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Samuel Ashpo, confession, 1742 February 12

ms-number: 742162.1

[note (type: abstract): Ashpo confesses to forsaking the rules of Christian marriage by taking another wife after discovering that his first wife has been unfaithful.][note (type: handwriting): Handwriting is somewhat informal yet clear and legible.][note (type: paper): Single small sheet is in good condition, with light staining, creasing and wear.][note (type: ink): Black-brown.]
The [Confeſsion | confession]Confeſsionconfession of [Samll | Samuel]SamllSamuel [Aſhbo | Ashpo]AſhboAshpo[pers0002.ocp] of Mohegan[place0143.ocp]
[Sometime | Some time]SometimeSome time Ago I went to Sea and was Gone 14 months When I Came
home I [underſtood | understood]underſtoodunderstood by Common [Publick | public]Publickpublic Report which had [Gaind | gained]Gaindgained
Credit with Many and So far a I know a General [beleif | belief]beleifbelief [yt | the]ytthe my
wife[pers1794.ocp] had before Sufficient Evidence been Guilty of [Groſs | gross]Groſsgross [adultry | adultery]adultryadultery
In my [abſence | absence]abſenceabsence [& | and]&and [yt | that]ytthat She had for [Sometime | some time]Sometimesome time accompanied [& | and]&and [traveld | traveled]traveldtraveled
about [ye | the]yethe Country with the Man She had been thus Guilty with
[& | and]&and that She was [publiſhd | published]publiſhdpublished to him — I Waited Some [Conſiderable | considerable]Conſiderableconsiderable
time to See if She [wod | would]wodwould not [Came | come]Camecome [& | and]&and make an [acknoledgment | acknowledgement]acknoledgmentacknowledgement
to me, [& | and]&and [aſk | ask]aſkask my [forgiveneſs | forgiveness]forgiveneſsforgiveness but She Did not Come than I took
another Wife after the Indian Manner—[above] a few Days after she was marrieda few Days after she was married but Since I was
married I am Convinced [yt | that]ytthat what I have Done was Evil in the
Sight of God and have been very Sorry
1. [yt | that]ytthat I Cast her off [with out | without]with outwithout a trial of the Case [& | and]&and proving the fact
[againſt | against]againſtagainst her
2. in that Seeing She [gap: blotted_out] Did not Come to me [yt | that]ytthat I Did not go
to her [& | and]&and use Endeavours to Convince her of her [ſin | sin]ſinsin
3. I am [ſorry | sorry]ſorrysorry [yt | that]ytthat I was married in [ ye | the] yethe old Indian [Moode | mode]Moodemode [& | and]&and not in
a [Chriſtian | Christian]ChriſtianChristian manner— and Whereas I was under [ſome | some]ſomesome [ſmall | small]ſmallsmall Concern
[& | and]&and had Set up [ye | the]yethe form of Religion in my family before I was mar‐
‐ried [& | and]&and Such a procedure being So Contrary to the Laws [& | and]&and Rules
of Jesus [Chriſt | Christ]ChriſtChrist I am afraid it has been [& | and]&and will yet be unproved
much to the [Diſhonour | dishonour]Diſhonourdishonour of God [& | and]&and Prejudice of Religion. Which
I have a Great [Deſire | desire]Deſiredesire So far as in me Lies to prevent but at
[preſent | present]preſentpresent know not how better than by [Confeſsing | confessing]Confeſsingconfessing of it in the most
open manner to God [& | and]&and man [& | and]&and [aſking | asking]aſkingasking pardon and [forgiveneſs | forgiveness]forgiveneſsforgiveness of
all which I heartily do. [& | and]&and [Reſolve | resolve]Reſolveresolve by the help of Divine Grace
to Live Devoted to God and act in all [Reſpects | respects]Reſpectsrespects according to the Laws
of Jesus [Chriſt | Christ]ChriſtChrist for time to Come
[ſamuell | Samuel]ſamuellSamuel [Aſhpo | Ashpo]AſhpoAshpo[pers0002.ocp]
[Feby | February]FebyFebruary 12. AD. 1742, 3[1742-02-12].
[Samll | Samuel]SamllSamuel Ashpo[pers0002.ocp]'s [Confeſsion | Confession]ConfeſsionConfession
AD 1742, 3[1742].

Lebanon is a town located in the state of Connecticut southwest of the town of Hartford. The land that became Lebanon was inhabited at least 10,000 years ago based on the archeological record. By the 1600s, the land was permanently inhabited by the Mohegan Indians, who used the area primarily for hunting. Lebanon was officially formed in 1700 when English settlers consolidated a number of land tracts, including several land grants by the Connecticut General Assembly and lands purchased from the Mohegans. However, these purchases were controversial. In 1659, the Mohegans entrusted their reserve land to Major John Mason, and in the following year, Mason transferred this land to the Connecticut colonial government with the understanding that there would be enough land left for the Mohegans to farm. The Mohegans claimed that they never authorized a transfer to the colonial government and only Mason’s heirs were entrusted with their land. In 1662, Connecticut, which included the Mohegan land that had been entrusted to the Masons, was incorporated by a royal charter. Based on this charter, the colony argued that the land was now the property of the government. In 1687, the colony began granting the Mohegan land to townships, and in 1704 the Masons petitioned the Crown on behalf of the Mohegans, claiming that such transfers of land to townships were illegal. Between the years of 1705 and 1773 legal disputes and controversies persisted, finally ending in a verdict by the Crown against the Mohegans. In 1755, Wheelock received property and housing in Lebanon that he would use as his house and school. While Lebanon was originally incorporated as a part of New London County in 1700, in 1724 it became a part of New Windham, before once again becoming a part of New London County in 1826. Lebanon was central to the American Revolution with half of its adult population fighting for the colonists and hundreds of meetings convened in the town for the revolutionary cause.


Mohegan is a village in southeastern Connecticut at the site of the present-day town of Montville, and is the location of the Mohegan Indian Reservation. The village gets its name from the Mohegan Tribe, or wolf people, who split from the Pequots in the early 17th century under the leadership of the sachem Uncas. In the 1720s, the Mohegans requested the colony of Connecticut provide them with an English educator. An English minister and schoolteacher named John Mason (no relation to Captain John Mason) moved to Mohegan in order to provide English-styled education to the Mohegans, convinced his sponsors, the New England Company, to build a schoolhouse at Mohegan, which eventually served as a boarding school for other Native American children from the surrounding area. During the 17th century, the Mohegan Tribe became embroiled in a complicated controversy over control of Mohegan land — known as the Mason Land Case or, more specifically, Mohegan Indians v. Connecticut — that included the village of Mohegan. The Tribe claimed that it never authorized a transfer of their lands, held in trust by the Mason family, to the colonial government. In 1662, the colony of Connecticut was incorporated by a royal charter, which included the disputed tribal land. The land controversy was revived in 1704 when descendants of John Mason, the original trustee, petitioned the Crown on behalf of the Mohegans, but the suit was finally decided against the Tribe in 1773. Born in Mohegan, Occom became involved in the Mason Land Case and vehemently argued for the rights of the Mohegan Indians to maintain their land, opposing Eleazar Wheelock and other ministers in the area. Although Occom left Mohegan for a 12-year mission with the Montauk Indians of Long Island, he returned at the end of 1763 with his large family to build a house in Mohegan, establishing it as his base of operations. Even after the creation of the Brothertown settlement in Oneida country, for which he served as minister, Occom continued to commute back and forth from Mohegan; he didn't sell his house in Mohegan and move his family to Brothertown until 1789. Many members of his family remained in Mohegan, including his sister Lucy Tantaquidgeon, who lived there until her death at 99 in 1830.

Ashpo, Samuel

Ashpo was born into a very powerful Mohegan family, considered equal to the Uncas line, and became an influential Mohegan preacher. He was converted at Mohegan during the Great Awakening, and became a schoolteacher among the Indians at Mushantuxet from 1753 until 1757 and from 1759 until 1762, when he left to attend Moor's. Between 1757 and 1759, he worked as an interpreter, and supposedly struggled with alcohol. He attended Moor's for only six months, and then continued his teaching and missionary career on successive trips to Chenango (the first was cut short because of violence in the region). On July 1, 1767, the Connecticut Board dismissed him from their service because of further charges of drinking. He continued to preach successfully to various New England Indian tribes until his death in 1795. The variations of his name exist in part because Ashpo is an abbreviated form of Ashobapow.

Ashpo, Hannah (née Mamnack)
Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers0002.ocp Sam ll Samuel Aſhbo Ashpo writer Ashpo, Samuel
pers1794.ocp wife mentioned Ashpo, Hannah (née Mamnack)
pers0002.ocp ſamuell Samuel Aſhpo Ashpo writer Ashpo, Samuel
pers0002.ocp Sam ll Samuel Ashpo writer Ashpo, Samuel

Places identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
place0143.ocp Mohegan Mohegan
place0122.ocp Lebanon Lebanon

This document does not contain any tagged organizations.

Dates identified in this document:

Standard Form Text
1742-02-12 FebyFebruary 12. AD. 1742, 3
1742 AD 1742, 3

Regularized text:

Type Original Regularized
modernization Confeſsion confession
modernization Aſhbo Ashpo
variation Sometime Some time
modernization underſtood understood
variation Publick public
variation Gaind gained
variation beleif belief
modernization yt the
modernization Groſs gross
variation adultry adultery
modernization abſence absence
modernization yt that
variation Sometime some time
variation traveld traveled
modernization ye the
modernization publiſhd published
modernization Conſiderable considerable
variation Came come
variation acknoledgment acknowledgement
modernization aſk ask
modernization forgiveneſs forgiveness
variation with out without
modernization againſt against
modernization ſin sin
modernization ſorry sorry
modernization ye the
modernization Moode mode
modernization Chriſtian Christian
modernization ſome some
modernization ſmall small
modernization Chriſt Christ
modernization Diſhonour dishonour
modernization Deſire desire
modernization preſent present
modernization Confeſsing confessing
modernization aſking asking
modernization Reſolve resolve
modernization Reſpects respects
modernization ſamuell Samuel
modernization Aſhpo Ashpo
modernization Confeſsion Confession

Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
Samll Samuel
& and
wod would
Feby February

This document's header does not contain any mixed case attribute values.

Summary of errors found in this document:

Number of dates with invalid 'when' attributes: 0
Number of nested "hi" tags: (consider merging the @rend attributes, or using other tags) 0
Number of tags with invalid 'rend' attributes: 0 (out of 17)
Number of people/places/organizations with unknown keys: 0 (out of 6)
Number of "add" tags with unknown 'place' attributes: 0 (out of 1)
Mixed case attribute values in header (potential error): 0 (out of 92)
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