
HomeEleazar Wheelock, letter, to David Jewett, 1765 June 20
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