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Eleazar Wheelock, letter, to Andrew Oliver, 1756

ms-number: 756900.1

[note (type: abstract): Wheelock writes about the new Indian charity school, and relates the progress of his students and his hopes for an incorporation from the Crown.][note (type: handwriting): Informal handwriting is small and occasionally difficult to decipher.][note (type: paper): Large sheet folded in half to make four pages is in good-to-fair condition, with light-to-moderate staining and wear, and heavy creasing.][note (type: noteworthy): Although the letter is not addressed, the recipient has been judged to be Andrew Oliver from the contents. This document is on the same paper as manuscripts 756190, 756900.2 and 756520. It appears to be a draft.][note (type: layout): One recto and verso of this document is on the second recto and verso of the paper. That is, if the paper containing all four letters were to be read as a book, this letter would be pages three and four.]
[Hon.d | Honoured]Hon.dHonoured Sir.
In [Col | Col.]ColCol. Henchman[pers0254.ocp]'s to me (Dated [Boſton | Boston]BoſtonBoston July 30. 1756[1756-07-30])
is [y.e | the]y.ethe following Paragraph "I was [deſired | desired]deſireddesired Some time since
to write to you from The Gentlemen the [Com̅iſsrs | commissioners]Com̅iſsrscommissioners for the Indian
, Which I unhappily forgot [& | and]&and Omitted — but now inform
you that they [deſire | desire]deſiredesire you would write to them of the [Circumſtan‐
ces | circumstan‐
of The two Children with you and what you apprehend
may be the [Beſt | best]Beſtbest way to promote their [Inſtruction | instruction]Inſtructioninstruction — and
the Good Ends [propos'd | proposed]propos'dproposed by you [& | and]&and Others in this Important
Affair, and the Methods you think to go in, in order to [ac‐
compliſh | ac‐
it. And if they Like the Scheme [&c | etc.]&cetc. they will [doubt‐
leſs | doubt‐
do what they can out of the Fund in their Hands to
Encourage it — If you will write to the [Hon.le | honourable]Hon.lehonourable Andrew Oliver [Es[gap: tear][guess (h-dawnd): q.]q. r | Esq.]Es[gap: tear][guess (h-dawnd): q.]q. rEsq.[pers0031.ocp]
who is [Treaſurer | treasurer]Treaſurertreasurer to the [Com̅iſsrs | commissioners]Com̅iſsrscommissioners[org0095.ocp] he [wil | will]wilwill [com̅unicate | communicate]com̅unicatecommunicate it in order
to their meeting [& | and]&and doing what they Shall [Eſteem | esteem]Eſteemesteem [Neceſsary | necessary]Neceſsarynecessary
for them in the Affair." —
Sir I look upon the [condeſention | condescension]condeſentioncondescension [Kindneſs | kindness]Kindneſskindness and care of the
[Hon.le | honourable]Hon.lehonourable [Com̅iſsrs | commissioners]Com̅iſsrscommissioners[org0095.ocp] herein [expreſsed | expressed]expreſsedexpressed as a Smile of Heaven upon
The grand [Deſign | design]Deſigndesign. and now [cheirfully | cheerfully]cheirfullycheerfully [& | and]&and gladly take this op‐
portunity to inform your [Hon.r | honour]Hon.rhonour and others [deſiring | desiring]deſiringdesiring it, [illegible] of
the [perticulars | particulars]perticularsparticulars [mention'd | mentioned]mention'dmentioned, So far as [conſiſts | consists]conſiſtsconsists with the limits
of a [Litter | letter]Litterletter, and Should be glad I had [y.e | the]y.ethe opportunity to do
it [otherwiſe | otherwise]otherwiſeotherwise than by general hints and without [ſuch | such]ſuchsuch large
[omiſsions | omissions]omiſsionsomissions of many things of importance.
The Two Indian Boys with me are of The Delaware Tribe[org0038.ocp]. [ſent | Sent]ſentSent
to me by the [Rev.d | Rev.]Rev.dRev. John Brainerd[pers0004.ocp] [Decem.r | December]Decem.rDecember 1754[1754-12] After much
Pains taken by him to procure them and many [Diſopointments | disappointments]Diſopointmentsdisappointments
which [delay'd | delayed]delay'ddelayed their Coming, [conſequent | consequent]conſequentconsequent upon my [Deſire | desire]Deſiredesire Three
years ago [laſt | last]laſtlast May, with a view if God Should mercifully
Smile upon the [Deſign | design]Deſigndesign, to their being fitted for the Gospel ‐
[miniſtry | ministry]miniſtryministry Among the Indians. and a hope it might be a lead to
[Somthg | something]Somthgsomething further done [inf | in]infin [favr | favor]favrfavor of their Education of a Number of them.
The [Conſiderations | considerations]Conſiderationsconsiderations Moving Me to [above] itit were — The obligations lying upon
[N– | New]N–New England[place0158.ocp][& | and]&and Their [publick | public]publickpublic Guilt for [above] on [accot | account]accotaccount ofon [accot | account]accotaccount of [paſt | past]paſtpast [Neglect | neglect]Neglectneglect — which, I cant
but [underſtand | understand]underſtandunderstand [y.e | the]y.ethe Judgements of God [above] think God has been in a very [Eſpecial | especial]Eſpecialespecial manner pointing at [& | and]&and [Teſtifying | testifying]Teſtifyingtestifying [againſt | against]againſtagainstthink God has been in a very [Eſpecial | especial]Eſpecialespecial manner pointing at [& | and]&and [Teſtifying | testifying]Teſtifyingtestifying [againſt | against]againſtagainst in permitting the Savages from
year to year to make Such Ravages, and Spoil of us, [above] &c&c as pointing
at in a very [Eſpecial | especial]Eſpecialespecial manner. — The many and great [Advan‐
tages | advan‐
in [ſending | sending]ſendingsending to them by their own Children — [againſt | against]againſtagainst whom
they have No Such Prejudices as are [conſtantly | constantly]conſtantlyconstantly found to be a mighty
Impediment in the way [above] to the [ſucceſs | success]ſucceſssuccessto the [ſucceſs | success]ſucceſssuccess of an [Engliſh | English]EngliſhEnglish [Miſsion | mission]Miſsionmission among them —
Their children can talk their Language — know their [Cuſtoms | customs]Cuſtomscustoms — can
live [& | and]&and [fair | fare]fairfare as they do — no Trouble nor charge to procure [& | and]&and
Support Interpreters — and will give that [above] herein we [ſhall | shall]ſhallshall do thatherein we [ſhall | shall]ſhallshall do that which will be to
them the moſt convincing Proofs [& | and]&and [Demonſstrations | demonstrations]Demonſstrationsdemonstrations of the [ſin‐
cerity | sin‐
of Our Intentions — and [above] theythey be under the [beſt | best]beſtbest Advantage
to counteract Jesuits — Attack their [Reſpective | respective]Reſpectiverespective Notions in [ye | the]yethe
[Engliſh | English]EngliſhEnglish [Intreſt | interest]Intreſtinterest. — [&c | etc.]&cetc. [&c | etc.]&cetc. [&c | etc.]&cetc. And I was not a little [Encoura
‐ged | encoura‐
in the Affair by the [Succeſs | success]Succeſssuccess of Some [above] thethe Endeavors I [illegible]'d
by the [Aſsiſtance | assistance]Aſsiſtanceassistance of the [Hon le | honorable]Hon lehonorable [Com̅iſsrs | commissioners]Com̅iſsrscommissioners[org0095.ocp] in [y.e | the]y.ethe Education of
[Samſon | Samson]SamſonSamson Occom[pers0030.ocp] who has been useful to them beyond what
could have been [Reaſonably | reasonably]Reaſonablyreasonably expected of an [Engliſh | English]EngliſhEnglish man. [& | and]&and wthout
[above] [leſs | less]leſsless than half of [y.e | the]y.ethe Expence[leſs | less]leſsless than half of [y.e | the]y.ethe Expence Soon after I Sent for these Boys I [viſited | visited]viſitedvisited [M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. Joshua More[pers0025.ocp] of
[Manſfield | Mansfield]ManſfieldMansfield[place0131.ocp] [above] [& | and]&and invited him[& | and]&and invited him to I[illegible] devote a part of his large [Eſtate | estate]Eſtateestate to [ſuch | such]ſuchsuch a

Purpose he was [pleaſd | pleased]pleaſdpleased with the proposal and bought a Small
Tenement in the Center of this Place for which he gave £500
[left] [O. | Old]O.Old [Ten.r | Tenor]Ten.rTenor[O. | Old]O.Old [Ten.r | Tenor]Ten.rTenor and made a Deed of it to [Coll. | Col.]Coll.Col. [Eliſha | Elisha]EliſhaElisha Williams [Esq.r | Esq.]Esq.rEsq.[pers0595.ocp] The [Rev.d | Rev.]Rev.dRev.
[Meſsrs | Misters]MeſsrsMisters [Sam.l | Samuel]Sam.lSamuel [Moſely | Moseley]MoſelyMoseley[pers0381.ocp] Benjamin Pomeroy[pers0432.ocp] [& | and]&and [Myſelf | myself]Myſelfmyself for the
Foundation use [& | and]&and Support of a Charity School[org0098.ocp] for [ſuch | such]ſuchsuch
a purpose [above] foreverforever — and we [convenanted | covenanted]convenantedcovenanted with him [& | and]&and his Heirs to
Improve that and all other Donations [above] made to [ſ.d | said]ſ.dsaid [ſchool | school]ſchoolschool[org0098.ocp]made to [ſ.d | said]ſ.dsaid [ſchool | school]ſchoolschool[org0098.ocp] for that Purpose —
at which School we proposed they [Shod | should]Shodshould be [inſtructed | instructed]inſtructedinstructed
in [Readg | reading]Readgreading Writing [& | and]&and [above] [ſuch | such]ſuchsuch [woſe | whose]woſewhose parts [& | and]&and [diſpoſns | dispositions]diſpoſnsdispositions as [ſhod | should]ſhodshould invite us to it. in[ſuch | such]ſuchsuch [woſe | whose]woſewhose parts [& | and]&and [diſpoſns | dispositions]diſpoſnsdispositions as [ſhod | should]ſhodshould invite us to it. in all Liberal Arts [& | and]&and Sciences [& | and]&and [Eſpecially | especially]Eſpeciallyespecially
in [ye | the]yethe [Knowledg | knowledge]Knowledgknowledge and [Practiſe | practice]Practiſepractice of [Chriſtianity | Christianity]ChriſtianityChristianity and be fitted
for [y.e | the]y.ethe Gospel [minſtry | ministry]minſtryministry in Such of them whose parts and
[Diſpoſitions | dispositions]Diſpoſitionsdispositions [ſhod | should]ſhodshould Invite us to it. under the Conduct of the
[moſt | most]moſtmost Learned [& | and]&and Godly [Maſter | master]Maſtermaster we can obtain — and [yt | that]ytthat
in this School they be treated in all [Reſpects | respects]Reſpectsrespects as [Engliſh | English]EngliſhEnglish
[Schollars | scholars]Schollarsscholars excepting [above] with [reſpect | respect]reſpectrespect towith [reſpect | respect]reſpectrespect to their Lodging [& | and]&and Some things in which
Prudence Shall ld dictate, a conformity to their ow[above] nn Nation —
to be Expedient — we [ha' | have]ha'have got [ſubſcriptns | subscriptions]ſubſcriptnssubscriptions for about £500 [lawfull | lawful]lawfulllawful
money, towards a Fund for the Support of a [maſter | master]maſtermaster[above] [& | and]&and think [yt | that]ytthat[& | and]&and think [yt | that]ytthat £1000 we sup‐
pose will be [Sufft | sufficient]Sufftsufficient with the Improvement of [M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. More[pers0025.ocp]'s Grant and [ſuch | such]ſuchsuch
Donations [above] GiftsGifts as we may [reaſonably | reasonably]reaſonablyreasonably Expect upon so great a Road as this
if the thing [above] [deſign | design]deſigndesign[deſign | design]deſigndesign Shall [proſper | prosper]proſperprosper. [above] will be [ſufficicient | sufficient]ſufficicientsufficientwill be [ſufficicient | sufficient]ſufficicientsufficient but we are Since [adviſed | advised]adviſedadvised by Gentlemen
Learned in the Law [y.t | that]y.tthat Some kind of Incorporation by Civil authority is
[Neceſsary | necessary]Neceſsarynecessary. [& | and]&and by[illegible] Advice of his [Hon.r | honour]Hon.rhonour our Late [Gov.r | Governor]Gov.rGovernor Woolcott[pers0611.ocp], [above] [& | and]&and others[& | and]&and others we have
[conſulted | consulted]conſultedconsulted [ye | the]yethe [Honle | honourable]Honlehonourable [Wm | William]WmWilliam Smith [Esq.r | Esq.]Esq.rEsq.[pers0504.ocp] of [N. | New]N.New York[place0166.ocp] who [Adviſes | advises]Adviſesadvises [y.t | that]y.tthat an
Incorporation [cant | can't]cantcan't be had from a Corporation as our Government[org0027.ocp] is
but proposes two methods [above] for the [remidying | remedying]remidyingremedying the Difficulty among [ourſelves | ourselves]ourſelvesourselvesfor the [remidying | remedying]remidyingremedying the Difficulty among [ourſelves | ourselves]ourſelvesourselves 1. by a [Delagation | Delegation]DelagationDelegation of [y.e | the]y.ethe [Exerciſe | exercise]Exerciſeexercise of part of
their [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): Original] Original] Power [above] of [illegible] [Gov.r | governor]Gov.rgovernor [& | and]&and Company.of [illegible] [Gov.r | governor]Gov.rgovernor [& | and]&and Company. . or 2. by two [ſets | sets]ſetssets of [Truſtees | trustees]Truſteestrustees [y.e | the]y.ethe one to have
[ye | the]yethe fee of [y.e | the]y.ethe Land by Deed and to Declare their [Truſt | trust]Truſttrust by Deed to another
Lot after the manner that Lands are [apropriated | appropriated]apropriatedappropriated to [y.e | the]y.ethe use of [Ch-hs | churches]Ch-hschurches
in the Southern Colonies. but [adviſes | advises]adviſesadvises that an Incorporation from [ye | the]yethe
Crown [above] if it can be hadif it can be had is much more [Eligeble | eligible]Eligebleeligible. and we have [conſidered | considered]conſideredconsidered [y.e | the]y.ethe [Diſtemp
-er'd | distemp
[& | and]&and Divided Sentiments of the [preſent | present]preſentpresent Day with [reſpect | respect]reſpectrespect to Religious
matters — [& | and]&and that Either of the two former methods proposed [above] if [y.[illegible] | they]y.[illegible]they can be come intoif [y.[illegible] | they]y.[illegible]they can be come into will
not be [ſo | so]ſoso likely to Invite charitable Donations as [ſome | some]ſomesome [foundn | foundation]foundnfoundation
that is more known and more Certain [above] [& | and]&and [yt | that]ytthat if this can be [obtaind | obtained]obtaindobtained there is a [proſpect | prospect]proſpectprospect of a [n.o | number]n.onumber of [illegible] Donations [ſoon | soon]ſoonsoon[& | and]&and [yt | that]ytthat if this can be [obtaind | obtained]obtaindobtained there is a [proſpect | prospect]proſpectprospect of a [n.o | number]n.onumber of [illegible] Donations [ſoon | soon]ſoonsoon and that there are [ſuch | such]ſuchsuch
political as well as Religious [Reaſons | reasons]Reaſonsreasons as we [perſwade | persuade]perſwadepersuade [ourſelves | ourselves]ourſelvesourselves
will Induce his [Majeſty | Majesty]MajeſtyMajesty[pers0305.ocp] to incorporate us, if his Ear can be had.
Accordingly we have provided [meterials | materials]meterialsmaterials for that Purpose and [ſent | sent]ſentsent
them to [ye | the]yethe Care of the [Rev.d | Rev.]Rev.dRev. [Preſid.t | President]Preſid.tPresident Burr[pers0108.ocp], which we suppose are
gone [ſome | some]ſomesome weeks ago — The Duplicate to which I have Sent to
[y.e | the]y.ethe Care of [Coll. | Col.]Coll.Col. Henchman[pers0254.ocp] [Esq.r | Esq.]Esq.rEsq. of [Boſton | Boston]BoſtonBoston &c
The education of these boys when they came to me was, I think
much to [y.e | the]y.ethe [Honr | honor]Honrhonor of [M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. Brainerds [Miſsn | mission]Miſsnmission[pers0004.ocp]. they have [ſince | since]ſincesince [behavd | behaved]behavdbehaved
well and make good proficiency in learning Nothing appears but
[y.t | the]y.tthe [Coſt | cost]Coſtcost [above] painspains [& | and]&and [Expence | expense]Expenceexpense [bestowd | bestowed]bestowdbestowed upon them will be to good Purpose
[Eſpecialy | especially]Eſpecialyespecially upon [ye | the]yethe Younger of them. I have had Some [Aſsiſtances | assistances]Aſsiſtancesassistances
from [ye | the]yethe Charities of [perticular | particular]perticularparticular Gentlemen. towards their [ſupport | support]ſupportsupport.

[above] [tho' | though]tho'though it has lain mainly upon me[tho' | though]tho'though it has lain mainly upon me I have Sent for, [& | and]&and daily Expect, another, Whom [M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. Brainerd[pers0004.ocp] thinks to
be full as Likely as Either of these. [& | and]&and thus [above] Sir Sir I have, [tho' | though]tho'though imperfectly
[ansd | answered]ansdanswered [ye | the]yethe [Deſr | desire]Deſrdesire of [ye | the]yethe [Honle | honourable]Honlehonourable [Com'iſsrs | commissioners]Com'iſsrscommissioners[org0095.ocp] [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): and]and if [ye | the]yethe [acco.t | account]acco.taccount be not [ſo | so]ſoso [per-
ticular | par-
in any [illegible][illegible: [guess (h-dawnd): [reſpect | respect]reſpectrespect][reſpect | respect]reſpectrespect] as they [Deſire | desire]Deſiredesire if they will [pleaſe | please]pleaſeplease to hint it to me I will
[above] gladly give [illegible] full informationgladly give [illegible] full information [perticular | particular]perticularparticular in my [Acco.t | account]Acco.taccount as they Shall [Deſire | desire]Deſiredesire [pleaſe | please]pleaſeplease to give [moſt | most]moſtmost [reſpect[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): l]l] | respectful]reſpect[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): l]l]respectful
Salutations to those Good Gentlemen [ye | the]yethe [Hon. | honourable]Hon.honourable [Com̅iſsrs | commissioners]Com̅iſsrscommissioners[org0095.ocp] and accept the same =

The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America
The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America was a missionary society active in America from 1649 until 1786. It was first called the "New England Company" in 1770. Most secondary literature uses that name for convenience and to distinguish it from other missionary societies. The company was first chartered in 1649 as the "President and Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England," largely in response to John Eliot's missionary efforts. After the Restoration (1660), it was rechartered as the "Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America." The New England Company was very powerful and influential, in large part because it was a coalition between Anglicans and Dissenters. It supported a range of missionaries from the Mayhews to the Sergeants to Moor's alumnus Samuel Kirkland. After the Revolution, the New England Company refocused its attentions on New Brunswick and Canadian Indians. Wheelock had a very rocky relationship with the New England Company. Initially, it supported Wheelock's efforts. The Company funded Occom's education at Moor's and paid him a small salary during his time among the Montauketts. However, from 1765 onwards, its relationship with Wheelock rapidly deteriorated. The Company opposed the fundraising tour of Great Britain and went so far as to interfere with it by sending a widely circulated letter to England questioning Occom's background. The New England Company also interferred with Titus Smith's mission to Onaquaga by sending a rival missionary, Mr. Moseley, and stealing Titus' interpreter, Elisha Gunn. In 1767 it formally withdrew its financial support from Wheelock on the grounds that the fundraising tour had raised sufficient money. It is unclear what led the New England Company to suddenly change its stance towards Wheelock. Perhaps it wanted exclusive power over missionary distribution in New England, or perhaps it was thought that focusing on education over numbers in the field was counterproductive. Most secondary sources have conflated the New England Company's Boston Board and the Society in Scotland for Promoting Christian Knowledge's Boston Board, an easy mistake to make since both are sometimes referred to as the Boston Board and both vigorously opposed Wheelock. Any secondary source's statement about either should be carefully researched.
Colony of Connecticut
The government of the colony of Connecticut was organized into an upper house, comprised of the governor and other magistrates; and a lower house, comprised of representatives from towns. Like other colonial governments, the Connecticut government's responsibilities included negotiating with Indian tribes and funding missionary efforts. Naturally, the Connecticut government had a substantial impact on both Occom's and Wheelock's lives. For Occom, the colony's most defining act may have been the Mason Case. For Wheelock, it may have been the colony's refusal to support a charter for Moor's Indian Charity School. The Mason Case or Mason Controversy was a land dispute between the colony of Connecticut and the Mohegan tribe that formally lasted from 1703 until 1773. The Controversy spanned most of Occom's life and ended with the Mohegan tribe losing legal control of almost all their land. Although the case became very complicated, in brief, it was a question of whether the Mohegans had entrusted their land to John Mason, a private individual and ally of the tribe, or to the colony of Connecticut. If the lands were in trust to Mason, then Mason and his heirs could protect Mohegan land rights. However, if the lands were in trust to the colony, then the colony could do with them as they pleased. In 1703, the colony forcibly expelled Mohegans from their land and redistributed it for towns and private property. For the next 70 years, the Mohegan tribe appealed the case in both Connecticut and London. The colony took increasingly aggressive steps to maintain control over the land, including ignoring a 1721 royal order to return it and interfering in Mohegan succession to make sure that Ben Uncas, a man who was not inclined to oppose the colony on the Mason issue, became sachem. The ensuing dispute over sachemship split the tribe into two different settlements. Occom was born in 1723, at the height of the controversy over the sachemship. Because he and his father both participated in the Mohegan tribal council, the Mason Case and the problems it brought must have played a substantial role in Occom's young adulthood and also affected his later missionary career. (In 1764 and 1765, Occom was censured by the Connecticut Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge for speaking openly about the Mason Case.) Wheelock also had a difficult relationship with the colony of Connecticut. While Connecticut's government helped quite a few missionary efforts, it rarely gave Wheelock any kind of support (and never any money). Wheelock initially sought a charter from Connecticut in 1758. However, Connecticut would not grant a charter without royal support, and Wheelock's allies in England would not seek royal support without a Connecticut charter. In 1764, Wheelock again petitioned the CT Assembly for incorporation (legal control over the town his school was in). Again, they refused. The 1764 rejection likely stemmed from the Mason Case because Wheelock, via Occom, was implicitly on the side of the Mohegan tribe. The Connecticut government also rejected Wheelock on several more minor matters related to funding and legal power. It is not a stretch of the imagination to conclude that part of Wheelock's motivation for leaving Connecticut was his inability to obtain support from the colony's government.
Delaware Tribe
The Delaware Tribe, or Lenape Tribe, is a conglomeration of linguistically and culturally similar Native American groups that initially inhabited the mid-Atlantic region, including New Jersey, Pennsylvania, eastern Connecticut, and southeastern New York. The three main groups comprising the Delawares are the Munsees, Unamis, and Unalaqtgos. Several Delawares attended Moor’s Indian Charity School, including some of Wheelock’s earliest students. Because the Delawares were not a politically unified entity, contact with Europeans and subsequent conflict over land and trade proved especially devastating for them. During 17th-century battles over trade access, the Delawares found themselves in conflict with the Dutch and the English as well as with other Native American groups that wanted to trade with Europeans. By the time the Dutch left in the mid-17th century, the Delawares were tributaries of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois). Scholars estimate that by 1750, through a combination of war and disease, the Delaware population had fallen by as much as 90 percent. Many Delawares responded to the situation by leaving. Some migrated west with Moravian missionaries; others joined different tribes, including the Cayugas in New York and the Stockbridge Mahicans in Massachusetts (who later migrated to Oneida territory, near Brothertown, NY, and from thence to Wisconsin). Still others migrated to Ohio and ended up in Kansas or Oklahoma as a result of American expansion. Those who stayed oversaw a century of complex treaty negotiation, including two of the more egregious instances of Native American dispossession: the infamous "walking treaty" between the Delawares and the colony of Philadelphia in 1686, and the American government's (unfulfilled) promise to give the Delawares their own fully-enfranchised state in the union for their support during the Revolution. The Delawares played an important role in the history of Moor’s Indian Charity School. John Brainerd, a Presbyterian missionary to the Delaware and a friend of Wheelock’s, sent Wheelock his first “planned” Native American students from among the Delawares in 1754. J. Brainerd also oversaw the establishment of a Christian Delaware settlement at Brotherton, New Jersey in 1758 (not to be confused with Brothertown in Oneida, New York).
Moor’s Indian Charity School
Moor’s Indian Charity School was a grammar school for Native Americans that Eleazar Wheelock opened in North Lebanon, Connecticut in 1754. The school was named for Colonel Joshua Moor, also spelled More, who donated the land and school building. Moor’s was essentially an expansion of the grammar school that Wheelock opened in 1743 to support himself during the fallout from the First Great Awakening, when Wheelock, who'd participated in itinerant ministry during the Awakening, had his salary confiscated by the colony of Connecticut. In December of that year, Samson Occom asked Wheelock to teach him as well. Wheelock's work with Occom was so successful that Wheelock decided to replicate the experiment with other Native American boys. He accepted his first Indian students in 1754, and in 1761 began taking female students as well. Wheelock believed that in time, his school would become just one part of a larger missionary enterprise. He planned to send his Anglo American and Native American students to various tribes as missionaries and schoolmasters, with explicit instructions to pick out the best students and send them back to Moor’s to continue the cycle. His ultimate goal was to turn his school into a model Christian Indian town that would include farms, a college, and vocational training. However, Wheelock’s grand design did not survive the decade. Wheelock lost the vast majority of his Native American students; he fought with many of the best, including Samson Occom, Joseph Johnson, David Fowler, and Hezekiah Calvin, and other former and current students accused him of subjecting Native Americans to disproportionate amounts of manual labor. In 1769, perhaps due to concerns about corporal punishment, the Oneida withdrew all their children from Moor’s. When Wheelock relocated to Hanover in 1769, only two Native American students came with him, and it became clear that Wheelock’s focus was on Dartmouth and that Dartmouth was for white students. After Wheelock’s death in 1779, Moor’s Indian Charity School receded further into the background as John Wheelock, his father’s reluctant successor, stopped taking Indian students. Some Native American students were enrolled in Moor’s until 1850, when the school unofficially closed.

The first English immigrant to settle on a peninsula in a harbor on the northeastern coast of North America the local Algonquin Indians called "Shawmet" was William Blackstone in 1629. A year later, John Winthrop arrived with a group of English Puritans and other settlers and named the area Boston after his hometown in Lincolnshire, England. The colony quickly developed representative political institutions that would help shape a democratic nation. Over the next few centuries, Boston emerged as an intellectual and educational center, and, because of its excellent harbor, became a leading commercial hub and a primary port for North America. It is the capital and largest city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and the largest city in New England. Boston was the home for the Boards of Commissioners of several overseas religious societies who sent missionaries throughout the colonies in the 18th century, and was the site of many important events of the American Revolution.

New England
Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Oliver, Andrew

Andrew Oliver was an influential Boston merchant and politician, who was a member of several societies that funded Eleazar Wheelock, including the Boston Board of the New England Company (treasurer) and Massachusetts General Assembly (secretary). Oliver played an important political role in pre-Revolutionary Massachusetts and, as a firm advocate of Indian missions, attended multiple conferences with Indian tribes. He believed that Anglican and Dissenter missionaries and societies could cooperate, and after Oliver and Wheelock were introduced in 1756, Oliver helped Wheelock access funding from the New England Company, the Massachusetts Assembly, and the Boston Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Their relationship deteriorated, however, when the London Board of the New England Company turned against Wheelock late in 1765. Wheelock became aware of the London Board’s change of heart through the “Oliver letter,” a letter purportedly written by Oliver (actually written by Ebenezer Pemberton) that was “injurious” to the characters of Wheelock, Whitaker, and Occom. In 1765, Wheelock also lost his funding from the Massachusetts Assembly. It is unclear what role Oliver played in these events. On the one hand, the breach between Wheelock and the New England Company coincided with the collapse of Oliver’s political career over his attempts to enforce the Stamp Act. Oliver may have been too preoccupied to be involved in the London Board’s change of heart; after all, Boston mobs were burning him in effigy. On the other hand, if Oliver was not involved, it is more difficult to explain why his correspondence with Wheelock ended abruptly in 1767 or why Wheelock lost funding from the Assembly and the London Board at the same time. Oliver would be the obvious link; but of course, Wheelock had many detractors in Boston and another explanation is certainly possible.

Brainerd, John

John Brainerd was an ardent missionary with an important role in Wheelock's design. He was the younger brother of the famous missionary David Brainerd, who died as a young man after being expelled from Yale and serving as a missionary to New Jersey tribes. John completed his Yale degree and was immediately commissioned to replace David. Even in his own time, he was seen as a man as pious as, but less talented than, his brother, though Brainerd missioned to Indians during a more volatile period, and saw his congregation forcibly removed from their lands in 1755 and relocated at Brothertown in 1758 (this Brothertown should not be confused with the one founded in New York after the Revolution by many Moor's alumni). Brainerd was extremely devoted to the Indian cause. He often had the opportunity to serve wealthy English congregations, but preferred to remain an Indian missionary. He invested signficant sums of his own money into his missions, for which he was never reimbursed. Brainerd was a very prominent Presbyterian figure, active in the Presbytery and Synod of New York, holding several elected positions, and in the Presbtery and Synod of New York and Philadelphia once the two reunified in 1758. He was a Trustee of the College of New Jersey from 1754 until his death, and a member of the New York Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Occom had planned to work with Brainerd in 1750, but political upheaval prevented it. Brainerd was one of several men nominated to accompany Occom to England, but the New York Board refused to let him go. While Brainerd and Wheelock were not close personal friends, the two had a similar interests and a long-lasting correspondence. John Brainerd sent Wheelock his first Indian boys, and also recruited female students in the 1760s. Throughout their lives, Brainerd and Wheelock updated one another on Indian missions, and Brainerd seems to have been one of Wheelock's "point people" in the Presbyterian Church.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

More, Joshua
Williams, Elisha
Moseley, Samuel

Rev. Samuel Moseley was the minister of the Second Church (also called the Canada Society) in Windham, CT (reincorporated as Hampton in 1786), from 1734 until his death in 1791. After graduating from Harvard in 1729, he kept school in Dorchester, MA and served as chaplain at Castle William until his ordination in 1734. It is a testament to his ministerial abilities that he was able to keep the post until his death in 1791, especially since he held a conservative view of church hierarchy (he even considered Episcopalian ordination), doubtlessly a difficult stance to maintain during the tumultuous period of the First Great Awakening. Moseley was an early proponent of Eleazar Wheelock’s plan for a charity school. He worked with Wheelock and Benjamin Pomeroy to solicit George Whitefield’s support in the 1750s, and he was a member of the original board entrusted with the land deeded by Joshua More. Moseley was also one of the ministers who examined Samson Occom prior to his ordination in 1759, and he was named to the Connecticut Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge when it was formed in 1764. In 1767, there was a potentially awkward incident when the New England Company hired Ebenezer Moseley, Samuel’s son, to conduct a mission to the Onaquaga -- a village to which Wheelock had also sent a missionary. However, Wheelock interpreted the spiritual coup as a political machination by the Boston Board and did not hold E. Moseley responsible. Due to the low volume of letters between Wheelock and S. Moseley, it is unclear whether this incident affected their relationship.

Pomeroy, Benjamin

Benjamin Pomeroy was a school friend of Eleazar Wheelock and a lifelong supporter of his cause. Like Wheelock, he was a New Light evangelical and a staunch ally of James Davenport, a radical New Light preacher whose beliefs got him in trouble with the law. After graduating from Yale in 1733, Pomeroy received the ministry at Hebron, CT, in 1734, and assisted Wheelock in myriad ways until his own death in 1784. He kept Wheelock's school during 1746, when Wheelock's first wife, Sarah, was dying, and he tutored Occom (primarily in Hebrew) after Occom had completed his studies with Wheelock. Pomeroy also supported Wheelock as a trustee of Moor's, and, later, Dartmouth, and as a member of the Board of the Correspondents in Connecticut for the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Pomeroy and Wheelock also had close family connections: Pomeroy was married to Wheelock’s sister, Abigail, and one of Pomeroy’s daughters, Hannah, married David McClure, one of Wheelock's most illustrious graduates. Outside of his liturgical career, Pomeroy served as an army chaplain in the French and Indian War and the Revolution.

Woolcott, Roger
Smith, William Sr.

William Smith (Sr.) was a famous New York lawyer and philanthropist who played an important role in establishing the College of New Jersey (which he served as a trustee) and King’s College (a project he abandoned once it became clear that the institution would be dominated by Episcopalians). He provided Eleazar Wheelock with some legal advice in the late 1750s and early 1760s, and his son, William Smith (Jr.), was a major proponent of Wheelock’s relocating the school to Albany, NY. William Smith immigrated from England to America in 1715 and earned his AM from Yale in 1722 (AB 1719). Despite potential as a minister and academic—he served as a tutor at Yale and was even offered the presidency of the college in 1724—Smith instead turned to the law and became one of the most eminent legal minds in New York and the mid-Atlantic. He was also very involved in New York City politics: he was an active participant in the Presbyterian faction and held several formal offices. He was Attorney General of New York in 1751 and a member of the Governor’s Council from 1753 until 1767. In 1763 he was made a judge. Several of William Smith’s political and legal activities affected Samson Occom’s life and career. First, he assisted Wheelock in legal problems surrounding the Joshua Moor estate (left to Wheelock by Moor, the school’s original benefactor) in the late 1750s. Second, he wrote a letter of recommendation for Occom prior to his aborted 1761 mission to the Oneidas. On less positive notes, William Smith was the counsel for Connecticut in the Mason Land Case, the 70-year legal battle that dispossessed the Mohegan tribe of much of its territory and which Occom vigorously opposed. More generally, he seems to have had a low opinion of Occom.

Frederick, George William

George William Frederick (King George III) became heir to the throne of England in 1751 upon the death of his father Frederick, Prince of Wales. He became King George III of England in the fall of 1760 at age 22, following the death of his grandfather King George II. George III passed many important edicts during his reign including that of the Royal Marriage Act of 1772; the Treaty of Paris in 1762, which ended the Seven Years War; the Stamp Act of 1765; and the Townshend Duties of 1767. However, he is most well-known for being the reigning monarch during the Revolutionary War. After the surrender of British forces to the Americans in 1782, George III considered abdicating the throne, but chose not to do so because he felt it would be too detrimental to Britain. The last 30 years of George's life were plagued with illness. In 1788 he had the first of many attacks of insanity, now believed to have been caused by an inherited disease known as porphyria. With George III unfit to rule, it was decided that his son George would become regent, an arrangement which was made permanent in 1810. King George III died on January 29, 1820 at the age of 81 after a reign of nearly 60 years (the third longest in British history). He was succeeded by his son George IV.

Burr, Aaron Sr.

Aaron Burr, Sr. is known as the founder of Princeton University (formerly College of New Jersey). He is technically Princeton's second president, but his predecessor, Jonathan Dickinson, died during his first year in office so the responsibility of Princeton's organization fell to Burr. Prior to his presidency at Princeton, Burr was a Presbyterian minister in Newark, New Jersey. He became acquainted with Jonathan Dickinson and was the youngest clergyman of the original trustees of Princeton when Dickinson established it as a classical school. Burr took over the running of the college in October 1747, upon Dickinson's death. One year later Burr was formally elected as president of the college. Burr served as both the president and pastor of the college until 1755 when, at the request of the trustees, he ceased his duties as pastor in order to devote more time to the college. Burr established the first entrance requirements, the first course of study, the first set of rules and regulations, and supervised the erection of the first building, Nassau Hall. Burr also moved the college to its permanent home in Princeton, New Jersey. Burr died only ten years after the founding of Princeton, at the age of 41.

Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers0254.ocp Col Col. Henchman mentioned Henchman
pers0031.ocp Hon. le honourable Andrew Oliver Es q. r Esq. recipient mentioned Oliver, Andrew
pers0004.ocp Rev. d Rev. John Brainerd mentioned Brainerd, John
pers0030.ocp Samſon Samson Occom mentioned Occom, Samson
pers0025.ocp M. r Mr. Joshua More mentioned More, Joshua
pers0595.ocp Coll. Col. Eliſha Elisha Williams Esq. r Esq. mentioned Williams, Elisha
pers0381.ocp Sam. l Samuel Moſely Moseley mentioned Moseley, Samuel
pers0432.ocp Benjamin Pomeroy mentioned Pomeroy, Benjamin
pers0025.ocp M. r Mr. More mentioned More, Joshua
pers0611.ocp Gov. r Governor Woolcott mentioned Woolcott, Roger
pers0504.ocp W m William Smith Esq. r Esq. mentioned Smith, William Sr.
pers0305.ocp his Majeſty Majesty mentioned Frederick, George William
pers0108.ocp Preſid. t President Burr mentioned Burr, Aaron Sr.
pers0254.ocp Coll. Col. Henchman mentioned Henchman
pers0004.ocp M. r Mr. Brainerds Miſs n mission mentioned Brainerd, John
pers0004.ocp M. r Mr. Brainerd mentioned Brainerd, John

Places identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
place0158.ocp N– New England New England
place0131.ocp Manſfield Mansfield Mansfield
place0166.ocp N. New York New York

Organizations identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
org0095.ocp Com̅iſsrscommissioners for the Indian Affairs The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America
org0095.ocp the Com̅iſsrscommissioners The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America
org0095.ocp Hon.lehonourable Com̅iſsrscommissioners The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America
org0038.ocp The Delaware Tribe Delaware Tribe
org0095.ocp Hon lehonorable Com̅iſsrscommissioners The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America
org0098.ocp Charity School Moor’s Indian Charity School
org0098.ocp ſ.dsaid ſchoolschool Moor’s Indian Charity School
org0027.ocp our Government Colony of Connecticut
org0095.ocp yethe Honlehonourable Com'iſsrscommissioners The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America
org0095.ocp yethe Hon.honourable Com̅iſsrscommissioners The Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the parts adjacent in America

Dates identified in this document:

Standard Form Text
1756-07-30 BoſtonBoston July 30. 1756
1754-12 Decem.rDecember 1754

Regularized text:

Type Original Regularized
modernization Col Col.
modernization Boſton Boston
modernization y.e the
modernization deſired desired
modernization Com̅iſsrs commissioners
modernization deſire desire
modernization Circumſtan‐
modernization Beſt best
modernization Inſtruction instruction
variation propos'd proposed
modernization ac‐
modernization &c etc.
modernization doubt‐
modernization Es[gap: tear][guess (h-dawnd): q.]q. r Esq.
modernization Treaſurer treasurer
variation wil will
modernization com̅unicate communicate
modernization Eſteem esteem
modernization Neceſsary necessary
modernization condeſention condescension
modernization Kindneſs kindness
modernization expreſsed expressed
modernization Deſign design
variation cheirfully cheerfully
modernization deſiring desiring
variation perticulars particulars
variation mention'd mentioned
modernization conſiſts consists
variation Litter letter
modernization otherwiſe otherwise
modernization ſuch such
modernization omiſsions omissions
modernization ſent Sent
modernization Rev.d Rev.
modernization Diſopointments disappointments
variation delay'd delayed
modernization conſequent consequent
modernization Deſire desire
modernization laſt last
modernization miniſtry ministry
modernization Somthg something
variation inf in
modernization favr favor
modernization Conſiderations considerations
variation publick public
variation accot account
modernization paſt past
variation Neglect neglect
modernization underſtand understand
modernization Eſpecial especial
modernization Teſtifying testifying
modernization againſt against
modernization Advan‐
modernization ſending sending
modernization conſtantly constantly
modernization ſucceſs success
modernization Engliſh English
modernization Miſsion mission
modernization Cuſtoms customs
variation fair fare
modernization ſhall shall
modernization Demonſstrations demonstrations
modernization ſin‐
modernization beſt best
modernization Reſpective respective
modernization ye the
modernization Intreſt interest
modernization Encoura
modernization Succeſs success
modernization Aſsiſtance assistance
modernization Samſon Samson
modernization Reaſonably reasonably
modernization leſs less
modernization viſited visited
modernization M.r Mr.
modernization Manſfield Mansfield
modernization Eſtate estate
modernization pleaſd pleased
modernization Coll. Col.
modernization Eliſha Elisha
modernization Esq.r Esq.
modernization Meſsrs Misters
modernization Sam.l Samuel
modernization Moſely Moseley
modernization Myſelf myself
variation convenanted covenanted
modernization ſ.d said
modernization ſchool school
modernization Shod should
modernization inſtructed instructed
modernization Readg reading
variation woſe whose
modernization diſpoſns dispositions
modernization ſhod should
modernization Eſpecially especially
variation Knowledg knowledge
modernization Practiſe practice
modernization Chriſtianity Christianity
modernization minſtry ministry
modernization Diſpoſitions dispositions
modernization moſt most
modernization Maſter master
modernization yt that
modernization Reſpects respects
variation Schollars scholars
modernization reſpect respect
variation ha' have
modernization ſubſcriptns subscriptions
variation lawfull lawful
modernization maſter master
modernization Sufft sufficient
modernization reaſonably reasonably
modernization deſign design
modernization proſper prosper
modernization ſufficicient sufficient
modernization adviſed advised
modernization y.t that
modernization conſulted consulted
modernization Wm William
modernization N. New
modernization Adviſes advises
variation cant can't
variation remidying remedying
modernization ourſelves ourselves
variation Delagation Delegation
modernization Exerciſe exercise
modernization ſets sets
modernization Truſtees trustees
modernization Truſt trust
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variation Eligeble eligible
modernization conſidered considered
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modernization preſent present
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modernization ſo so
modernization ſome some
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modernization perſwade persuade
modernization Majeſty Majesty
variation meterials materials
modernization ſent sent
modernization Miſsn mission
modernization ſince since
variation behavd behaved
modernization y.t the
modernization Coſt cost
variation Expence expense
modernization Eſpecialy especially
modernization Aſsiſtances assistances
variation perticular particular
modernization ſupport support
modernization tho' though
modernization ansd answered
modernization Deſr desire
modernization Com'iſsrs commissioners
modernization acco.t account
variation per-
modernization pleaſe please

Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
Hon.d Honoured
& and
Hon.le honourable
Hon.r honour
Decem.r December
N– New
Hon le honorable
O. Old
Ten.r Tenor
Gov.r Governor
Honle honourable
Gov.r governor
Ch-hs churches
Preſid.t President
Honr honor
bestowd bestowed
Acco.t account
reſpect[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): l]l] respectful
Hon. honourable

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Summary of errors found in this document:

Number of dates with invalid 'when' attributes: 0
Number of nested "hi" tags: (consider merging the @rend attributes, or using other tags) 0
Number of tags with invalid 'rend' attributes: 0 (out of 91)
Number of people/places/organizations with unknown keys: 0 (out of 29)
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HomeEleazar Wheelock, letter, to Andrew Oliver, 1756
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