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Eleazar Wheelock, letter, to John Smith, 1761 September 15

ms-number: 761515

[note (type: abstract): Wheelock writes of Occom’s mission to the Oneidas, of the preparations of Samuel Kirtland for mission work, and of the general progress of the charity school. In a postscript, Wheelock states that Occom was educated entirely by him, and not at college.][note (type: handwriting): Handwriting is relatively clear and tidy, with some deletions and additions.][note (type: paper): Large sheet folded in half to make four pages is silked along horizontal creases; there is some wear at edges.][note (type: ink): Heavy and blotchy in spots.][note (type: noteworthy): On one recto, second paragraph, the "three Mohawke lads" are Joseph Brant, Negyes, and Center. On one verso, second paragraph, one of the Delaware girls is Miriam Storrs; in the same paragraph " of the Girls which I have been so long expecting..." is likely Amy Johnson. On one verso, fourth paragraph, the two Delawares are Joseph Woolley and Hezekiah Calvin. Some contents are similar to those of 761404. Wheelock discusses the belief that Indians are the "10 Tribes of the House of Israel." In the trailer on 2 verso, the date is written as September 13, not 15.]

events: Building of Occom’s house


Much [Reſpected | respected]Reſpectedrespected and [Hon.d | Honoured]Hon.d Honoured Sir.
My Affairs have [ſo | so]ſoso crowded me that I [han't | haven't]han'thaven't
found [Leiſure | leisure]Leiſureleisure to write you of the State of this Indian School[org0098.ocp], as
[above] you [deſired | desired]deſireddesired [& | and]&and you [deſired | desired]deſireddesired [& | and]&and I [deſign'd | designed]deſign'ddesigned when I had the [Pleaſure | pleasure]Pleaſurepleasure you gave me at your House
[laſt | last]laſtlast Spring. nor can I now more than gratify you with a few
Hints; in Hopes I may have More [Leiſure | leisure]Leiſureleisure by [& | and]&and by [gap: tear] or perhaps
the opportunity to wait upon you at your own House [gap: tear] [guess (h-dawnd): a]again be
­fore winter.
[M.r | Mr.]M.r Mr. Occom[pers0030.ocp], in [Conſequence | consequence]Conſequenceconsequence of the Appointment which I [in­
form'd | in
you of, [ſat | set]ſatset out on his long journey to the [ſix | Six]ſixSix Nations[org0090.ocp], on
the [10th | 10th]10th 10th of June[1761-06-10] [laſt | last]laſtlast, (accompanied by David[pers0155.ocp] the youth who
was with me at your House [laſt | last]laſtlast Spring) by the way of New­
, where he tarried [ſeveral | several]ſeveralseveral Days, [& | and]&and [preach'd | preached]preach'dpreached in [M.r | Mr.]M.r Mr. [Boſtwic[above] kk | Bostwick]Boſtwic[above] kk Bostwick [pers0089.ocp]
Meeting House to an [Aſsembly | assembly]Aſsemblyassembly [vaſtly | vastly]vaſtlyvastly Numerous; at which
was collected £ 70. for his use. And the Evening following at the
[Baptiſt's | Baptist's]Baptiſt'sBaptist's Meeting House £ 13. their [Currancy | currency]Currancycurrency: And received
the [fulleſt | fullest]fulleſtfullest Recommendations from the principle Gentlemen
in the City. I have [ſince | since]ſincesince received a Letter from him Dated
German Flatts[place0084.ocp]. July 7.[1761-07-07] Informing [y.t | that]y.t that he had met with un­
common [Kindneſs | kindness]Kindneſskindness, [& | and]&and [Reſpect | respect]Reſpectrespect every where. And that [Genl | Gen.]Genl Gen.
[Amherſt | Amherst]AmherſtAmherst [pers0055.ocp]
had given him the [Strongeſt | strongest]Strongeſtstrongest [Paſs | pass]Paſspass, [& | and]&and [Recom̅endati
­on | recommendati
to all his Officers, [&c | etc.]&cetc.. And also that [Gen.l | Gen.]Gen.l Gen. [Johnſson | Johnson]JohnſsonJohnson [pers0292.ocp], who
was there on his way to the Detroit[place0060.ocp], with [Preſents | presents]Preſentspresents to the Indians
had [promiſed | promised]promiſedpromised him his [Aſsiſtance | assistance]Aſsiſtanceassistance, and [design'd | designed]design'ddesigned the next Day
to introduce him to the Oneida Nation[org0075.ocp]. I have also of
the Same Date and from the Same Place, a Letter from
[Genl | Gen.]Genl Gen. [Johnſon | Johnson]JohnſonJohnson [pers0292.ocp], which came by the Hands of Three [Mohawke | Mohawk]MohawkeMohawk [org0062.ocp]
Lads two of [illegible] which were Sent by the [Gen.l | Gen.]Gen.l Gen. [pers0292.ocp] to this School[org0098.ocp] in
[Complyance | compliance]Complyancecompliance illegible with my [deſire | desire]deſiredesire by Letter to him that he would
[ſend | send]ſendsend me [ſix | six]ſixsix [promiſing | promising]promiſingpromising Youth of those Nations. Three to
be [ſupported | supported]ſupportedsupported by the [Hon.le | Honourable]Hon.le Honourable [Scotiſh | Scottish]ScotiſhScottish [Com̅iſ | Commissioners]Com̅iſ Commissioners [org0011.ocp], And the
other Three I venture to take in Addition to the [ſix | six]ſixsix which
I had before to be the Subjects of Such Charities, as God
[ſhall | shall]ſhallshall [diſpose | dispose]diſposedispose the Hearts of his People to [beſtow | bestow]beſtowbestow upon this
[occaſion | occasion]occaſionoccasion. And the [Gen.l | Gen.]Gen.l Gen. [pers0292.ocp] informs me, he hopes, as he [paſses | passes]paſsespasses
[thro' | through]thro'through the Other Nations on his Way, he [ſhall | shall]ſhallshall be able to [ſend | send]ſendsend
me 3. or 4. more [ſo | so]ſoso as to [compleat | complete]compleatcomplete the Number which I wrote
for. And I am now daily Expecting them here.
When these came I was much at a [loſs | loss]loſsloss what might be his
End in coming, who was not recommended by the [Gen.l | Gen.]Gen.l Gen. [pers0292.ocp]; but
[ſince | since]ſincesince we have learnt to [underſtand | understand]underſtandunderstand them a little better, I am
fully [perſuaded | persuaded]perſuadedpersuaded the [Caſe | case]Caſecase was thus. After the [Gen.l | Gen.]Gen.l Gen. [pers0292.ocp] had [ſent | sent]ſentsent away
those two, the Other [underſtanding | understanding]underſtandingunderstanding their [Deſign | design]Deſigndesign, and being [deſi­
rous | desi
of Learning as well as they, went after the [Gen.l | Gen.]Gen.l Gen. [pers0292.ocp], but he
now got too far on his way to be overtaken, where upon he con­
cluded to run the venture of coming without Recommendation
They all behave very well hitherto. And it is quite [agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable
to [ſee | see]ſeesee them with the [reſt | rest]reſtrest Generally [ſo | so]ſoso well [ingaged | engaged]ingagedengaged in their [ſtudies | studies]ſtudiesstudies.
[tho' | though]tho'though
[Tho' | though]Tho'though one without Experience can well conceive the Difficulty
there is in Educating them.
David[pers0155.ocp] is not yet [return'd | returned]return'dreturned nor do I expect him ['till | 'til]'till'til those other
[Ladds | lads]Laddslads come, if before [M.r | Mr.]M.r Mr. Occom[pers0030.ocp] returns from his [Miſsion | mission]Miſsionmission.
But one of the Girls which I have been [ſo | so]ſoso long expecting is yet
come. [M.r | Mr.]M.r Mr. Brainerd[pers0004.ocp] wrote me in the Spring that those expected
from Delaware[place0059.ocp], had been detained by [Sickneſs | sickness]Sickneſssickness, and one was then
not likely to recover, however that I might expect two by the
[Firſt | first]Firſtfirst [Veſsel | vessel]Veſselvessel.
[M.r | Mr.]M.r Mr. Kirtland[pers0942.ocp]'s Son[pers0315.ocp], a [Charity­Schollar | charity­scholar]Charity­Schollarcharity­scholar, and [promiſing | promising]promiſingpromising Youth,
who is now at this School[org0098.ocp] fitting for a [Miſsion | mission]Miſsionmission, is learning the
[Mohawke | Mohawk]MohawkeMohawk [org0062.ocp] Language of the Boys, as fast as he can under the
[Diſadvantage | disadvantage]Diſadvantagedisadvantage of having no Books, nor Interpreter to help
him. And So are also [ſeveral | several]ſeveralseveral of the Indian Boys.
I here [ſend | send]ſendsend you [incloſed | enclosed]incloſedenclosed a [Speciman | specimen]Specimanspecimen of the writing of my two
Delawares[org0038.ocp], and I doubt not you would be much [pleaſed | pleased]pleaſedpleased to
hear them read [Lattin | Latin]LattinLatin [& | and]&and Greek.
As to those Signatures [& | and]&and Traces of [Judaiſm | Judaism]JudaiſmJudaism which have [in­
clin'd | in­
me to believe our American Indians to be the 10 Tribes
of the House of Israel, [above] I am not in a Capacity to [ſet | set]ſetset [ym | them]ym them in [ſuch | such]ſuchsuch a Light as I hope I may beI am not in a Capacity to [ſet | set]ſetset [ym | them]ym them in [ſuch | such]ſuchsuch a Light as I hope I may be. [ſeveral | several]ſeveralseveral of which them we [diſcourſd | discoursed]diſcourſddiscoursed of, [ſuch | such]ſuchsuch
as Their Languages being generally Guttural, [& | and]&and Abounding in prefixes
[& | and]&and Suffixes [agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable to the Hebrew. Their use of [y.e | the]y.e the word Higgai­
nan in their Singing, which I [ſuſpect | suspect]ſuſpectsuspect to be the Same with Higgaion
used by the Sweet Singer of Israel Their Sacrifices, [eſpecially | especially]eſpeciallyespecially
of the pascal Lamb. (for want of which they use a [Faun | fawn]Faunfawn) [ſo | so]ſoso [agrea­
ble | agreea­
to the Mosaic Rites. Their cutting out the Hollow of the Thigh
when they can give no [Reaſon | reason]Reaſonreason for it but Tradition, and [ſay | say]ſaysay that
all good Indians have done [ſo | so]ſoso, which I had from an old man
of good credit who was in his youth a Mighty Hunter among
them. Their Avenging [Murther | murder]Murthermurder by the [neareſt | nearest]neareſtnearest of kin. Their Se­
paration of their Women for [uncleaneſs | uncleanness]uncleaneſsuncleanness. [& | and]&and their Purification [&c | etc.]&cetc.
There Is, [beſides | besides]beſidesbesides These, and many Such like, one which I dont rem­
ember to have [diſcourſed | discoursed]diſcourſeddiscoursed with you of, and which is with me as
weighty as [almoſt | almost]almoſtalmost any I have heard, and which I [ſhould | should]ſhouldshould be glad of
your Thoughts upon. I had it from that dear man of God the
[Rev.d | Rev.]Rev.d Rev. David Brainerd[pers0003.ocp] a little before his Death. and perhaps the
[Diſcovery | discovery]Diſcoverydiscovery never was So fully made by any other. He gave it me
a little before his Death, as he had it from one of their [Powows | powwows]Powowspowwows, then
lately converted to [chriſtianity | Christianity]chriſtianityChristianity under his [Minſtry | ministry]Minſtryministry among them.
He told me that the [ſpirit | spirit]ſpiritspirit which their [Powows | powwows]Powowspowwows are at certain Times
under the Influence [Inſpired | inspired]Inſpiredinspired with, [& | and]&and under the Influence of, and which
makes them So much the fear [& | and]&and Dread of the Indians, was as exact
an Imitation of a Spirit of [Propheſy | prophesy]Propheſyprophesy as he could conceive the
Devil capable of. that they were Seers and could See the Hearts
Thoughts, Purposes, [& | and]&and Intentions of others they were concerned with, as
plain as one could [ſee | see]ſeesee an opaque Body in a [tranſparent | transparent]tranſparenttransparent [Glaſs | glass]Glaſsglass, they
would charge men with what they had done in Secret [& | and]&and make
them own it. and pretend to 'tell Fatuities, viz. what [ſucceſs | success]ſucceſssuccess the
Enquirers would have in Hunting or War, in which [Caſe | case]Caſecase they [illegible] are
were much used. (and [illegible] [above] perhapsperhaps could 'tell as much as the Devil
Knew in these [Caſes | cases]Caſescases) and when the Spirit was gone from them they
were but as other men.
Now when I [conſider | consider]conſiderconsider how [y.e | the]y.e the false Spirit has all along imitated [y.e | the]y.e the
Time and the great advantage he has thereby made to get [ye | the]ye the [ſubjects | subjects]ſubjectssubjects
of it fast in his Snare. and what advantage he may be [Supposd | supposed]Supposdsupposed to
have got of [ye | the]ye the 10 Tribes in this way, after [ye | the]ye the Time [ſince | since]ſincesince of [Prophiſie | prophecy]Prophiſieprophecy
was wholly [Loſt | lost]Loſtlost among them, and not only a [Sp.t | spirit]Sp.t spirit of [Prophiſie | prophecy]Prophiſieprophecy
but humane Literature with it. I cant but think there is weight
in it.
as to what has been [ſaid | said]ſaidsaid by Some [y.t | that]y.t that the Names of Several
Animals [above] in their Languagein their Language are [ye | the]ye the very Same with the Hebrew: perhaps when we are
able to Send [Miſsionaries | missionaries]Miſsionariesmissionaries among them who are well [inſtructed | instructed]inſtructedinstructed in the
Hebrew Tongue we may be [furniſhed | furnished]furniſhedfurnished with [ye | the]ye the [fulleſt | fullest]fulleſtfullest Evidence from
that Quarter. I hope my dear Little Jacob[pers0040.ocp], who is now just
out of his [2.d | 2nd]2.d 2nd Year at New [Jerſie | Jersey]JerſieJersey College[org0067.ocp], and is one of [y.e | the]y.e the Delaware
, may be the very man to oblige us with [ſome | some]ſomesome new [Diſcove­
ries | discove­
of the Nature.
The getting exact Information of these things, and Setting them
in a true and proper Light will require Time and Pains.
I have lately been (I cant Say [diſagreably | disagreeably]diſagreablydisagreeably) [amaſed | amazed]amaſedamazed with a Letter
from [M.r | Mr.]M.r Mr. Emrie[pers0184.ocp] to [M.r | Mr.]M.r Mr. John [Erſkine | Erskine]ErſkineErskine [pers0185.ocp] in Scotland[place0203.ocp], in [manuſcript | manuscript]manuſcriptmanuscript
wherein he Supposes he has fully proved from the word of God [yt | that]yt that
The Indians in North America are the 10 Tribes of the House of
Israel, were [baniſshed | banished]baniſshedbanished [above] hitherhither into the [Wilderneſs | wilderness]Wilderneſswilderness of the Peoples, and their
[origional | original]origionaloriginal [conceald | concealed]concealdconcealed under enigmatical [Propheſies | prophesies]Propheſiesprophesies, that they
might not be [recond | reckoned]recondreckoned among the Nations, ['till | 'til]'till'til Now the Time
of their Deliverance is at Hand. I have only had [y.e | the]y.e the Favour.
of a [curſory | cursory]curſorycursory reading of it, I apprehend there is a great deal of
[Insenuity | insinuity]Insenuityinsinuity in what he has wrote if nothing more. —
I was much encouraged in the [Proſecution | prosecution]Proſecutionprosecution of this grand
Affair by what I met with at [Boſton | Boston]BoſtonBoston [place0013.ocp] [laſt | last]laſtlast Spring, [perticular­
ly | particular­
the generous and [Seaſonable | seasonable]Seaſonableseasonable [Bequeſt | bequest]Bequeſtbequest, of that truly noble
Lord the Marquess of [Lothain | Lothian]LothainLothian [pers0355.ocp], and others. which I [look'd | looked]look'dlooked
upon as an Answer to Prayer, and was [encouragd | encouraged]encouragdencouraged thereby
to enlarge the Number of My [Schollars | scholars]Schollarsscholars, And hope I [ſhall | shall]ſhallshall
find what has been done to have been but an [Earniſt | earnest]Earniſtearnest of
greater Supplies as they Shall be needed.
I doubt not, my dear Sir, Your are ready to do any
thing in Your Power to promote it. And I [truſt | trust]truſttrust among
the many [Expreſsions | expressions]Expreſsionsexpressions of [above] youryour unmerited [Kindneſs | kindness]Kindneſskindness you will not
fail to remember in your devoutest Hours. him, who is
with [moſt | most]moſtmost [ſincere | sincere]ſinceresincere [Reſpect | respect]Reſpectrespect, Sir.
Your [moſt | most]moſtmost Obliged Friend
 and Humble [ſervant | servant]ſervantservant
[Eleaz.r | Eleazar]Eleaz.r Eleazar Wheelock[pers0036.ocp]
[M.r | Mr.]M.r Mr. John Smith[pers0497.ocp]
[left] John Smith[pers0497.ocp] [Sepr | September]Sepr September 1761[1761-09] John Smith[pers0497.ocp] [Sepr | September]Sepr September 1761[1761-09]

My Dear [& | and]&and [Hon'd | Honoured]Hon'dHonoured Sir.
not [knowg | knowing]knowg knowing [w.t | what]w.t what [Improvemt | improvement]Improvemt improvement You may
think fit to make of the [incloſd | enclosed]incloſdenclosed, (as I [ſubmitt | submit]ſubmittsubmit
to your own [Judgment | judgement]Judgmentjudgement to [ſend | send]ſendsend it to your [Corriſ­
pondent | corres­
if you [pleaſe | please]pleaſeplease) I [tho't | thought]tho'tthought proper to im­
prove this Cover to Acknowledge the [moſt | most]moſtmost
generous [Expreſsions | expressions]Expreſsionsexpressions of your [Reſpect | respect]Reſpectrespect to me
and this Indian Affair in Yours of July 23. 1761[1761-07-23]
and the Copy of yours to your [Freind | friend]Freindfriend [&c | etc.]&cetc.
and Rectify a little [miſtake | mistake]miſtakemistake or two in your
[acco.t | account]acco.t account to him. viz. [M.r | Mr.]M.r Mr. Occom[pers0030.ocp] never lived at
College. he had all [ye | the]ye the Learning which he had
of me and my [ſon | son]ſonson in Law, who took my [ſchool | school]ſchoolschool
when he came out of College and kept it one
year at Hebron[place0099.ocp], Also the Number of
Charity Indian [ſchollars | scholars]ſchollarsscholars [illegible] when I was at your
house was [ſix | six]ſixsix. [M.r | Mr.]M.r Mr. Emrie[pers0184.ocp]s [Lett.r | letter]Lett.r letter [mentiond | mentioned]mentiondmentioned
in the [incloſd | enclosed]incloſdenclosed I had by [M.r | Mr.]M.r Mr. [Wm | William]Wm William [Hyſlop | Hyslop]HyſlopHyslop [pers0274.ocp]'s
procurement [& | and]&and I pray you would give him
opportunity to read the [incloſd | enclosed]incloſdenclosed perhaps
there may be [ſomething | something]ſomethingsomething here useful to him
and which he has not yet received from
me. I am with [moſt | most]moſtmost sincere [Reſpect | respect]Reſpectrespect
to you [& | and]&and [Madm | Madam]Madm Madam [pers0502.ocp]
your unworthy [Br | brother]Br brother
  [& | and]&and [hum.le | humble]hum.le humble [ſervt | servant]ſervt servant
[Eleazr | Eleazar]Eleazr Eleazar Wheelock[pers0036.ocp]
[Mr | Mr.]Mr Mr. John [ſmith | Smith]ſmithSmith [pers0497.ocp]

[left] [Lett.r | letter]Lett.r letter to [M.r | Mr.]M.r Mr. John Smith[pers0497.ocp]
Boston[place0013.ocp].J [Sept. | September]Sept.September 13.
[Lett.r | letter]Lett.r letter to [M.r | Mr.]M.r Mr. John Smith[pers0497.ocp]
Boston[place0013.ocp].J [Sept. | September]Sept.September 13.
Oneida Nation
The Oneidas are one of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Six Nations. During the 18th century, they were largely considered the most Christianized Haudenosaunee tribe. The Oneidas had a rich tradition of indigenous ministers, including Good Peter, Deacon Thomas, and Isaac Dakayenensere, and played host to several Moor’s missionaries, including Samson Occom, David Fowler, Samuel Ashpo, Joseph Johnson, Joseph Woolley, Titus Smith, and Samuel Kirkland (who went on to found Hamilton Oneida Academy, now Hamilton College). They were also the interpreter James Dean’s adoptive tribe. Notable Oneida towns included Onaquaga, Kanawalohale, and Old Oneida. Onaquaga was the central fire of the Six Nations. By the 18th century, it also had a sizeable contingent of Onondagas and Tuscaroras. Good Peter and Isaac Dakayenensere taught there, as did Joseph Woolley. Kanawalohale and Old Oneida were more predominantly Oneida. The Oneidas were involved in several crucial moments in the history of Moor's Indian Charity School. Onaquaga was the site of the 1765 confrontation between Wheelock and the New England Company, in which the New England Company disrupted Titus Smith's mission, first by sending their own missionary, and second by repossessing Elisha Gunn, the interpreter they had agreed to "loan" to Titus Smith. Left without an interpreter, Titus Smith was forced to abandon his mission (Wheelock repaid the favor a few years later by hiring James Dean away from the New England Company). A few years later, in 1769, Deacon Thomas led the Oneidas in withdrawing all their children from Moor's. The Oneidas' departure struck a devastating blow against Wheelock's Indian education plans, and provided more momentum for his shift to educating predominantly Anglo-Americans. The Oneidas sided with the colonists during the Revolution, but they were still affected by the general devastation in Six Nations territory, especially the Sullivan Expedition (1779). After the Revolution, the Oneidas granted tracts of their land to two Christian Indian organizations: the Brothertown tribe, a composite tribe of Moor’s alumni from New England, and the Stockbridge Indians. It was not long before the groups came into conflict with one another. Encroachment from the new State of New York put increasing pressure on Oneida land, and the Oneidas tried to renegotiate their treaties with the Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians to compensate. The Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians fought back, but by the 1820s all three groups had lost, and many of them relocated to Wisconsin.
Six Nations
The Six Nations (often called the Haudenosaunee or Iroquois) is a confederacy composed of the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas, and Tuscaroras. The first five tribes unified at some point before European contact (dates differ by centuries), and the Tuscaroras joined them in 1722, after colonial violence drove the tribe out of Carolina. The Haudenosaunee occupied much of what is now central New York, and, thus, were sandwiched between French, English, and Dutch territories. They allied with the English against the French early on, just as their arch-enemies, the Huron, allied with the French. Despite the Six Nations’ unity, the constituent nations experienced European contact in different ways. The Mohawks and Oneidas, as the two easternmost tribes, had by far the most contact with the English, while the Senecas and Cayugas, the westernmost nations, had little contact with the English (although both hosted French Jesuit missionaries). Mohawk territory was the site of Johnson Hall, the administrative center and home of Sir William Johnson, the British Superintendent for Indian Affairs in the Northeast. The Oneidas, meanwhile, played host to several prominent Anglo-American missionaries and were thought of as the most Christianized Haudenosaunee tribe by many colonists. Eleazar Wheelock became fixated on the Haudenosaunee soon after he established Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754. He saw in them the opportunity for a fresh start, since he believed that New England Indians had assimilated to Anglo-American norms in all the wrong ways (too much rum, too little Christianity). Wheelock established contact with the Haudenosaunee through Sir William Johnson and made the Mohawks and Oneidas the focal point of his missionary efforts for much of the 1760s. The American Revolution had dramatic repercussions for the Haudenosaunee Confederacy. The Mohawks, Senecas, Onondagas, and Cayugas sided with the British, while the Oneidas and Tuscaroras sided with the Americans. Since all Haudenosaunee hold membership in both a tribe (Mohawk, Oneida, etcetera) and a matrilineal clan (bear, wolf, and others), the tribes’ divergent alliances brought about political schism and violence within extended families. Furthermore, Haudenosaunee territory was devastated during the war, especially in General Sullivan’s 1779 raid on Cayuga and Seneca territory. After the Revolution, many Haudenosaunee who had affiliated with the British relocated to the Grand River Reserve in Canada, while many of the Oneidas and Tuscaroras remained in New York. The Haudenosaunee at the Grand River Reserve established their own council fire, which operated in parallel with the original council fire at Onondaga. Today, both council fires are still active, and each tribe also has its own independent government (as do displaced Haudenosaunee populations, such as the Oneidas of Wisconsin).
Boston Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge
The Boston Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge (SSPCK) was established in 1730 to support local missionary efforts. It was the SSPCK's first board in the British colonies in America. The SSPCK later founded a New York Board (1741) and a Connecticut Board (1764). Although Wheelock lobbied for a New Hampshire board after his 1770 relocation, by that time the SSPCK had had enough of him and his request was denied. The Boston Board of the SSPCK sponsored many missionaries to Native Americans, including David and John Brainerd. However, it did not provide very much support to Wheelock or his school, in large part because Wheelock and Charles Chauncy, chair of the Boston Board, clashed over Congregationalist politics. The Boston Board did provide £20 to support Samson Occom and David Fowler on a 1761 mission to the Six Nations to procure Moor's students, but it was then reluctant to support the boys Occom and Fowler obtained. The Board eventually paid £58.10.1 in 1762. They never gave money to Wheelock again. Wheelock was instrumental in forming the Connecticut Board of the SSPCK in 1764, over which he exerted considerable influence. From that point forward, he was largely able to avoid dealing with the Boston Board of the SSPCK. The The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America is also called the Boston Board in some letters, and most secondary sources have mixed the two Boston Boards. This is an easy mistake to make since both are sometimes called the Boston Board and vigorously opposed Wheelock. However, the general confusion in the literature means that any secondary source's statement on either board should be taken with some skepticism.
Mohawk Nation
The Mohawk Nation is one of the Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy. As the “eastern door” of the Confederacy, or easternmost Haudenosaunee nation, the Mohawks were perceived throughout the colonial period as a gateway to wider alliances, trade, and religious influence with the Six Nations as a whole. Thus, they received heavy missionary attention from Jesuits, Anglicans, and Congregationalists as early as the 17th century. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, the Mohawks and Six Nations more generally were a point of heated competition between Britain and France, as well as between Protestant Christian sects. Wheelock sent several missionaries and schoolmasters to the Mohawks between 1765 and 1767, including Theophilus Chamberlain (Anglo-American), Hezekiah Calvin (Delaware), Abraham Major and Minor (Mohawks), Peter (Mohawk), Moses (Mohawk), and Johannes (Mohawk). The two main towns or "castles" that the mission was based at were Canajoharie and Fort Hunter. Two of the most important figures in Mohawk history as it pertains to Moor’s Indian Charity School were Sir William Johnson and Joseph Brant. Sir William Johnson was the British Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the Northeast, one of the most powerful men in British North America. He married into the Mohawk Tribe and had substantial influence among the Six Nations. Initially he supported Wheelock’s missionary project, but by 1769 he was endorsing Anglican missionaries instead. Joseph Brant was Sir William Johnson’s brother-in-law. He was the first of 19 Mohawk students at Moor’s, where he studied from 1761-1763. Although his time at the school was short, Brant entertained a deep affection for it. He went on to be an influential Mohawk war chief and may have protected Dartmouth College from raids during the Revolution. The Revolution fractured the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, with some tribes siding with the colonists and others with the British. The Mohawks sided with the British, and many of them, Joseph Brant included, relocated to the Grand River Reserve in Canada after the war. There was also a substantial Mohawk settlement established by 1700 at Kahnawake in New France (Canada), which hosted Jesuit missionaries. The Kahnawake Mohawks were often called “Canadian Mohawks” and Wheelock recruited students from them after his move to Hanover.
Delaware Tribe
The Delaware Tribe, or Lenape Tribe, is a conglomeration of linguistically and culturally similar Native American groups that initially inhabited the mid-Atlantic region, including New Jersey, Pennsylvania, eastern Connecticut, and southeastern New York. The three main groups comprising the Delawares are the Munsees, Unamis, and Unalaqtgos. Several Delawares attended Moor’s Indian Charity School, including some of Wheelock’s earliest students. Because the Delawares were not a politically unified entity, contact with Europeans and subsequent conflict over land and trade proved especially devastating for them. During 17th-century battles over trade access, the Delawares found themselves in conflict with the Dutch and the English as well as with other Native American groups that wanted to trade with Europeans. By the time the Dutch left in the mid-17th century, the Delawares were tributaries of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois). Scholars estimate that by 1750, through a combination of war and disease, the Delaware population had fallen by as much as 90 percent. Many Delawares responded to the situation by leaving. Some migrated west with Moravian missionaries; others joined different tribes, including the Cayugas in New York and the Stockbridge Mahicans in Massachusetts (who later migrated to Oneida territory, near Brothertown, NY, and from thence to Wisconsin). Still others migrated to Ohio and ended up in Kansas or Oklahoma as a result of American expansion. Those who stayed oversaw a century of complex treaty negotiation, including two of the more egregious instances of Native American dispossession: the infamous "walking treaty" between the Delawares and the colony of Philadelphia in 1686, and the American government's (unfulfilled) promise to give the Delawares their own fully-enfranchised state in the union for their support during the Revolution. The Delawares played an important role in the history of Moor’s Indian Charity School. John Brainerd, a Presbyterian missionary to the Delaware and a friend of Wheelock’s, sent Wheelock his first “planned” Native American students from among the Delawares in 1754. J. Brainerd also oversaw the establishment of a Christian Delaware settlement at Brotherton, New Jersey in 1758 (not to be confused with Brothertown in Oneida, New York).
Princeton University
Princeton University is a College and Graduate School of liberal arts and sciences located in the town of Princeton, New Jersey. A member of the Ivy League, it enrolls about 8,000 students. When it was chartered in 1749, it was known as the College of New Jersey. It was founded by New Light Presbyterians as the educational arm of Scotch-Irish religion, and is the fourth institution of higher education established in British North America. For its first 50 years, the College was housed in Nassau Hall, one of the largest buildings in colonial America, set on land donated by Nathaniel Fitz Randolph. When expansion earned the College university status in 1896, it was officially renamed Princeton University, after the town. After the untimely deaths of its first five presidents, including Aaron Burr, Sr., and the noted Protestant theologian Jonathan Edwards, a prominent evangelical Presbyterian minister from Scotland named John Witherspoon took the helm in 1768. Witherspoon trained a generation of men who would lead the American Revolution, including James Madison, Aaron Burr, Philip Freneau and John Breckenridge. As a New Light minister, Wheelock was part of the same evangelical movement, and the College of New Jersey played a significant role in his educational experiment. Jacob Woolley, one of the first students at Moor's Indian Charity School, went on to enter the College of New Jersey in 1759, leaving in his senior year under a cloud of scandal. Several of Wheelock's Anglo-American students who studied at his Latin School and at the Indian Charity School graduated from "Nassau Hall" and became missionaries or schoolmasters in his "great design."
Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College is small liberal arts institution in Hanover, New Hampshire. It has about four thousand undergraduate students taking courses in Arts and Sciences, and another two thousand in graduate schools in the Sciences, Comparative Literature, and Liberal Studies, as well as the Geisel School of Medicine, the Thayer School of Engineering, and the Tuck School of Business. It is a member of the Ivy League, and the ninth oldest institution of higher learning in the U.S. The charter establishing the College was signed in 1769 by John Wentworth, Royal Governor of New Hamsphire, who wanted an academy of higher learning in the colony. Its founder, Eleazar Wheelock, was a Congregational minister from Connecticut who, after his success in educating Samson Occom as a school teacher and Indian missionary in the 1740's, started Moor's Indian Charity School in 1754 to continue what he regarded as a divine mission to educate Native boys and girls to become missionaries. As the school grew, Wheelock began looking for a new location closer to Indian Country where he could expand. But in the 1760's he became disillusioned by the relative failure of his progam and began turning his attention to the education of Anglo-American men as missionaries. After a protracted search, he secured the royal charter in New Hampshire and in 1769 moved his family and base of operations to Hanover, where he established the College. It is named for William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth, who contributed to the funds raised by Occom and Whitaker on their fund-raising tour of Great Britain in 1766-68 and became a member of the London Trust that administered those funds. The College's charter announced its purpose as "the education and instruction of youth of the Indian tribes in this land [in] all parts of learning which shall appear necessary and expedient for civilizing and christianizing children of pagans…, and also of English youth and any others." But Wheelock's priorities were, in reality, the reverse. While he gave public notice in 1770 that "My Indian charity school … is now become a body corporate and politic, under the name of DARTMOUTH COLLEGE," he created this parallel structure to allow him to use the funds that were collected specifically for the education of Indians. Only around 75 Native students enrolled at the College before 1972, when it rededicated itself to educating Indians and established the Native American Studies Program. This is also the year Dartmouth went co-ed. Occom was angry and embittered at Wheelock’s abandonment of his “great design,” for which he had sacrificed so much. Their relations cooled after Occom’s return from England, and he never visited his mentor again, or, for that matter, Dartmouth College.
Moor’s Indian Charity School
Moor’s Indian Charity School was a grammar school for Native Americans that Eleazar Wheelock opened in North Lebanon, Connecticut in 1754. The school was named for Colonel Joshua Moor, also spelled More, who donated the land and school building. Moor’s was essentially an expansion of the grammar school that Wheelock opened in 1743 to support himself during the fallout from the First Great Awakening, when Wheelock, who'd participated in itinerant ministry during the Awakening, had his salary confiscated by the colony of Connecticut. In December of that year, Samson Occom asked Wheelock to teach him as well. Wheelock's work with Occom was so successful that Wheelock decided to replicate the experiment with other Native American boys. He accepted his first Indian students in 1754, and in 1761 began taking female students as well. Wheelock believed that in time, his school would become just one part of a larger missionary enterprise. He planned to send his Anglo American and Native American students to various tribes as missionaries and schoolmasters, with explicit instructions to pick out the best students and send them back to Moor’s to continue the cycle. His ultimate goal was to turn his school into a model Christian Indian town that would include farms, a college, and vocational training. However, Wheelock’s grand design did not survive the decade. Wheelock lost the vast majority of his Native American students; he fought with many of the best, including Samson Occom, Joseph Johnson, David Fowler, and Hezekiah Calvin, and other former and current students accused him of subjecting Native Americans to disproportionate amounts of manual labor. In 1769, perhaps due to concerns about corporal punishment, the Oneida withdrew all their children from Moor’s. When Wheelock relocated to Hanover in 1769, only two Native American students came with him, and it became clear that Wheelock’s focus was on Dartmouth and that Dartmouth was for white students. After Wheelock’s death in 1779, Moor’s Indian Charity School receded further into the background as John Wheelock, his father’s reluctant successor, stopped taking Indian students. Some Native American students were enrolled in Moor’s until 1850, when the school unofficially closed.
German Flatts

German Flatts is located in upper Mohawk Valley on the south side of the Mohawk River in Herkimer County, New York. The Oneidas had settled this land for centuries before Palatine German immigrants, for whom the town is named, settled there in the 1720s. The Palatines were granted leases from Governor Burnet to purchase land from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) in 1723. The Germans and Oneidas sustained excellent relations and had both a trading and military alliance (and even had several inter-marriages). When the French and Indian War began, the German Flatts settlers and the Oneidas agreed to maintain peace and neutrality. Both the Palatines and the Oneidas resented nearby Fort Herkimer, believing it made the area a military target. The French refused to accept the neutrality of the Indians and Germans at German Flatts, and in 1757, the French and their Indian allies attacked a Palatine settlement in German Flatts with the help of a few Oneidas who succumbed to pressure from the French. The Germans could not defend themselves (40 were killed and 150 were taken captive back to New France), and the French and their Indian allies burned much of German Flatts. After the French and Indian War, the Germans and Haudenosaunee renewed their trading relationship and maintained peace throughout the 1760s. In two separate letters in September 1761, Wheelock refers to a July 7, 1761 letter from Occom, written from German Flatts, reporting his kind reception by the Six Nations. Wheelock also recounts a July 7th letter from General Johnson from German Flatts written by two Mohawk boys whom the General recommends as interpreters or missionaries for the Indian Charity School. In a 1767 letter to Robert Keen, Wheelock quotes letters from Samuel Kirtland that express the lack of provisions due to years of poor crops. In 1778 during the American Revolution, the Loyalists and Mohawks, led by Joseph Brant, attacked German Flatts, and residents withdrew to Fort Herkimer. While the majority of the Haudenosaunee sided with the British, the Oneidas supported the colonists in the Revolution.


The first English immigrant to settle on a peninsula in a harbor on the northeastern coast of North America the local Algonquin Indians called "Shawmet" was William Blackstone in 1629. A year later, John Winthrop arrived with a group of English Puritans and other settlers and named the area Boston after his hometown in Lincolnshire, England. The colony quickly developed representative political institutions that would help shape a democratic nation. Over the next few centuries, Boston emerged as an intellectual and educational center, and, because of its excellent harbor, became a leading commercial hub and a primary port for North America. It is the capital and largest city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and the largest city in New England. Boston was the home for the Boards of Commissioners of several overseas religious societies who sent missionaries throughout the colonies in the 18th century, and was the site of many important events of the American Revolution.


Hebron is a town located in central Connecticut, on the Connecticut River. The area was occupied by the Mohegan Tribe in the 17th century. During the Pequot War, the Mohegans under Chief Uncas allied with the English against the Pequots, and after the war, the Mohegans fought neighboring tribes with the help of the English. Following these battles, Chief Uncas and his two sons, Owaneco and Attawanhood (who was also known as Joshua), deeded particular Mohegan land to the English colonists. Attawanhood and Oweneco further aided the English settlers during Metacom’s War, and upon his death, Attawanhood’s will granted the land that would comprise Hebron to a variety of English colonists. The first English settlers of the deeded land came from Windsor, Saybrook, Long Island, and Northampton; the town of Hebron was eventually incorporated in 1704. But because some of those who were granted the land did not settle there and because of some Mohegan resistance, the town was slow to grow. With the help of the local government, the town grew large enough by 1711 to sustain a meeting house and a minister. A letter written in 1764 to the Committee of Correspondents with the Scotch Society appoints a number of representatives for the organization within Connecticut, including Benjamin Pomroy from Hebron. In 1768, missionary Aaron Kinne wrote a letter to Wheelock, who was staying in Hebron, to inform him of the state of the Indians in the Kanawalohale Indian School in upstate New York. Also, in a 1771 letter to his father Eleazar, Ralph Wheelock expresses his sorrow at the loss of his brother but informs him that all else is well in Hebron where he recently visited.

New York City
North America

Lebanon is a town located in the state of Connecticut southwest of the town of Hartford. The land that became Lebanon was inhabited at least 10,000 years ago based on the archeological record. By the 1600s, the land was permanently inhabited by the Mohegan Indians, who used the area primarily for hunting. Lebanon was officially formed in 1700 when English settlers consolidated a number of land tracts, including several land grants by the Connecticut General Assembly and lands purchased from the Mohegans. However, these purchases were controversial. In 1659, the Mohegans entrusted their reserve land to Major John Mason, and in the following year, Mason transferred this land to the Connecticut colonial government with the understanding that there would be enough land left for the Mohegans to farm. The Mohegans claimed that they never authorized a transfer to the colonial government and only Mason’s heirs were entrusted with their land. In 1662, Connecticut, which included the Mohegan land that had been entrusted to the Masons, was incorporated by a royal charter. Based on this charter, the colony argued that the land was now the property of the government. In 1687, the colony began granting the Mohegan land to townships, and in 1704 the Masons petitioned the Crown on behalf of the Mohegans, claiming that such transfers of land to townships were illegal. Between the years of 1705 and 1773 legal disputes and controversies persisted, finally ending in a verdict by the Crown against the Mohegans. In 1755, Wheelock received property and housing in Lebanon that he would use as his house and school. While Lebanon was originally incorporated as a part of New London County in 1700, in 1724 it became a part of New Windham, before once again becoming a part of New London County in 1826. Lebanon was central to the American Revolution with half of its adult population fighting for the colonists and hundreds of meetings convened in the town for the revolutionary cause.


One of the original thirteen colonies, Delaware was founded in 1638 and named after the Delaware River (itself named for an English nobleman). The area was home to several tribes of Indians, including the Delaware tribe, from which Wheelock recruited students.


Detroit, the most populous city in Michigan, is located in the southeast corner of the state. It sits on the southwestern shore of Lake St. Clair, with the Detroit River running through it. Originally inhabited by the early Mound Builder peoples, the area attracted the French who built a series of forts at strategic locations in North America to keep the British from moving west out of New England and to establish a monopoly on trade with the Native peoples. The area known as "le detroit" or the straits, where the river narrows, became a major French post, close to the surrounding Great Lakes and connecting waterways. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac got permission to establish Fort Ponchartrain there and offered protection and trading opportunities to the Huron, Miami, Ottawa and Chippewa Tribes, who built villages around the fort. French priests also used the fort as a base for converting Indians to Catholicism. European settlers also flooded in; by 1765, Detroit was the largest city between Montreal and New Orleans and rich in furs for trading. During the French and Indian War, British troops captured Montreal from the French and pushed west to take Fort Ponchartrain, which they renamed Fort Detroit. Many of the surrounding Indian tribes transferred allegience to the British, but were continually stirred up by the French, who had retreated to the Mississippi valley, and by the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), the powerful Indian confederacy. In 1761, General William Johnson, British superindendant of Indian Affairs, was deputed by General Amherst, the military leader of the war, to make several trips to Detroit, bringing gifts and medals to the Indians in the area. For these trips, Johnson journeyed by boat; thus, Occom mentions the Detroit river, on which Johnson travelled. With the conclusion of the war in 1763, Indians in the area around Detroit feared the loss of French protection and British incursion west of the Appalachian Mountains. Led by Chief Pontiac of the Ottawa Tribe, many Indians in Ohio Country attacked Fort Detroit, but could not hold it because the French could not resupply them with ammunition. This attack is considered the beginning of Pontiac's Rebellion; soon the Senecas, the westernmost Haudenosaunee, and the Delaware and Shawnee Tribes also attacked British settlements in western Pennsylvania. Though Pontiac surrendered to the British in 1766 and the rebellion was quashed, letters from Jacob Johnson to Wheelock and Thomas Huntington's journal, both dated 1769, indicate the danger to Wheelock's potential missionaries because of the ongoing tensions between the British and the western Indians, occasioned by hostilities originating from Indians in the area around Detroit under French influence.

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Smith, John

John Smith was an affluent Boston merchant who supported Wheelock’s school throughout the 1760s. It is likely that Smith and Wheelock were introduced by George Whitefield or someone similarly involved in evangelical and missionary efforts in the British Atlantic world: John Smith made somewhat regular trips to London for business, and had been in contact with Whitefield since the 1740s. Like the other Boston merchants who supported Moor’s Indian Charity School (including Moses Peck, William Hyslop, and Nathaniel Eells), Smith traded with Wheelock and kept him up to date on political developments in Boston, especially as they concerned attitudes towards Moor’s Indian Charity School. However, Smith was better educated (and likely more affluent) than the other merchants that Wheelock worked with, and, correspondingly, played a more important role than his brethren in Wheelock’s efforts. Smith publicized the school independently (his letter to an unnamed friend, catalogued as 764318.2, is one of the most cited letters on the organization of Moor’s) and assisted Wheelock in publishing the Narratives. John Smith’s greatest contribution to Wheelock’s design was his support during Samson Occom and Nathaniel Whitaker’s fundraising tour of Great Britain (1765-1768). Smith set out for Britain in July 1765 to improve his health, and while there, acted as a vanguard for Occom and Whitaker. He managed their correspondence, suggested destinations, and served on an ad hoc advisory council that included George Whitefield, Samuel Savage, Robert Keen, and several other influential men. The pace of the journey caught up with John Smith, however, and he died in 1768 while in Britain.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Fowler, David

David Fowler was Jacob Fowler's older brother, Samson Occom's brother-in-law, and an important leader of the Brothertown Tribe. He came to Moor's in 1759, at age 24, and studied there until 1765. While at school, he accompanied Occom on a mission to the Six Nations in 1761. He was licensed as a school master in the 1765 mass graduation, and immediately went to the Six Nations to keep school, first at Oneida and then at Kanawalohale. Fowler saw himself as very close to Wheelock, but their relationship fragmented over the course of Fowler's mission, primarily because Wheelock wrote back to Kirkland, with whom Fowler clashed, but not to Fowler, and because Wheelock refused to reimburse Fowler for some expenses on his mission (767667.4 provides the details most clearly). Fowler went on to teach school at Montauk, and played a major role in negotiations with the Oneidas for the lands that became Brothertown. He was among the first wave of immigrants to that town, and held several important posts there until his death in 1807.

Amherst, Jeffery

General Amherst was a major figure in eighteenth-century British military politics, especially for his role in conquering Canada. He began his career during the War of Austrian Succession. In 1758, he was stationed in North America and successfully seized Louisbourg, a French fort on an island off of Nova Scotia. As a result of his success, he was promoted to Commander-in-chief of British forces in North America. Amherst invaded Canada and, in 1760, he captured Montreal. Despite his success in North America, Amherst never enjoyed working with American colonists, and constantly requested a new post. In 1763 this wish was granted, primarily because Amherst had failed to prevent or quell the Pontiac War. He returned home to Kent where he lived out his life as a high-ranking domestic military official. He is significant here because his endorsement of Occom gave Occom a connection to Sir William Johnson and enabled Occom to go among the Six Nations.

Johnson, William

Sir William Johnson was a powerful British colonial official who amassed wealth and influence by integrating into the Mohawk tribe. For a brief window of time (1761-1768), he provided support for Wheelock’s missionary efforts among the Six Nations. He also helped the Brothertown Nation of Indians procure land from the Oneidas. Johnson was born in Ireland in 1715. His family had been part of the Catholic elite, but after William of Orange’s 1690 victory at the Battle of the Boyne, they at least nominally converted to the Episcopalian Church. In 1738, Johnson emigrated to America to manage his uncle Peter Warren’s estate in Mohawk territory. Over the next decade, Johnson became wealthy in his own right through trade and land sales, acquiring a vast estate crowned by his manor house, Johnson Hall, which became the central location for British and Indian treaty making. In 1745, Johnson began collecting official British titles and positions. He played an important military role in the French and Indian War and was named Superintendent of Indian Affairs in 1756 and first baronet of New York in 1757. Much of Johnson’s success was due to his influence among the Mohawks, which he obtained by learning their language and customs and integrating himself into their society. He participated in Mohawk rituals and entered into a common-law marriage with a powerful Mohawk woman, Molly Brant (also called Mary Brant). Because Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) society is matrilineal, this marriage was an essential element of his participation in Indian affairs. Wheelock desperately wanted to wield missionary influence among the Six Nations, and sought to obtain Johnson as an ally in his endeavors. At first, the two found grounds for cooperation. Wheelock sent Occom as a missionary to the Oneidas in 1761 and again in 1762, and sent a substantially larger group of missionaries and schoolmasters in 1765, 1766, and 1767. Johnson, meanwhile, encouraged Haudenosaunee children, including his brother-in-law Joseph Brant, to attend Moor’s. Johnson’s support proved indispensible to missionaries in the field; he helped with supplies, language skills, and relations with the Mohawks and Oneidas. Wheelock also valued Johnson for his influence in Britain, and drew on him for recommendations and public statements of support numerous times. From 1763 on, however, Johnson found himself decidedly uncomfortable with Wheelock’s missionary efforts, and by 1769, their relationship had dissolved completely. In 1766, Johnson was invited to join the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG), the largest and most influential Anglican missionary society in the 18th-century British-Atlantic world. He began working to place Anglican missionaries, rather than Congregationalist and Presbyterian ones, among the Six Nations, which alarmed Wheelock. Johnson was generally supportive of Native American tribes’ efforts to maintain their land and sovereignty. As the historian Linford Fisher has noted, “virtually every major Native group in southeastern New England successfully petitioned Johnson to act on their behalf during the late 1760s and early 1770s.” Among these groups was the Brothertown Nation, a Christian composite tribe formed by Southern New England Algonquian Moor’s alumni. Johnson helped them negotiate with the Oneidas, which proved essential to their successful land purchase and relocation to central New York.

Kirtland, Daniel
Kirkland, Samuel

Samuel Kirkland (b. Kirtland) was Eleazar Wheelock’s most famous Anglo American student. He conducted a 40-year mission to the Oneidas and founded Hamilton College (established in 1793 as Hamilton Oneida Academy). Kirkland won acclaim as a missionary at a young age by conducting an adventurous and risky mission to the Senecas, the westernmost of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Six Nations. After his year and a half among them, which was well publicized by Wheelock, he was ordained and sent as a missionary to the Oneidas under the auspices of the Connecticut Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. He spent most of the rest of his life serving the Oneidas as a minister. Kirkland’s sincere devotion to serving as a missionary was excellent publicity for Wheelock’s program, but it also brought the two men into conflict. Wheelock became jealous of Kirkland when the school’s British benefactors began urging Wheelock to make Kirkland his heir, and Kirkland, meanwhile, was upset that Wheelock had failed to provide him with sufficient supplies on his mission — a complaint that he was unafraid to publicize (and that almost all of Wheelock’s other students shared). The breaking point came in 1770, when Kirkland split from Wheelock’s Connecticut Board and affiliated with the New England Company, a missionary society that had abruptly turned against Wheelock in 1765. Wheelock and Kirkland briefly made up in 1771, but their relationship quickly dissolved into further acrimony. Although Kirkland spent most of his life as a missionary to the Six Nations, he generally held disparaging views of Native Americans. He did not approve of Wheelock’s plan to educate Indians as missionaries, and was haughty towards the Moor’s alumni that worked with him (notably David Fowler, Joseph Johnson, and Joseph Woolley). Prior to the Revolution, Kirkland had been stringent in his refusals to take Oneida land, even when offered to him. The Revolution seems to have shifted his loyalties from the Oneidas to local Anglo Americans. Kirkland served as a chaplain in the American army and was instrumental in convincing the Oneidas to remain neutral (or, more accurately, to side with the Americans). At one point he was the chaplain with General Sullivan’s army, the force sent to ransack Seneca and Cayuga territory in 1779. It is unclear what emotions this aroused in Kirkland, who had served the Senecas less than 15 years earlier, yet after the war, Kirkland freely engaged in Oneida dispossession. Along with James Dean, another Wheelock alumnus with close ties to the Oneidas, Kirkland played a pivotal role in urging the Oneidas to sell land illegally to the state of New York. The land deals that resulted gave Kirkland the property, financial capital, and connections to establish Hamilton Oneida Academy. The last decades of Kirkland’s life were difficult. He found himself in a three-way battle with Samson Occom and John Sergeant Jr., who were also ministers in Oneida territory, for the hearts and minds of their congregations; he was fired as a missionary in 1797, although he continued to serve sans salary; one of his son’s business enterprises failed, leaving Kirkland nearly destitute; and two of his three sons died unexpectedly. Hamilton Oneida Academy, like Moor’s Indian Charity School, largely failed at its goal of educating Indians, and in 1812, four years after Kirkland’s death, it was re-purposed as Hamilton College, a largely Anglo-American institution. At some point in the mid-to-late 18th century, Kirkland changed his name from Kirtland, although the reasons for this are uncertain.

Bostwick, David

David Bostwick was a popular Presbyterian minister in New York—so popular, in fact, that two congregations fought over him and the New York Synod had to intervene. He was the president of the New York Board of Commissioners for the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowlege. Bostwick encouraged Occom's mission to the Oneidas; took up a collection at his church for Occom, which reached over 60 pounds; and lent his name to a recommendation for Occom to Sir William Johnson. When Samuel Buell published his sermon from Occom's ordination, it was prefixed with a letter addressed to David Bostwick outlining Occom's character.

Brainerd, John

John Brainerd was an ardent missionary with an important role in Wheelock's design. He was the younger brother of the famous missionary David Brainerd, who died as a young man after being expelled from Yale and serving as a missionary to New Jersey tribes. John completed his Yale degree and was immediately commissioned to replace David. Even in his own time, he was seen as a man as pious as, but less talented than, his brother, though Brainerd missioned to Indians during a more volatile period, and saw his congregation forcibly removed from their lands in 1755 and relocated at Brothertown in 1758 (this Brothertown should not be confused with the one founded in New York after the Revolution by many Moor's alumni). Brainerd was extremely devoted to the Indian cause. He often had the opportunity to serve wealthy English congregations, but preferred to remain an Indian missionary. He invested signficant sums of his own money into his missions, for which he was never reimbursed. Brainerd was a very prominent Presbyterian figure, active in the Presbytery and Synod of New York, holding several elected positions, and in the Presbtery and Synod of New York and Philadelphia once the two reunified in 1758. He was a Trustee of the College of New Jersey from 1754 until his death, and a member of the New York Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Occom had planned to work with Brainerd in 1750, but political upheaval prevented it. Brainerd was one of several men nominated to accompany Occom to England, but the New York Board refused to let him go. While Brainerd and Wheelock were not close personal friends, the two had a similar interests and a long-lasting correspondence. John Brainerd sent Wheelock his first Indian boys, and also recruited female students in the 1760s. Throughout their lives, Brainerd and Wheelock updated one another on Indian missions, and Brainerd seems to have been one of Wheelock's "point people" in the Presbyterian Church.

Brainerd, David

David Brainerd was a Presbyterian missionary who became a New Light martyr and inspired Wheelock to work for Native American education. He was the older brother of the longer-lived but lesser-known John Brainerd, who provided Wheelock with his first Native students. In the early 1740s, David got caught up in the New Light tide at Yale, and was subsequently expelled for describing men in positions of authority as unsaved. Because ministers to English congregations had to have a degree from Harvard or Yale, David became a missionary to Native Americans instead. His missions attracted substantial attention, and in 1744 the Newark Presbytery ordained him so that he could receive funding from the Society in Scotland for Propagating Chrisitian Knowledge (SSPCK). Between April 1743 and November 1746, when he became too ill to serve, David conducted missionary efforts among various tribes in the mid-Atlantic region, most notably in New Jersey. After his death from tuberculosis in 1747, David became something of a martyr. New Light Congregationalists, especially, saw David's expulsion from Yale as unjust and his commitment to Native Americans as divine. In 1749, Jonathan Edwards published a biography of David together with David's diary, and the text quickly became part of the New Light canon. Education was central to David Brainerd's ministry, and he was among Wheelock's several inspirations. In 1745, Brainerd sent Wheelock a copy of his journal.

Woolley, Jacob

Jacob Woolley, a Delaware, was one of Wheelock's first two Indian students. He was the cousin of Wheelock's third student, Joseph Woolley. John Brainerd sent Jacob Woolley, along with John Pumshire, to Wheelock late in 1754. While Pumshire died in 1757, Jacob continued studying with Wheelock and entered the College of New Jersey in 1759. He studied there until 1762, when he was expelled for failing his studies and abusing alcohol. It is also likely that there was a woman involved. In 1763, Jacob briefly returned to College before running away and enlisting in the army. Joseph Woolley met a man in Sheffield who described someone like Jacob Woolley teaching there in the fall of 1764, but this identification is not definite. Jacob never seems to have been very invested in becoming a missionary. Especially after his expulsion from the College of New Jersey, he expressed doubts about Wheelock's plans for him and struggled with alcohol. It is likely that he ran away primarily because Wheelock was non-responsive to these concerns.

Erskine, John

John Erskine was a prominent clergyman in the Church of Scotland. He came from a wealthy family, but despite his eventual inheritance decided to dedicate his life to the evangelical revival in Great Britain and America. In the mid-1730s, Erskine attended Edinburgh University where he took arts courses and began the law program, but in 1742, he transferred to divinity hall (after finally convincing his family of his desire to join the clergy). He was a leading member of Scotland’s Popular party, which opposed the law of patronage and supported popular votes for the clergy. By 1768, he became the party’s unofficial leader. Erskine was known for his dissemination of books with the hope of propagating religious ideas, and he used his influence to encourage booksellers to publish or print further editions of evangelical works at affordable prices. He regularly donated books to Harvard, Yale, the College of New Jersey (later Princeton), Dartmouth, and Dickinson College, as well as Eleazar Wheelock’s Indian School. He served as one of the chief directors for the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge (SSPCK), securing funds for Indian Affairs and donating £600 to Wheelock's school in 1765. However, he objected to what he perceived as Wheelock's promotion of Presbyterianism as opposed to the Church of England. Nathaniel Whitaker worried about how Erskine's objection would affect the funds provided to Wheelock by the Trust in England. Still, Erskine remained committed to Native American causes and was present at the death of John Shattock in 1768, one of two Narragansett brothers who travelled to England in the hope of preventing the Niantic Sachem from selling further Niantic lands to the colony of Rhode Island. By the end of the 1760s, Erskine had become disillusioned with Wheelock and his school, and expressed displeasure with Wheelock's management of donated funds. He feared that Dartmouth would fall under Episcopal influence and questioned Wheelock's frankness in his procurement of the College’s charter. He was also disappointed that Occom and Kirkland were the only two distinguished missionaries with ties to Wheelock. When Erskine decided that Dartmouth College, with which Moor’s had merged, was not serving the intended purpose of providing a Christian education to Indians, he stopped providing funds. Throughout his life, Erskine penned pamphlets, sermons, and five theological treatises. During the Great Awakening, Erskine established relationships with a number of ministers in America, and because of these contacts became sympathetic to the American cause against Great Britain.

Kerr, William
Hyslop, William

William Hyslop was a Boston merchant and a member of the Boston Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge (SSPCK). His business was importing goods from Scotland, especially Bibles. He was very involved in the Brattle Street Church, and had close ties to the Chauncy family (an Old Light family, one of whom, Charles Chauncy, was chair of the Boston SSPCK). In 1760, Hyslop began assisting Wheelock with the process of obtaining funds from the Boston SSPCK, and he also put Wheelock in touch with other Boston merchants who had their own charitable organization (Moses Peck and William Whitwell’s “private society”). As Wheelock’s relationship with the Boston SSPCK soured in the first half of the 1760s, culminating in Wheelock’s decision to open the Connecticut Board of the SSPCK in 1764, Wheelock’s and Hyslop’s personal and trade relationship also ceased.

Smith, Mercy (née Bridgham)

Mercy Smith was the wife of John Smith, an affluent Boston merchant who supported Samson Occom and Nathaniel Whitaker on their fundraising tour of Great Britain. She appears to have been remarkably active in her husband’s public affairs: she sent Wheelock bills and kept him informed about donations raised in Boston, ran John’s business while he was in Britain (1765-1768), and seems to have continued engaging in some degree of business after John’s death in 1768.

Building of Occom’s house
In December 1763, Occom returns to Mohegan to choose a site for his house, close to the Mohegan Chapel. The project engages several Indian laborers, cost about £100, and is a notable structure, clapboarded with cedar.
Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers0030.ocp M. r Mr. Occom mentioned Occom, Samson
pers0155.ocp David mentioned Fowler, David
pers0089.ocp M. r Mr. Boſtwic k Bostwick mentioned Bostwick, David
pers0055.ocp Gen l Gen. Amherſt Amherst mentioned Amherst, Jeffery
pers0292.ocp Gen. l Gen. Johnſson Johnson mentioned Johnson, William
pers0292.ocp Gen l Gen. Johnſon Johnson mentioned Johnson, William
pers0292.ocp Gen. l Gen. mentioned Johnson, William
pers0292.ocp the Gen. l Gen. mentioned Johnson, William
pers0004.ocp M. r Mr. Brainerd mentioned Brainerd, John
pers0942.ocp M. r Mr. Kirtland mentioned Kirtland, Daniel
pers0315.ocp Son mentioned Kirkland, Samuel
pers0003.ocp David Brainerd mentioned Brainerd, David
pers0040.ocp Jacob mentioned Woolley, Jacob
pers0184.ocp M. r Mr. Emrie mentioned Emrie
pers0185.ocp John Erſkine Erskine mentioned Erskine, John
pers0355.ocp Marquess of Lothain Lothian mentioned Kerr, William
pers0036.ocp Eleaz. r Eleazar Wheelock writer Wheelock, Eleazar
pers0497.ocp John Smith recipient Smith, John
pers0274.ocp W m William Hyſlop Hyslop mentioned Hyslop, William
pers0502.ocp Mad m Madam mentioned Smith, Mercy (née Bridgham)
pers0036.ocp Eleaz r Eleazar Wheelock writer Wheelock, Eleazar
pers0497.ocp John ſmith Smith recipient Smith, John

Places identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
place0122.ocp Lebanon Lebanon
place0308.ocp New­ ­York New York City
place0084.ocp German Flatts German Flatts
place0060.ocp the Detroit Detroit
place0059.ocp Delaware Delaware
place0203.ocp Scotland Scotland
place0013.ocp Boſton Boston Boston
place0122.ocp Leb. n Lebanon Lebanon
place0099.ocp Hebron Hebron
place0013.ocp Boston Boston

Organizations identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
org0098.ocp this Indian School Moor’s Indian Charity School
org0090.ocp ſixSix Nations Six Nations
org0075.ocp Oneida Nation Oneida Nation
org0062.ocp MohawkeMohawk Mohawk Nation
org0098.ocp this School Moor’s Indian Charity School
org0011.ocp Hon.le Honourable ScotiſhScottish Com̅iſ Commissioners Boston Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge
org0038.ocp Delawares Delaware Tribe
org0067.ocp New JerſieJersey College Princeton University
org0038.ocp Delaware Tribe Delaware Tribe

Dates identified in this document:

Standard Form Text
1761-09-15 Sept.r September 15.1761.
1761-06-10 10th 10th of June
1761-07-07 July 7.
1761-09 Sepr September 1761
1761-09-15 15 Sept.r September 1761.
1761-07-23 July 23. 1761
1761-09-15 Sept.September 13. 1761

Regularized text:

Type Original Regularized
modernization Reſpected respected
modernization ſo so
variation han't haven't
modernization Leiſure leisure
modernization deſired desired
modernization Pleaſure pleasure
modernization laſt last
modernization M.r Mr.
modernization Conſequence consequence
variation ſat set
modernization ſix Six
modernization 10th 10th
modernization ſeveral several
modernization Boſtwic[above] kk Bostwick
modernization Aſsembly assembly
modernization vaſtly vastly
modernization Baptiſt's Baptist's
variation Currancy currency
modernization fulleſt fullest
modernization ſince since
modernization y.t that
modernization Kindneſs kindness
modernization Reſpect respect
modernization Genl Gen.
modernization Amherſt Amherst
modernization Strongeſt strongest
modernization Paſs pass
modernization Gen.l Gen.
modernization Johnſson Johnson
modernization Preſents presents
modernization promiſed promised
modernization Aſsiſtance assistance
modernization Johnſon Johnson
variation Mohawke Mohawk
variation Complyance compliance
modernization deſire desire
modernization ſend send
modernization ſix six
modernization promiſing promising
modernization ſupported supported
variation Scotiſh Scottish
modernization ſhall shall
modernization diſpose dispose
modernization beſtow bestow
modernization occaſion occasion
modernization paſses passes
variation compleat complete
modernization loſs loss
modernization underſtand understand
modernization perſuaded persuaded
modernization Caſe case
modernization ſent sent
modernization underſtanding understanding
modernization Deſign design
modernization deſi­
variation agreable agreeable
modernization ſee see
modernization reſt rest
variation ingaged engaged
modernization ſtudies studies
variation 'till 'til
variation Ladds lads
modernization Miſsion mission
modernization Sickneſs sickness
modernization Firſt first
modernization Veſsel vessel
variation Charity­Schollar charity­scholar
modernization Diſadvantage disadvantage
variation incloſed enclosed
variation Speciman specimen
modernization pleaſed pleased
variation Lattin Latin
modernization Judaiſm Judaism
modernization ſet set
modernization ym them
modernization ſuch such
modernization diſcourſd discoursed
modernization y.e the
modernization ſuſpect suspect
modernization eſpecially especially
modernization Faun fawn
variation agrea­
modernization Reaſon reason
modernization ſay say
variation Murther murder
modernization neareſt nearest
modernization uncleaneſs uncleanness
modernization &c etc.
modernization beſides besides
modernization diſcourſed discoursed
modernization almoſt almost
modernization ſhould should
modernization Rev.d Rev.
modernization Diſcovery discovery
variation Powows powwows
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modernization Minſtry ministry
modernization ſpirit spirit
modernization Inſpired inspired
modernization Propheſy prophesy
modernization tranſparent transparent
modernization Glaſs glass
modernization ſucceſs success
modernization Caſes cases
modernization conſider consider
modernization ye the
modernization ſubjects subjects
variation Supposd supposed
modernization Prophiſie prophecy
modernization Loſt lost
modernization ſaid said
modernization Miſsionaries missionaries
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modernization M.r Mr.
modernization Erſkine Erskine
modernization manuſcript manuscript
modernization yt that
modernization baniſshed banished
modernization Wilderneſs wilderness
variation origional original
variation conceald concealed
modernization Propheſies prophesies
variation recond reckoned
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variation Insenuity insinuity
modernization Proſecution prosecution
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variation perticular­
modernization Seaſonable seasonable
modernization Bequeſt bequest
variation Lothain Lothian
variation encouragd encouraged
variation Schollars scholars
modernization Earniſt earnest
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modernization Expreſsions expressions
modernization moſt most
modernization ſincere sincere
modernization ſervant servant
modernization w.t what
variation incloſd enclosed
variation ſubmitt submit
variation Judgment judgement
variation Corriſ­
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variation Freind friend
modernization miſtake mistake
modernization ſon son
modernization ſchool school
variation ſchollars scholars
variation mentiond mentioned
modernization Hyſlop Hyslop
modernization ſomething something
modernization Mr Mr.
modernization ſmith Smith

Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
Sept.r September
Hon.d Honoured
& and
deſign'd designed
preach'd preached
&c etc.
design'd designed
Hon.le Honourable
Com̅iſ Commissioners
thro' through
tho' though
Tho' though
return'd returned
Sp.t spirit
'till 'til
look'd looked
Eleaz.r Eleazar
Sepr September
Leb.n Lebanon
Hon'd Honoured
knowg knowing
Improvemt improvement
tho't thought
acco.t account
Lett.r letter
Wm William
Madm Madam
Br brother
hum.le humble
ſervt servant
Eleazr Eleazar
Lett.r letter
Sept. September

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Summary of errors found in this document:

Number of dates with invalid 'when' attributes: 0
Number of nested "hi" tags: (consider merging the @rend attributes, or using other tags) 0
Number of tags with invalid 'rend' attributes: 0 (out of 78)
Number of people/places/organizations with unknown keys: 0 (out of 52)
Number of "add" tags with unknown 'place' attributes: 0 (out of 9)
Mixed case attribute values in header (potential error): 0 (out of 162)
HomeEleazar Wheelock, letter, to John Smith, 1761 September 15
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