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Eleazar Wheelock, letter, to Mr. Whitefield, 1759 November 3

ms-number: 759603

[note (type: abstract): Wheelock writes of the progress at his school, and of the conditions under which he looks for more Indian pupils as well as public charity. He also mentions the ordination of Occom.][note (type: handwriting): Handwriting is heavily slanted and crowded, with several deletions and additions. Some uncrossed t's have been corrected by the transcriber.][note (type: paper): Good condition, with light-to-moderate creasing, staining and wear.][note (type: ink): Dark, blotchy, shows through from opposite sides; several splatters occasionally appear as the dots over i's.][note (type: signature): abbreviated]

events: Occom’s Ordination


[Opener]

[Rev.d | Rev.]Rev.dRev. [& | and]&and dear sir//

Yours of March [7th | 7th]7th7th[1765-03-07] was very [wellcome | welcome]wellcomewelcome to me
We are Still [purſuing | pursuing]purſuingpursuing the Affair of our Charity [ſchool | school]ſchoolschool[org0098.ocp] in
Favour of the poor [periſhing | perishing]periſhingperishing Pagans, And with More Courage
than ever. God has indeed wrought like [himſelf | himself]himſelfhimself for his
[ſinfull | sinful]ſinfullsinful people this [laſt | last]laſtlast Year — By a [Surprizing | surprising]Surprizingsurprising [Siries | series]Siriesseries of
[Succeſses | successes]Succeſsessuccesses granted to the [britiſh | British]britiſhBritish arms[org0012.ocp] and every [ſtep | step]ſtepstep calculated
and evidently [Circumſtanced | circumstanced]Circumſtancedcircumstanced to [ſecure | secure]ſecuresecure all the Glory to his own
great [illegible: [guess (h-dawnd): Name]Name], he has [opend | opened]opendopened and is opening Such a Door for the
grand [Deſign | design]Deſigndesign in view as [almoſt | almost]almoſtalmost [perſwades | persuades]perſwadespersuades my Infidel Heart
to believe that the Time for calling the poor Creatures into his
Trinity and Kingdom is [juſt | just]juſtjust at Hand and if his [Majeſty | Majesty]MajeſtyMajesty arms[org0012.ocp]
Shall Still, according to the [preſent | present]preſentpresent [faireſt | fairest]faireſtfairest humane Probability, be
[ſucceſsfull | successful]ſucceſsfullsuccessful to the full [Accompliſhing | accomplishing]Accompliſhingaccomplishing the [Deſign | design]Deſigndesign of [Diſpoſeſsing | dispossessing]Diſpoſeſsingdispossessing
the French[org0045.ocp] in this Land, we [perſwade | persuade]perſwadepersuade [ourſelves | ourselves]ourſelvesourselves the [Proſpect | prospect]Proſpectprospect will
be Such as will invite all far [& | and]&and near who love our Lord Jesus
[Chriſt | Christ]ChriſtChrist in Sincerity to put to a helping Hand. —
My dear little Jacob[pers0040.ocp] I have Sent to [y.e | the]y.ethe College in New [Jerſie | Jersey]JerſieJersey[org0067.ocp]
[& | and]&andI [underſtand | understand]underſtandunderstand he is kindly treated, and [perticularly | particularly]perticularlyparticularly [y.t | that]y.tthat [Preſident | President]PreſidentPresident
Davies[pers0157.ocp]
is much [pleaſd | pleased]pleaſdpleased with him — I have now four Indian
Boys with me, Three of which will likely, if their Health will
allow them a [cloſe | close]cloſeclose application to their Books, be well fitted
for College by next [Commence'ment | commencement]Commence'mentcommencement [& | and]&and I am Daily Expecting
two [Mohawke | Mohawk]MohawkeMohawk Boys from the [Mohawkes | Mohawks]MohawkesMohawks[org0062.ocp] by the Mediation
of dear [Meſsrs | Messrs.]MeſsrsMessrs. Pomeroy[pers0432.ocp] [& | and]&and Brainerd[pers0004.ocp] Chaplains in the Army a[gap: worn_edge][guess (h-dawnd): t]t
Crown Point[place0056.ocp], who have [ingagd | engaged]ingagdengaged to procure them if [poſibly | possibly]poſiblypossibly they can
get opportunity to [conſult | consult]conſultconsult [Gen.l | Gen.]Gen.lGen. [Johnſon | Johnson]JohnſonJohnson[pers0292.ocp] [& | and]&and can find [leaſure | leisure]leaſureleisure to attend
upon it I apprehend while the [Engliſh | English]EngliſhEnglish Arms[org0012.ocp] prevail there will
be no manner of [Dificulty | difficulty]Dificultydifficulty to obtain as many as we [pleaſe | please]pleaſeplease for the
Purpose I am [certifyed | certified]certifyedcertified by good Authority [y.t | that]y.tthat great num-
-bers of them are [deſirous | desirous]deſirousdesirous to have their Children taught
if we had means o for their Support we might have of their
Children by Scores, and well chosen for the [Purpoſe | purpose]Purpoſepurpose
I have been put to Difficulty to get a good writing [Maſter | master]Maſtermaster
The Boys I now have are not equal in their writing to [ſome | some]ſomesome
other parts of learning however, I Send You a Specimen [ſuch | such]ſuchsuch
as it is and hope by [& | and]&and by now I have got my dear [M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. Trumble[pers0548.ocp]
to teach [y.e | the]y.ethe School[org0098.ocp] I Shall be able by [& | and]&and by to let You See that
they make Proficiency in it.
It is a bad time to [aſk | ask]aſkask for [y.e | the]y.ethe Charities of People in this
Country, our People you know are but few of them Rich —
our [publick | public]publickpublic Taxes by [Reaſon | reason]Reaſonreason of [ye | the]yethe war are very high, [& | and]&and
many put to Difficulty to [Subſiſt | subsist]Subſiſtsubsist comfortably under their [Burthen | burdens]Burthenburdens
And great Numbers have yet [freſh | fresh]freſhfresh in their minds the Ravages, [Murthers | murders]Murthersmurders
and Cruelties perpetrated by the Indians, many of these want a Better
Temper than to breath out nothing but Slaughter [& | and]&and [Deſtruction | destruction]Deſtructiondestruction for
them. A good Example of Liberality from Home. May and
likely would animate many Godly People among us to imitate
them. And I cant but hope [y.t | that]y.tthat if our means were [ſuch | such]ſuchsuch as that we [cod | could]codcould
[left] beginbegin to Support a large Number, the Continuation of [ſupply | supply]ſupplysupply for them [wo.d | would]wo.dwould [below] notnot
Not be more difficult than now it is for a few. There
would then be that which would [juſtify | justify]juſtifyjustify Importunity in Begging
as well as more Strongly invite to Liberality.
I hope my dear little Jacob[pers0040.ocp], if God Shall mercifully con-
-tinue him, will by [& | and]&and by charm the Nation into [ſoftneſs | softness]ſoftneſssoftness
Love [& | and]&and Benevolence —
We are not [carefull | careful]carefullcareful under what name, or in what [perticular | particular]perticularparticular
[ſhape | shape]ſhapeshape this [Deſign | design]Deſigndesign be [proſecuted | prosecuted]proſecutedprosecuted So be it, it be [purſued | pursued]purſuedpursued to Effect
at [preſent | present]preſentpresent and till our [publick | public]publickpublic Affairs are more Settled we determine
to [purſue | pursue]purſuepursue it, [& | and]&and make the [beſt | best]beſtbest of it we can as a Charity School[org0098.ocp]
and it may be Experience will [ſhew | show]ſhewshow us that there will be no
need of any other Foundation.
[M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. Occom[pers0030.ocp] the Long Island[place0129.ocp] Indian is [Ordaind | ordained]Ordaindordained (I hear)
by [y.t | that]y.tthat [Preſbytery | presbytery]Preſbyterypresbytery, and is invited to accept a [Miſion | mission]Miſionmission am-
-ong the [Cherockees | Cherokees]CherockeesCherokees[org0021.ocp] whether he accepts or not I [havt | haven't]havthaven't heard
I conclude the grand objection is his want of Health.
Religion in general with us, is at a low Ebb. I hear
but little of Conviction or [Converſion | conversion]Converſionconversion-work going on any
where. [Preſident | President]PreſidentPresident Clap[pers0010.ocp] is quite zealous for the truth.
And College affairs wear a much better Face than they did
Several have been under deep Convictions [& | and]&and I hope [ſome | some]ſomesome
[ſavingly | savingly]ſavinglysavingly Converted there, [& | and]&and Numbers in [y.t | that]y.tthat town the [laſt | last]laſtlast year
dear Sir, I dont [till | tell]tilltell you in this how glad I [ſhould | should]ſhouldshould be to [ſpend | spend]ſpendspend
one Day with You. A [Thouſand | thousand]Thouſandthousand thing I [wo.d | would]wo.dwould [ſay | say]ſaysay if you could
have Patience with my [ſlow | slow]ſlowslow way of Communicating, which
would tire me to write or you to Read. but in [perticular | particular]perticularparticular
we would talk over the many and Great Arguments and motives
[left] [w.c | which]w.cwhich[w.c | which]w.cwhich [y.e | the]y.ethe [preſent | present]preſentpresent openings of [Dive | Divine]DiveDivine [Providce | Providence]ProvidceProvidence in favor of [ye | the]yethe Indian Affair
[preſent | present]preſentpresent us to awaken our Zeal, and to wage upon others to
Excite them to exert [themſelves | themselves]themſelvesthemselves in an affair which [ye | the]yethe Heart
of the great Redeemer is infinitely [ſet | set]ſetset upon. can we be con-
-tent to let [ſuch | such]ſuchsuch an opportunity [ſlip | slip]ſlipslip when we know not how
[ſoon | soon]ſoonsoon nor how fatally if [above] doordoor may be [ſhut | shut]ſhutshut — or can we be content
to [looſe | lose]looſelose any time when [ſo | so]ſoso many depend upon our doing
and [ſo | so]ſoso great [Intereſts | interests]Intereſtsinterests are [ſo | so]ſoso nearly concerned in it
I depend you will use [above] as Providence directsas Providence directs your Influence in [Fav.r | favour]Fav.rfavour of the
[Deſign | design]Deſigndesign as you have opportunity and [y.t | that]y.tthat You will let
me hear from You as often as you and [above] Dear [ſir | sir]ſirsirDear [ſir | sir]ſirsir that you will
remember in Your [Neareſt | nearest]Neareſtnearest Approaches to God,
[Closer]
Yours in the [Deareſt | dearest]Deareſtdearest Bonds
[Eleazr | Eleazar]EleazrEleazar Wheelock[pers0036.ocp]
[Postscript]
P.S. [Mrſs | Mrs.]MrſsMrs. Wheelock[pers0577.ocp] [Joynis | joins]Joynisjoins in Salutations to You [& | and]&and
Your Dear Spouse.—
Rev. George Whitefield.[pers0038.ocp]
[Trailer]
Letter to [M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. Whitefield[pers0038.ocp]
Date: [Nov.r | November]Nov.rNovember 3. 1759.[1759-11-03]
[note (type: editorial): Blank page.]
British Army
Princeton University
Princeton University is a College and Graduate School of liberal arts and sciences located in the town of Princeton, New Jersey. A member of the Ivy League, it enrolls about 8,000 students. When it was chartered in 1749, it was known as the College of New Jersey. It was founded by New Light Presbyterians as the educational arm of Scotch-Irish religion, and is the fourth institution of higher education established in British North America. For its first 50 years, the College was housed in Nassau Hall, one of the largest buildings in colonial America, set on land donated by Nathaniel Fitz Randolph. When expansion earned the College university status in 1896, it was officially renamed Princeton University, after the town. After the untimely deaths of its first five presidents, including Aaron Burr, Sr., and the noted Protestant theologian Jonathan Edwards, a prominent evangelical Presbyterian minister from Scotland named John Witherspoon took the helm in 1768. Witherspoon trained a generation of men who would lead the American Revolution, including James Madison, Aaron Burr, Philip Freneau and John Breckenridge. As a New Light minister, Wheelock was part of the same evangelical movement, and the College of New Jersey played a significant role in his educational experiment. Jacob Woolley, one of the first students at Moor's Indian Charity School, went on to enter the College of New Jersey in 1759, leaving in his senior year under a cloud of scandal. Several of Wheelock's Anglo-American students who studied at his Latin School and at the Indian Charity School graduated from "Nassau Hall" and became missionaries or schoolmasters in his "great design."
Mohawk Nation
The Mohawk Nation is one of the Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy. As the “eastern door” of the Confederacy, or easternmost Haudenosaunee nation, the Mohawks were perceived throughout the colonial period as a gateway to wider alliances, trade, and religious influence with the Six Nations as a whole. Thus, they received heavy missionary attention from Jesuits, Anglicans, and Congregationalists as early as the 17th century. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, the Mohawks and Six Nations more generally were a point of heated competition between Britain and France, as well as between Protestant Christian sects. Wheelock sent several missionaries and schoolmasters to the Mohawks between 1765 and 1767, including Theophilus Chamberlain (Anglo-American), Hezekiah Calvin (Delaware), Abraham Major and Minor (Mohawks), Peter (Mohawk), Moses (Mohawk), and Johannes (Mohawk). The two main towns or "castles" that the mission was based at were Canajoharie and Fort Hunter. Two of the most important figures in Mohawk history as it pertains to Moor’s Indian Charity School were Sir William Johnson and Joseph Brant. Sir William Johnson was the British Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the Northeast, one of the most powerful men in British North America. He married into the Mohawk Tribe and had substantial influence among the Six Nations. Initially he supported Wheelock’s missionary project, but by 1769 he was endorsing Anglican missionaries instead. Joseph Brant was Sir William Johnson’s brother-in-law. He was the first of 19 Mohawk students at Moor’s, where he studied from 1761-1763. Although his time at the school was short, Brant entertained a deep affection for it. He went on to be an influential Mohawk war chief and may have protected Dartmouth College from raids during the Revolution. The Revolution fractured the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, with some tribes siding with the colonists and others with the British. The Mohawks sided with the British, and many of them, Joseph Brant included, relocated to the Grand River Reserve in Canada after the war. There was also a substantial Mohawk settlement established by 1700 at Kahnawake in New France (Canada), which hosted Jesuit missionaries. The Kahnawake Mohawks were often called “Canadian Mohawks” and Wheelock recruited students from them after his move to Hanover.
Moor’s Indian Charity School
Moor’s Indian Charity School was a grammar school for Native Americans that Eleazar Wheelock opened in North Lebanon, Connecticut in 1754. The school was named for Colonel Joshua Moor, also spelled More, who donated the land and school building. Moor’s was essentially an expansion of the grammar school that Wheelock opened in 1743 to support himself during the fallout from the First Great Awakening, when Wheelock, who'd participated in itinerant ministry during the Awakening, had his salary confiscated by the colony of Connecticut. In December of that year, Samson Occom asked Wheelock to teach him as well. Wheelock's work with Occom was so successful that Wheelock decided to replicate the experiment with other Native American boys. He accepted his first Indian students in 1754, and in 1761 began taking female students as well. Wheelock believed that in time, his school would become just one part of a larger missionary enterprise. He planned to send his Anglo American and Native American students to various tribes as missionaries and schoolmasters, with explicit instructions to pick out the best students and send them back to Moor’s to continue the cycle. His ultimate goal was to turn his school into a model Christian Indian town that would include farms, a college, and vocational training. However, Wheelock’s grand design did not survive the decade. Wheelock lost the vast majority of his Native American students; he fought with many of the best, including Samson Occom, Joseph Johnson, David Fowler, and Hezekiah Calvin, and other former and current students accused him of subjecting Native Americans to disproportionate amounts of manual labor. In 1769, perhaps due to concerns about corporal punishment, the Oneida withdrew all their children from Moor’s. When Wheelock relocated to Hanover in 1769, only two Native American students came with him, and it became clear that Wheelock’s focus was on Dartmouth and that Dartmouth was for white students. After Wheelock’s death in 1779, Moor’s Indian Charity School receded further into the background as John Wheelock, his father’s reluctant successor, stopped taking Indian students. Some Native American students were enrolled in Moor’s until 1850, when the school unofficially closed.
Cherokee Tribe
The Cherokees are a North American Indian tribe, now with a population of about 350,000. They were one of the largest politically organized tribes at the time of European colonization. Their name derives from a Creek word meaning "people of different speech," which is more properly spelled Tsalagi; their original tribal name is Aniyunwiya. Their language, Tsalagi Gawonihisdi, is related to Haudenosaunee. Controlling a large territory in the Appalachian Mountains in parts of present day Georgia, eastern Tennessee, and the western Carolinas, the Cherokees hunted and raised corn, beans, and squash, and had large towns organized around council houses with sacred fires. The Spanish, French and English all attempted to colonize parts of the Southeast; by the 18th century, the Cherokees allied with the British against the French, who were allied with some of their traditional Haudenosaunee enemies. But English settlement destroyed many Cherokee towns and damaged tribal economies. The Cherokees and other neighboring tribes lost territory after the Revolutionary War because of their support of the British, and after 1800, the Cherokees began adopting settler culture, forming a government based on the US model, farming, and developing a written language that promoted almost full literacy among the Tribe and produced the first Indian newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix in 1828. But when gold was discovered on Cherokee land, Georgia disregarded a US Supreme Court ruling in favor of Cherokee sovereignty, and moved the Cherokees from their traditional homes in a forced march in Fall and Winter of 1838-39 known as the Trail of Tears. The main body of Cherokees were resettled in northeastern Oklahoma, where they are today. At the time of removal, some escaped to the hills and remained in western North Carolina. There are now three federally recognized Cherokee Tribes. In 1758, Occom was being considered for a mission to the Cherokees in Virginia, which never happened.
Lebanon

Lebanon is a town located in the state of Connecticut southwest of the town of Hartford. The land that became Lebanon was inhabited at least 10,000 years ago based on the archeological record. By the 1600s, the land was permanently inhabited by the Mohegan Indians, who used the area primarily for hunting. Lebanon was officially formed in 1700 when English settlers consolidated a number of land tracts, including several land grants by the Connecticut General Assembly and lands purchased from the Mohegans. However, these purchases were controversial. In 1659, the Mohegans entrusted their reserve land to Major John Mason, and in the following year, Mason transferred this land to the Connecticut colonial government with the understanding that there would be enough land left for the Mohegans to farm. The Mohegans claimed that they never authorized a transfer to the colonial government and only Mason’s heirs were entrusted with their land. In 1662, Connecticut, which included the Mohegan land that had been entrusted to the Masons, was incorporated by a royal charter. Based on this charter, the colony argued that the land was now the property of the government. In 1687, the colony began granting the Mohegan land to townships, and in 1704 the Masons petitioned the Crown on behalf of the Mohegans, claiming that such transfers of land to townships were illegal. Between the years of 1705 and 1773 legal disputes and controversies persisted, finally ending in a verdict by the Crown against the Mohegans. In 1755, Wheelock received property and housing in Lebanon that he would use as his house and school. While Lebanon was originally incorporated as a part of New London County in 1700, in 1724 it became a part of New Windham, before once again becoming a part of New London County in 1826. Lebanon was central to the American Revolution with half of its adult population fighting for the colonists and hundreds of meetings convened in the town for the revolutionary cause.

Crown Point

Crown Point is a fort on the narrows of Lake Champlain, on the border between modern New York State and Vermont. The British and French both claimed Crown Point in their bid to colonize North America. In 1759 the British ousted the French from the fort, which became a key site for the British conquest of Canada. It is now a historic site run by the State of New York. Wheelock informs George Whitefield that two of his associates, Pomeroy and Brainerd, who are chaplains in the British army stationed at Crown Point, are helping him to recruit Mohawk boys from the vicinity for his Indian Charity School.

Long Island

Long Island is an island located in southeast New York State. In 1824, historian Silas Wood claimed that 13 different tribes inhabited the island when the Dutch and English arrived in 1639: the Canarsie, the Rockaway, the Matinecock, the Merrick, the Massapequa, the Nissequoge, the Secatoag, the Seatuket, the Patchoag, the Corchaug, the Shinnecock, the Manhasset, and the Montaukett. This is the commonly accepted tribal history of Long Island, and Wood’s theory is taught in New York textbooks today. Yet, in 1992, historian John Strong challenged this dominant narrative, arguing that tribal systems did not develop on Long Island until after Europeans arrived. Based on Dutch and English colonists’ accounts, the Algonquian communities on western Long Island likely spoke the Delaware-Munsee dialect and those to the east spoke languages related to the southern New England Algonquian dialects. These indigenous peoples organized themselves by language and kinship, but beyond village systems and the occasional alliance, there existed no formal tribal structure. Rather, internal structures arose among the Montauks, the Shinnecocks, the Poospatucks, and the Matinnocks to cope with English settlers, and became integral to these peoples’ survival. Although new diseases and land negotiations severely encroached on the freedom of Long Island’s Native population, these groups that developed tribal structures retain a sense of community today. By the 18th century, much of the island had fallen into the hands of the English, who were the sole European power on Long Island once the Dutch relinquished their claims to the land after the second Anglo-Dutch War in 1664. During the Great Awakening of the 18th century, Occom spent 12 years serving as a missionary to the Montaukett Indians of Long Island, along with Presbyterian minister Azariah Horton. Today, the western half of the island is densely populated due to its proximity to Manhattan, and its eastern half is mainly devoted to resort towns. The Shinnecocks and the Poospatucks retain autonomous reservations on Long Island.

New Jersey

New Jersey is a state located on the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. For at least 10,000 years before the arrival of Europeans, the area of New Jersey was occupied by the Delaware Indians whose territory extended from what is now the state of Delaware to eastern Pennsylvania. Established as a colony in 1664 and named in honor of the English Channel’s Isle of Jersey, New Jersey shared a royal governor with the nearby colony of New York until 1738. During the Revolutionary War, New Jersey fought for independence from Britain and was the site of over a hundred different battles. In the later 1730s, the Society in Scotland for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge and the New England Company showed particular interest in missionizing in the Native communities along the Delaware River in New Jersey. At the same time, the First Great Awakening erupted along the eastern seaboard, and one of its most influential figures was Gilbert Tennent from New Brunswick, New Jersey, who, like other New Light ministers, courted and attracted Native converts. In the first years of Wheelock's Indian Charity School, he was less interested in recruiting Native students from local tribes and looked towards the powerful Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) tribes of New York and the Delawares of New Jersey. In 1754, at Wheelock’s behest, John Brainerd, a SSPCK missionary in New Jersey, sent two Delaware boys, John Pumshire and Jacob Woolley, who were the first official Native students at the School. In 1788, Occom, David Fowler and Peter Pohquonnappeet attempted fundraising in Pennsylvania and New Jersey for Brothertown and New Stockbridge.

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Whitefield, George

George Whitefield, the English itinerant preacher who helped spark the Great Awakening, was an essential supporter of Eleazar Wheelock’s project. Whitefield studied at Pembroke College, Oxford, where he met the pioneers of Methodism, John and Charles Wesley. He was ordained in 1736, and he made the first of his seven trips to America two years later. While abroad in 1740, Whitefield founded an orphanage in Georgia, and went on a preaching tour during which he met Wheelock and spread ideals that prompted the Great Awakening. Although Whitefield was ordained in the Church of England, his enthusiastic preaching style and charismatic personality made him a controversial figure, and traditional clergyman on both sides of the Atlantic censured him. Nonetheless, he continued to be an important contact and friend of Wheelock’s, and his dedication to Wheelock’s vision was evident. He contributed money to the cause, secured various other funders, and donated an eighty-pound prayer bell to the school. More importantly, Whitefield not only suggested to Wheelock the idea of a fundraising tour in Great Britain, he hosted Occom and Whitaker shortly after they arrived in England, provided a house for them to reside in for the remainder of their tour, and introduced the pair to influential figures such as William Legge, the Earl of Dartmouth. Whitefield tabernacle’s was the setting of Occom’s first sermon in England on February 16, 1766, and many believe that Whitefield wrote the introduction to a pamphlet printed in London during the campaign (although he was not credited). Whitefield continued to be involved in Wheelock’s work until he died in Newburyport, MA in September of 1770.

Woolley, Jacob

Jacob Woolley, a Delaware, was one of Wheelock's first two Indian students. He was the cousin of Wheelock's third student, Joseph Woolley. John Brainerd sent Jacob Woolley, along with John Pumshire, to Wheelock late in 1754. While Pumshire died in 1757, Jacob continued studying with Wheelock and entered the College of New Jersey in 1759. He studied there until 1762, when he was expelled for failing his studies and abusing alcohol. It is also likely that there was a woman involved. In 1763, Jacob briefly returned to College before running away and enlisting in the army. Joseph Woolley met a man in Sheffield who described someone like Jacob Woolley teaching there in the fall of 1764, but this identification is not definite. Jacob never seems to have been very invested in becoming a missionary. Especially after his expulsion from the College of New Jersey, he expressed doubts about Wheelock's plans for him and struggled with alcohol. It is likely that he ran away primarily because Wheelock was non-responsive to these concerns.

Pomeroy, Benjamin

Benjamin Pomeroy was a school friend of Eleazar Wheelock and a lifelong supporter of his cause. Like Wheelock, he was a New Light evangelical and a staunch ally of James Davenport, a radical New Light preacher whose beliefs got him in trouble with the law. After graduating from Yale in 1733, Pomeroy received the ministry at Hebron, CT, in 1734, and assisted Wheelock in myriad ways until his own death in 1784. He kept Wheelock's school during 1746, when Wheelock's first wife, Sarah, was dying, and he tutored Occom (primarily in Hebrew) after Occom had completed his studies with Wheelock. Pomeroy also supported Wheelock as a trustee of Moor's, and, later, Dartmouth, and as a member of the Board of the Correspondents in Connecticut for the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Pomeroy and Wheelock also had close family connections: Pomeroy was married to Wheelock’s sister, Abigail, and one of Pomeroy’s daughters, Hannah, married David McClure, one of Wheelock's most illustrious graduates. Outside of his liturgical career, Pomeroy served as an army chaplain in the French and Indian War and the Revolution.

Brainerd, John

John Brainerd was an ardent missionary with an important role in Wheelock's design. He was the younger brother of the famous missionary David Brainerd, who died as a young man after being expelled from Yale and serving as a missionary to New Jersey tribes. John completed his Yale degree and was immediately commissioned to replace David. Even in his own time, he was seen as a man as pious as, but less talented than, his brother, though Brainerd missioned to Indians during a more volatile period, and saw his congregation forcibly removed from their lands in 1755 and relocated at Brothertown in 1758 (this Brothertown should not be confused with the one founded in New York after the Revolution by many Moor's alumni). Brainerd was extremely devoted to the Indian cause. He often had the opportunity to serve wealthy English congregations, but preferred to remain an Indian missionary. He invested signficant sums of his own money into his missions, for which he was never reimbursed. Brainerd was a very prominent Presbyterian figure, active in the Presbytery and Synod of New York, holding several elected positions, and in the Presbtery and Synod of New York and Philadelphia once the two reunified in 1758. He was a Trustee of the College of New Jersey from 1754 until his death, and a member of the New York Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Occom had planned to work with Brainerd in 1750, but political upheaval prevented it. Brainerd was one of several men nominated to accompany Occom to England, but the New York Board refused to let him go. While Brainerd and Wheelock were not close personal friends, the two had a similar interests and a long-lasting correspondence. John Brainerd sent Wheelock his first Indian boys, and also recruited female students in the 1760s. Throughout their lives, Brainerd and Wheelock updated one another on Indian missions, and Brainerd seems to have been one of Wheelock's "point people" in the Presbyterian Church.

Johnson, William

Sir William Johnson was a powerful British colonial official who amassed wealth and influence by integrating into the Mohawk tribe. For a brief window of time (1761-1768), he provided support for Wheelock’s missionary efforts among the Six Nations. He also helped the Brothertown Nation of Indians procure land from the Oneidas. Johnson was born in Ireland in 1715. His family had been part of the Catholic elite, but after William of Orange’s 1690 victory at the Battle of the Boyne, they at least nominally converted to the Episcopalian Church. In 1738, Johnson emigrated to America to manage his uncle Peter Warren’s estate in Mohawk territory. Over the next decade, Johnson became wealthy in his own right through trade and land sales, acquiring a vast estate crowned by his manor house, Johnson Hall, which became the central location for British and Indian treaty making. In 1745, Johnson began collecting official British titles and positions. He played an important military role in the French and Indian War and was named Superintendent of Indian Affairs in 1756 and first baronet of New York in 1757. Much of Johnson’s success was due to his influence among the Mohawks, which he obtained by learning their language and customs and integrating himself into their society. He participated in Mohawk rituals and entered into a common-law marriage with a powerful Mohawk woman, Molly Brant (also called Mary Brant). Because Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) society is matrilineal, this marriage was an essential element of his participation in Indian affairs. Wheelock desperately wanted to wield missionary influence among the Six Nations, and sought to obtain Johnson as an ally in his endeavors. At first, the two found grounds for cooperation. Wheelock sent Occom as a missionary to the Oneidas in 1761 and again in 1762, and sent a substantially larger group of missionaries and schoolmasters in 1765, 1766, and 1767. Johnson, meanwhile, encouraged Haudenosaunee children, including his brother-in-law Joseph Brant, to attend Moor’s. Johnson’s support proved indispensible to missionaries in the field; he helped with supplies, language skills, and relations with the Mohawks and Oneidas. Wheelock also valued Johnson for his influence in Britain, and drew on him for recommendations and public statements of support numerous times. From 1763 on, however, Johnson found himself decidedly uncomfortable with Wheelock’s missionary efforts, and by 1769, their relationship had dissolved completely. In 1766, Johnson was invited to join the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG), the largest and most influential Anglican missionary society in the 18th-century British-Atlantic world. He began working to place Anglican missionaries, rather than Congregationalist and Presbyterian ones, among the Six Nations, which alarmed Wheelock. Johnson was generally supportive of Native American tribes’ efforts to maintain their land and sovereignty. As the historian Linford Fisher has noted, “virtually every major Native group in southeastern New England successfully petitioned Johnson to act on their behalf during the late 1760s and early 1770s.” Among these groups was the Brothertown Nation, a Christian composite tribe formed by Southern New England Algonquian Moor’s alumni. Johnson helped them negotiate with the Oneidas, which proved essential to their successful land purchase and relocation to central New York.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Clap, Thomas

Thomas Clap was an American academic and Congregational minister who is best known for his role as fifth rector and first official President of Yale University (then known as Yale College) from 1740-1766. While at Yale, Clap introduced courses such as mathematics and natural philosophy, popular "Enlightenment" subjects during the Great Awakening. These changes began the shift of Yale's focus from training Congregational ministers to educating colonial youth in a broader curriculum.

Wheelock, Mary (née Brinsmead)

Mary Wheelock was born Mary Brinsmead on July 26, 1714 in Milford, Connecticut. In the year following the death of his first wife, Eleazar began to court Mary Brinsmead, and the two married on November 21, 1747. Mary and Eleazar had five children together, including John, who would succeed his father as President of Dartmouth College. Little appears in the historical record about Mary, but many of the people who wrote to Wheelock, especially his Native correspondents who often lived with the family, referred to her warmly. In September 1770, Mary dismantled her longtime home in Connecticut, and travelled with her children to the Wheelocks' new home in the wilderness of New Hampshire. They rode in a coach sent over from England by John Thornton, accompanied by 30 Charity School students on foot. Eleazar, who had gone ahead to build housing for everyone, wrote a letter to Mary with many instructions about the move; the disposition of domestic animals, people, supplies; and the acquisition of money that suggests she was an able and trustworthy manager (manuscript 770510.1; this manuscript is not included in Occom Circle documents). She died in 1784 in Hanover, New Hampshire, where she is buried in the Dartmouth College Cemetery.

Occom’s Ordination
In November 1756, the Boston Board of Commissioners of the London Society for Propagating the Gospel recommends Occom for ordination as a Congregational minister. When he is recruited in 1758 by the Presbyterian minister Samuel Davies of Virginia for a mission to the Cherokees, Occom needs to be ordained quickly, and the task is referred to the Suffolk Presbytery on Long Island, where he is living. Occom is examined and ordained a Presbyterian minister on August 29 and 30, 1759.
Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers0040.ocp Jacob mentioned Woolley, Jacob
pers0157.ocp Preſident President Davies mentioned Davies
pers0432.ocp Pomeroy mentioned Pomeroy, Benjamin
pers0004.ocp Brainerd mentioned Brainerd, John
pers0292.ocp Gen. l Gen. Johnſon Johnson mentioned Johnson, William
pers0548.ocp M. r Mr. Trumble mentioned Trumble
pers0030.ocp M. r Mr. Occom mentioned Occom, Samson
pers0010.ocp Preſident President Clap mentioned Clap, Thomas
pers0036.ocp Eleaz r Eleazar Wheelock writer Wheelock, Eleazar
pers0577.ocp Mrſs Mrs. Wheelock mentioned Wheelock, Mary (née Brinsmead)
pers0038.ocp Rev. George Whitefield. recipient Whitefield, George
pers0038.ocp M. r Mr. Whitefield recipient Whitefield, George

Places identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
place0122.ocp Lebanon Lebanon
place0056.ocp Crown Point Crown Point
place0129.ocp Long Island Long Island

Organizations identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
org0098.ocp Charity ſchoolschool Moor’s Indian Charity School
org0012.ocp britiſhBritish arms British Army
org0012.ocp his MajeſtyMajesty arms British Army
org0045.ocp French
org0067.ocp College in New JerſieJersey Princeton University
org0062.ocp MohawkesMohawks Mohawk Nation
org0012.ocp EngliſhEnglish Arms British Army
org0098.ocp School Moor’s Indian Charity School
org0098.ocp Charity School Moor’s Indian Charity School
org0021.ocp CherockeesCherokees Cherokee Tribe

Dates identified in this document:

Standard Form Text
1759-11-03 Nov.rNovember 3.d3rd 1759.
1765-03-07 March 7th7th
1759-11-03 Nov.rNovember 3. 1759.

Regularized text:

Type Original Regularized
modernization 3.d 3rd
modernization Rev.d Rev.
modernization 7th 7th
variation wellcome welcome
modernization purſuing pursuing
modernization ſchool school
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modernization himſelf himself
variation ſinfull sinful
modernization laſt last
variation Surprizing surprising
variation Siries series
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variation ſucceſsfull successful
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variation Diſpoſeſsing dispossessing
variation perſwade persuade
modernization ourſelves ourselves
modernization Proſpect prospect
modernization Chriſt Christ
modernization y.e the
variation Jerſie Jersey
modernization underſtand understand
variation perticularly particularly
modernization y.t that
modernization Preſident President
variation pleaſd pleased
modernization cloſe close
variation Commence'ment commencement
variation Mohawke Mohawk
variation Mohawkes Mohawks
modernization Meſsrs Messrs.
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modernization poſibly possibly
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modernization Johnſon Johnson
variation leaſure leisure
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variation Dificulty difficulty
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variation certifyed certified
modernization deſirous desirous
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modernization ſuch such
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variation publick public
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variation Cherockees Cherokees
variation havt haven't
modernization Converſion conversion
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variation till tell
modernization ſhould should
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modernization Thouſand thousand
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modernization ſo so
modernization Intereſts interests
modernization ſir sir
modernization Neareſt nearest
modernization Deareſt dearest
modernization Mrſs Mrs.
variation Joynis joins

Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
Nov.r November
& and
cod could
wo.d would
w.c which
Dive Divine
Providce Providence
Fav.r favour
Eleazr Eleazar

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Number of nested "hi" tags: (consider merging the @rend attributes, or using other tags) 0
Number of tags with invalid 'rend' attributes: 0 (out of 36)
Number of people/places/organizations with unknown keys: 0 (out of 26)
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HomeEleazar Wheelock, letter, to Mr. Whitefield, 1759 November 3
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