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Samson Occom, journal, 1787 December 10 to 1788 August 10

ms-number: 787660.1

abstract: Occom details his activities as an intinerant preacher and tribal leader as he travels throughout Connecticut, New York, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.

handwriting: Handwriting is largely clear and legible. There are crossed uprights and uncrossed t’s, as well as undotted i’s and dotted e’s, which have been corrected by the transcriber.

paper: Several small sheets folded into a booklet and bound with thread or twine (binding is loose in most places) are in good condition, with light-to-moderate staining and wear.

ink: Black-brown.

noteworthy: This journal picks up shortly after manuscript 787520.1 leaves off. If the name of a person or place is uncertain, it has been left untagged. If Occom's intention regarding a word is uncertain, that word has been left unmodified in the modernized transcription. After entering events for January 1-14, 1788, Occom returns, on 10 recto, to the date January 1 and records events from that date forward. On 10 verso, fifth line, last word, the meaning of the abbreviation “m” is uncertain, although it is likely “money.” On 12 recto, it is uncertain to whom Rev. Canada’s daughter refers, and so she has been left untagged. On 26 verso, the identity of Betty is uncertain; however, it is possibly Betty Peter. On 34 verso and 35 recto, the name of the lake is uncertain, and so it has been left untagged. On 35 verso, it is uncertain to which of his daughters Occom refers, and so she has been left untagged. On 36 verso, eighth line from bottom, last word, it is uncertain for what “L” is an abbreviation, although it is likely “legal.” On 43 recto, and 43 and 44 verso, the name of the lake mentioned is uncertain; however, it is possibly Oneida Lake. Although Occom does not specify whether or not he means father or son when he refers to Elijah Wympy in this document, it is, given the context, likely that that Occom is referring to Elijah Wympy Jr. An editor, likely 19th-century, has added notes and overwrites in black ink throughout. These edits have not been transcribed.

Modernized Version -- deletions removed; additions added in; modern spelling and capitalization added; unfamiliar abbreviations expanded.

quite large Number of Peop[gap: worn_edge][guess: l]
again and the People were
very Serious I Spoke from [gap: omitted]

Monday December 10

got up very
early, and took leave of the
Family and we went on to
Albany, got there about 12
and we lodged at one Mr. [gap: omitted]

Tuesday December 11:

we got up
somewhat early, and went
over the River, and got to
Esq. Woodworths before Night
and we Lodged there, we were
received with all kindness
and friendship.

Wednesday December 12

in the Morning, we went on to
New Bethlehem and we stopped at
one Mr. [gap: omitted] and I preached
in the evening, Spoke from
the words, But one thing is needful

and there was great many people
and they attended well, and
after meeting I went with one
Mr. Mofat a Baptist Preacher
and there we Lodged. —

Thursday December 13

here this Day, and there was
a good Number of People, I
Spoke from [gap: omitted] as Soon
as the meeting was done we
went to another Place about
4 miles off, and there I preached
to a considerable Number of
People, and there Lodged, —

Friday December 14

we went
to Phillips Town, and got to
Mr. Cooks sometime before
Noon, and there we put up,
and in the Evening we had
a meeting to another house, and
it was extreme Cold yet there
was a large Number of People
and after meeting went back

to old Mr. Cooks and there we
lodged and we Lodged Comfort
ably by the Fire — —

Sabbath December 16:

Soon after Bre
akfast I went to meeting to one
Mr. Adamss, I went afoot through
the Woods, about 1 began the
Meeting, and there was a large
Number of People, and I Spoke
from [gap: omitted] The People
expected Mr. Perry from Rich
, but he failed them, and
they desired me to administer the
ordinance and I Complied and
we had a Solemn Day of it —
in the Evening we had another
meeting in Young Mr. Cooks
house, and there was a large
number of People, I Spoke from
[gap: omitted] and I Baptized Six
Children for Mr. [gap: omitted]
their Names were [gap: omitted]

after meeting went back to
old Mr. Cooks again and there
we lodged. —

Monday December 17

got up very
early and went New Beth
and there I had a
meeting, and I baptized a Child
for one Mr. Bunce, Soon after
meet went to green Bush
and in the Evening we had
a meeting at Esq. Woodworths
and there was considerable
number of People, and they
attended well, we Lodged
at the Same house — —

Tuesday December 18:

got up early
and took breakfast, and Soon
after took leave of the Family
and went on our way and
rode about 30 miles and put
up at a tavern —

Wednesday December 19

got up very
early and went on our way
and got Staasborough Some
Time in the afternoon and
We called in at one Mr. Straights
and there we had a meeting
in the Evening, and there was
a large number of People for
a Short Notice, and the People
attended with great seriousness
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
we Lodged at the Same house
and were kindly entertained
by the Family —

Thursday December 20:

got up
early, and took breakfast
with the Family, and Soon
after eating we went on a
gain and got to Esq. Firmans
sometime before Noon and
there we stopped, and in the
Evening we had a meeting in
a schoolhouse about one mile
off and there was a great

Number of People and there
was great Solemnity among
the People, after meeting
went back to Esq. Firman
and we lodged, — —

Friday December 21:

after breakfast we went
into Nine Partners, and
stopped at Mr. Gazlay's, and
in the evening we had a meeting
and there was a Prodigious
number of People, and there
was great seriousness. I
Lodged at the same house
this Family is a Christian
Family indeed. — —
Saturday December 22 we were
hereabouts all Day —

Sabbath, December 23

after Break
fast we went to meeting to
a Place called the Hallow. I
went with Mrs. Gazlay in their

sleigh, and it was a Dread
ful Storm of Snow, Yet there
was good many People, and
they attended well. Soon after
Meeting, we went back, and
we stopped at Col. [gap: omitted]
and took Dinner there, and
Soon after eating, we went
on again, and got to Mr.
before Night, and
in the Evening the People
Came together, and I spoke
to them, and there was
great Solemnity in the
meeting, and after meeting
we had exercise with Christian
Cards and it was late be-
fore the People dispersed
and we lodged at the Same
house — —

Monday December 24:

got up
very early, and went to

Pleasant Valley with Mrs.
Gazlay and her Daughter

in their sleigh, got there be-
fore meeting, and about
11: we went to meeting and
there was a large Number
of People, and with great
Solemnity the People attended
the word of god, directly af-
ter meeting we went to Mr.
s, and there we had
another meeting, and there
was a great many People
Mr. Case and Mr. Grover were
there and I Spoke from
James IV. 17 and as Soon as
I had done Speaking Mr.
began, and Spoke
Some Time with great fer
vency, and when he had
done, Mr. Case got up and

he Spoke Some Time with
great earnestness, and the
People the were greatly so
lemnized, and it was a Power
ful meeting; the Lord has
been visiting the People a
bout here with his Divine
Power many have been
Converted to God, and after
meeting we took leave one
of another and it was an
affectionate parting, — we
lodged at the Same House
and had quiet Sleep — —

Tuesday December 25:

in the Morning, we went
on our way after we had
took leave of the Family, and
directed our course to Pough-
, and So down the
River, about 4. miles and
there we went over the River

and we went into a house
where one Mr. Havens lives
and his Wife was upon point
of Death, I asked her Some questions
found her Comfortable in her
mind and was willing to leave
the World, I pray with her and,
and then went on, got to
Major Deboises before night[illegible]
and there we put up, and
were kindly received. — —

Wednesday December 26,

the Morning, a Certain
Man Came to the house, and
gave information that Mrs.
was Dead, and Mr.
desired me to attend
upon his wife's Funeral
and accordingly as Soon
as the Breakfast was over
I went, and there was a
large Number of People

Collecting, and I preached
from the words, Set thy house
in order etc. and as Soon
as the meeting was over, we
went back to Majors and
from the[illegible][guess: re] just at Night to
˄ meeting house and there
was a great concourse of
People and I Spoke from
Psalm CVII.31 and it was
a Solemn assembly, and as
Soon as the meeting was done
I went with one [gap: omitted]
about five miles off in a
sleigh, and there Lodged, and
was kindly treated — —

Thursday December 27:

Time in the Day Peter and
Henry Came to me, and
towards Night, we went
towards the South part of

Newborough, and there
we had a meeting, and
there was a great many
People and I Spoke from
[gap: omitted] and the People be-
haved well, — here Brother
David Fowler
Came to the
meeting, just overtook
us, after meeting we
went with one Mr. [gap: omitted]
and there I lodged and were
Friendly entertained, — —

Friday December 28:

breakfast and Soon after
set off and went to New Wind
just called on Mr. Close
and So to Mr. Woods 4 or 5
miles out the Town, and
we we[illegible]re very glad to See
one another, and we Con
cluded to have a meeting

in Esq. Clerks in the even
ing, and accordingly met
and there was a great number
of People, and I Spoke from
[gap: omitted] and the People
attended with great solemnity
after meeting went back
to Brother woods, and there
we Lodged. — — —

Saturday December 29

got up
very early and took leave
of the Family, and went
off, Call in at Esq. Clerk's
and took breakfast there
and Soon after past on again
stopped a while at Mr. Brewsters
in Blooming Grove took Din
ner there, after calling went
on again, and just in the
evening, we got to Florada
and put up at Mrs. Robinsons,
a tavern. — — —

Sabbath: December 31

Had an invitation to Preach, and I
consented, and about 11 the
People got together, and
I went into the meeting house
and there was a great number
of People, and I Spoke from
[gap: omitted] and the People at
tended with great attention —
as Soon as the Meeting was over
we took Dinner, and then we
went on Warwick, about 5
miles, and there I preached in
the Evening to a great mul
titude of People and I Spoke
from Jonah III.5: and the people
were very Solemn, after meet
ing, I went to a Certain house
and there I Lodged and was
kindly treated. — — —

Monday December 31.

got up very
early, and we set off, and
stopped at Col. Hathhorns and

there we took breakfast, and
Soon after eating we went
on again, and sometime
in the afternoon at Mr. Smiths
a public house; and the people
desired me to stop and So have
a meeting in the Evening and
I consented, and the People
got together in the evening
and there was a large number
for the Cold season and Short
notice, and I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People behaved well
in the Room, but Some in the
other Room made much
noise — we lodged at the
Same house — — —

Tuesday January 1. 1788

got up quite Early and
got ready Soon and went
on our way again, and

in the evening we got to Mill
, and Lodged at a pub
lic house. — — —

Wednesday January 2:

breakfast early and Soon
after went on again, and
got to Dr. Weatherspoons
in Princeton just about
12: took Dinner with him and
Soon after we passed on, and
got to a Certain tavern.
and there we Lodged, and
it was very Cold Night, —

Thursday January 3;

we got
up very early and went on
Sometime in the afternoon
we got to Quakson an Indi
an Place we went into one
house and was there a while
found them extremely Poor. —
and So we went to a Tavern
and there we Lodged. — —

Friday January 4

after Break
fast we went back to the
Indian Place, just called
in the Same house, we called
in yesterday, and So past on
and we got to Agepelack
another Indian Place, called
at one Mytops and I stayed
I was very poorly with a
Cold and lodged here the
Night following, and was
kindly treated. — — —

Saturday January 5:

was here
again all Day, Continued
much ill, and lodged here
again — —. — —

Sabbath: January 6:

about 11 we
went to meeting at the meet
ing house, and there was not
many People and it was now

pleasant Day and I Spoke
from the words that which
is wanting cannot be num
bered. and after meeting
Daniel Simon invited us to
go home with him to his mother
in Laws Widow Calvin, and
there we were all this week
and I was much troubled with
Cold attended with Cough, — —

Sabbath January 13

preached here
again, from the words Set
thy house in order etc. preached
here 4 times in the whole — —

Monday January 14

left the Place
and went on towards Phila-
, got to the River east
Side against Philadelphia and
there we Lodged in a tavern
and rested well. — —

Tuesday January 15

Tuesday January 1. 1788.

we got up early and went on
our way, and get to the Rev.
Mr. Baldwin
of [gap: omitted]
and in the evening we went
to a Certain house to See a Sick
man — and afterward went
back to Mr. Baldwins and there
I Lodged — —

Wednesday January 2

after breakfast, we went to
Parsippanny to Mr. Grover's, and
towards night went back to
Mr. Baldwin's, and So to a
nother house a mile of two off
and there we had a meeting
and there was a number of
People, and I Spoke to them
from [gap: omitted] and I lodged
at the Same house. — —

Thursday January 3:

we went
off early in the morning

and gone but a little way and
a Certain gentleman called us
and desired us to go in and
we did, and took breakfast
with him, and gave us Some m
besides, Soon after eating we
passed on, and just stopped at Mr.
and So passed on, and
and went to Mr. grovers, and
towards noon we went to Mr.
's. and in the even
ing we had a meeting, and
there was a great Number of
People and I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and there was great Serious
ness among the People, and
lodged at the Same house —

Friday January 4

after we broke
our fast we set off again and
Call at the Rev. Mr. Greens
and was there a few minutes
and So on, and we got to Mr.
at Newark mount-
tains a little past 12 and we

took Dinner there, and Soon
afte[gap: stain][guess: r] Dinner, we went to
Crain Town and got there
a little before sunset, and
was word given out, for a
meeting and I put up at
Mr. Crains, and in the evening
went to meeting and there
was a great number of People
and I Spoke from 1 John V.10
and there was very great So
lemnity. after meeting went
back to Mr. Crain's and there
I Lodged and rested well —

Saturday January 5

Soon after
breakfast, we set off for
Horse Neck. and Soon got
there, and it was extreme
Cold, and we put up at Esq.
— — January 6:

about 11
we went to meeting, and it
was extreme Cold, Yet there

was a large Number of people
and I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People attended well,
Soon as the Service was over
I went back to Esq. Crain, and
there we took Dinner, and as
Soon as we had swallowed
our Dinner we went off to a
nother Place, three or four
miles, and there we had
an Evening meeting and
good many People and a
well behaved People we lodged
at the Same house — —

Monday January 7

went off
somewhat early, and direct
ed our course to Morristown
we stopped a while at Mr. Grovers
and there we left Henry Sten
, we called also at Dr.
s, and so on, we got

Morristown just before
Night, and we put up
the Rev. Mr. Johnes's, and
in the Evening went to the
Meeting house, and I preached
to a vast number of People
and I Spoke from the words
thy Heart is not right etc. —
and the People attended with
great Solemnity — after meet
ing went back with Dr.
and Lodged, — —

Tuesday January 8:

after eating
I set off and went to Basking
, stopped at Deacon [gap: omitted]
where Peter and David Lodged
and it began to rain, and
we set off, and we got to the
Place sometime before noon
and we called in to a Certain
house, and about 11 we
went to attend upon a Fune
ral of one ˄ the Rev. Canadas

Daughters, and it was very
uncomfortable Rainy Slop[illegible][guess: y][illegible]
Day and Yet there was a
large number of People, and
I Spoke from the words, But
the End of all things is at hand
and Soon after, we followed
the corpse to the grave, and
went directly to the house
where we first put up and
there we lodged, — —

Wednesday January 9:

after we
Broke our fast, we set off a
gain, and got So far as to
Mill-Stone and there we
put up at a Tavern, — —

Thursday January 10:

got up very
early and took Breakfast
and Soon after went on our
way, and about 12 we
arrived to Dr. Whetherspoon's
in Princeton, and took

Dinner with him — and Soon
after we went on again and
in the evening we put up
at Black Horse Tavern, and
it was very Cold, set up Some
what late, — — —

Friday January 11:

after eat
ing we went on again, and
got to Quahson towards night
where there three or 4 Families
of Indians, we called in at
one, and they appeared ex
tremely Poor, So we went
to [gap: omitted] and put up at ta
vern, and it was Cold yet
we sat up long and I was ill
with a Cold and coughed — —

Saturday January 12:

breakfast we set off again
and we arrived to Agepelack
sometime before Night, and
we stopped at Friend Mytop's
and I was very poor ˄ with

my Cold and coughed much
and So I stayed here overnight
and was kindly treated — —

Sabbath January 13

I felt a little
better, and about 11 went to
meeting, and there was not
many People they but little
Notice, and it was now a Plea-
sant Day, I Spoke from the
words, that which is wanting etc.
and the People attended well, after
Service I went home with Daniel
to his Mother in Laws house
and stayed here all the week
Daniel Simon lost an only child
this week and I preach a funeral
discourse, from the words Set
thy[illegible] house — and and we had Sing
ing meetings every Night
and prayed with them and
gave them a word of Exhorta
tion — — —

Sabbath January 20

preached here
again and it was very bad

traveling. and there was
a considerable number of
People Collected, and I Spoke
from [gap: omitted] and the
People attended well, and
after meeting went Back
to Widow Calvin's and in the
Evening People Came together
and we had exercise with
Christian Cards and we Sung
and prayed, and it was a
Solemn Time many were
much affected and the People
were very loath to leave the
Place and they stayed late — —

Monday January 21:

we were
up very early and got ready
as Soon as we could, and we
took leave of the Family, and
others that Came to take leave
of us, and So we directed
our Course to Philadelphia

and in the Evening we got
to the River against the City
and we put up in a tavern
one Friend Coopper, — —

Tuesday January 22:

we got up
very early, and went over
in a Boat upon the Ice, and
a little after sunrise we
were in the City, and we
went to See Dr. Duffield a
physician, and were kindly
received, and from thence we
to See Dr. Sprout, and he
received us kindly, and we
went on to visit ministers of all
Denominations, and they were
all very Friendly, and we
dined with gentlemen al'
most every Day — We lodged
two or three Nights at Mr.
s, and then we were

invited by Mr. Innes a brewer
a Scotchman and a good man
and the whole Family is very
agreeable we were treated
with all kindness — —

Sabbath January 27

in the after
noon preached in Dr.
's Meeting House, in
the Evening preached in Dr.
s Meeting, and they
made Collections for me —
This week visited all week
and found kindness by all
Sorts of People — —

February 3:

on Sabbath in the morn
ing preached at Duffield's
in the afternoon preached in
a Baptist meeting and there
was a large number of People —

Friday February 8:

this evening
we were invited, with a num

number of gentlemen and
Ladies to Drink Tea with
a Dutch Captain in his
Ship, his Name was De
— and we had a genteel
entertainment — and after
Tea the Company played the
little man, which died very
often — stayed 'til near 9 and
then we Indians took good
leave of the Company and
returned to our Quarters —

Sabbath February 10

preached in
the Morning in Dr. Duffields
Meeting, in the Evening preached
in Ewing's and they made
me collections — —
This week went on in our Usu
al visits amongst all Sorts
of People and were kindly
treated by all People — —

Sabbath February 17

I went in the
morning to Dr. Sprouts, and

it was a Sacrament Day Mr.
preached, and I par
took with them, and it was
a Solemn Day with me, and
I believe with others — In the
afternoon I went to Baptist
meeting, and heard Mr. Enstick
one of the Baptist ministers in
the City — — —
and we were now getting
ready to leave the City and
it was hard work to take
leave of the People that have
been So kind to us Since we
have been here — —
the Quakers in particular
were exceeding kind to us
and Freely communicated
their substance to help our
People in the wilderness —
Two Schools Communicated
something to our Children in
the wilderness — —

Friday February 22

about 10
we left Philadelphia and it
was bad crossing the River, we
went on Ice most all the way
over and it was Cold Day, and
in the Evening we got Morristown
and Brother David was Sick, and
Peter went Agepelack, and David
and lodged in a tavern —

Saturday February 23

I went to
Quakson and left David very Sick and got there before
noon, and put up at a Public
house, in the afternoon went to
an Indian house, towards Night
went a Public house — —

Sabbath February 24:

about 11 went
to meeting to a meeting house where˄
Mr. John Brainard use to preach
to a Number of Indians, and there
was considerable of People and
I Spoke from Acts XI:26 and
sometime towards Night, we
went to Mount Halley, got there
near sunset and we put up at

Dr. Ross's, and David was
very Sick, and here we stayed
Some Days, and I preached four
Times in this Place, — —

Friday February 29:

I left Mount
and left David there he
was not well enough to Set out
and it was very Cold, I got to
Trenton in the evening, called
at Rev. Mr. Armstrongs but
he was not at Home So I went
to a Public house, and Lodged —

Saturday March 1:

went back
to Burden Town got there Some
Time before Night, and I lodged
Mr. Wilsons a Baptist ministers
house, but was not at Home, but
the woman treated me with all
kindness. — —

Sabbath March 2:

and it was
extreme Cold, I preached in a
large upper Room and there
a large number of People for
the Cold season, and Some

Time in the afternoon I left
the Place and went back to
Trenton and got there before
Night, and I was to preach
here this evening, but the sea-
son was So Severe, they Conclud
ed defer it 'til the next Day
at 10 of the Clock in the morning
and So I went to my old Lodgings
and rested Comfortably — —

Monday March 3:

about 10
we went into the meeting house
and there was considerable number
of People and I Spoke from
Mark. V.4: and there was good
attention, after meeting went
home with Mr. Armstrong and
dined with, and sometime
in the afternoon I went back
to Draw Bridge and there I
had an Evening meeting and
there was a vast number of
People, and I Spoke from Solomon
Song VIII.5 and it was a Solemn
Time, —
I lodged at the Same house. — — —

Tuesday March 4:

David and
I set off pretty early, and
we got to [gap: omitted] and lodged
at a Dutch tavern, — —

Wednesday March 5:

we got
up early and got Victuals and
Soon after set off, and we got
almost to New Brunswick
and David out he had forgot
his Bundle, and So he went
back and I went on, got to
New Brunswick before noon
and I put up at a Public house
and Soon went to See the Rev.
Mr. Munteeth
, and there I dined
with him, after Dinner we
went to See Dr. Scott, and I was
received with all kindness, and
here I found Peter, who had
been straggling from us almost
a fortnight, and presently after
David Came up with us, and

and in the evening there
was a Society, and we went
to it, and I Spoke a few
words by way of Exhortation
and after meeting we returned
to Dr. Scotts and there we
Lodged, — —

Thursday March 6:

got up
early and went to Several
houses, a visiting, and we
were treated kindly, Dined
with a Dutch minister, and
was exceeding Friendly, —
in the Evening we had a meet
ing in the Presbyterian meet
ing House and there was a
large Number of People, and
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
I Lodged at Dr. Scotts again
and David and Peter Lodged
in another house — —

Friday March 7

we got
up early and went to take

breakfast with a Certain
gentleman and Soon after
breakfast we went back
to Dr. Scotts and get ready
about 8: we took leave of
Dr. Scott and his Family
and others and went on
our way, and we stopped at
the Rev. Mr. [gap: omitted] in
Woodbridge and took Dinner
there, and Soon after eating
we passed on, and we got
to Elisabeth Town just be-
fore sunset, and we called
upon Esq. Woodroffs a few
Minutes, and went on to New
, and we got there Some
Time in the evening and
we put at a public house
I went to Dr. McWartter's and
but was not well and did not
See him, and So went back
to the tavern — —

Saturday March 8:

got up
very early, and got ready
and went on Our way to
Newark Mountains got there
about 9: and called on Mr.
and took Break
fast there, and Mrs. Capman
was very Sick and So we went
to Crain Town and I put up
a Deacon Crain's, and we
were most kindly entertained
David and Peter lodged in another
Mr. Crain's house — —

Sabbath March 9:

about 9 went
to Meeting got to the Place as the
People began to Collect, and
there was a very large number
of People and I preached all
Day from Mark V.4: [gap: omitted]
and the People attended with
great Solemnity, — The Rev. Mr.
went to Newark
to preach, — and in the evening

I had a meeting to attend
upon in Newark and there
was a vast Number of People
and I Spoke II Corinthians XVI:22
and the People were very Solemn
and I went with Dr. Burnet
and Lodged there and Peter and David
Lodged in the public house
I went to Bed Soon. — —

Monday March 10

was at
the Place all Day, and in
the Evening I preached again
to a multitude of People and
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People attended with
all gravity after meeting I
went home with Doctor Burnet
again, and there lodged —

Tuesday March 11

in the morning we took leave
of our Friends and went on
our way towards New York
got over there sometime in

the afternoon and we
put up at the North part
of the City with one Mr. [gap: omitted]
a tavern keeper —

Wednesday March 12:

to waited on Dr. Rodgers
and other gentlemen upon
our business, but there was
no prospect of doing much
The good Friends or Quakers
Did more than any they gave
David and Peter Six pounds
to bear their expenses to Oneida
and they gave Some other things
to our People in the Woods —

Friday March 14

David Fowler
left me
at New York and there
turned homeward to Oneida

Saturday March 15:

in the
evening I preached in Mr. Ganos
meeting house and there

was a large number of People
and I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People attended well
Some with affection — —

Sabbath March 16:

in the morn
ing went to hear Dr. Rodgers
but I was disappointed, I heard
Mr. Miller from Some part
of the New Jersey — in the
afternoon I went to hear the
Methodists, and I heard a young
man but was not extraordina
ry in the evening went to my
Lodgings — — —

Wednesday March 19:

about 12 took a passage in a
boat to Elisabeth Town, got
there just sunset, and I put
up at a public house with
one Mr. [gap: omitted] a Religious
man and was kindly Treated
by him and his Lady — —

Thursday March 20:

in the
morning sometime, Mr. [gap: omitted]

took me in his carriage, and
we went to Newark, to See a
about my Money that was to be
Sent ˄ Dr. Rodgers in New York
for me; we got there Soon, but
I could not hear about it I called
on Dr. McWartter, in the even
ing went back but I stopped
at one Mr. Lyon, and Lodged
there we had a meeting this
evening in a Baptist meeting
house, this Place is called
Lyons Farms. — —

Saturday March 22:

the Evening I heard Mr. Ogden
in Elisabeth Town Church and
he is a good Preacher of the
gospel of Jesus Christ. — lodged
at my old Quarters — —

Lords Day March 23

all Day in the Presbyterian
meeting house and there was
a large number of People
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]

in the evening I attended
a Society, gave a word of Exhor
tation — and Lodged at the
Same house — — —

Monday 24:

early in the
morning went to a Certain
Place 5 or 6: miles Southward
and preached in a Certain meeting
house, and the Rev. Mr. Ogden
was present, and there was
a great Number of People
though it was very Cold, and as
Soon as I had done Speaking
Mr. Ogden gave a word of
Exhortation, and there was
great Solemnity amongst
the People I Spoke from
Psalm CVII:31: Sometime
after meeting I went with
a Lady in her Carriage, to
her house, and from thence
to another house, and in
the evening went to another
and there I preached to a large

Congregation and I spoke
from [gap: omitted] and the
People many of them were
much affected. I Lodged at
the Same house, — —

Tuesday March 25

got up
very early, and got ready, and
a Negro Carried me in a Car
riage to Elisabeth Town, and
from there Esq. Woodroff Car
ried in his carriage to the Point
and had a passage directly.
and I went aboard, and was
at New York about 12: and
went directly to Dr. Rodgers
to See whether my Money had
got there, but it was not, and
So immediately went to Pownal
Ferry and went over, and
took Stage wagon, and was
at Newark before sunset
and there I found my money
at Mr. Ogdens, and So I went

to Dr. Macwartter and he
was not at Home, and I went
to bed Soon being much wearied
the fatigues of the Day, and
[illegible][guess: "]sometime in the Evening the
doctor Came Home, and he Came
into the Room where I Lay
and he was much surprised
to See me abed, he knew not
I was in the house —

Wednesday March 26:

up very early and went to
Mr. Ogdens to Lay out my
money, for it was Chiefly in
Jersey Bills and Coppers, and
I was to go in Stage wagon
again, but I was too late,
and went to the Landing, and
happily found a Sloop going
to New York, and I with Joy
went aboard, and was at
New York before Night, and
went to my Lodging once
more — —

Thursday March 27,

a passage to London, and So
was getting. — —

Sabbath March 30

about 10
set Sail, and had good wind

Monday March 31:

had but
Small wind, 'til near noon and
then we had a fine wind and
and just at Night we got
aground on Oyster Bed, and
it was near my Home, and
So I went ashore and the captain
also, and we got horses, I had
about a mile to go, and the
captain had about 5: miles to
go, found my poor Family
through the great goodness of
god, in good Health, Bless
be the Name of the Lord,
that I Lodge in my own House
once more after a long ab
sence and had experienced
much of the goodness of god

April 1

went to the Bridge to
fetch my thing up, —

Wednesday April 9

My wife
and I went to New London in
order to go over to Long Island
and we got to New London just
before sunset and we found
a Boat going over to Plum Island
and we went aboard directly
and was on the water all Night
just about break of Day we
got ashore, and we went to
a hut and turned in 'til broad
daylight, and then we went
into Mr. Bebees house and there
we took Breakfast, the Family
was very kind to us, — and we
were very Soon called to go aboard
again, and sailed on for Na
and we arrived there be-
fore noon, and we went to the
Pines and there we Saw
Sister Phebe Pharaoh, and
Young David Fowler — and
So we all went together to east
part of Hetherwoods and then

we found Mother Fowler,
here are three or four Fami
lies of Indians and one Fami
ly English, — —

Friday April 11

was at
Mothers all Day, was much
tired of yesterdays Journey —
in the Evening we had a meet
ing in Mr. Hands house, and
there was a considerable number
of People Indians and English
and they appeared Solemn —

Saturday April 12:

10 I set out for East hampton
got there a little before Night
and put up the Rev. Mr. Buells
and we were glad to see one
another once more — —

Sabbath April 13:

Went to
meeting about 10: Mr. Buell
began and I finished the
forenoon Service, in the

afternoon I preached from
Jonah III:5: and there was
a great Assembly and they
were exceeding Solemn —
towards Night I went to winscot
and there I preached, Spoke
from [gap: omitted] and there was
good attention I Lodge at
the Same house, the man name
was Mr. Conkling — —

Monday April 14:

set off early
called a few minutes at Col. –
to See Mr. Woolworth
and he had not got up I just
Saw him, and went on again
called at the Rev. Mr. Williamss
in Southhampton and to vic
tuals there, he was not at home
from there went to the Indians
in Cold Spring, and there
was a number of Indians
Some from Westward, and
Some from Montauk, and
them that belong to the Place

in the afternoon I went to
Shinnecock, and it began to
Rain just as got there, and
here I Saw one Benjamin
a New Exhorter
one that Came from New-
. — in the evening
we had a meeting, and there
was a considerable Number
of People though it was very stormy
I Spoke from Psalm CVII and
the People were much moved
Some made noise — after
meeting they Spent Some in
Singing Psalms and Hymns
and Spiritual Songs — I lodged
at the Same house — —

Tuesday April 15:

I got up
very early, and went on my
way towards Montauk again
stopped at Mr. Williams and took
breakfast with them, and
Soon went on again, stopped

a few minutes at Mr. Woolworth
and So passed on, stopped at Mr.
s also, and ate my din
ner there and kept on, called
at two houses in Amagansett
and passed on Spot at Mr.
Benjamin Hedgess
, and So
on got to Mother Fowlers
about daylight in and
went to Bed Soon I was good
tired and had a bad Cold — —

Wednesday April 16:

at the Place all Day — —

Thursday: April 17:

9 took leave of our People
and went to Napeague, got
there about 10: and aboard
of Mr. Horton, and went
straight to New London, got
there sometime before night
and we Slept a little while
and So went on to Pomme[illegible]cha

and we went ashore and
My wife and I went home
mother Fowler and Betty
stayed at Mr. Adgates — —

Friday April 18:

in the
morning went with the
Cart to fetch our things
The Lord be thanked for
his goodness to us —

Monday May 26: 1788

about 11 I took leave of
my Family once more and
went on my way towards
Oneida, and got So far as
to one Mr. Joness just before
Night, and there I lodged:
I just called on Mr. Tuck as
I Came along — —

Tuesday May 27

got me up
early and went on my way
called on Mr. Huntington in
New Malborough, and took

my breakfast there with
them, and Soon after went
on, called at Mr. Stevenss, and
at Mr. Eelss and took Dinner
there, — and Soon after went
on, and called on Mr. Marsh
in Weathersfield, and from
thence went to Esq. Welless
and was there Some Time, a
bout 4 o'c in the afternoon
went on again, and got to
Farmington just after Sun
set, Call on Mr. Pitkin a few
minutes, and So passed on, and
got Solomon Massuck's in the
Evening and found them all
well, and there I Lodged —

Wednesday May 28:

was at the
Place all Day, and searched
into my Olives affair, and
Say Writings about it to my
satisfaction, — —

Thursday May 29:

breakfast took leave of
the Family, and went on
my way, stopped a little
while at Mr. Wawdsworth,
and left Olive's affair with
him, — and So went on my
way again, called a while
at Mr. Wiridards and he
was much Sick, and So
went on again Soon, and
stopped at Mr. Meechems in
Hervington, and found
him a Strange posture
like a little Child, took
Dinner there, and Soon after
went on again, and in
the evening got to a Place
called wauven, and there
I lodged in a Public house

and there was a number
of People, and they wanted
to have me preach to them and
I told them it was too late
and they insisted, I should, and
I said again it was too late
but if they would get together
in the morning I would gra
tify them, and So we left
the matter — —

Friday may 30:

just af
ter Six I went to Mr. Stars the
minister of the Place, and
the People got together
a little after 8 and delivered
a Short discourse to them, and
Soon after I went on my
way again, I stopped at
Mr. Bodwells and took
Dinner there, and about
2 in the afternoon, I went on again
and got one Mr. Canfields

a public house and lodged
there and went to rest Soon — —

Saturday May 31:

got up
early and went on my way
reached to the Hallow about 8
and took breakfast, and Soon
after passed on and stopped a
little at Esq. Newcoms and
then went to Mr. Case's and
stopped there a few minutes and
on again called at Mr. Firm
s and took Dinner there
and Soon after left the Valley
and went on to Mr. Gazlay's
in Bethel, and it rained Con
siderably, got there there Time
in the afternoon, and we
were Glad to See each other
and there I put up, — —

Sabbath June 1. 1788,

about 8
we went to meeting one of
Mr. Gazlay's Daughters carried
me in a Chair, and there

was a great Number of people
Collected together, and I Spoke
from Jonah III:5: [gap: omitted]
Soon after Meeting we went to
Col. Blooms and took Dinner
there, and after eating I went
home with Mr. Elias Mulford
of Long Island, he was one of
scholars formerly at Montauk
and he entertained me with
all kindness, and there I found
widow Betty Peter from Long
. — —

Monday June 2:

Preach at
Mr. Mulfords and there was
a great Number of People —
Soon after meeting I went
off with Some People to another
Place and stopped at Mr. Sherrils
and Lodged there, — — —

Tuesday June 3:

before Noon I went on to one

Esq. Ganseys, and there I
preached began about 2
and there was a large number
of People and I Spoke from
the words I have a message etc.
and there was an affectionate
attention amongst the People
and Soon after meeting, I went
home with one Mr. Hunting,
there I Lodged, and was exceed
ingly well entertained — —

Wednesday June 4:

on my way early, and I
So far as to kinderhook and
Lodged at a tavern — — —

Thursday June 5:

got up
early and went on my way
and got Esq. Woodworths about
10, and found them all well
and was there 'til sometime
in the afternoon, and then
went to eastward, having
heard, that Mr. Macdonal had

not got, home from Philadelphia
and I wanted to See him,[illegible] in
the evening went to So far as to Mr.
s, and there Lodged —

Friday June 6

got up early
and was going on, and one
Mr. Burdick Invited me to
go into his house and take
breakfast with him, and I
did, and Soon after I went
on, and got to Mr. Robbinson's
about 10: and was there but
a little While, and Concluded
to keep the Coming Sabbath
in this house, and So went
on to Mr. Dymonds and got
there just before noon and
there I stayed found my
good Friends in good Health
and was glad to See them — —

Saturday June 7:

was at Mr.
s all Day — —

Sabbath June 8:

about 9 went
to Mr. Robinsons to meeting
and there was a great number
of People, and I Spoke from
Jeremiah X: 10: and Job XXIII.8
and the People attended with
great seriousness: — and after
meeting took Dinner, with
Mr. Robinson, and Soon after
I went to Mr. Tobias's Mr. Robins
went with me, and we found
a vast Number of People of
All Sorts and I preach to
them from John XV:23: and
the People were, many of them
much affected — after meeting
I went with my good old Friend
Mr. Phillip Lott, one who I
was acquainted with in
Noble Town, and now he has
just moved in these Parts,

and we were exceeding glad
to See one another, and there
I lodged; and had a Comfort
able rest once more — —

Monday June 9

about 3 in
the afternoon I preached in
Mr. Lotts Barn and there was
a large number of People
and I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People attended well,
I lodged at the Same house
again — — —
Tuesday June 10: as soon as
we broke our fast I went to
a Certain house where there
was a woman Died yesterday
and I delivered, a discourse up
on the occasion, and there was
a large number of People
and I Spoke from James, the
words were, for what is your Life
and there was a Solemn atten
tion, and Soon after I went to

New Bethlehem, and preached
there in a large meeting house
and was not a great number
of People and they were
Solemn I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People behaved well
Soon after meeting, I went
with Mr. Mofat, to his Lodgings
at Mr. Miers and there lodged
and was much Tired. —

Wednesday June 11:

got up
early, and I went on to Esq.
, Soon got there,
and took breakfast with
them, and about 10 we
went to meeting at the oak
Tree, I preached in a New
Dutch Meeting house
there was a great many
People, it was a Day of
fasting and Prayer a
mongst the Dutch Churches

through New York and Jersey
States, and I Spoke from
Isaiah LVIII.[gap: omitted] and Acts [gap: omitted]
Soon after the Service was
over, I went on to Albany
got to the City sometime be
fore Night, went to See Mr.
, a Presbytery mi
nister, but I heard nothing
by him Concerning my Letter
I Sent to Dr. Duffield. and
I went to See Mr. Westorlo and
he was glad to See me once
more. from there went to
my Lodgings at a Public
house and went to Bed Soon —

Thursday June 12:

to See Some Friends again
and about 10 I went out
of the Place, and went
on to Boght, and got

the Place before Night
sometime, called on Several
Friends, lodged at Mr. Ford's
my Friends were all very
glad to See me once more
and I was as Glad. — —

Friday June 13,

I went
over to half Moon, and lodged
at my old Friend John
— — —


was there all
Day, towards Night went
to See the old People —
Sabbath June 15: about 9
went to meeting. to Half
moon meeting house
, and
there was a great number
of People, and I Spoke
from John XVII.3: and Titus.I.16

Soon after meeting went to
Boght, and preached there
and there was a vast number
of People, I Spoke from Judges 3:20
one Mr. Striker a young Dutch
Preacher, preached here today
as Soon as the meeting was done
I went home with Major Fonda
and Lodged there and was very
kindly entertained. — —

Monday June 16

visited all
Day just at Night went
to Mr. Clute's near the Mohawk
, and there Lodged, — —

Tuesday June 17

after breakfast I took leave
of my Friends and went on to
towards Niskayuna got there
Some Time before Noon, and
stopped at Mr. Simon Fordts, and
took Dinner there, and about
3 went meeting, and it began

to rain, about 4 we began
the Service, and there was a
large Number of People and
I Spoke from Lamentations 3:40 and
the People attended with great
Solemnity. Soon after I went
over the River, and I put
up at Mr. Fisher's and they
were glad to See me and I
was as Glad to See them —

Wednesday June 18:

after breakfast, I took leave
of the Family, and went to
Mr. Peters — and took Dinner
there, about 1 went to meeting
at one Mr. Smith's about 4
miles off, and there was a
large number of People, and
I Spoke from Proverbs IV:[gap: omitted]
and there was a Solemn atten
tion among the People, Soon
after went towards Ballston
in quest of Mr. Gazlay, and

just before Night I found
him, and we were excessively
glad to See each other, and was
there a few minutes, and a
Company Came, to Stay all
Night, and one Mr. Nash
invited me to go home with
him, and I went with him and
Lodged there. — — —

Thursday June 19.

after eating
I returned to Mr. Gazlays, and
tarried there 'til sometime
after Dinner, and I went
to Esq. Ganzys Mr. Gazlay
went with me, and about 4
in the afternoon, the People
had Collected, and we began
the Service, we met in Mr.
s Barn and there was
a great Number of People
and I spoke from John XV.23
and the People attended well
and Some were affected much
called in Esq. Ganseys after

meeting, and took Some
Bread and cheese, and
directly after, went home
with Mr. Gazlay, got there
before daylight in, and
sat up awhile, and then
went to Bed — — —

Friday, June 20:

was poor
ly, yet just at Night, went
towards the Lake, called at
Mr. Scribners and sat there
awhile, and then went back
to Mr. Gilberts and there I Lod
ged and was kindly Treated
went to Bed Soon — — —

Saturday June 21,

after breakfast
went to Mr. Gazlay's, and the
Company that was at Mr. Gazlay's
was getting ready to go home
to Albany, Mr. Heart and Mr.
and their wives and

their Children, and one
woman composed the Compa
ny, and they Soon set off, and
I was there 'til towards noon
and Mr. Gazlay and I went
to the Lake a fishing, and we
took Dinner at Mr. Kallocks
and after Dinner went to the
lake and fished, and we Catch
a fine Passel, and went back
got home about 4 in the after
noon — and Lodged there once
more — — — —

Sabbath June 22:

about 9 went to
the meeting-house, and there was
a large Assembly Collected, and I
Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and there was a Solemn attention
Soon after meeting went back to
Mr. Gazlays, stopped at Mr. Gilbert's
and took Tea there, and Soon after
went on, and the People collected
thick at Mr. gazlay's and I Spoke

to them from [gap: omitted]
and the People attended well
I lodged at the Same house and
was very tenderly Treated, —

Monday June 23:

Lay abed
late, took breakfast with
them, and after breakfast
I went off to go to Schenectady Mr.
and his sister Deidamia
went with me, got to the Place
a little past Noon, — and I did
my business Soon, and a
bout 5 we return back and
directed our course to Freehold
got to the Place in the dusk of
the evening, I lodged at my
Daughters, — —

Tuesday June 24,

about 3 I preached
in the meeting house, and there
considerable Number of People
and I Spoke from 2 Corinthians V:26
and the People were much affected

ted, after meeting went back
to Mr. Northrops, and there Mr.
and his Sister took leave
of me with much affection, — and
in the Evening a Number of
People Collected together at Mr.
Wilson Northrops
, and we had
a Short exercise — and I Lodged
at the Same house. — — —

Wednesday June 25:

before Noon, I went towards Gal
, to attend upon a meet
ing, but they no notice, and So
I went back to Freehold, got

there sometime in the after
Noon., and in the Evening
we a meeting in Mr. Wilson
, and there was Con
siderable Number of People
I Spoke from the word, thy
Kingdom Come, and there
was a Serious attention among
the People, I lodged at the Same
house and it was late — — —

Thursday June 26:

in the morning, I went to
Ballston, Athony Paul
went with me, we Soon got
got there, and waited on
Mr. [gap: omitted] upon our L
affairs and he gave us ad
vice, and Soon after I went
on to Schenectady, got there
about 1: and did my Busi
ness, and went back to Free-
, got to Mr. Rodgerss
just about sunset and

they were very Glad to See me
and there I Lodged — —

Friday June 27

was at the
Place all Day, and it was a
rainy Day, just at Night I
went to Mr. Holmss and there
lodged, — — —

Saturday June 28

in the afternoon, I set off, and
went to Galway, Got to Mr.
's just before sunset and
very kindly received. — —

Sabbath June 29:

went to meeting
and we met in a Barn and
it was a rainy Day, Yet there
was a large Number of People
and I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People behaved well
after meeting, went back to
Mr. Otis's and in the evening
had a meeting in Mr. [gap: omitted]
house, and there was a considerable

Number of People and I Spoke
words to them, — and I lodged at
the Same house, and rested Com
fortably. — —

Monday June 30:

went to Mr.
s and took breakfast
there, and sometime before noon
set off and went to Scotchbush
got there sometime before Noon
and put up at Mr. Franklin
about 2 went to Mr. Mans and
there we had a meeting and there
a large Number of People, and
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People attended well, and
and I Baptized four Children
two For Mr. Franklin, by the
Name Sophia and Elisabeth,
two for Mr. Ephraim Potter by the
Lucy and Lucinda, and Soon after
Meeting, I went with Mrs. [gap: omitted]
about 3 miles off. and there and
was well entertained, and rested
Comfortably — —

Tuesday July 1:

got up ear
ly and took breakfast and then
went on my way, stopped awhile
at Mr. Vedders by Mohawk River
and took Dinner there, and Soon
after dinner, went on again
Call on Capt. Greggs a little
while and So past on, — got So
far as to Domine Romine's and
Lodged there, was kindly re-
ceive and Lodged there — —
Wednesday July 2: Some time
after breakfast, took leave
of them and went on again
got to Esq. Maybees before night
and was there a little while
and passed on, and went Fort
and did my business
there, and turned about and
towards Bowman's Creek and
got there sometime before

Night, and put up at Esq.
s and kindly received
and Lodged there — —

Thursday July 3

Some in the
morning I to fishing, and had
got success, while I was
busy, I was called in, and as
I was going Mr. Eliott met me
he is from Warren Bush, and
we were glad to See each,
and when I had got in, behold
Elder Mudge was there, and
another man, and we had a
greeable conversation. — about
3 in the afternoon we went to
meeting, and there was consi
derable number of People and
I Spoke from John, Search the
S[illegible][guess: cr]ptures etc. — and the People
attended well — Elder Mudge
and I lodged at the Same house
where the meeting was, which
was Mr. John whites, and we
had a Cold night on it, —

Friday July 4

before noon took leave of the
People, and went to Esq. Young
at oak hill, and there
I had a meeting, and there was
a considerable number of People
though it was a rainy Time, I spoke
from [gap: omitted] and Soon af
ter meeting I went onto Cherry
, and called at Mr. Way, he
he not at Home but the woman
was, and there I tarried all night
and was tenderly treated —

Saturday July 5

after Break
fast went to Mr. Nicholas Pick
s and there stayed 'til
sometime in the afternoon
then I went to old Mr. Pickard's and
there I Lodged — —

Sabbath July 6

about 10 began
the meeting, and there was a
great Number of People and
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]

and the People attended with
great Solemnity, — towards
Night went to Mr. Nicholas
s, and I Baptized 3
Children, one for him by the
Name Jona, one for Adolf
, by the Name Susana
and one for Mr. Stokes
by the Name
William — and Soon after
I went back to Old Mr. Pickard
and from there to Mr. Crippens
and there was a meeting Mr.
preached, and it
rained very hard before he
had done, and many lodged
at the Same house — —

Monday July 7:

after eating I took leave of
the Family, and I went on
my way and got Mr. Folts
just after sunset and there
I Lodged — — —

Tuesday July 8:

about 10
Jeremiah Tuhy Came to me
and I got me ready and went
with him, to go through the Woods
Elijah Wympy and Ben
Garrett Fowler
also went,
and we got to Brothertown a
bout sunset, and was glad
and thankful to See our People
once more; Thanks be to god
for his goodness to us. Lodged
at Brother David Fowlers —

Sabbath July 13

about 10 we began
the meeting at the schoolhouse, which
was made for meeting house too, and
there was not a great Number of
People, being a rainy Day, and I
Spoke from CXVII Psalm, and I Corinthians:XVI[illegible]10
and the People attended with great ten
derness, many affected, — after meeting
went back to Brother Davids — —

Monday July 14,

Sometime in
the morning, I went to Clenton, and
Came back in the evening. — —

Wednesday July 16:

in the even
ing had a Singing Meeting and
I gave a word of Exhortation to
the People from the words, do thy-
self no harm — and I Lodged at
Sister Esther Fowler's, and as
the People were returning, Elijah
was attacked by by George
and Jeremiah Tuhy and
they abused him much, and it
was difficult to part them, and
fell upon Young David Fowler
but David was too much for him
and it was a Sad night with them
and very shameful — — —

Friday 18.

about 9 I went to
New Stockbridge; stopped at Roger
and took Dinner there, and
about 2 went on again, got to
Stockbridge about 3, and towards
evening there was a meeting, Mr.
preached, and it was

in Indian and it was no Edifi
cation to me — after meeting went
to Sir Peters and took Supper there,
and then went to Capt. Hendrick's
and there I Lodged. — —

Saturday July 19:

was at the Place
all Day — yesterday the Oneidas
a Number of them went to Bro
[illegible][guess: run] the Line — —

Sabbath July 20,

about 10 began
the Service, and there was a large
Number of People, and I Spoke
from Judges III.20.[gap: omitted] and the
People attend with seriousness, I
Baptized two Children one for
Capt. Hendrick Aupaumut and
the Name it was Joshua, and
the other Child, was and his Name is [gap: omitted]
— — — in the
Evening I went Home to Bro
Lodged at Brother Davids

Monday July 21

set off very
early in the morning to go
to Fort Schuyler, got there a
bout 12: and there I found
my Daughter Christiana and
her Family, I Lodged at a
widow Dutch womans house
but they were unruly — —

Tuesday July 22:

in the morning set off again
for Home, but we did not
get any further than Clenton
I Lodged at Mr. Lovels — —

Wednesday July 23:

it was
Some Time before our Team
Came up to where I was, for
had a heavy Load, and we
unloaded, and stayed 'til
afternoon, and then we
went on, left our Load, and

got Home sometime before
Night, and I went to meeting
just at Night, and after
meeting went to Sister
Esthers Fowler
s and Lodged there —

Thursday July 24:

Time in the morning I went
back to my Daughter and
towards Night our Team
Came to my Daughters, —

Friday July 25:

towards Noon
I went to New Stockbridge got there
about 3, near Night went to meeting. Mr. Sergeant preached, lodged
at Mr. Peter Pauquunnuppeets. — —

Saturday July 26:

about 9 we
met together to have a debate
with Mr. Sergeant but he chose
not to Debate, I desired him to
point out the Errors he had
charged us with, but he declined

and finally Concluded, that
every one should have full Li
berty to choose and act in accord
ing to the Light and understand
ing he has in his Religious
Concerns, and So we parted in
friendship, Concluded to agree
and to disagree, and So we re
turned to Brothertown, got to my
Daughters before Night — —

Sabbath July 27.

about 9 I went
to the meeting house, and about
11 we began the Holy Service, and
I Spoke from Luke XX.6: Proverbs X.5
and there was Some seriousness
among the People — after meet
ing went back to my daughter's — — —

Wednesday July 30:

had an
evening Singing, and I gave
a word of advice and counsel
to the Young People. — —

Sabbath August 3

went to New
, got there just as
the People were Collecting toge
ther and there was a large
number of People, and I Spoke
from Jeremiah II.12.13: John I.12
and there great attention among
the People, in the Evening went to
meeting again, and Capt. Hendrick
and Sir Peter Pauquunnuppeet rehearsed what
was delivered in the Day — I lodged
at Capt. Hendricks, — — —

Monday August 4:

Anthony Paul
Benoni and Andrew Gifford
accompanied me to the Lake we
went there to fishing, got there
sometime before Night, and
there was a great Number of
of Oneidas and Some Stockbridgers
at Col. Laweys, to receive a
present of Corn and Some Pork
Sent to them, by [gap: omitted] a French
Merchant, but I and my Sons

went to the Lake, which was
but about half mile off, and
it was just Night, and we
fished, and we catched a fine
passel of fish presently, and
made up a Fire by the creek
and had fine Supper of fish
and afterwards prayed, and
then we went to Sleep by
our Fire quietly — —

Tuesday August 5:

we fished
by spells all Day, but we
got but few, — — —


we tried again
but we got but few, I killed
a great gray Eagle, and a
Raven this Day — — —

Thursday, August 7:

we tried
to fish a little while, and but
but 5:— and So we set off for
home, we stopped at Mr. Olcuts

but they were not at Home
one of the Stockbridge women
was there, and She cooked a
Dinner for us, and Soon after
eating we went on again and —
I stopped at New Stockbridge and
and my Sons went on — I lodged
at Sir Peter Pauquunnuppeet's — —

Friday August 8:

I was at New
all Day, in the
evening we met and I gave a
word of Exhortation from the words
and there was good attention
lodged at Peters again — —

Saturday August 9:

before Noon I set off for Bro
got to Brother Davids
and found Young David very
Sick, to home before Noon —

Sabbath August 10:

went to meeting
about 9. and the People just

to the Lake and went to fish
ing and we Caught a fine
passel of fish for the little
we to fish, and we made
up a fire by the Creek and
there we lodged, — 03 [illegible]

Tuesday August [illegible] 3 6

To [illegible][guess: 9] days works
18 8
27 3
B C [illegible]2-0
S C — [illegible][guess: 0]-1-6
[illegible][guess: 1-3 III]
Baptists/Seventh Day Baptists
The Baptists were a dissenter sect that became especially popular in New England after the First Great Awakening. They diverged from Protestant belief mainly in insisting that only believers should be baptized, and that it should be done by immersion in water and not by sprinkling or pouring water, but they represented the most radical of the radical New Lights and were known for lay preaching and personal spirituality. Wheelock and most of his former students were more moderate New Lights and opposed this sort of radical Christianity. Occom, however, had many connections with Baptist ministers in central New York. On his preaching tour in 1774, he records visiting several Baptist ministers, largely white, and speaking to large crowds, sometimes in the woods. He also records meeting with a "Seven Day Baptist" minister. The Seventh Day or Sabbatarian Baptists differ from Baptist beliefs mainly in observing the Sabbath on Saturday, in accordance with the ten commandments. Baptist belief held a strong attraction for Native peoples because it protected their autonomy and embraced preaching and leadership by lay people. Divides over theology became problematic at Brothertown, where Occom’s moderate sect clashed with the more Baptist sect over whether or not to lease their land to Americans. After Occom’s death, Samuel Ashpo, a Baptist Mohegan minister known for his separatism, began spending more time at Brothertown and built up a substantial Baptist congregation there.
Religious Society of Friends
The Religious Society of Friends, more popularly known as Quakers, is a Christian group founded in mid-17th century England, who believed that all people contained a spark of the divine, which they called the "inward light," a direct apprehension of God that must guide all their actions. From this central belief flowed many influential practices that distinguish Quakers from other Protestant sects: they are pacifists, dress simply, believe in the equality of all people and religious toleration, and worship together in silent "meeting" until the spirit moves someone to talk. This movement began in the 1640s during the Puritian Revolution against King Charles I, when several charismatic ministers, including George Fox and James Nayler, galvanized the small groups of "Seekers" that had gathered together, unhappy with both the Church of England and the various forms of Puritan reform churches. They converted people mostly from all social classes except the aristocracy, and were persecuted savagely by Puritan clergy in England and in North America, where Quakerism was beginning to spread. Quakerism took hold in Massachusetts, in Rhode Island where they were a majority for a long time, and in New Jersey and North Carolina. Charles II granted a charter to Willian Penn in 1681 to found the colony of Pennsylvania along Quaker principles. Often speaking out as witnesses to injustice, Quakers have been in the forefront of many campaigns for social reform. One of the best known Quakers is John Woolman, who in the mid-18th century persuaded Pennsylvania Quakers to free their slaves and advocated the abolition of slavery. It is not surprising that Occom was strongly drawn to the Quakers he met on a preaching and fundraising tour in winter 1771 to Philadelphia. He notes "the Friends or Quakers were Friends indeed to us they Communicated thier Substance to us more than any People in this great City, we ate and Drank with them from Day to Day" (manuscript 771101.2). Similarly, on another preaching tour in 1787, Occom noted that Quakers in New York "were exceeding kind to us and Freely Communicated their Substance to help our People in the Wilderness," especially the Indian children of families who had moved up to Oneida land (manuscript 787660.1).
Delaware Tribe
The Delaware Tribe, or Lenape Tribe, is a conglomeration of linguistically and culturally similar Native American groups that initially inhabited the mid-Atlantic region, including New Jersey, Pennsylvania, eastern Connecticut, and southeastern New York. The three main groups comprising the Delawares are the Munsees, Unamis, and Unalaqtgos. Several Delawares attended Moor’s Indian Charity School, including some of Wheelock’s earliest students. Because the Delawares were not a politically unified entity, contact with Europeans and subsequent conflict over land and trade proved especially devastating for them. During 17th-century battles over trade access, the Delawares found themselves in conflict with the Dutch and the English as well as with other Native American groups that wanted to trade with Europeans. By the time the Dutch left in the mid-17th century, the Delawares were tributaries of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois). Scholars estimate that by 1750, through a combination of war and disease, the Delaware population had fallen by as much as 90 percent. Many Delawares responded to the situation by leaving. Some migrated west with Moravian missionaries; others joined different tribes, including the Cayugas in New York and the Stockbridge Mahicans in Massachusetts (who later migrated to Oneida territory, near Brothertown, NY, and from thence to Wisconsin). Still others migrated to Ohio and ended up in Kansas or Oklahoma as a result of American expansion. Those who stayed oversaw a century of complex treaty negotiation, including two of the more egregious instances of Native American dispossession: the infamous "walking treaty" between the Delawares and the colony of Philadelphia in 1686, and the American government's (unfulfilled) promise to give the Delawares their own fully-enfranchised state in the union for their support during the Revolution. The Delawares played an important role in the history of Moor’s Indian Charity School. John Brainerd, a Presbyterian missionary to the Delaware and a friend of Wheelock’s, sent Wheelock his first “planned” Native American students from among the Delawares in 1754. J. Brainerd also oversaw the establishment of a Christian Delaware settlement at Brotherton, New Jersey in 1758 (not to be confused with Brothertown in Oneida, New York).
Presbyterian Church
The Presbyterian Church is a branch of Protestantism that traces its origins to Martin Luther, a German priest and scholar who posted a list of 95 grievances against the Roman Catholic Church on the door of Wittenberg Cathedral in 1517. Twenty years later, a French theologian living in Switzerland named John Calvin further refined this criticism into what became known as Reformed theology, which was brought to Scotland by John Knox, a Scotsman who studied with Calvin in Geneva, and then spread to England. This new theology, eventually codified in the Westminster Confession of Faith, emphasized literacy, education, and lifelong study and interpretation of the scriptures. It also advocated an ascending order of church governance beginning on the local level with the congregation, led by ministers and elders; they were ratified by the next level of governance called a presbytery (from the Greek for “elder”), which was a district court made up of representatives from individual churches. Presbyteries were governed by a synod. This system distinguished Presbyterianism from congregationalism, in which power lies with the local churches, and episcopacy, in which power lies with bishops. In 1640, a congregation in Southampton, Long Island, organized what is considered the oldest Presbyterian church in America. The eastern portion of Long Island, where Occom lived and was ordained, was largely Presbyterian and was culturally more a part of southern New England than New York, an important religious and kinship connection for both Indians and English. The Saybrook Platform, adopted by Connecticut Congregationalists in 1708, acknowledged Presbyterian polity in its creation of “consociations” of regional supervision, an influence that spread through central and western Massachusetts, and later New Hampshire, due to the trade and travel along the Connecticut River. The College of New Jersey (now Princeton), though non-denominational, was founded by a Presbyterian and disseminated those beliefs. In 1741, the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge sent the Presbyterian missionary Azariah Horton to eastern Long Island where he met with some success until Occom arrived, and Samuel Buell, the Presbyterian minister who presided over Occom’s ordination in 1759, led the church at East Hampton, the closest English church to the Montauketts. For teaching and missionary purposes, Occom used the standard Calvinist Presbyterian and Congregational catechism, dating back to 1647. He preached at many Presbyterian churches across New England throughout his career, and in 1791 reported that the new church in New Stockbridge, near Brothertown, which he helped found, “willingly and Cheerfully adopted The Confession of Faith of the Presbyterian Church of the United States in America” (manuscript 791676).
New Exhorter
Exhorter was the original term for what today the United Methodist Church calls a lay speaker, someone certified to hold meetings, lead prayers, and evangelize, who is not ordained. Exhorter was a step on the way to lay preacher. When Methodism began in the 1740s, many lay preachers were arrested and imprisoned by local authorities, and the group of pious speakers who developed to fill the gap became known as exhorters. The office of exhorter was officially recognized in Britain in 1770 and in the United States in 1784, though people already had been filling the role. It required a yearly certification and often identified people called to the ministry. Exhorters served important roles in cities and rural areas where there was a scarcity of preachers and helped build the early Methodist Church, which often began as separatist groups inspired by an exhorter, who would exhort the congregation to action after the appointed clergy had preached the sermom. The best known exhorter is Aimee Semple McPherson, who was issued an exhorter's license in Philadelphia in 1920 and became a world-famous faith healer and evangelist in California.
Dutch Reformed Church
The Dutch Reformed Church developed during the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century as part of the Netherlands' bid for freedom from Spanish Catholic control. It followed the teachings of John Calvin, a Swiss Protestant theologian, and adopted a presbyterian form of church governance. Dutch settlers to New Amsterdam brought the Church over in 1628, and when the colony passed into English hands in 1664, 11 Dutch Reformed Churches existed. This increased to 34 Churches at the beginning of the 18th century, under the jurisdiction of the Classis of Amsterdam. In 1738, the American Dutch Reformed Churches wrote a petition for independence from Amsterdam, which was granted in 1755. Practitioners and Churches spread throughout New York and New England, and in the 19th century to the mid-West. In 1766 the missionary John Brainerd passed on to Wheelock a recommendation for John Kals, a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, as a potential missionary and teacher of sacred languages. Occom recorded in his journal for 1787 that he preached several times in Dutch Reformed Churches and meeting houses in upstate New York to large and enthusiastic audiences.
Oneida Nation
The Oneidas are one of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Six Nations. During the 18th century, they were largely considered the most Christianized Haudenosaunee tribe. The Oneidas had a rich tradition of indigenous ministers, including Good Peter, Deacon Thomas, and Isaac Dakayenensere, and played host to several Moor’s missionaries, including Samson Occom, David Fowler, Samuel Ashpo, Joseph Johnson, Joseph Woolley, Titus Smith, and Samuel Kirkland (who went on to found Hamilton Oneida Academy, now Hamilton College). They were also the interpreter James Dean’s adoptive tribe. Notable Oneida towns included Onaquaga, Kanawalohale, and Old Oneida. Onaquaga was the central fire of the Six Nations. By the 18th century, it also had a sizeable contingent of Onondagas and Tuscaroras. Good Peter and Isaac Dakayenensere taught there, as did Joseph Woolley. Kanawalohale and Old Oneida were more predominantly Oneida. The Oneidas were involved in several crucial moments in the history of Moor's Indian Charity School. Onaquaga was the site of the 1765 confrontation between Wheelock and the New England Company, in which the New England Company disrupted Titus Smith's mission, first by sending their own missionary, and second by repossessing Elisha Gunn, the interpreter they had agreed to "loan" to Titus Smith. Left without an interpreter, Titus Smith was forced to abandon his mission (Wheelock repaid the favor a few years later by hiring James Dean away from the New England Company). A few years later, in 1769, Deacon Thomas led the Oneidas in withdrawing all their children from Moor's. The Oneidas' departure struck a devastating blow against Wheelock's Indian education plans, and provided more momentum for his shift to educating predominantly Anglo-Americans. The Oneidas sided with the colonists during the Revolution, but they were still affected by the general devastation in Six Nations territory, especially the Sullivan Expedition (1779). After the Revolution, the Oneidas granted tracts of their land to two Christian Indian organizations: the Brothertown tribe, a composite tribe of Moor’s alumni from New England, and the Stockbridge Indians. It was not long before the groups came into conflict with one another. Encroachment from the new State of New York put increasing pressure on Oneida land, and the Oneidas tried to renegotiate their treaties with the Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians to compensate. The Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians fought back, but by the 1820s all three groups had lost, and many of them relocated to Wisconsin.
Stockbridge Tribe
The Stockbridge Indians were the inhabitants of the town of Stockbridge, Massachusetts, a Christian Indian town modeled on John Eliot’s 17th-century “praying towns” (Indian towns where the inhabitants lived an Anglicized life style). Established in 1734, Stockbridge was composed of Mahicans, Housatonics, Wappingers, and Esopus (at the end of the 18th century, the Stockbridge Indians also adopted many New Jersey Delaware). The Stockbridge Indians had close ties to the Brothertown Nation, a composite tribe of Algonquian Indians from around the Long Island Sound which was organized by alumni of Moor’s Indian Charity School. The town played host to a series of famous missionaries and ministers, including John Sergeant Sr., Gideon Hawley, Jonathan Edwards, and John Sergeant Jr. (Sergeant Sr. established a boarding school at Stockbridge that provided the model for Eleazar Wheelock’s Moor’s Indian Charity School.) Eventually, the problems that the Stockbridge Indians encountered with white families who owned land in their town (most notably the Williams family) convinced them of the dangers of white land expansion and influenced their later land policies. In 1785, the Stockbridge Indians relocated to a tract of land in Oneida territory adjacent to the Brothertown settlement. (During the Revolution, Stockbridge played host to displaced Brothertown and Oneida Indians who had fled central New York. These ties were extremely influential in the decision to relocate.) They called their town New Stockbridge. By the turn of the 19th century, land pressures again overwhelmed the Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians and, along with many Oneida, they sought land in the west where they could attempt to escape white expansion.
Methodism is an 18th-century revivalist movement founded by John Wesley that sought to reform the Church of England from within, but separated in 1795 to form a vigorous and influential Protestant sect. The movement was led by Wesley and his brother Charles, who were joined for a time by the English evangelist George Whitefield, all of whom had connections to the North American colony of Georgia. Their open air, extemporaneous preaching of personal, experiential redemption and the necessity of a new birth attracted many people who felt neglected by the Anglican Church in England and by the Congregational and Presbyterian churches in New England. As a New Light minister, Wheelock supported the revivalist movement, but many in the upper eschelons of society, whom Wheelock wanted to interest in his "great design" of Indian conversion, regarded it and Methodism in particular as partisan and overly radical. Some Native evangelists were drawn to Methodism in the 18th-century, though Occom remained a staunch Presbyterian all his life. In particular, William Apess (1798-?), a mixed blood Pequot, turned to Methodism during the Second Great Awakening (1800-1830s), and became an ordained Methodism minister and preacher, a prolific writer, and the leader of the Mashpee Indian revolt of 1833, which represented a noteworthy push for Indian self-governance.
Shinnecock Tribe
The Shinnecock Tribe is an Algonquian-speaking people descended from the Pequot and Narragansett Nations of southern New England. Their name means “people of the stony shore,” because their ancestral lands were on the southeastern edge of Long Island, south of Great Peconic Bay. They were a sea-faring people noted for their manufacture of beads from the Northern quahog clam and whelk shells called wampum, used by many Indians as currency, in trade, and for recording important events on ceremonial belts. European settlers arrived on eastern Long Island in the mid-17th century, bringing Presbyterianism, buying land, and creating homesteads and villages, which expanded through the 18th century, encroaching on Native lands. Diseases also decimated the Native population. The Shinnecocks and their neighbors to the east, the Montauketts, were targets of Christian missionizing early on, since it was an easy sail from southern Connecticut across the Long Island Sound. When the Society in Scotland for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge sent the Presbyterian missionary Azariah Horton to Long Island in 1741, he found a warm reception and evidence of previous missionizing among the Indians in the eastern half of the Island. Occom arrived a decade later after his education at Wheelock’s school, settling in Montauk and starting a school there, but also visiting and ministering to the nearby Shinnecock Indians in their various villages. Dwindling land and economic resources led many Shinnecock Indians to move to Brothertown on Oneida land in western New York after the Revolutionary War. In 1792, the New York State legislature imposed a system of tribal government that consisted of three elected trustees, whereas traditionally, decisions were made by consensus of all adult male members. Since the mid-19th century, the Shinnecocks have had a reservation of about 800 acres within the town of Southampton, a fraction of their traditional lands. In 2007, the Shinnecock Tribe went back to its traditional governing structure, now including adult women, and installed a Tribal Council. In 2010, they succeeded in a 30-year-long struggle for federal recognition, and now number over 1400 people.
Oneida Lake

Oneida Lake is located ten miles north of Syracuse in west-central New York state, and is the largest lake wholly within the state. It is named for the Oneida Nation, one of the nations of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy, who called it Tsioqui or white water, because of the wave action caused by the wind. Oneida and Onondaga people settled the area around the lake, fishing for eels, salmon, catfish and pike. Around 1533, the Oneidas built their first village on the south shore of Oneida Lake, at or near the mouth of Oneida Creek. During the 18th and early 19th centuries, Oneida Lake and its tributary Wood Creek were part of the Albany-Oswego waterway connecting the Atlantic seaboard to the west via the Hudson and the Mohawk Rivers. There was a portage over the Oneida Carry to the Wood Creek-Oneida Lake system, which connected, via the Oneida River and the Oswego River, to Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes. Occom, who made three missionary trips to the Oneida Indians from 1761 to 1763, and Samuel Kirkland, who lived with the Oneidas and ran the mission after 1764, wrote about travels around Oneida Lake during their sojourns. The Oneida Indians and others in that area, including missionaries, used the Lake and its connecting waterways as a means to travel to and from the forts along the Mohawk River, to Johnson Hall, home of Sir William Johnson, the superintendent for Indian Affairs for Britain, and to New England. After the American Revolution, when the U.S. forced many Haudenosaunee tribes, who had allied with the British, to cede their lands, white settlers constructed a canal over the Oneida Carry, which significantly improved the waterway and commercial shipping across the lake and region. In 1835, Oneida Lake was connected to the Erie Canal system.


Albany is a city located in eastern New York. When Netherlander Henry Hudson arrived in what would become Albany in 1609, the Mohican Indians lived in several villages in the area. The Mohicans gave Hudson’s crew furs, and the Dutch East India Company sent representatives to trade with the Native peoples. The Dutch established the village of Beverwyck within the territory of the New Netherlands. Beverwyck hosted a diverse population of Germans, French, Swedes, English, Irish, Scots, Dutch, and Africans. After the fall of New Netherlands to Britain in 1664, Beverwyck was renamed Albany in honor of the colony’s proprietor James, Duke of York and Albany. In 1686, Albany was granted a charter that incorporated the city and provided it the sole right to negotiate trade with Native Americans. During the French and Indian War, Albany was designated as the British military headquarters in the Americas. During the Revolutionary War, most Albany residents supported the revolution because of their opposition to British trade restrictions.

Hudson River

The Hudson River, frequently referred to as the North River in Occom Circle documents, runs 315 miles from Newcomb in upstate New York to the Long Island Sound. The Algonquin-speaking tribes that originally inhabited both sides of the river called it Mahicantuck, or river that flows both ways. In 1609, Henry Hudson, an English explorer employed by the Dutch East India Company, sailed up the river while looking for a passage to India and instead found thousands of Algonquians living in the river's valley. Hudson sailed as far north as Albany before turning back. Dutch traders settled the river’s banks and established trade in the colony that would become New Netherland. The Dutch called it Noort Rivier, or North River, by contrast to South River, the Delaware River. Only when the English began to assert their claim over the North River in the 1600s did it become commonly referred to as the Hudson River, to emphasize its "discovery" by an Englishman. The Dutch eventually ceded the river to the English in 1674 under the Treaty of Westminster, but the name North River persisted into the early 20th century. In their writings, Occom and his contemporaries refer to the Hudson as North River. Occom travelled along the North River from Mohegan to Albany during his preaching tours in the mid-1780s. Eventually, Occom sailed up North River for good, settling in New Stockbridge in 1789. Today, the name North River still refers to the section of the Hudson between New Jersey and New York City.


Brothertown was a multi-tribal Indian settlement in the center of what is now New York state. In the 1760s, Indians in New England and New York were devastated by war, disease, and European settlement, and many who had converted to Christianity believed that pressures and influences from surrounding European settlers impeded them from living Christian lives. The Brothertown Indians began as a group of Christian Indians including members of the Mohegan, Pequot, Narragansett, Montauk, Tunxis, Wangunk, and Niantic tribes. In the 1770s, led by Occom and Joseph Johnson, this group of Indians moved to land granted to them by the Oneida in New York. They named the land Brothertown to both reflect their intention to live with fellow tribes as brothers and also to pay tribute to Brotherton, a Delaware Indian reservation in New Jersey that served as an inspiration for the Christian Indian settlement. When the Revolutionary War began, the Indians of Brothertown sided with the Patriots, and as a result, British sympathizers burnt the Brothertown settlement in 1777. After this, many Brothertown settlers moved east while others remained and fought alongside the colonists.In the 1780s, many more New England Indians, including Occom and his family, moved to Brothertown and the nearby settlement of New Stockbridge, forming a town government, church and schools. In the early 1800s, the state of New York began to purchase tracts of Oneida land, and the Indians were forced to leave New York and settle in Greenbay, Wisconsin.

Cherry Valley

A village, now within the town of Cherry Valley, in Otsego County, east central New York state. It was founded in 1739 by John Lindesay, a Scot who got a land grant from King George II, and who traded with the Indians throughout western New York. It became one of the strongest settlements on the frontier, and was the site during the Revoutionary War of the Cherry Valley Massacre of 1778 led by Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant and Tory rangers.

East Hampton

East Hampton is a town in New York's Suffolk county on southeast Long Island, 14 miles southwest of Montauk. East Hampton was originally inhabited by the Algonquin-speaking Montauketts, who numbered over 10,000 and had a peaceful trading relationship with the nearby Pequots until early 17th century when English colonists played the two tribes off each other. In 1640, after the Pequot War, an English settler named Lion Gardiner purchased an island in the bay between the present-day towns of Montauk and East Hampton from the Montauketts, which began the English settlement, or seizure, of the land that would become East Hampton. The Montauketts called the island Manchonacke, or island where many died, while Gardiner named the island after himself. In 1648, the colonies of New Haven and Connecticut purchased more land from the Montauketts, spreading beyond Gardiner's Island onto Long Island and settling the town of East Hampton. In 1664, East Hampton was annexed to the colony of New York. As the number of English settlers increased, the Montauketts became increasingly dispossessed, economically tied to the English but relegated to the bottom of the social order. By 1687, the English had fenced off the majority of Montaukett land through a series of resolutions, changing the tribal structure of the Montauketts and leaving them open to conversion to Christianity. In 1749, Occom had been released from his preparatory studies for college because of poor eyesight and went on a summer fishing trip to Montauk; he decided to settle there and by November had established a school for the Montauketts. He frequented East Hampton on his travels to New York and New England from his home in Montauk beginning in 1750, often staying with Reverend Samuel Buell of the Presbytery of Suffolk County, who presided over Occom's 1759 ordination at the Presbytery. While traveling through East Hampton, Occom also stayed with William Hedges, a whaling captain and one of his benefactors. One of Occom's letters indicates that Hedges took care of Occom's family while he completed his mission to the Oneidas in 1761. Occom's relationship to East Hampton changed in the 1770s, however, when he started to believe that the pervasive English influence on Montaukett society had become corrosive. As a result of Occom's encouragement, many of the Montauketts of East Hampton moved to Brothertown in the late 1780s.


Located just northwest of Staten Island, Elizabeth, New Jersey, was originally called Elizabethtown. Richard Nicolls, governor of the territories of North America, gave permission to John Bailey, Daniel Denton, and Luke Watson to purchase 500,000 acres from the Indians of Staten Island in 1664; however, the whole of New Jersey had been conveyed to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, who commissioned his relative Philip Carteret to be governor. Governor Carteret established Elizabethtown, named after George Carteret’s wife, as the capital of the province of New Jersey. In 1855 the legislature of New Jersey officially established this land as the City of Elizabeth. Josiah Wolcott wrote a letter from Elizabethtown to Eleazar Wheelock asking to enroll his son into Wheelock’s school.


The Tunxis Indians first established a village on the east side of a river (now named the Farmington River) and called it Tunxis Sepus, meaning at the bend of the little river. English settlers renamed it Plantation at Tunxis in 1640, and in 1645, the Connecticut General Assembly incorporated the land, in central Connecticut, as the town of Farmington. Throughout the 18th century, the Tunxis Indians attended church and school with the settlers. In a letter to George Whitefield, Wheelock wrote of a 14-year-old Farmington Indian who demonstrated a gift for learning and knew how to read and write English, indicating that the young Indian might make a great addition to his school. At least six male students who were possibly from Farmington entered the Indian Charity School between 1761 and 1762. Also, Occom's son-in-law, Joseph Johnson, resided in and wrote a letter from Farmington prior to establishing the Brothertown settlement in upstate New York. According to Calloway, the possible Farmington students were Moses, Samuel Ashpo, Daniel Mossuck, and Jacob Fowler, Enoch Closs, Samuel Tallman. However, the letter does not indicate whether the student Wheelock mentions ever attended the school.

Long Island

Long Island is an island located in southeast New York State. In 1824, historian Silas Wood claimed that 13 different tribes inhabited the island when the Dutch and English arrived in 1639: the Canarsie, the Rockaway, the Matinecock, the Merrick, the Massapequa, the Nissequoge, the Secatoag, the Seatuket, the Patchoag, the Corchaug, the Shinnecock, the Manhasset, and the Montaukett. This is the commonly accepted tribal history of Long Island, and Wood’s theory is taught in New York textbooks today. Yet, in 1992, historian John Strong challenged this dominant narrative, arguing that tribal systems did not develop on Long Island until after Europeans arrived. Based on Dutch and English colonists’ accounts, the Algonquian communities on western Long Island likely spoke the Delaware-Munsee dialect and those to the east spoke languages related to the southern New England Algonquian dialects. These indigenous peoples organized themselves by language and kinship, but beyond village systems and the occasional alliance, there existed no formal tribal structure. Rather, internal structures arose among the Montauks, the Shinnecocks, the Poospatucks, and the Matinnocks to cope with English settlers, and became integral to these peoples’ survival. Although new diseases and land negotiations severely encroached on the freedom of Long Island’s Native population, these groups that developed tribal structures retain a sense of community today. By the 18th century, much of the island had fallen into the hands of the English, who were the sole European power on Long Island once the Dutch relinquished their claims to the land after the second Anglo-Dutch War in 1664. During the Great Awakening of the 18th century, Occom spent 12 years serving as a missionary to the Montaukett Indians of Long Island, along with Presbyterian minister Azariah Horton. Today, the western half of the island is densely populated due to its proximity to Manhattan, and its eastern half is mainly devoted to resort towns. The Shinnecocks and the Poospatucks retain autonomous reservations on Long Island.


Montauk is an unincorporated hamlet located on the eastern tip of Long Island in southeastern New York. The town was named after the Montaukett Indians who lived on much of eastern Long Island when Europeans first made contact in the 17th century. Archeological records show that Native Americans occupied eastern Long Island at least 3,000 years prior to European contact. The Montaukett Indians derived their name from the land they lived on, Montaukett meaning hilly country. The Montauketts made great use of Long Island’s abundant resources, and the nation subsisted by growing crops such as corn, squash, and beans as well as gathering berries, herbs, and roots. In addition to game such as deer and fish, the Montauketts also hunted whales and used every part of the whale, including its oil, which they burned in large clamshells. Living on an island at first isolated the Montaukett people, but they soon became a strong economic force in the region thanks to the production of the American Indian currency wampum. Wampum was constructed out of polished sea shells, which were found in abundance along Long Island’s beaches. The Montauketts' rich resources, however, led to wars with surrounding Indian nations, including the Pequots and Narragansetts to the north. The Pequots eventually forced the Montauketts to forfeit wampum as tribute. By the early 17th century, the Montauketts were faced with wars against surrounding Native Americans and an onslaught of European diseases, and in order to preserve his nation’s territorial integrity, the Montaukett sachem, Wyandanch, established an alliance with English settlers in Connecticut in 1637. Over time, however, the Montauketts' began selling off land to the English settlers, and disease further decimated their numbers. A 1650 smallpox epidemic killed around two-thirds of the Montaukett people. In 1665, Wyandanch granted the English permission to pasture livestock on Montaukett lands. In 1686 a group of East Hampton settlers known as the Proprietors bought the territory of Montauk from the Montauketts, and would continue to hold on to the land in a joint trust for the next 200 years. Despite attempts over the years, the town has never been incorporated as a village. Many years later, the Montauketts attempted to reassert their land rights on Long Island by petitioning New York State Judge Abel Blackmar in 1909. Blackmar refused to recognize the Montauketts as an Indian tribe, which has to this day left them without a reservation on the land that still bears their name.

New England
New Jersey

New Jersey is a state located on the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. For at least 10,000 years before the arrival of Europeans, the area of New Jersey was occupied by the Delaware Indians whose territory extended from what is now the state of Delaware to eastern Pennsylvania. Established as a colony in 1664 and named in honor of the English Channel’s Isle of Jersey, New Jersey shared a royal governor with the nearby colony of New York until 1738. During the Revolutionary War, New Jersey fought for independence from Britain and was the site of over a hundred different battles. In the later 1730s, the Society in Scotland for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge and the New England Company showed particular interest in missionizing in the Native communities along the Delaware River in New Jersey. At the same time, the First Great Awakening erupted along the eastern seaboard, and one of its most influential figures was Gilbert Tennent from New Brunswick, New Jersey, who, like other New Light ministers, courted and attracted Native converts. In the first years of Wheelock's Indian Charity School, he was less interested in recruiting Native students from local tribes and looked towards the powerful Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) tribes of New York and the Delawares of New Jersey. In 1754, at Wheelock’s behest, John Brainerd, a SSPCK missionary in New Jersey, sent two Delaware boys, John Pumshire and Jacob Woolley, who were the first official Native students at the School. In 1788, Occom, David Fowler and Peter Pohquonnappeet attempted fundraising in Pennsylvania and New Jersey for Brothertown and New Stockbridge.

New London

New London is a city located in southeastern Connecticut along an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean called Long Island Sound. The area that would become New London was inhabited by the Pequots who called it Nameaug when the Europeans arrived in North America. Pequot villages bordered Long Island Sound and the Tribe had authority over the neighboring Tribes of the Mohegans and Niantics (all Algonquian-speaking tribes). The Dutch first explored this land in 1614 and established trade with the Native peoples, but the English soon gained possession of the land east of the Hudson in the 1630s. English animosity toward their Indian neighbors led to the Pequot War (1634-38), part of which took place in the present city of New London. The Pequots lost the war and their population deteriorated due to the violence and disease. The General Court of Massachusetts granted John Winthrop possession of Pequot territory in 1644 after which it was to be opened for settlement. By 1646, which is considered the official year of its founding, New London had permanent colonial inhabitants and municipal laws, and jurisdiction was granted to the colony of Connecticut in 1647. In 1658, the inhabitants renamed the town New London after London, England. New London was the colony of Connecticut’s first trading port and was a hub of trade with the West Indies and other colonies. Though initially part of the town of New London when it was first settled by the colonists, Groton, Montville, and Waterford were each separated from New London in 1705, 1786, and 1801 respectively. Present-day Salem was also part of New London when it was settled, but in 1819, it became a separate incorporated town composed of parts of Lyme, Colchester, and Montville. Occom kept a school in New London in the winter in 1748. New London was the home of Captain Nathaniel Shaw, one of the wealthiest merchants in the area, who gave money to Occom in the 1750s for the missionary cause and also sold materials to Occom for the building of his home. However, their positive relationship ended when Shaw refused to provide supplies for Mary Occom while Occom was in England. New London served as the port from which Occom and other missionaries traveled to reach Long Island. During the American Revolution, New London’s location and its status as a seaport made it both vulnerable to invasion and integral to colonial naval operations as well as the exchange of prisoners.New London was incorporated as a city in 1784.


Stockbridge is a town in Madison County in central New York state, named for the Stockbridge Indians of Western Massachusetts. During the Revolutionary war, the Stockbridge Indians had befriended the Oneidas, whose villages were burned down by Indians allied to the British. When the Stockbridge tribe lost ownership of their Christian Indian town, the Oneidas invited them to settle on a six-mile square township, known as "The New Stockbridge Indian Territory." Although the details are unclear, a letter from the Stockbridge chief, Hendrick Aupaumut, to Governor George Clinton of New York suggests that the Oneidas gave the Stockbridge Indians a written deed in 1784, possibly at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix that year. The state of New York confirmed the Tribe's ownership of the town on several later occasions, but would ultimately rescind its promise, forcing the Stockbridge Indians to remove further west to Indiana and Wisconsin, where they ultimately settled in the early 19th century. By 1785, the majority of the Stockbridge tribe from Massachusetts had moved to the town of New Stockbridge, originally called "Tuscarora" or "Old Oneida" by the white settlers. In 1787, the Scottish Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge hired John Sergeant, son of the original missionary in Massachusetts, as minister for the tribe; Sergeant travelled between his home in Stockbrige, MA, to New Stockbridge every year for nearly forty years in that capacity. In 1788, Occom, who had been invited as minister for the Brothertown settlement nearby, opposed Sergeant's mission but Occom's death in 1792 settled the conflict. In 1795, three New York Quakers visited New Stockbridge and began an exchange that helped the village to flourish. The first Europeans settlers arrived in 1791, and the present day town was created in 1836 from parts of four adjoining towns.


Oneida is a city in Madison County located at the geographical center of New York state. Before European settlement of the area, the Oneida Tribe, one of the Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy, inhabited a large territory adjacent to nearby Oneida Lake. Around 1533, they built their first village on the south shore of the lake, at or near the mouth of Oneida Creek. At the end of the 17th century, this area began suffering raids by parties from the French colony of Quebec, in a battle to control the fur trade. In 1696, Oneida village was burned by the French. As a result, the Oneidas moved their chief village east of the original site, called Old Oneida, to a new site called Kanawalohale, also known as Oneida Castle, which was fortified by tall palisades and a moat. This is the site of the present-day village of Oneida Castle, a small hamlet west of the city of Oneida in the northwest corner of the town of Vernon. When used in Occom Circle documents, the place name "Oneida" usually refers to the territory inhabited by the Tribe east of Oneida Lake, but can also refer specifically to Oneida Castle. Although the Oneidas sided with the patriots during the Revolutionary War, much of their territory was sold or appropriated by the state of New York. In 1790, the first European settlers moved into the area of Old Oneida village, and the district began to expand. In the 1830s, the state built a feeder from Oneida Creek through the present city site to provide water for the new canal system, which enabled canal boats to ship freight into the town. Eventually, the railroad came through the town and helped with its expansion. This led to the incorporation of the Village of Oneida in 1848 and the establishment of the Town of Oneida in 1896. The town was chartered as the City of Oneida in 1901, and with two more railroad lines transecting the area, it became a thriving manufacturing center for the first half of the 20th century.


Poughkeepsie is a city in New York’s Dutchess County on the eastern shore of the Hudson River, located about halfway between Albany and New York City. The area was originally inhabited by the Algonquin-speaking Wappinger Indians who named the area Apokeepsing, meaning "safe harbor." Europeans were slow to colonize the eastern bank of the Hudson, but in 1683 the expanding English presence in New York prompted a Wappinger named Massany to sign a deed granting Wappinger land to two Dutch settlers who planned to build a mill on the land. In 1687, a colonial land patent given to Thomas Sanders and Myndert Harmse superseded this deed, and Wappinger land was quickly parceled off to the Dutch and English as homesteads. Wappingers continued to inhabit the area until the mid-1700s, when disease and overcrowding forced them to migrate to Stockbridge, MA, an Indian Town to which many New England Indian tribes fled. Occom often preached in Poughkeepsie beginning in the 1760s until the end of his life, though it was to a primarily European audience. He stopped by the town while traveling between Albany and New York on a route known as the Indian Trail. Poughkeepsie was spared during the American Revolution and, as a result, it became the capital of New York in 1778, until Albany took that honor in 1797.


Schenectady is a city located in eastern New York State. The area that would become Schenectady was originally controlled by the Mohawk Indians, the easternmost and most powerful of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy. The land making up Schenectady was one stop on the much larger Mohawk Trail, which extended from Schenectady to what would become Albany, New York. The name of Schenectady was a derivation of the Mohawk word, Schau-naugh-ta-da, which meant the place beyond the open pines. The first Europeans to arrive at Schenectady were the Dutch who established a settlement there in 1661. Schenectady would come under British control as Dutch power in the Americas waned and the British established the colony of New York. In 1690 during King William’s War, Schenectady became the target of French and Indian soldiers who attacked the town and killed 60 of its residents, an event that became known as the Schenectady Massacre. There was a smallpox outbreak in Schenectady in 1767, as noted in this collection’s documents. In 1780, Oneidas found refuge from Loyalist and Mohawk attacks in Schenectady, and the town served as a stop on the way to Brothertown, the pan-Indian settlement founded by Occom and other graduates of Wheelock’s school. Schenectady was designated a borough in 1765 and eventually incorporated as a city 1798.


Wethersfield is a town in central Connecticut located south of Hartford. The land that would become Wethersfield was inhabited by the Wongunk Indians, who called it Pyquag. In 1634, the Wongunks established trade with British settlers in Watertown, Massachusetts. Soon the fecund soil attracted British colonists to settle in the area, which they initially named Watertown before renaming it Wethersfield in 1637. Wethersfield’s proximity to the Connecticut River made it an important trading town, famous for its red onions, which has continued to be a symbol of the town throughout the centuries. The architecture of 17th- and 18th-century Wethersfield homes reflects the colonists’ need for security against the Pequots, a powerful and expanding tribe with whom the people of Wethersfield, aided by an alliance of Mohegan and Narragansett Indians, had battled during the Pequot War (1636-37). In 1692, a flood shifted the course of the Connecticut River east and destroyed all but one warehouse in the town of Wethersfield, which nevertheless continued to play a major role in commerce in the 18th century. Solomon Wells, a firm friend and patron of Occom, lived in Wethersfield.

New York City
Blooming Grove

Blooming Grove is a town in New York's Orange County, on the western bank of the Hudson River north of New York City. The area was originally inhabited by the Minisink Indians, an Algonquian-speaking part of the Lenni-Lenape Nation, before colonists pressured them to sell their lands in the 17th and 18th centuries. By 1765, only 750 Minisinks remained in Orange County. When Henry Hudson sailed up the Hudson River in 1609, he dropped anchor near what would become Cornwall, NY. Blooming Grove was an area of the town of Cornwall until 1799, when it separated to form its own town. In his journal for 1775, Occom records a visit to Blooming Grove, which had a Presbyterian Church and, thus, an interested populace, as part of his preaching tour. He stayed with John Brewster, the Cornwall town clerk, and preached to the townspeople. In another undated journal entry, Occom fondly recounts a past visit to Blooming Grove during which he gave a young girl a book, and his later encounter with this woman as an adult while visiting near Fort Hunter, NY.

Delaware River

Newburgh is a city located in southeastern New York state along the Hudson River. It is also the name of an adjacent town, which was part of the city until 1865 when the city split off from the town. Before the arrival of Europeans, the area was inhabited by the Waoranek Indians, members of the Lenape Tribe of the Algonquin people. In 1684, the governor of New York bought the area that would be Newburgh, along with the land comprising New Windsor, from the Waoranek Tribe for $200, cooking pots, scissors, cloth, shoes and other domestic items. In 1752, England officially recognized the Parish of Newburgh, named after Newborough, Scotland. Newburgh served as an encampment site for many troops during the American Revolution, and the British occupation of New York City caused the population of Newburgh to swell with colonial refugees. In 1800, Newburgh was incorporated.

New Windsor
9 Partners
Pleasant Valley

Ballston is a town in central New York state, north of Albany. The area was occupied by Mohawk Indians, who resented the appropriation of their sacred grounds by European settlers. The first settlers, the MacDonald brothers, built a homestead on the west bank of Ballston Lake in 1763. Reverend Eliphalet Ball arrived in 1770 with his three sons and members of his congregation from Bedford, NY, bought the land from the MacDonalds, named it Ball's Town, and established a Presbyterian church there in 1771. Soon, settlers arrived from other parts of New England, New Jersey, Scotland and north of Ireland. In 1774, a stockaded fort was built in Ballston, which was attacked by the British and their Indian allies from Canada in 1780 and 1781. It became a town of Albany county in 1785 and was part of the religious circuit in upstate New York in which Occom travelled.

Green Bush
New Bethlehem
Phillips Town

Shinnecock, NY, was a village within the town of Southampton, NY occupied by the Shinnecock Indians. While this village no longer exists, the Shinnecocks have preserved some of their ancestral land through the Shinnecock Indian Reservation. The name Shinnecock means "people of the stony shore," in reference to the rocky southeastern edge of Long Island where the Shinnecocks lived. Shinnecock's proximity to Connecticut by way of the Long Island Sound meant that the village and its tribe experienced more missionary activity from New England than towns in the Western half of Long Island. European settlers first encountered the Shinnecocks in 1640, when they founded Southampton after purchasing land from the Tribe. During this period of colonization, the village of Shinnecock remained an enclave for the Tribe as the rest of Long Island was increasingly divided into English towns. Unlike the Montauketts to the East, the Shinnecocks were able to retain a land base, their own distinct village. From 1749 to 1761, Occom maintained a school and mission 30 miles east of Shinnecock in Montauk and often made trips to the village on his preaching tours of Long Island and New York, where he preached to largely Indian audiences. By the 1780s, however, English encroachment on Shinnecock land led many of the Shinnecocks, with Occom's encouragement, to leave Long Island for Brothertown. Those who remained in Shinnecock were subjected to a system of tribal governance that the New York State Legislature imposed in 1792, a system that lasted until 2007, when the Shinnecocks on the Shinnecock Indian Reservation reasserted their traditional governing structure.

South Hampton
Mohawk River
Bowman's Creek

Bowman's Creek is a small village about four miles long within the town of Canajoharie in central New York's Montgomery County. Canajoharie (also known as Indian Castle or Upper Castle for the Mohawk fortifications surrounding the town) was a major Mohawk village that became a central location for the missionary activity of Wheelock and others. By the time Occom visited the area in the late 1780s, disease and war had decimated the Mohawk population and only around 250 Indians remained in the area. The village is named for Jacob Bowman, an English colonist who purchased land at the head of the creek in 1760. Occom notes the village as a location distinct from Canajoharie, which he also mentions visiting, and it was a frequent stop on his preaching tours of the 1780s. While in Bowman's Creek, Occom preached to the town's residents, likely at the Presbyterian church. In one entry, he notes baptizing a resident.


Clinton is a small village about 10 miles south of the Mohawk River in Oneida County at the center of New York state. It is named for George Clinton, the first governor of the state. Originally, the area was Oneida land, but in 1787, the State of New York issued what the records call "Coxe’s Patent," granting land in what would become Clinton to veterans of the Revolutionary War and their families. These veterans, led by Captain Moses Foote, came from Plymouth, CT to establish the village, which was first a part of Whitestown, then the town of Paris, and finally, in 1827, the town of Kirkland. Occom, who lived in nearby Brothertown when Clinton was founded, visited the village in its early years to preach to Indians and new settlers. In 1793, Samuel Kirkland, Wheelock’s most famous Anglo-American student and missionary, founded Hamilton-Oneida Academy on what is now Clinton’s College Hill. His aim was to educate both white settlers and Oneidas, with whom he had worked as a missionary for many years. While Kirkland hoped the school would promote harmony between Clinton’s original and new settlers, very few Oneidas attended the school, and in 1812, it dropped the "Oneida" from its name and became Hamilton College. Many Oneidas relocated from Clinton to Wisconsin in the 1820s because of pressure to give up more land than they had already given. Clinton became an incorporated village in 1843 and remains mostly agrarian.


Niskayuna is a town in east central New York State on the Mohawk River, just east of the city Schenectady. The name Niskayuna means "extensive corn flats," and is said to come from the Connestigione Indians who occupied a large area on both sides of the river when Dutch settlers arrived around 1642. The Dutch negotiated land deals with several Connestigione chiefs, and began to build homes and farms in the area in the 1660's. In 1746, George Clinton, Governor of New York colony, built one of a line of blockhouses ranging from Fort Massachusetts to Fort Hunter in Niskayuna, and in 1799, the Albany-Schenectady Turnpike (now Route 5) was built through the town. In 1822, the Erie Canal crossed the Mohawk River into Niskayuna, and in 1843 the Troy and Schenectady Railroad was built along the Mohawk River with a station in Niskayuna. The reformed Church of Niskayuna, organized around 1750, is the church at which Occom mentions preaching in his journal of 1787. Around the time that Occom and other Moor's graduates founded Brothertown on Oneida land in upstate New York, Occom commuted back and forth from Mohegan to Brothertown, often stopping to preach to large, enthusiastic crowds in churches and settlements in the area. He mentions preaching at Niskayuna and staying with acquaintances in 1786, 1787 and 1790, often in winter and braving difficult traveling conditions. He likely traveled on the trail that in 1799 became the Albany-Schenectady Turnpike.

Crain Town
Horse Neck
Newark Mountains
Half Moon Church
Fort Plain
Fort Stanwix

Fort Stanwix (also known as Fort Schuyler) is located northeast of Syracuse in present-day Rome, New York. Under the direction of British General John Stanwix, for whom the fort is named, the British began constructing the fort in 1758 in order to control the Oneida Carry, which is the portage path between the Mohawk River and Wood Creek. During the French and Indian War, the British built several forts in the Oneida Carry area, but by August 1756, the British ordered all the forts destroyed when they received word that British posts nearby were quickly falling to the French. In 1758, the British attempted to reoccupy Oneida Carry by building Fort Stanwix. The building of the fort did in fact give the British the dominant position in the area, which they retained throughout the remainder of the French and Indian War. The British Army abandoned the fort in 1765. In October 1768, David Avery wrote a letter to Wheelock describing the possibility of recruiting students for the Indian Charity School from a gathering of Indians from the Six Nations, at Fort Stanwix. This gathering and the negotiations that took place resulted in the signing of the Treaty of Fort Stanwix on November 5, 1768. This treaty, between the British and the Six Nations, Shawnees, Delawares, Mingos and other tribes, delineated territory between the British and the Indians. The treaty drew a boundary line from Fort Stanwix down to the Ohio River, and followed the Ohio River west to where it meets the present-day Tennessee River. During the American Revolution, the colonists built a new fort in place of Fort Stanwix. This fort was named Fort Schuyler but was often referred to as Fort Stanwix.


Warrensburg is a town in east central New York located between the Hudson River and Lake George. These bodies of water provide a direct route from Long Island Sound to Canada by way of the Hudson River, Lake George, and Lake Champlain, thus opening the area to European settlement and missionary activities. Wheelock sent missionaries and school teachers there, and in his later years, Occom traversed the area as an itinerant preacher. Before European contact, the region switched possession between the Algonquins and Mohawks, who eventually claimed it. The first colonists were French; they remained until 1763, when the English drove them out of New York and French Canada at the conclusion of the French and Indian War. The area surrounding Warrensburg saw much of the war’s early fighting, including the Battle of Lake George in 1755. Following the Revolutionary War, the State of New York patented the Warrensburgh Tract, subdividing it to pay off soldiers. The area became popular with settlers coming up the Hudson, including William Bond, who became Warrensburg’s first settler in 1786. Occom visited Warrensburg, which he called Warren’s Bush, in 1789, near the end of his life. Spurred by the mill and lumber industries, the town grew and was incorporated as Warrensburgh in 1813. Upon encouragement from the Post Office, the town dropped the "h" from its name and became Warrensburg in 1894.

Cold Spring Harbor

Cold Spring Harbor is a hamlet within the town of Huntington on the Long Island Sound in New York’s Suffolk County. It was originally called Cold Spring because of the naturally cold freshwater springs in the area, and the later addition of "Harbor" distinguished the town from New York’s other Cold Spring located on the Hudson River. The area’s original inhabitants were Delaware-Munsee speaking Indians whom the Dutch called the Matinnecocks. Despite the popular belief that Long Island was originally home to 13 tribes, historians argue that no formal tribal structure existed in the area before European settlement. Instead, they theorize that internal structures arose among the people called the Matinnecocks to cope with European expansion and became integral to the survival of the tribe as a people. Yet, diseases brought by the English and Dutch devastated indigenous communities on Long Island before the area’s settlement. By 1653, when three Englishmen from nearby Oyster Bay purchased what would become the town of Huntington, which encompassed Cold Spring Harbor, from Sachem Raseokan, only a small portion of the area’s Matinnecocks remained. After 1653, English settlers, who were primarily Congregationalists from Massachusetts and Connecticut, began to establish homes in Cold Spring Harbor. British troops occupied the town for the duration of the Revolutionary War following Washington’s defeat in the Battle of Long Island. After the war, Occom preached to remaining Indians in Cold Spring Harbor. Today, the town is famous for the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, founded in 1890 and home to key advancements in the fields of genetics and cancer research.

The Hallow
Mill Stone
Edgepillock (Brotherton)

Edgepillock (also spelled Agepelack) was an Indian Town created in south-central New Jersey under the Easton Treaty of 1758, the result of negotiations between the colonial governments of Pennsylvania and New Jersey and 13 Indian nations that took place during the French and Indian War. The treaty forced the Lenape peoples to cede all of their land to the Colony of New Jersey in return for a 3,000-acre reservation in Burlington County, known as the first reservation in the colonies. The town of Edgepillock sprung up on these lands after the Unamis and Munsees, both Lenape-speaking tribes, moved to the area and took over existing grist- and sawmills. John Brainerd, a Protestant minister, served as a missionary to the Indians at Edgepillock, which he optimistically referred to as Brotherton, not to be confused with Brothertown, NY. The reservation was subsequently known as both Edgepillock and Brotherton. Brainerd, who corresponded with Wheelock and sent him Moor’s first Native students, lived among the Indians of Edgepillock until 1777. By the time Occom preached at Edgepillock in 1788, the reservation was no longer self-sustaining. By 1796, word of its deteriorating conditions reached the Indians of New Stockbridge, who invited the residents of Edgepillock to join them, and by 1802 almost the entire population of Edgepillock moved to New Stockbridge. The reservation was then sold, with proceeds going to the Lenapes of Edgepillock. In the same year of this migration, the Indian church at which Occom likely preached in Edgepillock was burned down. The lands that were once Edgepillock Indian Town are now a part of the modern-day township of Shamong.

Basking Ridge
Black Horse Tavern
Mount Halley
Draw Bridge
New Brunswick
Lyons Farms
Oyster Bed
Plum Island
the Pines
New Marlborough
Dutch Meeting House
Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Peter, Betty
Wympy, Elijah

Elijah Wympy was a prominent Farmington Indian who was instrumental in establishing Brothertown, yet he subsequently led a group that disregarded the primary vision of the community. In his early years he was a student at the school in Farmington, CT, and in 1757 he served in the Seven Years’ War. During negotiations around 1773 between the Oneida and New England Indians concerning a tract of land, Wympy acted as a delegate for Farmington and asked other tribes to send envoys too. The Oneidas granted the territory the following year, and in 1775 Wympy was among the first to move to what became Brothertown. He was chosen as a trustee of the town in 1785, but around this time the Oneidas attempted to reclaim the land. Accordingly, Wympy participated in the effort to maintain the territory. Fortunately, when the state of New York gained Oneida territory in 1788, it acknowledged the Christian Indians’ right to the tract as it had originally been granted; the state passed an act in 1789 that recognized the Indians’ property and instituted a 10-year limit on leases for lots. Wympy and his followers, comprised mainly of outsiders, thus leased numerous parcels, including invaluable ones, to white settlers. Occom strongly opposed this and petitioned the Assembly, which passed an act in 1791 restricting the power to lease lands to the council. While Occom and Wympy had previously been friends -- Wympy had even partaken in the movement to establish Occom as the local minister -- their disagreement on the issue of leasing Brothertown lands to whites opened a strong divide between them. Wympy apparently regretted his actions, for in 1794 he was among the signers of an address to the governor seeking to remove the whites. He remained in Brothertown until his death around 1802.

Wympy, Elijah Jr.

Elijah Wympy Jr. was a Farmington-Tunxis Indian involved in the Brothertown movement. He was born in 1765 in Farmington, Connecticut to Elijah and Eunice Wympy. Wympy Sr. was a key figure in the establishment of Brothertown, and Wympy Jr. supported his father. Like the Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Niantics and Montauketts, the Tunxis Indians shared a history of encroachment by Europeans and increasing governmental authority that produced the shared identity fueling the creation of Brothertown. Occom notes Wympy Jr.'s presence in Brothertown several times in his journals for 1786-87. Wympy Sr. was a controversial figure who initially supported leasing lands to white settlers in Brothertown, but when he changed his position on this policy, he and his son signed a petition identifying white settlers as trespassers. Wympy Jr. married the widowed Elizabeth Peters, who had a daughter from her first marriage. Together, he and Elizabeth had a son and a daughter. In 1796, Wympy Jr. served as the schoolmaster for the school in Brothertown, but he was discharged after three months and replaced by Hannah Fowler, David Fowler's daughter. Wympy Jr. died in Brothertown in 1812.

Brainerd, John

John Brainerd was an ardent missionary with an important role in Wheelock's design. He was the younger brother of the famous missionary David Brainerd, who died as a young man after being expelled from Yale and serving as a missionary to New Jersey tribes. John completed his Yale degree and was immediately commissioned to replace David. Even in his own time, he was seen as a man as pious as, but less talented than, his brother, though Brainerd missioned to Indians during a more volatile period, and saw his congregation forcibly removed from their lands in 1755 and relocated at Brothertown in 1758 (this Brothertown should not be confused with the one founded in New York after the Revolution by many Moor's alumni). Brainerd was extremely devoted to the Indian cause. He often had the opportunity to serve wealthy English congregations, but preferred to remain an Indian missionary. He invested signficant sums of his own money into his missions, for which he was never reimbursed. Brainerd was a very prominent Presbyterian figure, active in the Presbytery and Synod of New York, holding several elected positions, and in the Presbtery and Synod of New York and Philadelphia once the two reunified in 1758. He was a Trustee of the College of New Jersey from 1754 until his death, and a member of the New York Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Occom had planned to work with Brainerd in 1750, but political upheaval prevented it. Brainerd was one of several men nominated to accompany Occom to England, but the New York Board refused to let him go. While Brainerd and Wheelock were not close personal friends, the two had a similar interests and a long-lasting correspondence. John Brainerd sent Wheelock his first Indian boys, and also recruited female students in the 1760s. Throughout their lives, Brainerd and Wheelock updated one another on Indian missions, and Brainerd seems to have been one of Wheelock's "point people" in the Presbyterian Church.

Buell, Samuel

Buell was a popular Presbyterian minister during the second half of the 18th century in Long Island, as well as a close friend of Samson Occom. He was ordained in November 1743, and was a popular itinerant minister before settling at Easthampton. He preached at Occom's ordination, published the sermon in 1761 to raise funds for Occom (he also wrote the letter addressed to Bostwick prefacing his publication), and stayed in close contact with Occom even after Occom's public break from Wheelock. Occom's diary is full of references to visiting Buell and to their close friendship. During the Revolution, Buell was the only minister on Long Island for 40 miles, and was very active in assisting the American cause. He also founded Clinton Academy on Long Island in 1785, which was the first private school chartered by the New York Board of Regents. This academy was also remarkable in that it admitted women. Multiple historical sources have misconstrued Samuel Buell as Sol or Solomon Buell, likely because Buell sometimes signed his name Sa.l, a creative abbreviation of Samuel. However, there was no Reverend Solomon Buell in Easthampton, or, it seems, Long Island, in the second half of the 18th century: Samuel had no brothers, and were there to be two Reverend S. Buell's within 10 miles of one another during the same period, related or not, doubtlessly someone would have commented on it. In addition, the handwriting in letters ascribed to "Sol" and those assigned to Samuel is identical. Lastly, the only source besides collection manuscript 765530.3 describing a "Solomon Buell" is an anthology of letters from the Revolution, which contain letters from a Rev. Sol. Buell, or S. Buell, about aiding the American cause. These letters correspond well with descriptions of Samuel's life in an 1809 biography of his life, and, as he was the only Reverend but one for 40 miles during the Revolution, it is likely that these letters belong to him.

Occom, Mary (née Fowler)

Mary Occom (née Fowler) was a Montaukett woman who married Samson Occom. Although information about her is limited and often comes from male, Anglo-American sources, it offers a tantalizing glimpse of her strength, as well as an alternative to the Eleazar Wheelock-centered narrative of Occom’s life that often dominates the latter’s biography. Mary was born into the influential Fowler family at Montauk, Long Island. She met Samson during his missionary service there (1749-1761). Mary studied at Samson’s school along with her brothers David and Jacob, and was almost certainly literate. She and Samson married in 1751. Wheelock and several other Anglo-American powers opposed their union because they worried it might distract Occom from being a missionary (as, indeed, family life did), and thus many scholars have read in Samson and Mary’s marriage an act of resistance against Samson’s domineering former teacher. Little information about the minutiae of Mary’s life survives, but existing sources speak volumes about her character and priorities. In front of Anglo-American missionaries visiting the Occoms' English-style house at Mohegan, Mary would insist on wearing Montaukett garb and, when Samson spoke to her in English, she would only reply in Montaukett, despite the fact that she was fluent in English. Mary Occom was, in many ways, Wheelock’s worst fear: that his carefully groomed male students would marry un-Anglicized Indian women. It is not a stretch to imagine that Mary provided much of the incentive for Wheelock to begin taking Indian girls into his school, lest his other protégés replicate Samson’s choice. Much of our information about Mary comes from between 1765 and 1768, when Samson was fundraising in Great Britain. Despite promising to care for Samson’s wife and family (at the time they had seven children), Wheelock, by every objective measure, failed to do so, and Mary’s complaints are well documented. Hilary Wyss reads in Wheelock’s neglect (and in letters from the time) a more sinister story, and concludes that on some level Wheelock was holding Samson’s family hostage, in return for Occom curtailing his political beliefs on the Mason Case. Wyss also notes Mary’s remarkable survivance in this situation. Mary drew on various modes of contact, from letters to verbal communication with influential women (including Sarah Whitaker, the wife of Samson’s traveling companion, and Wheelock’s own daughters), to shame Wheelock into action and demand what she needed. One of the major struggles in Mary’s life, and in Samson’s, was with their sons. Both Aaron and Benoni failed to live up to their parents’ expectations. Aaron attended, and left, Moor’s Indian Charity School three times, and both Aaron and Benoni struggled with alcohol and refused to settle down. The Occom daughters did not cause similar problems. Given the nature of existing sources, little is known about Mary after Samson and Wheelock lessened their communication in 1771. Joanna Brooks has conjectured that Mary was likely influential in Samson’s Mohegan community involvement later in life, for instance, in his continued ministry to Mohegan and, perhaps, his increasingly vehement rejection of Anglo-American colonial practices.

Fowler, David

David Fowler was Jacob Fowler's older brother, Samson Occom's brother-in-law, and an important leader of the Brothertown Tribe. He came to Moor's in 1759, at age 24, and studied there until 1765. While at school, he accompanied Occom on a mission to the Six Nations in 1761. He was licensed as a school master in the 1765 mass graduation, and immediately went to the Six Nations to keep school, first at Oneida and then at Kanawalohale. Fowler saw himself as very close to Wheelock, but their relationship fragmented over the course of Fowler's mission, primarily because Wheelock wrote back to Kirkland, with whom Fowler clashed, but not to Fowler, and because Wheelock refused to reimburse Fowler for some expenses on his mission (767667.4 provides the details most clearly). Fowler went on to teach school at Montauk, and played a major role in negotiations with the Oneidas for the lands that became Brothertown. He was among the first wave of immigrants to that town, and held several important posts there until his death in 1807.

Duffield, George

George Duffield was a Presbyterian minister who served as pastor to the famous "Church of the Patriots" in Philadelphia, a missionary, and a faithful supporter of Occom and the Brothertown movement. He was born in Lancaster County, PA in 1732, and educated at Newark Academy in Delaware and the College of New Jersey (now Princeton), a Presbyterian stronghold. Graduating in 1752, he served as tutor there for two years and was ordained in 1759. Duffield married Elizabeth Blair in 1756, but after her early death in 1757, he remarried Margaret Armstrong in 1759. That same year, Duffield was appointed minister to Presbyterian churches on the Pennsylvania frontier in Carlisle, Big Spring (now Newville) and Monaghan (now Dillsburg). In the summer and fall of 1766, he and Reverend Charles Clinton Beatty conducted a missionary tour through the western valleys of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, establishing churches, converting Indians, and ministering to the scattered settlers. Duffield published an account of this tour in 1766. In 1771, he was offered the pulpit of the Pine Street (now Third) Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, which he almost did not take because Old Side (Old Light) members objected to his adherence to New Side (New Light) revivalist ideas. Weathering the controversy, Duffield served at Pine Street until his death in 1790, preaching American independence from the pulpit with fervor and eloquence, and leaving during the War to serve as both Chaplain of the Pennsylvania Militia and co-Chaplain of the Continental Congress. Sixty of his parishoners followed him, and the British put a price on his head. After the war, Pine Street Church became known as "The Church of the Patriots."

Occom, Andrew Gifford

Andrew Gifford Occom was the youngest son of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler Occom. He was named for Andrew Gifford, a Baptist minister whom Occom met in London. In 1789, Andrew Occom moved with the Occom family to Brothertown, where he owned land that was deeded to his widow upon his death in 1796.

Aupaumut, Hendrick

Hendrick Aupaumut, most likely a descendant of the Mohawk chief Hendrick, was a Mahican Indian who was born in Stockbridge, Massachusetts in 1757. He was educated by the Moravians and became very involved in tribal affairs and relations with the United States. Along with other Stockbridge Indians, Aupaumut fought as part of Captain William Goodrich’s company in the Revolutionary War, rising to captain in 1778. In 1777, when Joseph Quanaukaunt became sachem, Aupaumut became a member of his council along with Peter Pohqunnoppeet and John Konkapot. He also became close friends with Samson Occom and would often host the preacher or translate his sermons when the latter visited New Stockbridge, to where the Stockbridges moved in the mid 1780s. In 1787 he was one of nine Indians to write to Occom declaring their faith and asking Occom to become their minster. He was also one of the Indians to sign the proclamation that Occom, Pohqunnooppeet, and David Fowler carried during their tour to raise funds to support Occom as their pastor. By the 1790s, Aupaumut was acting as an agent for the United States. He helped the government combat Tecumseh and his brother Elskwatawa, and he fought under General Harrison in the War of 1812. Both conflicts interrupted the various land deals between tribes, as well as treaties and other negotiations, in which he was involved. Although he encouraged Indians to convert to Christianity and learn English, Aupaumut opposed leasing land to whites. Occom and Aupaumut agreed that the Stockbridges must move west to escape the influence of outside cultures, and to preserve their Christianity. In the 1820s, Aupaumut led land deals with Wisconsin tribes, and he finally moved west in 1829 along with the remainder of the Stockbridge tribe.

Adams, Olive (née Occom)

Olive was the fourth child and third daughter born to Mary Fowler Occom and Samsom Occom during their residence in Montauk on Long Island, where Occom served as minister and schoolteacher to the Montaukett Indians. She would have moved with the family back to Mohegan in Connecticut in 1763, but little else is known about her life. From a letter Occom wrote to Joseph Johnson on April 14, 1775 (manuscript 775264), we know that Olive married Solomon Adams, a Farmington Indian. Love reports that they had three children, that Solomon died around 1783, and that Olive lived on her husband's land in Farmington. However, Occom records in his journal for 1786 visiting Olive on his preaching and fundraising tours of New England to raise money for the Brothertown project, and she is living between Old Windsor and Bolton, CT, a location northwest of Farmington and on the other side of Hartford. The following year, Occom twice mentions in his journal "Olive's affair," that he "searched into" it "and Say Writings about it to my Satisfaction," and then "left" it with a Mr. Wadsworth (manuscript 787660.1). Love notes that Olive emigrated to Brotherton, and that her children sold the family plot at Farmington in 1801. J. Brooks speculates that the "affair" Occom negotiated for his daughter probably concerned the disposition of Olive's husband's Farmington lot.

Pauquunnuppeet, Peter

Sir Peter Pauquunnuppeet (there are several variant spellings), a son of an Indian deacon by the same name, was a Stockbridge Mohican Indian and student of Eleazar Wheelock, who studied at Moor’s Indian Charity School from 1771 until 1775, and graduated from Dartmouth College in 1780. Together with Daniel Simon, class of 1777, and Lewis Vincent, class of 1781, he was one of the three Indian students to graduate before the turn of the century, and they became the last native graduates until 1835. The “Sir” that precedes Pohquonnoppeet’s forename originated from his status as a senior in school, and remained a part of his name for the rest of his life. After graduating, Pauquunnuppeet returned to Stockbridge, where he taught school and was involved in tribal affairs. Joseph Quanaukaunt (Quinney) became sachem in 1777, and along with Hendrick Aupaumut and John Konkapot, Pauquunnuppeet was a member of the his council. Pauquunnuppeet was also influential in the Brothertown movement and the founding of New Stockbridge six miles from Brothertown, New York. In 1785, when Americans in New York were driving the Oneidas to cede land that bordered Pennsylvania, Pauquunnuppeet represented the Stockbridge Indians in what became the Treaty of Herkimer. Pauquunnuppeet had an influential friendship with Samson Occom. Occom recorded many occasions in his diary during his missionary tours of 1785-1787 when Peter hosted him, and noted a few instances when they traveled together. Often during Occom’s visits to New Stockbridge Captain Hendrick and Pauquunnuppeet would translate his sermons for those who could not understand English. The Stockbridge Indians favored Occom over the white missionary John Sergeant, Jr., and on August 29, 1787 Pauquunnuppeet was one of nine Indians to write to Occom declaring their devotion and inviting Occom to become their minister. However, the tribe had no means by which to pay Occom, and so, in the winter of 1787 Pauquunnuppeet, Occom, and David Fowler embarked on a fundraising journey through New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York. They were not, however, able to raise as much money as they had sought to collect. Pauquunnuppeet’s strong presence within the tribe may have led to his death, although the precise date and circumstances of his decease is unknown. Sectionalism within New Stockbridge was growing due to the friction between those who supported Occom and those who preferred Sergeant, Jr. as their minister. The politics of Brothertown as an independent entity contributed to the tension. Finally, when Hendrick Aupaumet rose to the position of chief, Pauquunnuppeet became the leader of a rival faction. It has been suggested that Pauquunnuppeet’s increasing authority provoked his enemies to poison him.

Sergeant, Jr., John

John Sergeant Jr., like his father, served as a minister in Stockbridge, MA. In 1773, Stephen West, the minister to the Stockbridge Indians since 1757, decided to leave his post and turned over ministering duties to John Sergeant Jr. Stockbridge, MA, which John Sergeant Sr. helped establish, failed as a Christian Indian town when the Stockbridge Indians lost ownership of their land. When the Oneida Tribe offered the Stockbridgers land in central New York after the American Revolution, many of them moved to the Brothertown and New Stockbridge settlements. The Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge funded Sergeant Jr. in 1787 to continue serving as a minister to the Stockbridge Indians who moved to New York. Sergeant travelled from Stockbridge, MA, to New Stockbridge every year to serve as their minister. In 1788, the Stockbridge Indians at New Stockbridge were divided in their support for Occom or John Sergeant as the town’s minister. Mohican sachem Hendrick Aupaumut led the community members who favored Occom. According to Sergeant, 30 members of the Tribe were in favor of Occom while 50 were in favor of him (later, half of Occom’s supporters defected to Sergeant). The relationship between Sergeant and Occom was contentious, with Occom disliking Sergeant’s manner of preaching. Occom moved to Munhegunnack or New Stockbridge in 1791 and suggests in a letter that many of Sergeant’s supporters were shifting support to Occom. In his sermons, Sergeant blamed the Indians’ loss of land on what he described as their drunkenness and idleness. He suggested that the whites’ encroachment on their lands was God’s punishment for their sins. Sergeant remained the New Stockbridge minister until his death in 1824.

Simon, Daniel

Daniel Simon was a member of the Narragansett Simon family (Mrs. Sarah Simon, Miss Sarah Simon, Abraham Simon, Daniel Simon, James Simon, and Emmanual Simon—all five children attended Moor’s Indian Charity School for at least some time). Daniel arrived at Moor’s Indian Charity School with his brother Abraham either very late in 1768 or early in 1769. The two brothers remained with Eleazar Wheelock during his relocation to Hanover, New Hampshire. Daniel Simon graduated from Dartmouth College in 1777 (the college’s first Native American graduate, and the only one during Wheelock’s lifetime). He was licensed as a minister by the Grafton Presbytery on January 19, 1778. After a stint keeping school at Stockbridge, MA, he took over John Brainerd’s ministry at Cranbury, NJ in 1783 (John Brainerd, the long-term Anglo-American missionary in the region, had died in 1781). In 1784, Simon was suspended from the ministry on charges of intemperance, and began serving “informally” as minister at Brotherton, NJ, until at least 1788. He married a sister of Hezekiah Calvin (a Delaware who had attended Moor’s, and who became prominent at Brotherton), which may explain why he settled at Brotherton, NJ, instead of Brothertown, NY (where all four of his siblings resided).


Unidentified Smith.

Massuck, Solomon

Solomon Massuck was a Farmington Tuxnis who was a prominent community member and converted Christian. His son, Daniel Massuck, attended Moor’s for a brief time in 1762. Solomon often played host to Joseph Johnson during the latter's time at Farmington. Both Samuel and Daniel were very involved in the early push to found Brothertown (a composite tribe of Algonquian Indians from the Long Island Sound region, organized and populated largely by former members of Moor’s Indian Charity School): both appear frequently as signatories on letters on the topic, and it was Solomon Massuck who asked for a Connecticut law book to produce the new settlement’s laws. However, neither Samuel nor Daniel actually emigrated to Brothertown (although Luke Massuck, either Solomon’s son or his grandson, did, for a brief time). Perhaps because they had been brought into the movement by Joseph Johnson, after Joseph Johnson’s death (sometime during the Revolution years) they were no longer invested.

Ewing, John

John Ewing was an influential Presbyterian minister in Philadelphia, a professor, and a noted mathematician. He and a twin brother, James, were born on June 22, 1732 in Nottingham, Maryland to Nathaniel and Rachel (Porter), who had emigrated from Ireland. He received his early education with Francis Alison, a noted Presbyterian clergyman, and remained at Alison's academy for three years as a tutor in Latin, Greek and mathematics, in which he excelled; he graduated the year he matriculated at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton) in 1754. He served as tutor at the College for two years and was licensed to preach. In 1759, he was called to pastor at the First Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, where he served as a popular and eloquent preacher until his death in 1802. He also joined the faculty of the College of Philadelphia as Professor of Ethics from 1758 to 1762 and Professor of Natural Philosophy from 1762 to 1778. Joining the American Philosophical Society in 1768, he contributed to several noted scientific experiments (charting the transit of Venus) and public works (surveying the boundary with Delaware). In 1773, he was commissioned to travel to Great Britain to solicit funds for the Academy of Newark, in Delaware, where he received an honorary Doctorate of Divinity from University of Edinburgh and met with promiment figures (including Lord North, the prime minister, and Samuel Johnson) to advance the cause of American independence. When the College of Philadelphia was reorganized as the University of Pennsylvania, Ewing became its first provost in 1780. Occom preached and collected funds in Ewing's Church on his tour of Philadelphia in 1771. While in London, Ewing likely met members of the Trust for Wheelock's Indian School, because Occom reports to John Thornton in 1777 that he learned about the exhaustion of the Trust from Ewing (manuscript 761290), one of the influential ministers who collected money for Occom and Brothertown in 1771.

Fowler, Elizabeth (née Pharaoh)

Elizabeth (Betty) Fowler was an influential Montauk woman and the mother of Mary Fowler Occom, David Fowler, and Jacob Fowler. She was a member of the powerful Pharaoh/Faro family, a family which boasts the current (as of 2013) Montaukett sachem. Elizabeth was married to James Fowler. Occom married their daughter Mary, and as a result the Fowler family received extra attention from the minister and became deeply Christian. James Fowler died in 1774, but Elizabeth lived until 1795. She migrated to Brothertown with Mary, David, and Jacob, where she died sometime after 1795.

Quaquaquid, Henry

Henry Quaquaquid was a Mohegan Indian who was active in both political and religious tribal affairs. In 1742 he, as a counselor, signed a petition that declared John Uncas as the rightful successor of Sachem Mahomet; however, the following year Quaquaquid, along with Occom and nine other counselors, signed Ben Uncas’s counter proclamation. As supporters of Ben Uncas, Occom and Quaquaquid lived in Ben’s Town rather than John’s Town, the home of the Ashpos. Nonetheless, they eventually changed their minds and joined the Ashpos in an effort to counteract tribal corruption and disunion. Around 1760, Ben Uncas III claimed that the rival faction had established Quaquaquid as sachem. Quaquaquid was also involved in the Mason case and acted as a messenger. He sought to protect the Mohegans’ native rights, and in 1785 signed a petition, along with Occom and four others, to the Connecticut General Assembly asking for unrestricted fishing privileges. In 1789, Quaquaquid and Robert Ashpo appealed to the Connecticut Assembly again seeking aid, and as in the original petition, stressed their friendship. Additionally, Quaquaquid often accompanied Occom during his missionary tours, such as those of 1757 and 1785. He also acted as a deacon, possibly at a church that Occom established in Mohegan. Quaquaquid did not move to Brothertown, but remained in Mohegan with his family.

Occom, Benoni

Benoni Occom (also known as Benjamin, Noney, and Nony) was Samson Occom and Mary Fowler’s seventh child and second son. Like Aaron Occom (Benoni’s elder brother, who died in 1771 after a wild young adulthood), Benoni did not live up to his parents’ standards for behavior. Unlike Aaron, he was not sent to Moor’s Indian Charity School; the difference may reflect Samson and Mary’s declining opinion of Eleazar Wheelock. Benoni’s behavior led Samson and Mary to kick him out of the house in July 1780, but the family had reconciled by 1788 (perhaps following 1787 rumors that Benoni had been hanged in Boston for murder). Although Benoni remained at Mohegan instead of moving to Brothertown, later letters from Occom to Benoni suggest that they were close and that Benoni visited his parents frequently. Later in life, Benoni was active in attempts to define Mohegan identity by petitioning to exclude anyone of African descent from tribal membership. His petition in this affair might indicate broader political involvement in tribal matters.

Aupaumut, Joshua
Hedges, Ben
Paul, Anthony

Anthony Paul was born in Charlestown, Rhode Island, to Mary and James Paul. His family was a part of the Narragansett peoples who lived in Charlestown. There is not much information detailing Paul's early years, but he is believed to have attended Wheelock's school in Connecticut. It is through this connection that Paul is likely to have met Christiana Occom, daughter of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Paul married Christiana in 1777 and, after spending some time in Mohegan, the two settled in Brotherton in 1784. Paul worked as a preacher and helped raise at least six children with Christiana. Occom was fond of his son-in-law, and his journals tell of many happy times visiting the couple, including fishing trips and the day in 1787 when Samson baptized Paul and four of his children. As further indication of Occom's fondness for his son-in-law, he is believed to have left the books and papers that he kept in his New York home with Paul. In 1797, Paul and Christiana left Brotherton to live in Lake George, NY, where they spent the rest of their years.

Paul, Christiana (née Occom)

Christiana Occom was born in 1757 in Mohegan, CT as the ninth child of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Christiana spent her childhood in Mohegan, where she married the Reverend Anthony Paul in 1777. The couple eventually settled in Brotherton in 1784. There, they raised at least six children, four of which Samson Occom baptized. Occom's journals tell of many joyful visits he paid to his daughter and son-in-law while on his travels. Christiana and Anthony finally left Brotherton in 1797 to settle in Lake George, NY.

Folts, Conrad Jacob

Conrad Folts was the son of Jacob Melchert Folts (1710-1808) and Anna Catherine Petrie Folts (1714-1799), who settled in the area around Herkimer, near the Mohawk River in central New York. The Folts were probably part of the large German settlement concentrated around German Flatts. Conrad was a Captain, though the records do not indicate where or whom he served. In the 1780s, when Occom, David Fowler and others from Mohegan and Stockbridge began moving Christian Indians up to the Oneida lands they had been given to settle, Occom met and befriended Folts and his family, who lived close to the settlements of Brothertown and New Stockbridge. On October 21, 1785, Occom recorded the first time he lodged with "one Mr. Folts," a phrase he used to denote this as an initial meeting. By September 11, 1786, however, Occom noted, "put up at my good friends Mr Conrod Fols." He lodged and "tarried" with the family several times during 1787 after visits to and from Brothertown. Folts is buried in the Oakview Cemetery in Frankfort, Herkimer County, NY.

Kimball, Jesse

Jesse Kimball was a member of the extensive Kimball family, whose ancestors immigrated from England at the end of the 17th century and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. His father was John Kimball (b. December 12, 1731) of Preston, CT, and his mother was Ruhama Sanders of Lyme, CT; they married on September 21, 1752 and had three sons and 13 daughters. Jesse was the second son. John served in the Revolutionary war and Jesse, though quite young, took the place of his brother Samuel, who contracted measles on the eve of his enlistment. Jesse served three years under Captain Adam Chapley and was stationed in New London, CT. After his service, Jesse moved to the frontier settlement of Bowman's Creek, in the present-day town of Canajoharie in Oneida country, and joined the militia. There he entertained Occom several times on Occom's preaching tours of 1785-87; the two often fished in the creek, to Occom's delight. The date when Kimball's Bowman's Creek house burned down is uncertain, but real estate records have him buying and selling land in Bowman's Creek as late as 1790, and he is listed in the first US Census for New York in 1790 as being the head of a household. His first marriage ended in divorce and in 1793 he married Elizabeth Roelofson (d. 1843). By that time, he had moved to Kentucky, where he was a farmer and miller and started his family. Some records report that he also made whiskey, and when he would not sell it to the local Indians, he was driven from his home and settled in Posey County, Indiana, where he died in 1857.

Waupieh, Roger

Roger Waupieh was one of the founders of the Brothertown community. In early life, he lived in Stonington and served in the Revolutionary War. The maiden name of Occom's mother, Sarah, was Wauby, suggesting that Occom and Roger Waupieh may have been related. Some sources suggest "Woyboy" as an alternate spelling of Waupieh; Roger Waupieh may have been related to the Woyboy who was an early student at Moor's.

Fowler, Esther (née Poquiantup)

Esther Poquiantup was a Mushantuxet Pequot, the daughter of Samson Poquiantup (Pequot, 1725-1787) and Esther (Mohegan, 1725-1822) and sister of Prude Poquiantup Harry (1752-1828). The Poquiantups (also spelled Pouquenup, Pauhqunnup, Uppuiquiyantup) were a prominent family of Christian Indians with one branch living in Groton and the other at Niantic, CT. In 1766, Samson and Esther were living at Groton. Samson was a church deacon who occasionally hosted Occom's religious meetings. We don't know when Esther married Jacob Fowler, a Montaukett Indian, younger brother of David, and Samson Occom's brother-in-law, but we do know that by 1774, Esther and Jacob were living in Hanover, NH, in a Dartmouth College building down the hall from Elizabeth Walcutt and her daughter Lucy. Jacob, who attended Wheelock's School, had become a preceptor there. Esther and Jacob were part of the first group to emigrate from New England to Brothertown in Oneida country. By 1787, Occom refers to Esther as a widow, and lodges frequently at her house.

Fowler, David Jr.

David Fowler, Jr., was the son of David Fowler and Hannah Garrett Fowler. He was born in Brothertown, inherited property upon the death of his father, and served as town clerk in the early 1800s.

Gregg, James

James Gregg was a member of the New York Continental Infantry during the Revolutionary War. He was appointed 2nd Lieutenant on June 28, 1775 and 1st Lieutenant on June 26, 1776. He was a captain when the remarkable incident that Occom records in his journal for June 29, 1786 occurred. According to the military journal of Dr. Thatcher at Fort Stanwix in central New York, on June 25, 1777, Captain Gregg left the Fort with Corporal Madison, both of Colonel Gansevoort's regiment, to shoot pigeons. About a mile and a half from the Fort, they where shot down by two Indians. Though never identified, the attackers could have been from any of the Haudenosaunee tribes allied with the British. Madison was killed and scalped. Gregg was shot, tomahawked in the head and back, and scalped. A dog with them alerted nearby soldiers who brought Gregg and Madison back to the Fort. Gregg survived under the care of Dr. Thatcher, and was taken to a hospital in Albany. Thatcher reports that after a year or so of recovery, Gregg was back on duty. Another muster list records Gregg transferred to the 1st Regiment of New York in 1783. In the 1780s, Gregg and his wife were living in central New York along the Mohawk River in the area east of Brothertown where Occom frequently preached. Occom records dining and lodging with the Greggs on numerous occasions.

Peter, George
Pickard Family

A family in Cherry Valley, New York, whose members include, at least, Nicholas, Adolf, Jona and Susanna (spelling uncertain). Occom lodged with members of the Pickard family and preached at Nicholas Pickard's home during his travels in 1786 and 1787. There appear to be no published sources that verify this family. Some amateur genealogy sites suggest that a family by this name had been residing in Cherry Valley before and after the "Cherry Valley Massacre" in 1778, including one Nicholas Pickard who was killed in 1776.

Stansel, Henry
Vasnderwarker, John
Fordt Simon

Simon Fordt was a resident of Niskayuna, a town in east central New York State on the Mohawk River just east of the city of Schenectady and the site of a blockhouse built by Governor George Clinton in 1746. Fordt was probably of Dutch descent, as were many of the settlers in this area. He hosted Occom several times in 1786 and 1787 as Occom preached across the area, and should not be confused with a Mr. Fordt (also spelled Ford), who on June 19, 1787, had his slave give Occom breakfast and then took him over the Mohawk River to the house of Simon Fordt. The name Simon Fordt also appears, with only one other name, on the first page of Occom's journal for June 1786. There were many Fords and Fordts in this area of New York. A Roster of State Troops in New York during its colonial history lists 17 Fords, one Forde and eight Fordts, including two Simons: a quarter master who served in Van Schoonhoven's Regiment and a private who served in the same regiment, Vandenburgh's company.

Fonda, Jellis Douw

Jellis Douw (also spelled Jelles Douwse) Fonda was a prominent merchant and land speculator in the Mohawk Valley. He was the son of Douw Jellese Fonda (1700-1780) and Maritjie Vrooman, part of the extensive Fonda family in the area descended from Jellis and Hester Jans Fonda who immigrated from the Netherlands to Albany in 1651. Before the American Revolution, Douw Jellis (the father) founded the Dutch village of Fonda at the site of the Mohawk hamlet of Caughnawaga along the Mohawk River about 30 miles west of Albany. Jellis Douw, his son, was the most prominent of the early Fondas. He was the first merchant in the Mohawk Valley west of Schenectady and was a close friend and associate of Sir William Johnson, Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Fonda fought in the French and Indian War and the Revolutionary War, and though he was a Captain commanding a company of exempts in that war, he was known thereafter as Major Fonda, perhaps as an expression of respect. He served as a county judge, justice of the peace, county supervisor in Tryon and Montgomery counties, and Commissioner of Indian Affairs after Johnson's death. Fonda was also one of the executors of Johnson's will and designated guardian of his children. He was elected a state senator from 1779-81 and 1788-91, and died in office. In his preaching tours of the Mohawk Valley, Occom records lodging with Major Fonda several times during the period of 1786-89, and using the "ferry" Fonda had over the Mohawk River.

Gazlay Family

In 1787, Occom records preaching tours for December and June in his journal during which he visited extensively with the Gazlay family, also spelled Gasley. However, it is unclear which members of this large family he means, except for John and Deidamia Gazlay. John (Jr.) was the son of John Gazlay and Elizabeth Sayrs, who emigrated from England in 1715. John was born in Goshen, New York, in 1722 and served an apprenticeship as a mill-wright in Orange County, NY. He moved to Great Nine Partners, in Duchess County, where he purchased 500 acres of land, and married Anna Ward in 1746. They had 12 children. Occom calls Deidamia the "sister" of the Mr. Gazlay he travels to Schenectady with, which would make that person the son of John and Anna, either John Jr., James, or Jonathan. (The twins Joseph and Benjamin, are also possibilities, but would be only 16 years old at the time of Occom’s visit.) It is also possible that he refers to different Gazlay men on different occasions. Occom also refers to a "Mrs. Gazlay and her daughter." This could be Anna, the matriarch, or one of her married daughters and granddaughter.

Vedder, Albert Jr.
White, John
Adgate, John Hart
Lott, Philip
Pharoah, Phebe
Townsend, Benjamin
Mulford, Elias
Heartt, Deidamia Gazlay

Deidamia Heartt, née Gazlay, was the sister of Mr. Gazlay and a member of the Gazlay family with whom Occom stayed on numerous occasions during his preaching tour of central New York in the summer and winter of 1787/88. He praised them for their piety, noting: "This family is a Christian family indeed." Occom mentions in his journal that he traveled to Schenectady with Mr. Gazlay and his sister, whose name he spells "Diadama."

Gland, John
Potter, Ephraim
Romine, Domine
Tuhy, Jeremiah
Fowler, Benjamin Garrett

Benjamin Garrett Fowler was the son of David Fowler, Occom's brother-in-law, and Hannah Garrett. Benjamin Fowler became an elder of the Brothertown community, acting in the role of Baptist minister, and was instrumental in moving the community to Wisconsin in the 1820s.

Northrop, Wilson
Franklin, Sophia
Franklin, Elisabeth
Potter, Lucy
Potter, Lucinda
Stokes, William

Mr. Fordt (also spelled Ford) was a resident of a settlement called Boght, which is now in Cohoes, a town in east central New York State, east of Schenectady. This was an area of primarily Dutch people in which Occom preached in 1786 and 1787. On one occasion after preaching Occom lodged with Mr. Fordt; on another, Mr. Fordt ordered his slave to give Occom breakfast and then took him over the Mohawk River to Niskayuna to the house of Mr. Simon Fordt. These two Fordts should not be confused, but are probably related. There were many Fords and Fordts in this area of New York. A Roster of State Troops in New York during its colonial history lists seventeen Fords, one Forde and eight Fordts, including two Simons: a quarter master who served in Van Schoonhoven's Regiment and a private who served in the same regiment, Vandenburgh's company.

HomeSamson Occom, journal, 1787 December 10 to 1788 August 10
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