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Eleazar Wheelock, letter, to Dennys DeBerdt, 1763 March 5

ms-number: 763205.1

[note (type: abstract): Wheelock writes to request that DeBerdt show his proposal regarding a tract of land to various gentlemen in England. He also mentions the need for books, globes, and maps; and that Smith, Occom, and Ashpo are all on missions.][note (type: handwriting): Handwriting is informal and somewhat messy; there are several deletions and additions.][note (type: paper): Single small sheet is good condition, with light creasing, staining, and wear.][note (type: ink): Brown ink is overwritten in spots with bolder black-brown ink.][note (type: noteworthy): Given the informality of the hand and the numerous additions and deletions, it appears that this is a draft.]

My Dear Sir
Since my last to you My School[org0098.ocp] has
[appeard | appeared]appeardappeared with a more Encouraging [aſpect | aspect]aſpectaspect than ever
there [have.g | having]have.ghaving been for Some Time evident [markes | marks]markesmarks of
a Spirit of Conviction in the most of the my [above] ScholarsScholars and in
[ſeveral | several]ſeveralseveral [Inſtances | instances]Inſtancesinstances, much [Reaſon | reason]Reaſonreason to think [above] [yr | there]yrthere has been[yr | there]yrthere has been a Saving
Change has been wrought. The Instance which I menti­
­oned in my [laſt | last]laſtlast of the young Mohawk appears
more [& | and]&and more evident. and Joseph Woolley[pers0041.ocp] gives
me [Reaſon | reason]Reaſonreason to think that the [illegible] [above] very lately he has [illegible]very lately he has [illegible]
[illegible] [above] a [ſaving | saving]ſavingsaving change indeed [paſsed | passed]paſsedpassed from Death to life.a [ſaving | saving]ſavingsaving change indeed [paſsed | passed]paſsedpassed from Death to life. My Pleasure in them and in doing for them
is indeed very great. Such a School
I never before Saw. —
The [inclosed | enclosed]inclosedenclosed proposal [pleaſe | please]pleaſeplease to [above] I [deſire | desire]deſiredesire you wouldI [deſire | desire]deſiredesire you would [Shew | show]Shewshow to
[Doctr | Dr.]DoctrDr. Giffords[pers0221.ocp], [M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. Savage[pers0465.ocp] and [M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. Whitefield[pers0038.ocp]
if he be yet in England[place0068.ocp] and make what
use and Improvement of it you [above] [ſhall | shall]ſhallshall[ſhall | shall]ſhallshall think
proper. I greatly long to have it [accompliſh­
­ed | accomplish­
. are there more near his Majesty who
would favour [& | and]&and Promote it? there are [ſo | so]ſoso
many [above] [& | and ]& and [ſo | so]ſoso weighty[& | and ]& and [ſo | so]ſoso weighty arguments in [fav.r | favour]fav.rfavour of it, that it cant
be but they would obtain his [Majesties | Majesty's]MajestiesMajesty's Counten­
nance if they were but Justly [repreſented | represented]repreſentedrepresented to him
[M.r | Mr.]M.rMr.Smith[pers0497.ocp] of Boston[place0013.ocp] gave me a hint [yt | that]ytthat
among other acts [above] [Expreſsions | expressions]Expreſsionsexpressions[Expreſsions | expressions]Expreſsionsexpressions of [Kindneſs | kindness]Kindneſskindness towards this School[org0098.ocp]
there was Some talk of Collecting a Library
for it, which would indeed be very acceptable.
as it is [above] veryvery much wanted. and if God [above] who has [y.e | the]y.ethe [illegible] of [illegible]in his [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): Han[above] dd]Han[above] ddwho has [y.e | the]y.ethe [illegible] of [illegible]in his [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): Han[above] dd]Han[above] dd Should put
it into the Hearts of his people [above] anyany to [accompliſh | accomplish]accompliſhaccomplish it
I hope Some generous Soul will [above] alsoalso think also of
the [Neceſsity | necessity]Neceſsitynecessity we are in of a pair of Globes and
a Set of good [Mapps | maps]Mappsmaps.
and as you are [Senſible | sensible]Senſiblesensible the weight of Charge
upon me, for the Support of this [Deſign | design]Deſigndesign is not
[below] [Diminiſhing | diminishing]Diminiſhingdiminishing [Diminiſhing | diminishing]Diminiſhingdiminishing [Diminiſhing | diminishing]Diminiſhingdiminishing but [increaſing | increasing]increaſingincreasing So I [truſt | trust]truſttrust you
will not be wanting to promote [& | and]&and encourage
Such [aſsiſtance | assistance]aſsiſtanceassistance for me as Shall be needful
and within your Power.
I hope by the [Bleſsing | blessing]Bleſsingblessing of God on the Labours
of [Meſsrs | Messrs.]MeſsrsMessrs. Smith[pers0500.ocp], Occom[pers0030.ocp], and [Aſhpo | Ashpo]AſhpoAshpo[pers0002.ocp] I may [above] [ſhall | shall]ſhallshall[ſhall | shall]ſhallshall
have the [illegible][Pleaſure | pleasure]Pleaſurepleasure to inform [yu | you]yuyou of that
which [ſhall | shall]ſhallshall be comfortable and [guess (h-dawnd): [Shew | show]Shewshow][Shew | show]Shewshow [above] [refreſhing | refreshing]refreſhingrefreshing [& | and]&and which [ſhall | shall]ſhallshall [juſtify | justify]juſtifyjustify[refreſhing | refreshing]refreſhingrefreshing [& | and]&and which [ſhall | shall]ſhallshall [juſtify | justify]juſtifyjustify you [& | and]&and
all those whose by whose Charity [& | and]&and Labours
of Love this [Deſign | design]Deſigndesign has been [ſupported | supported]ſupportedsupported hitherto,
that they have not been in vain [above] what you have done has not been in vain.what you have done has not been in vain.
I am indeed eager to [ſupply | supply]ſupplysupply the [illegible] [ſavages | savages]ſavagessavages [above] worldworld
with Godly [Miſsrs | missionaries]Miſsrsmissionaries and the more So
Dear Sir. of what [vaſt | vast]vaſtvast importance is it that
a [Sett | set]Settset of godly, Skillful, [Faithf.ll | faithful]Faithf.llfaithful [Miſsrs | missionaries]Miſsrsmissionaries [above] MenMen Should have
the Lead in the great affair? Oh! let us pray
[inceſsantly | incessantly]inceſsantlyincessantly that the Lord of the [Harveſt | harvest]Harveſtharvest would [ſend | send]ſendsend
Such Labourersinto his [Harveſt | harvest]Harveſtharvest, and [above] mercifullymercifully prevent all
the [miſcheifs | mischiefs]miſcheifsmischiefs [above] which arewhich are to be feared from blind, carnal [ſelf ſeeking | self-seeking]ſelf ſeekingself-seeking
Dear [ſir | sir]ſirsir pray for
 yours in the [Deareſt | dearest]Deareſtdearest Bonds
Eleazar Wheelock[pers0036.ocp]
Letter to [M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. DeBerdt[pers0014.ocp]
March 5. 1763.[1763-03-05]
with a proposal for
a Tract of Lands, [&c | etc.]&cetc.
Moor’s Indian Charity School
Moor’s Indian Charity School was a grammar school for Native Americans that Eleazar Wheelock opened in North Lebanon, Connecticut in 1754. The school was named for Colonel Joshua Moor, also spelled More, who donated the land and school building. Moor’s was essentially an expansion of the grammar school that Wheelock opened in 1743 to support himself during the fallout from the First Great Awakening, when Wheelock, who'd participated in itinerant ministry during the Awakening, had his salary confiscated by the colony of Connecticut. In December of that year, Samson Occom asked Wheelock to teach him as well. Wheelock's work with Occom was so successful that Wheelock decided to replicate the experiment with other Native American boys. He accepted his first Indian students in 1754, and in 1761 began taking female students as well. Wheelock believed that in time, his school would become just one part of a larger missionary enterprise. He planned to send his Anglo American and Native American students to various tribes as missionaries and schoolmasters, with explicit instructions to pick out the best students and send them back to Moor’s to continue the cycle. His ultimate goal was to turn his school into a model Christian Indian town that would include farms, a college, and vocational training. However, Wheelock’s grand design did not survive the decade. Wheelock lost the vast majority of his Native American students; he fought with many of the best, including Samson Occom, Joseph Johnson, David Fowler, and Hezekiah Calvin, and other former and current students accused him of subjecting Native Americans to disproportionate amounts of manual labor. In 1769, perhaps due to concerns about corporal punishment, the Oneida withdrew all their children from Moor’s. When Wheelock relocated to Hanover in 1769, only two Native American students came with him, and it became clear that Wheelock’s focus was on Dartmouth and that Dartmouth was for white students. After Wheelock’s death in 1779, Moor’s Indian Charity School receded further into the background as John Wheelock, his father’s reluctant successor, stopped taking Indian students. Some Native American students were enrolled in Moor’s until 1850, when the school unofficially closed.

Lebanon is a town located in the state of Connecticut southwest of the town of Hartford. The land that became Lebanon was inhabited at least 10,000 years ago based on the archeological record. By the 1600s, the land was permanently inhabited by the Mohegan Indians, who used the area primarily for hunting. Lebanon was officially formed in 1700 when English settlers consolidated a number of land tracts, including several land grants by the Connecticut General Assembly and lands purchased from the Mohegans. However, these purchases were controversial. In 1659, the Mohegans entrusted their reserve land to Major John Mason, and in the following year, Mason transferred this land to the Connecticut colonial government with the understanding that there would be enough land left for the Mohegans to farm. The Mohegans claimed that they never authorized a transfer to the colonial government and only Mason’s heirs were entrusted with their land. In 1662, Connecticut, which included the Mohegan land that had been entrusted to the Masons, was incorporated by a royal charter. Based on this charter, the colony argued that the land was now the property of the government. In 1687, the colony began granting the Mohegan land to townships, and in 1704 the Masons petitioned the Crown on behalf of the Mohegans, claiming that such transfers of land to townships were illegal. Between the years of 1705 and 1773 legal disputes and controversies persisted, finally ending in a verdict by the Crown against the Mohegans. In 1755, Wheelock received property and housing in Lebanon that he would use as his house and school. While Lebanon was originally incorporated as a part of New London County in 1700, in 1724 it became a part of New Windham, before once again becoming a part of New London County in 1826. Lebanon was central to the American Revolution with half of its adult population fighting for the colonists and hundreds of meetings convened in the town for the revolutionary cause.


The first English immigrant to settle on a peninsula in a harbor on the northeastern coast of North America the local Algonquin Indians called "Shawmet" was William Blackstone in 1629. A year later, John Winthrop arrived with a group of English Puritans and other settlers and named the area Boston after his hometown in Lincolnshire, England. The colony quickly developed representative political institutions that would help shape a democratic nation. Over the next few centuries, Boston emerged as an intellectual and educational center, and, because of its excellent harbor, became a leading commercial hub and a primary port for North America. It is the capital and largest city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and the largest city in New England. Boston was the home for the Boards of Commissioners of several overseas religious societies who sent missionaries throughout the colonies in the 18th century, and was the site of many important events of the American Revolution.

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

DeBerdt, Dennys

Dennys DeBerdt was a London merchant of Dutch descent, a dissenter who took an avid interest in American affairs and politics. Although he was not especially prominent in British eyes, many Americans, including Wheelock, venerated him as a valuable ally. DeBerdt tried to help Wheelock secure a charter for Moor's, but his efforts failed because the Connecticut Assembly was opposed. Otherwise, DeBerdt helped Wheelock in much the same way as other supporters did: he collected and forwarded donations and circulated information. He also hosted Occom, Whitaker, and J. Smith on their fundraising tour. In 1765, the Massachusetts Assembly elected DeBerdt as their agent in London, a post he held until his death in 1770. He also served as an agent for the Assemblies of Connecticut and Delaware. He frequently advocated for American interests in London, and was instrumental in the repeal of the Stamp Act. DeBerdt invested heavily in American trade, with poor results for his estate. Perhaps because he was a Dissenter and enjoyed limited opportunities in England, he thought American religious freedom was well worth defending. Virtually all correspondence between DeBerdt and Wheelock dates from between 1757 and 1763. DeBerdt's last letter to Wheelock was written in 1763, and Wheelock wrote to DeBerdt only sporadically after that (his last two letters are dated October 1765 and February 1767). It is not clear why the two men stopped corresponding.

Woolley, Joseph

Joseph Woolley was a Delaware who died of consumption while keeping school at Onaquaga. He came to Wheelock in 1757 as a replacement for John Pumshire, and although Wheelock labeled him as "fit for college" in late 1761, he never attended. In the fall of 1764, Joseph went to the Six Nations with Kirkland to learn the Mohawk language and keep school, and in March 1765, he was officially approved as a schoolmaster and returned to Onaquaga to teach. He was very popular there, but died unexpectedly in late November 1765. Joseph was engaged to Hannah Garrett, who later married David Fowler, but a letter from David (765302.2) suggests that Joseph may also have pursued Amy (David's object of interest before Hannah).

Gifford, Andrew

Andrew Gifford was the leading Baptist minister in England in the 18th century. He was born in Bristol, the son of Emmanuel Gifford (1673–1723), a Baptist minister, and his wife, Eleanor Lancaster (1662–1738); and grandson of Andrew Gifford, also a Bristol Baptist minister. He served as a Baptist minister in Nottingham (1725–1726) and Bristol (1727-1729). In January 1730, Gifford became Baptist minister at Little Wild Street, London, but was ostracized because of charges of sodomy that were never proven, and in 1736, he formed a new congregation in Eagle Street, where he remained as pastor for the rest of his life. Also a noted coin collector, he was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and was appointed assistant librarian in the British Museum in 1757. With the fortune of his second wife, Gifford encouraged an educated Baptist ministry through his support of Bristol Baptist College. His unusual combination of Calvinist theology with evangelical passion made him a partisan of George Whitefield, whose "Eighteen Sermons" (1771) Gifford edited; it was a volume that sold widely in England and America. He also supported Wheelock's missionary efforts; in his "Narrative" for June 1764, Wheelock records that Gifford sent the school “a neat Pair of Globes, and a valuable Collection of Books," and appeals to him for help in advancing the School's interests in London. Gifford was one of several prominent clergymen who befriended Occom and Whitaker on their fundraising tour in England. Occom records hearing Gifford preach, preaching at his church, and dining and lodging at his house. A measure of Occom's affection for Gifford is that he and Mary Occom named their youngest son Andrew Gifford (b 1774 in Mohegan).

Whitefield, George

George Whitefield, the English itinerant preacher who helped spark the Great Awakening, was an essential supporter of Eleazar Wheelock’s project. Whitefield studied at Pembroke College, Oxford, where he met the pioneers of Methodism, John and Charles Wesley. He was ordained in 1736, and he made the first of his seven trips to America two years later. While abroad in 1740, Whitefield founded an orphanage in Georgia, and went on a preaching tour during which he met Wheelock and spread ideals that prompted the Great Awakening. Although Whitefield was ordained in the Church of England, his enthusiastic preaching style and charismatic personality made him a controversial figure, and traditional clergyman on both sides of the Atlantic censured him. Nonetheless, he continued to be an important contact and friend of Wheelock’s, and his dedication to Wheelock’s vision was evident. He contributed money to the cause, secured various other funders, and donated an eighty-pound prayer bell to the school. More importantly, Whitefield not only suggested to Wheelock the idea of a fundraising tour in Great Britain, he hosted Occom and Whitaker shortly after they arrived in England, provided a house for them to reside in for the remainder of their tour, and introduced the pair to influential figures such as William Legge, the Earl of Dartmouth. Whitefield tabernacle’s was the setting of Occom’s first sermon in England on February 16, 1766, and many believe that Whitefield wrote the introduction to a pamphlet printed in London during the campaign (although he was not credited). Whitefield continued to be involved in Wheelock’s work until he died in Newburyport, MA in September of 1770.

Savage, Samuel

Samuel Savage was a London merchant and a member of the English Trust, the body formed to oversee money raised by Samson Occom and Nathaniel Whitaker in England between 1766 and 1768. His shop was on Gun Street, in Spitalfields, and he was likely a weaver. Few other personal details are known. Like most of Eleazar Wheelock’s English contacts, Savage was a follower of the evangelical George Whitefield, transatlantic celebrity of the First Great Awakening, and it was through Whitefield that Savage became involved in Wheelock’s initial attempts to gain a charter in the 1760s. Once Occom and Whitaker arrived in London in February 1766, Savage was part of the informal committee that handled their correspondence and suggested targets for fundraising. He was also made a member of the Trust when it was formally established in 1766. Savage, like John Thornton, continued to provide Wheelock with financial support after the fund was exhausted in 1775. Although most of the Englishmen who worked with Whitaker and Occom found Whitaker insufferable and praised Occom, Savage displayed a marked preference for Whitaker. Like Wheelock, he was worried that Occom would become prouder than he thought was appropriate for an Indian, and he expressed concerns that Whitaker had not been paid enough to compensate for his long absence from his family (no similar concerns about Occom’s family were voiced). Since Savage’s views on Occom were very close to the New England norm and represent a deviation from most Englishmen’s views, one is tempted to conclude that he had spent time in America or had been born there, but that is pure conjecture.

Smith, John

John Smith was an affluent Boston merchant who supported Wheelock’s school throughout the 1760s. It is likely that Smith and Wheelock were introduced by George Whitefield or someone similarly involved in evangelical and missionary efforts in the British Atlantic world: John Smith made somewhat regular trips to London for business, and had been in contact with Whitefield since the 1740s. Like the other Boston merchants who supported Moor’s Indian Charity School (including Moses Peck, William Hyslop, and Nathaniel Eells), Smith traded with Wheelock and kept him up to date on political developments in Boston, especially as they concerned attitudes towards Moor’s Indian Charity School. However, Smith was better educated (and likely more affluent) than the other merchants that Wheelock worked with, and, correspondingly, played a more important role than his brethren in Wheelock’s efforts. Smith publicized the school independently (his letter to an unnamed friend, catalogued as 764318.2, is one of the most cited letters on the organization of Moor’s) and assisted Wheelock in publishing the Narratives. John Smith’s greatest contribution to Wheelock’s design was his support during Samson Occom and Nathaniel Whitaker’s fundraising tour of Great Britain (1765-1768). Smith set out for Britain in July 1765 to improve his health, and while there, acted as a vanguard for Occom and Whitaker. He managed their correspondence, suggested destinations, and served on an ad hoc advisory council that included George Whitefield, Samuel Savage, Robert Keen, and several other influential men. The pace of the journey caught up with John Smith, however, and he died in 1768 while in Britain.

Smith, Charles Jeffery

Charles Jeffery Smith was an independently funded Presbyterian missionary and itinerant preacher. After his father's early death, Smith inherited a large private income. Instead of enjoying a life of leisure, he chose to complete his education at Yale and then become a missionary. After graduating, he taught at Moor's Indian Charity School, gratis, for a few months in 1763. His first mission, and his only mission among Indians, was a 1763 endeavor to the Six Nations, accompanied by then-student Joseph Brant as an interpreter. However, Pontiac's War forced them to return. Although Smith continued his missionary career, he focused on slaves in the Mid/South-Atlantic region and English-colonist congregations. Smith held several important roles in Wheelock's Grand Design. He was Wheelock's heir-once-removed (after Whitaker) in Wheelock's 1767 will, and was proposed as Occom's companion on the 1765 fundraising tour. Wheelock consulted Smith about the location of what was to be Dartmouth College (Smith proposed Virginia or South Carolina), and solicited him as an envoy to the Six Nations in 1768; when Smith refused, the job fell to Ralph Wheelock, who severely alienated the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) and Sir William Johnson. Smith's residence was in Virginia at the time of his death, but he actually died in Long Island while visiting his family, from a gunshot wound sustained while hunting. It is unclear whether this was murder, an accidental shot, or suicide.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Ashpo, Samuel

Ashpo was born into a very powerful Mohegan family, considered equal to the Uncas line, and became an influential Mohegan preacher. He was converted at Mohegan during the Great Awakening, and became a schoolteacher among the Indians at Mushantuxet from 1753 until 1757 and from 1759 until 1762, when he left to attend Moor's. Between 1757 and 1759, he worked as an interpreter, and supposedly struggled with alcohol. He attended Moor's for only six months, and then continued his teaching and missionary career on successive trips to Chenango (the first was cut short because of violence in the region). On July 1, 1767, the Connecticut Board dismissed him from their service because of further charges of drinking. He continued to preach successfully to various New England Indian tribes until his death in 1795. The variations of his name exist in part because Ashpo is an abbreviated form of Ashobapow.

Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers0014.ocp M. r Mr. DeBerdt recipient DeBerdt, Dennys
pers0041.ocp Joseph Woolley mentioned Woolley, Joseph
pers0221.ocp Doct r Dr. Giffords mentioned Gifford, Andrew
pers0465.ocp M. r Mr. Savage mentioned Savage, Samuel
pers0038.ocp M. r Mr. Whitefield mentioned Whitefield, George
pers0497.ocp M. r Mr. Smith mentioned Smith, John
pers0500.ocp Smith mentioned Smith, Charles Jeffery
pers0030.ocp Occom mentioned Occom, Samson
pers0002.ocp Aſhpo Ashpo mentioned Ashpo, Samuel
pers0036.ocp Eleazar Wheelock writer Wheelock, Eleazar

Places identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
place0122.ocp Lebanon Lebanon
place0068.ocp England England
place0013.ocp Boston Boston

Organizations identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
org0098.ocp My School Moor’s Indian Charity School
org0098.ocp this School Moor’s Indian Charity School

Dates identified in this document:

Standard Form Text
1763-03-05 March 5. 1763.

Regularized text:

Type Original Regularized
modernization M.r Mr.
variation appeard appeared
modernization aſpect aspect
variation markes marks
modernization ſeveral several
modernization Inſtances instances
modernization Reaſon reason
modernization yr there
modernization laſt last
modernization ſaving saving
modernization paſsed passed
variation inclosed enclosed
modernization pleaſe please
modernization deſire desire
variation Shew show
modernization Doctr Dr.
modernization ſhall shall
modernization accompliſh­
modernization ſo so
variation Majesties Majesty's
modernization repreſented represented
modernization yt that
modernization Expreſsions expressions
modernization Kindneſs kindness
modernization y.e the
modernization accompliſh accomplish
modernization Neceſsity necessity
variation Mapps maps
modernization Senſible sensible
modernization Deſign design
modernization Diminiſhing diminishing
modernization increaſing increasing
modernization truſt trust
modernization aſsiſtance assistance
modernization Bleſsing blessing
modernization Meſsrs Messrs.
modernization Aſhpo Ashpo
modernization Pleaſure pleasure
modernization refreſhing refreshing
modernization juſtify justify
modernization ſupported supported
modernization ſupply supply
modernization ſavages savages
modernization vaſt vast
variation Sett set
modernization inceſsantly incessantly
modernization Harveſt harvest
modernization ſend send
variation miſcheifs mischiefs
modernization ſelf ſeeking self-seeking
modernization ſir sir
modernization Deareſt dearest
modernization &c etc.

Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
have.g having
& and
& and
fav.r favour
yu you
Miſsrs missionaries
Faithf.ll faithful

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Number of nested "hi" tags: (consider merging the @rend attributes, or using other tags) 0
Number of tags with invalid 'rend' attributes: 0 (out of 24)
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Number of "add" tags with unknown 'place' attributes: 0 (out of 21)
Mixed case attribute values in header (potential error): 0 (out of 116)
HomeEleazar Wheelock, letter, to Dennys DeBerdt, 1763 March 5
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