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Samson Occom, journal, 1787 April 6

ms-number: 787256

abstract: Occom details his travels as an itinerant preacher through Long Island, Southern New England and Eastern New York.

handwriting: Occom's hand is largely clear and legible. There are some crossed l’s and uncrossed t’s, which transcriber has corrected. Occom occasionally renders the numeral 1 as a lower case i, which the transcriber has corrected.

paper: Small pages folded into a booklet and bound with thread/twine are in good-to-fair condition, with light-to-moderate staining and wear. The outside cover is of a different, rougher paper than the pages of the journal.

ink: Brown ink varies in intensity.

noteworthy: There are several carets to indicate above-line additions, yet the additions they indicate are non-existent. There are edits throughout, likely 19th-century, made in black ink; these edits have been ignored by the transcriber. On nine verso, there is a dot that looks like a period, but appears to actually be a piece of lint. On 15 verso, it is uncertain to whom Occom refers when he mentions "my Daughter," though it is likely Olive Adams. People and places whose names are illegible have not been tagged.

Modernized Version -- deletions removed; additions added in; modern spelling and capitalization added; unfamiliar abbreviations expanded.

Not transcribed.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.
John XIV.9
Blank page.

April 6. 1787

on Friday
got up very early, and set
off for New London, got there
about 8. o'clock, and found a
passage going directly to Sag
; about 10 we set Sail
the vessel I went in is Called
Starling Packet, William
Master. and we had
Contrary Wind and Small, and
Contrary Tide also, and we were
obliged to return to New London
got ashore again before sun
set, and I went over to Groton
and lodged at Mr. Lesters, and
was very kindly received — had Com­
fortable rest. — — —

Saturday April 7:

got up
very early, and went down
to the Ferry, called on Esq.
Le[illegible][guess: u]dyard
, and was received
Friendly, and he desired me
to take breakfast with them,
but I was in haste, and Mrs. Ledyard
gave me a good hunk of meat
and Bread, enough to last me
a whole Day, and went directly
over, and went aboard about
8, and set Sail again and had
Small and Contrary Wind, and
we were obliged to run into Say
and there we Spent the
Night, I Lodged aboard. —

Sabbath April 8

got up very
early and we Soon got under
Sail, and we had very Small
wind and not fair and we
went on Slowly, and got north
part of Starling, and there
I went ashore about 3 o'clock and
and I travelled, to South part and
called at a Certain house, and
the woman of the house knew
me, the Name of the man of
the house is Mr. William Albertson
it was now towards Night
the man was not at Home, and
the Woman desired˄ to tarry all
Night, and I accepted of her
offer, just at Night the man
Came home from meeting, and
appeared very agreeable, and
was well treated, took Sup
per with them, and went to
Bed pretty Soon, and had Com
fortable rest. — — —

Monday April 9:

got up early
and it was very Foggy morn
ing. and I stayed to take break
fast; and after that I went
to the Ferry, and was detained
a long, while, and about 9 I
was carried over, on Shelter
, and there I tried at
Several houses to hire a horse
but I could get none, and So
went on a foot, till˄ got to Sag Harbor , which was about 7
miles, and I was very much
beat out when I got there, I
never travel So far on foot Since
I have been lame, — and I tried
there to get a horse, and I could
not, and there was one good Capt.
meet with me, and he
tried to get me horse and he
could not, and So he and I rode
together on his horse, and got to his
house sometime before Night
and there I Lodged; and was
extremely kindly treated, and
he got me horse that Night to
go to South Hampton on the
morrow, —

Tuesday April 10:

got up
early, and took breakfast
with them, and about 9 I went
on, and ˄ to the Place about
11: called on Mr. Williams, and
was there a little while, and
understood, that the Presby tery did not meet till next Day
and So passed on to Cold Spring
where the Indians live, and
happened to Call at one Samuel
. he was not at Home
but the woman was, and She
appeared very agreeable, and
Soon found out he was a
professor, and sometime
towards night the man Came
home, I took Dinner here.
after a while Brother Samuel
Came to me, and we
Soon Concluded to have a meet
ing in the Evening, and So
in the evening the Indians
Came together at the house
and there was a considerable number
and I Spoke to them from 1. Kings
XIX:13: and there was very good
attention, I lodged at the Same
house, and rested well, —

Wednesday April 11:

Rose early
and after Prayers Brother Peter
and I went to Brother Samuel Waucus,
and there took breakfast, and
Soon after breakfast, I went to
See old Widow Waucus, and there
but few minutes. and I went to
the Town, got there past 8 and
the Presbytery had got together
about 10 we went to meeting
and the Rev. Mr. Buell opened
the Presbytery by Prayer and
then a Sermon suitable to the
occasion, from 2 Corinthians V: 20: and
Soon after meeting, we returned
to Mr. Williams' and Dined toge
ther and after Dinner, we pro
ceeded in business, and Several
things were in agitation and
went on in business harmoni
ously. in the Evening I went to
Shinnecock, and I preached to the
Indians, at the house of one Simeon [illegible][guess: T]i[illegible][guess: lton], and the Audi
ence was very attentive, and
the Christians were Somewhat
enlivened, I Spoke from 1 John
V.10. after meeing we sat up
somewhat late, and
lodged at the Same house —

Thursday April 12:

got up
early and took breakfast
and Soon after went to Town
got there after the ministers
had got together and we
went on in our business, and
there was preaching again
and the People wanted I
should preach, — but I chose
to attend upon the Presby
, and Mr. Bradford preached—

Friday April 13:

we met
early, and went on busi
ness ; and about 2. I was
obliged to go to Bridgeham
, to Preach got there
there about half after 3
and went right into the
meeting house, for the Presbytery
had been waiting a while
I Spoke from Mark V: 5:
and there was great atten
tion. Soon after meeting I
went with Mr. Woolworth to
Col. Halberts and Mr. Buell
went with us, and there we
took Tea and Soon after
Tea I went to Mr. Persons
and had another meeting there
and there was a great Number
of People, and I Spoke to
them Romans 12: 28.29 and there
was a Solemn attention among
the People, I lodged at the Same house and went to Bed Soon
and had Comfortable rest —

Saturday April 14:

got up
early and took breakfast
with Family and Soon after
eating Mr. Persons and I went
Down to Sag Harbor, got there
about 9: and was 'til about
12: took Dinner with one Mr.
and Soon after Dinner I went
a Board of one Mr. Case, from
Southold, — and we had Con
trary wind and it was hard
and we got to a Part of Southold
on a Neck of Land called Hog
just about sunset, and
I went ashore, and went to one
Capt. Horton's, and the lodged
and was very kindly entertained
the man of the house was very
Sick, very like to Die; went
to Bed Soon, and had Comforta
ble Sleep — —

Sabbath April 15:

got up very
early, and they got me horse
and went on to the Town, stopped
at one Mr. [gap: omitted] and he got
his Chair ready Soon and he Car
ried to the Town, got to Mr. Storrs
about 8: found them well, and
I took breakfast with them, and
about 10 we went to meeting, and
there was a great Number of
People, and I Spoke from I Corinthians XVI 22
and there was a Solemn attention
In the afternoon I went to the West
ern Meeting house
about 5 miles
Mr. Horton Carried me in his Chair
and there was a large Congrega
tion, and I Spoke from Daniel V.25,
and the People attended with great
attention and Solemnity. as soon
as the meeting was over, we
went back to the old Town, stopped
a while at Mr. Greens and took
Tea there, and went on got to
the Town sometime before sun
set, stopped at Mr. Storrs's, and Candle Lighting we went to
meeting, and there was a
large assembly again, and
I Spoke from Jonah III:5
and the People attended well
after meeting went to Mr. Hortons
and there I Lodged, and was
most kindly treated — —

Monday April 16:

got up
before daybreak, and called
up Mr. Bradford, who was then
Preaching in the Town, he
was to go with me to Oyster Point
and we got ready Soon, and
were on horses Back before sun
rise, and went on,, stopped a while
at one Deacon Tuttle's and
there took breakfast, and as
Soon as we had done, we passed
on, and got to the Point, about
1[illegible][guess: 1] and called at Mr. Tuttles and
I waited there, for a Boat that
was to Take me in at This Place
took Dinner here, and just
as we had done the Boat Came and I went to the Shore, and
Mr. Bradford and Mr. Tuttle
went with, and I took leave
of them at the Shore and I
went aboard, and we had
a fair Wind, and just before
sunset we arrived at the City
of New London; and I lodged
at Mr. Muxsles, and had Com
fortable Sleep — —

Tuesday April 17

got up
very early, and was about
the City 'til afternoon and
then I had an opportunity
to go with Mr. Nathan Champlin
of Lyme up to Mr. Haughton's
Cove, we got there sometime
before sunset, and I got horse
and went home got there
about sundown, and found
my Family in good Health
but my wife, She Complains
Some Pains Yet, but not So
bad as I left her, She is better Thanks be to god for his good
ness to us — — —

Sabbath April 22

went to Mr.
Elijah Browns at Massap
equa Point
, and Preached
there, I Spoke from Isaiah 1:2
in the after-Noon from
Zechariah VIII.21: and there was
a large assembly for a by‑
place and the People attend
ed well — Soon after meeting
took Tea, and after eating
went Home — — —

Tuesday April 24:

we had
a mournful Day, we attend
upon two Funerals at one
house, Widow Pequuns corpse
was Brought to widow Eunice[illegible][guess: s]
s, where there was a
nother corpse, Eunices Daugh
ter Eunice was Dead, these
Died the Day before, within an Hour an half of each
other, and there was most
all our Indians together, and
I delivered a discourse to them
from John IX. 4 and the word
fell with Power among the
people, and Soon as I had
done we marched to the Burying
Place, and we buried the oldest
first. and as Soon as we had
done we returned Severally
to our houses — —

Saturday April 28:

just be­
fore Noon I set off from Home
and went to Stonington, stopped
a while at Mr. Chriesies in
the Landing, and took Dinner
there, and Soon after eating
went on, and got to John
Qui[illegible][guess: mn]ps's just before sun
set, and there I lodged and
was much out of order had
very bad Cold, rested Some what Comfortable —

Sabbath April 29:

it was lowe
ry and rained Some, near
about 10 went to meeting
and People Collected and
there was a large number
of People, and I Spoke from
Acts II: 17: and 2 Corinthians V.20
and there was very great
attention many Tears were
Shed, the Christians Comforted
Soon after meeting left the
Indian Town, and went to
groton Indian Town, stopped
at Telex Deshon's and there
took Dinner, just at night
went to widow Samsons, and
there we had meeting again
I Spoke from Romans III: 18:
and the People were greatly
bowed under the word, the
young People were much
affected, and after meeting we sat up a great while
and had agreeable conver
sation, and it was past mid
night when we went to Bed
and I rested well — — —

Monday April 30

Got up early
and we prayed together, and
took breakfast together, and
I Spoke to them about Gospel
Rules and the discipline of the
house of god; and about 8
I took leave of them: called at
Mr. John Williamss and present
ly passed on took my Book
at Esq. geres stopped a while
at Norwich Landing, and
got Home about 2 in the after
noon and found my Family
as well as I left them — — —

Friday May 4:

Went to groton
stopped at Mr. Elijah Browns, and
there took Dinner, and Soon
after dinner, went over the
River, Some of Mr. Daniel and Elijah Brown's Families
went over with me, in a large
canoe — and went to Capt.
s: and there was a con
siderable of People Collected
together, and I Spoke to
them from Romans VIII. 38.39
and there was a Solemn at
tention, many were much
affected; Soon after meeting
I went over with the Same
People that Came with me
stopped a few minutes at Mr.
Elijah Browns, and passed on
homeward, got home nearly
sunset — — — —

Saturday May 5:

time in the afternoon, went
down to Gales Ferry and
went over there, and got and got to Mr. Gideon
s about sunset,
and found them all well
and was kindly received by
the Family and Lodged
there, —

Sabbath May 6,

near 10 we
went Esq. William Averys
funeral. he was of the prin
cipal men in the Place,
and there was a vast con
course of People, and Mr.
preached, from
John XI: 25: Soon after Ser
mon the Carried the corpse
to the Burying ground, about
4: miles off, and I went to
Mr. Saunderss, and from
went to Capt. Edward Lathems
and there took Dinner, and
toward Night, People Collec
ted together and I preached
to them from VIII.2: and there
was very good attention, and
just as I Concluded it began
to Rain, I Lodged at the Same
house, and was very kind
ly entertained, went to Bed
Soon, and was well refreshed
with Sleep — —

Monday May 7:

Went to
Mr. Saunderss to break my
fast with them, Soon after
took leave of them, and
then went back to Mrs.
's and took leave
of them, and So look of
Several Families, and
then went down to the Ferry
and went over to New London
and So on to Mr. Samuel Rogerss
and there had a meeting and there was a large Col
lection of People, and I spoke
from Job XXI: 14.15 and there
was great Solmenity, Soon
after meeting took Tea with
them, and went on my
way homeward, got home
Some Time in the evening
and went to Bed Soon — —

Saturday May 12.

about 2
in the afternoon left home
and went to one Capt. Water
, and it was rainy
stopped a while at Dr. Rogerss
took Dinner there, and I bled
the Doctor, and just at Night
went to Mr. John Browns and
I lodged, and was kindly
entertained — — —

Sabbath May 13:

got up early
and had my horse up
and went on, and it was
rainy Still, I got to Mr.
Ebenezer Darts about 8
and took breakfast there,
near 10 we went to meeting
at Capt. Waterhouse's and
there was not many People
and I Spoke from Luke X.26
and there was good attention
in the afternoon, I Spoke
from John XII.36 and there
was a great many People
and they attended with
great Solemnity and affec
tion, Soon after meeting
took Dinner, and after eat
ing went away, intending
to go to Mr. John Brown's to
preach; but it rained Still
and it was Cold, and I stopped
at Mr. Darts and I did not
feel well, and there lodged
and went to Bed Soon. — —

Monday May 14:

Rose very
early and went down to
New London, and it was rainy Still and chilly, Soon
got to the City, and called on
Mr. Muxley, and there took
breakfast; and was in the
City 'til near Noon, and
then went homeward, and
got home about 3: —

Sabbath May 20:

Sometime in
the morning left home, and went
to Mr. Post's in Wecus Hill,
Got there Some before meeting
and there was but a Small
Collection of People, we began
the Service a little past 10 and
I Spoke from Habakkuk III: 17 18:
and the afternoon from
Psalms 119:105: and the People
attended well, — after meeting
to Victuals, and Soon after
eating went home stopped at
John Ashpo's and bled his daughter
Mercy She was very Sick, —
got about sunset — —

Saturday May 26:

About 3
in the afternoon, I took leave
of my Family, and set off
for Oneida,went by the way
of Windham, got there Some
after sunset, put up at Mr.
s a Separate Preacher
and was very kindly received
Lodged there, — —

Sabbath May 27,

got me up
very early and went to Mans
, got to the Place before
9 and near 11 went to meeting
and Mr. Garley preached, he
Spoke from John, Broad is etc.
in the afternoon I Spoke from
1 Peter IV: 17. the People at
tended well, — and towards
Night, went on to Mr. Weltch
and there I Lodged and was
kindly treated, — —

Monday May 28.

got me
up very, and took breakfast
and went on my way stopped
a little while at Mr. Strongs
and So passed on. and got
to my Daughters about 2
in the afternoon and there
I stayed, found them all well
as Common.— —

Tuesday May 29:

got up
very early, and went on, stopped
at Mr. McClures in old Windsor
took Breakfast with them, and
Soon after went over the Ri
ver; And on to We[illegible][guess: n]ttonbury
called on Mr.Woolcut the
minister of the Place, but
he was not at Home, took
Dinner there, and Soon af
ter passed on, called on Esq. Roberts, and was kindly
received, baited my horse,
and about 2: went on,
called on Mr. Stebbins in
Simsbury, and was there
a little while, and so passed on
got to Mr. Cases and Lodged
and had Comfortable rest —

Wednesday May 30.

to take breakfast, and Soon
after took leave of them and
went on my way, and it
Clouded up Soon, and it began
to wet, Near 12 I reached
Torringford, and stopped at
Mr. Mills's a minister of the
Place— , but was not at Home
and the Rain and wind
Came on very hard; and
it was a terrible Storm and
So stayed all Day. and Lodged
there, — — — — —

Thursday May 31.

got up
not very early, and it was very
foggy, but it Soon cleared off
took Breakfast with the Fami
ly, and Soon after went on
to Torrington, got Mr. Hainess
about 10 he is a Preacher a
mong the People, he is mus
tee, half white and half Negro
and Extraordinary man in un
derstanding and, a great Preacher
I was there Some Time, took
Dinner there, and Some in
the afternoon, I went on
my way again; stopped at Capt.
s in Goshen, and they
urged to tarry all Night, and
I consented, and was kindly
entertained, took Supper
Soon, and went to Bed early
and rested Comfortably —

Friday June 1:

got up
very early, and set off on
my way; called on Mr. Farring
at Caanan; but he was not
at home, took breakfast
there; and Soon after went
on again, stopped Capt. Bushnals
in Salisbury, and there I Saw
Peter Shadock, and Elijah
Wympe Jr.
of Brothertown
he just Come from there, and
they were then all well, when
he Came away; Took Din
ner here, and Soon after I
went on my way; and called
on Mr. Dakins at Dover and was there a
little while and passed on, and
got on the Mountain some
time before sunset and
called at Deacon Bulkleys and was going on further,
but they urged me to Stay
there, and a young woman
Said, You shall not go from
this house tonight, and So
I stopped and was exceeding
well treated, and went to
Bed as Soon as the Night
Came on — — —

Saturday June 2

was all
Day at Deacon Bulkleys
and lodged there again
and rested well — —

Sabbath June 3:

went to meet
ing with the People, and
I preached to them from
Luke [gap: omitted]
and there was affectionate
attention among the People
all Day, — Directly after
meeting I went with Mr.
, to his house' and took Dinner with them
and as Soon as we had
dined, Mr. winchel got
his wagon ready, and
he took me into his wagon
and he and his wife went
to Dover to meeting, in
Elder Dakin'ss meeting
and I preached from 1
Peter IV. 7: and there was
a Solemn attention, many
Tears were Shed, Soon af
ter meeting Mr. Rowe took
me in his wagon and
carried me to his house, and
there I lodged, and was
very tenderly treated, — —

Monday June 4:

Lay a
bed somewhat late, and
when all the People got
up, they got together and I exercised with my Notes in
the Family, and it was a large
Family it contained near 30, and
it was a very Solemn season,
many were much affected
it took us Some Time, to go
through, and then we prayed, —
About 2 in the afternoon
we began a meeting, and
there was a great Number
of People, and I Spoke from
[gap: omitted] and there was good
attention, Soon after meeting
they got me a horse, and I went
on the Mountain, and stopped at
Mr. Winchels and from there
I went to Deacon Bulkley's
and there took Tea, and Soon
after took my horse, and went
to Esq. Buships's, and there had
another meeting, and there
was a considerable Number
of People, and I Spoke from Mark VI. 6: and there was a Solemn
attention, — lodged at the Same
house, and rested Comfortably
once more — —

Tuesday June 5:

got up
very early, and would have
gone of, but they would have
me Stay to take breakfast,
and Soon after went on my
way, made no Stops, towards
Night I called at a Certain Ta­
vern, and I was wearied, and
So Concluded to Stay all Night
went to Bed quite early, and
was well refreshed with Sleep —

Wednesday June 6:

got up
early, and had my horse got
ready, and So went on, stopped
a little while at Mr. Youngs
in Kinderhook, and So passed
on arrived to Esq. Woodworth's
about 12, and found them all
well, took Dinner there — Concluded to have a meeting
here tomorrow about 3 in the
afternoon. here I met with
Mr. Thirstin, and he urged me
to go to keep Sabbath with the
People in his Place about 12
miles, lodged here, — —

Thursday June 7

Stay here
all Day, about 3 People got
together, and we began the meet
ing, and a large Number of People
and I Spoke from Deuteronomy X.12.13
and the People attended well, —
tarried here again, — — —

Friday June 8:

After breakfast
Mr. Thirstin and took leave
of the Family, and went to
North part of Philipstown,
got to the Place about 12: dined
with one Mr. McGee, and
after eating went on to Mr.
's house, found his
Family well, Lodged there
and it is a Christian Family —
Wed had a meeting here
in the evening, and there
was a considerable of people
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People attended with
great Solemnity — —

Saturday June 9

had a meet
ing at one Mr. Sinton's he is
Sick and there was quite
a large number of People
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and there was a solemn atten
tion. after meeting went back
to Mr. Thirstins, and from there
to Mr. Baileys Brother Thirstin
went with me, and there we
Lodged, Mr. Bailey and his wife
I believe are sincere Christians
they are much engaged —

Sabbath June 10

About 9 went
to meeting, and one Mr. Adams's
and there was a prodigious
Number of People, the biggest[illegible]
that ever was Seen at once in this New settlement, I
Spoke from Genesis [gap: omitted]
Preached three Times this Day
lodged at the Same house, sat
up somewhat late — —

June 11

got up very early and
took leave of the Family and
went to Mr. McGee's and there
took breakfast, and Soon
after, went to New Bethlehem
and I preached, and there was
a large number of People
I Spoke from Song of Songs VIII: 5
directly after meeting went
with Deacon Herrinton and
Dined there; And sometime
in the afternoon went a place
where there was burying, and
there was a great number
of People, and after Burying
I preach to the People, and
there was good attention I spoke
from Kings Set thy house etc. and Soon after meeting I went
on to Esq. Woodwoth's and I
Lodged, — —

Tuesday June 12

after breakfast
set off and stopped a while at
Mr. McDonal, and Call on Some
others and So passed on to De­
, got to Mr. Ouderkirk's
about sunset, and was exceed
ingly well received, and they
were all well, but the old
gentleman he is quite
helpless — Lodged there — —

Wednesday June 13,

time in the morning after
breakfast, I went on to Mr.
John Landsons, and in the
evening we had a litte meet
ing. Yet there was quite a
Number of People, I Spoke
from Psalm CXXXIII.1: and there was a Solemn attention, and
they were all glad to See me.
lodged at the Same house — —

Thursday June 14,

Night had another meeting and
there was a great Number of
People, and I Spoke from
Romans, VI: [gap: omitted] and there an affect
ing attention among the People
many Tears were Shed.

Soon after meeting went with
Mr. Fondee at the Ferry and
there I lodged, was kindly treat
ed, went to Bed Soon and had
Comfortable rest — —

Friday June 15

got up early
and went over the River Soon
and went to the Point, called
Waterford; I missed my way
and called at one Mr. Devoos
and he and his wife, and
old maid that was there were exceeding glad, and
they never Saw me before,
but the good old maid, they
talked very freely upon
Religious matters; and I
conversed with them a while
and went on again, stopped
at Mr. [gap: omitted] and took
breakfast there, they were
extremely glad to See me,
Soon after eating went on
to Mr. Vanderwarkens, and
there I put up for the Day a
meeting to begin 4 in the
afternoon, took Dinner here
in the afternoon the People
Collected, and there was not
many, the Notice was too
Short; I Spoke from 2 King[illegible][guess: s] 20
and there was very good at
tention; and Several Came
too late, and after I sat a while
in the house, I had exercise
with my Christian Cards, with
Some Young Women, that Came late for the Sermon, and Some
were somewhat Startled, but
Some began, they were all deligh
ted, and behaved very decent,
and Some old People chose Texts
also, and it was agreeable exer
cise. I Lodged at the Same house
and was extremely well treated
by the whole Family. — —

Saturday June 16

got early
and desired to be brought up, and
I went of before breakfast, stopped
at Mr. [gap: omitted] and they urged
me to eat, but I woud not; and
took leave of them and passed on
stopped at Mr. Fundee's and there
took breakfast. Soon after eat
ing I went on to visit Some Friends
and at Night, stayed at good
old Mr. Fero's, — — — —

Sabbath June 17:

near 9 went to
the Church, and there was a
prodigious gathering of People
the Church could not Contain them
all, began the Service before 10, and it began to Rain Soon
I Spoke from Isaiah V.2.3: and
John V1: 68: — and there was a So
lemn and affectionate attention
the Congregation was bowed before
the word of god; Soon after Service
I went off to over to Half Moon, and
English Young man accompa
nied me, and we stopped at Mr.
John Landsons, and there I took
Tea, and Soon after, went on, and
before we reached the Place, it
rained very hard, and I was
very wet that Time we got to the
Place; stopped a little while at
Capt. Compstock's and then went
to the Church, and there was
but a little Number of People
and I Spoke from Deuteronomy 10.
and there was very good atten­
tion, and went back to Capt.
s and lodged, and
rested indifferently — —

Monday June 18,

after breakfast took leave of the Family, and
went on towards New-Town, got
Mr. Teachhouse's about 10, and
took Dinner with them; and a
bout 3: we began the worship
of god; we met in a large Barn,
and there was large number
of People, Spoke from Psalms
CXXXVI. 1. and there was a very
deep attention, many were much
affected. Soon after Service went
towards Lowden's stopped at Mr.
s, and just in the evening
a Number of People Came in,
wanted I should preach, and I
was somewhat Backward, but
finally, thought it my Duty
to preach, though I was some
what wearied, and I Spoke from
Matthew VI.33 and there was greater
Solemnity, than in the day
time, there was flow of Tears,
and after I had Concluded, the People desired to have an
exercise with my Cards, and so
gratified them, and it was a
Comfortable exercise; and we
sat up very late, at last the
People went off, and so I went
to bed, and rested but poorly
for a little Child cried much
and I had but a little Sleep — —

Tuesday June 19,

got up early
and got my horse ready, and
I went on to Niskayuna, stopped
at the Ferry, and there I under
stood, there were 2 or 3 Families
of Indians about half a mile
off, and so I turned went to See
them, and they were entire
Stangers to me, and they are
Miserable poor, and perfect
Heathens. I asked them, whether
they ever went to meeting, they
Said no, and told them, I was was going to Preach a little ways
and asked them, whether, they
would go to meeting, they Said
nothing, and so I left them I went
with one Mr. Fordt to the Ferry,
went into his house, and he
asked me, whether I had broke
my fast, and I told him, I had
not, and so he order his negro
to get me Victuals directly,
and She hastened, his wife was
not at Home, and so I sat down
and ate heartily, Soon after
he Carried me over, and asked
nothing, and went to Mr. Simon
s and there stopped, and
took Dinner with them, and after
Dinner, I laid me down [illegible][illegible] Bed
to rest, and I Slept a little, and
past one we went to meeting
and there was a multitude
of People at Church, for Such
Short Notice and I Spoke from Isaiah 1: 2:3 and they
attended with great attention.
after Sermon, took Tea with
one Mr. [gap: omitted] and Soon
I went on to Schenectady, and
got there just before sunset
and put up at Mr. John Post's
and found them all well, went
to bed pretty Soon, and a Com­
fortable rest, — this Day Saw
Hindreck Pumham from Oneida
and heard by him, that our
People there were all well
about a fortnight ago — —

Wednesday June 20:

was at
Schenectady, lodged at Mr. Post's
again — — —

Thursday June 21:

got up early
and went to Niskayuna, got there
8: stopped [gap: omitted] and there took
breakfast, about 9: we went to meeting, it is a fast Day with
the Dutch People every where,
and there was a vast concourse
of People Collected together Most
all Dutch; and about 10 we
began the Service, the Church
could not Contain all the People
I Spoke from Isaiah 1.11 and
Isaiah LVIII.5.6. between meetings
went to Mr. Bassets, and I felt much
out of order, and I laid me, and
had a little dose. after meeting
I went to Mr. Millers, of one of the
Elders. and was kindly entertained
took Tea with them, and Soon after
laid me down, felt quite poorly
got up just before sunset, and
went to bed Soon, and rested Com
fortably. — —

Friday June 22:

Rose pretty
early, and took Breakfast, and
Comfortable, and Soon after
eating, took leave of the Family, and went off to Schenectady
got there about 10: and stayed
in the Place 'til near Night
and then took leave of my Friends
and went off and rode about 7 miles
and put up at a Certain Tavern,
and went to Bed Soon, and was some
what disturbed by the Company that
was there. they made much noise.
a long while — — —

Saturday June 23

got up early
and ordered my horse to be got rea
dy, and I pushed on Soon, and
went to Mr. Hocobooms and there
took breakfast, they were very
glad to See me, and Soon after
breakfast went on again, and
stopped at Mr. Bartlet's and was
kindly received, and they Soon
put out my horse, and Said I
should tarry there that Night
took dinner with them, and pre
sent after, Mr. Bartlet and I went over the River, to See Mr.
, and they were exceeding
Glad to See me old and Young
after a while I lay down and
took Sleep, and just a-night
we took Tea with them, and then
the Boys Carried us over back
again, and, went to bed Soon and
have a Comfortable rest, — —

Sabbath June 24,

about 8 I
went down, the west Side of the
River, and left my horse at a
Certain Tavern, and went o
ver to [gap: omitted] and there
we had a meeting, and there
was a prodigious Number of
People, we began the Service
a little after 10; and I Spoke
from Exodus XX.[gap: omitted] in the after
noon from 2 Corinthians V.20: and there
an affectionate attention, many many were bowed under the
word, Soon after meeting went
Back over the River, and went
with one Mr. [gap: omitted] he is
an Englishman, and was very
kindly Treated, — —

Monday June 25,

got up quite[illegible]
early, and off to Mr. Hocoboom's
and presently after I got it began
to Rain, and the People began
to gather Soon, and it rained hard
yet there was a large Number
of people, and I begun the meet
ing about 10, and we had a little
intermission, and preached again
in afternoon and the People
attended with great Solemnity
many Tears were shed. I Spoke
from Acts [gap: omitted] and Proverbs
lodged at the Same house and went
Bed Soon and rested well — —

Tuesday June 26,

got up very
early and took leave of them and went off to Mr. george Eliot's
got there about 8: and took
Breakfast, and after eating
went to See old Mr. Eliot. about
a mile off, and took Dinner there
and Soon after went back to
meeting at Mr. george Eliout's
and there was a large number
of People, I Spoke from Song of Songs 5 VIII
and the People, attended with
great Solemnity baptized one child for a Scotsman —, after meeting
went to the house, for we met
under Trees, and I stayed
there all Night, — —

Wednesday, June 27

go[illegible]t up
quite early, and Set off to the
westward, called on Severals
and got So far as Esq. Mabee
and there I lodged —

June 28:

Stayed 'til
after breakfast, and then went
off once more, stopped at Several houses, got to Esq. Harper's
about 10 at Fort Hunter, and
stayed there 'til about 3: and
then took leave of them, and
went on my way, reached
to Esq. Maybees at Cana
just after sunset
and I lodged there, and was
kindly treated; The Esquire was
not at Home; went to bed Soon
and had Comfortable rest — —

Thursday June 28,

got up
Early, and had my horse got
ready, and went on towards
Bowman's Creek, got to Esq.
s about 10: and there
I put up for the Day, and Con­
cluded to preach here on the
morrow, went to See Some friends
and lodged at Esq. Kimballs

Friday June 29,

was at
the Place, went to fishing in
the Creek caught 6[illegible] Small fish
took Dinner with the Esquire again
and about 2 went to meeting and
there was but People, and I Spoke
from 2 Kings XX.1 and it was a
Solemn Meeting many were much
affected. as Soon as the meeting
was done I went on towards Spring
, stopped at Mr. Lucass and
took Tea, and as Soon we had
done I went on again; got So
far as to Mr. Wautrot[illegible][guess: ,s] a Tavern
and there I lodged — —

Saturday June 30

got up very
early and paid my reckoning
and went on my way, stopped a while
at Mr. Millers, and passed on, stopped
again at Mr. Dike's and there I
Broke my fast, was very kindly
entertained, Soon after break
fast went on again, got to Brother
s about 10: and was kindly received, there I stayed
in the afternoon, went to See
Some Friends, was kindly re
ceived by all; towards night
went back to Brother Crippin's
and I lodged. — —

Sabbath July 1:

about 9 went to
meeting at one Mr. Waulrots and
and there was a large number
of People, I Spoke from John
what is that to thee? etc.: in the after
noon from Romans VIII.[gap: omitted] and there
was a melting attention I believe
many felt the Power of the word
there was a Flow of Tears. after
meeting stayed at the house, 'til
near Night, then there was a word
Sent me to go old Mr. Pickards
and a Number of us went, and
he related a Strange Sight he
had Seen, twice and dreamed
about it once; There has been
9 persons Baptized, fortnight
ago, by way immersing or Plunging. a few Days after
this man was passing by the
Place, and he happened to
cast his Eyes to the Place
where the person were Bap
tized: he Says he Saw a man
struggling to rise out of the
Water, and the water [illegible][guess: blazed]
around him, and it was
gone in a moment, and it
put his mind in great agi
tation, and consternation. a
few Days after he went again
to the Place, and he Saw just
Such Sight again, and it has
put him to great amazement
and a Night or two back, he
dreamed, he went to the Place
again, and Saw just Such
Sight again, and he was
greatly surprised, and he
kep[illegible] it to himself 'til this Day
and he Says, he could not keep it any longer, and So told it
to his family, and relate it to
me, and to a number People
and it took affect upon Some
People, though they don't know
what to make of it, — in the
evening we went back to
Mr. Waulrot's and there I lodged
and had good rest — — —

Monday July 2

after break
fast set off once more called on
Mr. Creeppin, and took my
things, and about 10 took leave
of them, and went on, called
on Mr. Sprague near the Lake
and was there a while, and
went on again, and got to
Andrews Field a little past
12: and there I stopped sometime
turned my horse out to feed and
took Dinner myself, — about
2 I went on again, and went
a New way, and got to the
upper part of German Flatts
and as I Came out of the woods
and had a View of the Flats,
I did not know it, I was quite
lost, I went to an house, that
was hard by, and I did know
the house, and it was a house
that I well knew too, and I
asked a woman, where the Mo
hawk River
was, She pointed
to the Flats and Said there —
and I asked her where Mr.
lived, She Said about 2
up, and then everything
Came right, and so went
on, and got to Mr. Foltss in
the dusk of the Evening, and
and they were glad to See
me once more and there
I put up, and went to
Bed Soon and Comfortable
Rest once more — —

Tuesday July 3.

after breakfast, took my old
horse and went down the River
and got about a mile, I met
John Tuhy, one of our People
from Brothertown, and he gave
me an intelligence of the State
and Situation of our People, they
were well in general, Several of
them Died Since I left them, and
I went on, and went with me,
went so far as one Mr. Smith's a
merchent, and there but a little
while, and we went back got to
Mr. Folts's near 12 and took Dinner
there, and Stay the rest of the Day
and lodged there again, — —

Wednesday July 4:

got up early
and was getting ready, to go through
the wilderness, and just as we
sat down to breakfast, Brother
David Fowler, his wife their
Daughter Phoebe and sister Esther
Brother Jacob Fowlers Widow Came
in, and were glad to See one a
nother once more; and after
Breakfast we had Some conver
sation together, and then they
went off, and John Tuhy, and
I went on our way also, and
we had a fine Day to go through
the woods, and we stopped a while
at Chucka[illegible][guess: u]queed, and here
lives a negro, he is all alone
and has planted Some Corn and
it is a fine Spot of ground, where
he has pitched his Tent, we sat
here Some Time, baited my horse
and after a while we set off
again; and we got through the
a little while before sunset
Called at John Tuhys and
they were all well, and
took Dinner with John here I
found widow Peter from Long
, an old acquaintance
of mine, here was a num­
ber of Young men working
for John, and Seemed to beg [illegible][guess: lad]
[gap: tear] See me. and then I went to
[gap: tear][guess: my] Daughter Christiana Pauls
and found them all well, and we
rejoiced to See each other once
more, — Blessed and adored be God
for his infinite goodness and mercy
to my Children, my Daughter
and her husband, have a Comfort
able Hope, that they have life
in God through Jesus Christ —
Lodged at my Daughter
Blank page.Blank page.
Deuteronomy 33. 27 The Eternal god is
Thy Refuge
Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.
Presbytery of Suffolk County
The Presbytery of Suffolk County, established April 1747, was the governing body for Presbyterian churches in the East Hampton area of Long Island. The Presbytery ordained Occom on August 29, 1759 and remained his ally and supporter throughout his life. It is likely that the Presbytery's support for Occom stemmed in part from the presence of Samuel Buell, who was one of the Presbytery's founders, an extremely influential member, and Occom's close friend. Several of Occom's missions fell under the Presbytery's authority, including his early work among the Montauks and his missions to the Six Nations in the early 1760s. The Presbytery ceded their claims to Occom in 1765 so that he could go on his fundraising mission under the authority of the Connecticut Board. Occom was again involved with the Presbytery after his return from Great Britain. In 1791, he transferred his allegiance to the Albany Presbytery because it was closer to Brothertown. The Suffolk Presbytery was a member of the Synod of New York (after 1758, the Synod of New York and Philadelphia).
Sag Harbor

Schenectady is a city located in eastern New York State. The area that would become Schenectady was originally controlled by the Mohawk Indians, the easternmost and most powerful of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy. The land making up Schenectady was one stop on the much larger Mohawk Trail, which extended from Schenectady to what would become Albany, New York. The name of Schenectady was a derivation of the Mohawk word, Schau-naugh-ta-da, which meant the place beyond the open pines. The first Europeans to arrive at Schenectady were the Dutch who established a settlement there in 1661. Schenectady would come under British control as Dutch power in the Americas waned and the British established the colony of New York. In 1690 during King William’s War, Schenectady became the target of French and Indian soldiers who attacked the town and killed 60 of its residents, an event that became known as the Schenectady Massacre. There was a smallpox outbreak in Schenectady in 1767, as noted in this collection’s documents. In 1780, Oneidas found refuge from Loyalist and Mohawk attacks in Schenectady, and the town served as a stop on the way to Brothertown, the pan-Indian settlement founded by Occom and other graduates of Wheelock’s school. Schenectady was designated a borough in 1765 and eventually incorporated as a city 1798.


The historical Mohawk village of Canajoharie was located about 50 miles northwest of Albany, New York, in the central part of the state. Today, both a town and village in the same vicinity of the Mohawk village of Canajoharie have taken the Mohawk name, but the location of the present-day village is slightly east of the historical village. Because the village’s name was similar to the Oneida village of Kanawalohale, where David Fowler established a school in 1765, many sources conflate the two villages. Canajoharie, which in English means a washed kettle, was also known by the names Indian Castle and Upper Castle, which refers to the late 17th-century Mohawk fortifications that were built around the town following a series of French attacks during King William’s War. The term Upper Castle served to differentiate Canajoharie from Lower Mohawk Castle located in the Mohawk village of Tionondoroge near Fort Hunter. Canajoharie contained the Indian Castle church, which still stands today and was built in 1769 by the British Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Sir William Johnson, with help from the Mohawk siblings Molly and Joseph Brant, who donated land to the cause. Throughout the span of the 18th century, war, disease, and emigration severely reduced the Mohawk population in Canajoharie, and an influx of both white and non-Mohawk Native Americans resulted in a diverse and ethnically mixed culture. Wheelock's missionary work in this village in the 1760s was headed by Theophilus Chamberlain, while Abraham major, Abraham minor, and Peter (Mohawk) maintained missionary schools near Canajoharie.


Groton is a town located in southeastern Connecticut between the Thames and Mystic Rivers. This land was originally settled by the Niantic tribe, who were forced out in the early 1600s by the Pequots. During the Pequot War in 1637, Captain John Mason’s soldiers and Indian allies attacked the Pequot’s Mystic fort, burning down the fort, killing mostly women and children, and largely displacing the Pequots. John Winthrop Jr. and his Puritan followers first settled Groton in 1646 as part of New London. In 1705, the General Court allowed the Groton inhabitants to incorporate as a separate town due to its increased population. The town was named Groton after Winthrop’s England estate. Farming, shipbuilding, and maritime trading sustained the Groton economy throughout the eighteenth century. Beginning in 1712, land disputes between the Connecticut government and the Pequot tribe in Groton ensued, and the Pequots sent many petitions and grievances to the Connecticut government. Legal battles concerning the colonists’ leasing of the 1,700 acres on which the Pequots lived continued throughout the 18th century, as missionaries came to the area to teach religion and establish schools. After the Revolutionary War, many Groton Pequots joined other Connecticut tribes and moved to the Brothertown settlement in upstate New York.

New London

New London is a city located in southeastern Connecticut along an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean called Long Island Sound. The area that would become New London was inhabited by the Pequots who called it Nameaug when the Europeans arrived in North America. Pequot villages bordered Long Island Sound and the Tribe had authority over the neighboring Tribes of the Mohegans and Niantics (all Algonquian-speaking tribes). The Dutch first explored this land in 1614 and established trade with the Native peoples, but the English soon gained possession of the land east of the Hudson in the 1630s. English animosity toward their Indian neighbors led to the Pequot War (1634-38), part of which took place in the present city of New London. The Pequots lost the war and their population deteriorated due to the violence and disease. The General Court of Massachusetts granted John Winthrop possession of Pequot territory in 1644 after which it was to be opened for settlement. By 1646, which is considered the official year of its founding, New London had permanent colonial inhabitants and municipal laws, and jurisdiction was granted to the colony of Connecticut in 1647. In 1658, the inhabitants renamed the town New London after London, England. New London was the colony of Connecticut’s first trading port and was a hub of trade with the West Indies and other colonies. Though initially part of the town of New London when it was first settled by the colonists, Groton, Montville, and Waterford were each separated from New London in 1705, 1786, and 1801 respectively. Present-day Salem was also part of New London when it was settled, but in 1819, it became a separate incorporated town composed of parts of Lyme, Colchester, and Montville. Occom kept a school in New London in the winter in 1748. New London was the home of Captain Nathaniel Shaw, one of the wealthiest merchants in the area, who gave money to Occom in the 1750s for the missionary cause and also sold materials to Occom for the building of his home. However, their positive relationship ended when Shaw refused to provide supplies for Mary Occom while Occom was in England. New London served as the port from which Occom and other missionaries traveled to reach Long Island. During the American Revolution, New London’s location and its status as a seaport made it both vulnerable to invasion and integral to colonial naval operations as well as the exchange of prisoners.New London was incorporated as a city in 1784.

Old Saybrook

Old Saybrook is a town located in southeastern Connecticut on the west bank of the Connecticut River, where it meets the Long Island Sound. The land that would become Old Saybrook was the territory of the Niantic Indians until the late 16th century when they were conquered by the Pequots. The first Europeans to settle in the area were Dutch, but by 1623 the colony failed due to harsh conditions. In 1635, English Puritans led by John Winthrop Jr. established a colony called Saybrook Plantation, hoping to deter the return of the Dutch. During the Pequot War of 1636, the powerful Pequot tribe conducted a siege of Saybrook Fort for eight months, but their population was ultimately decimated by the effort. Yale University, originally called Collegiate School of Connecticut, was founded in Old Saybrook in 1700 and then moved to New Haven in 1718. Because of its location, Old Saybrook was a convenient stopping point for Occom on his trips between Mohegan and Montauk, on Long Island, and was a point of embarkation for travel to other coastal cities by water. At least one Native American in Old Saybrook, the son of Josiah Wolcott, wanted to attend Wheelock’s school. Old Saybrook is one of the oldest towns in the state and was incorporated in 1854.


Stonington is a town on the Long Island Sound by the Pawcatuck River in the southeastern corner of Connecticut. Before colonists arrived, the Algonquin-speaking Pequots who originally inhabited the area referred to it as “Mistack.” In 1649, however, Europeans opened a trading house near the Pawcatuck, and in 1666 they named the town Stonington. Relations between the Pequots and colonists were tense, especially because of the 1637 massacre of Pequot Indians at nearby Mystic, CT. Eventually, settlers set aside North Stonington for the Pequots, establishing one of the earliest Indian reservations that the Pequots have continually occupied since 1670. The town grew in the years leading up to the Revolution as a result of the shipbuilding and fishing industries. Occom visited Stonington to preach, often to crowds of Pequots in North Stonington, which became its own town in 1724. Its high Pequot population led some to call North Stonington “Stonington Indian Town.” Occom was acquainted with Joseph Fish, a Congregationalist minister, who in the 1760s opened a school for local Pequots and Narragansetts in Stonington. Moor’s alumni John Shattock Jr. and Jacob Fowler both spent time as schoolmasters there. During the Revolutionary War, Stonington was the site where patriots successfully deterred two British naval attacks. Following the war, many Stonington Pequots, along with other New England tribes, settled in Brothertown, in central New York.

Loudens Ferry
New Bethlehem
Fort Hunter

Located in Montgomery County, and named after Governor Hunter of New York, Fort Hunter refers to the land located where the Mohawk River and the Schoharie Creek converge in Old Albany County, New York, as well as to the fort built on that land. Fort Hunter was also referred to as the Lower Mohawk Castle, while Upper Mohawk Castle referred to another Mohawk village located near present day Danube, New York. The Mohawk people, who originally occupied this land, referred to the village as Tionondoroge (also spelled Thienderego, Teantontalago, Tiononderoga, Tienonderoga, and Icanderoga). In 1686, the city charter gave Albany the right to the land that would comprise Fort Hunter. According to a European account, "Four Mohawk Kings," including Hendrick Peters Tejonihokarawa who hailed from the Fort Hunter area, met with Queen Anne in 1710 to request protection from the French and aid for the Anglican missionaries; she complied in 1711 and authorized the building of the actual fort. The following year, Anglican clerics, who were funded by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in England, built a mission on the land. Because the Mohawk tribe fought with the British against the American colonists, most Mohawks from Fort Hunter fled to Montreal after the American Revolution.


Brothertown was a multi-tribal Indian settlement in the center of what is now New York state. In the 1760s, Indians in New England and New York were devastated by war, disease, and European settlement, and many who had converted to Christianity believed that pressures and influences from surrounding European settlers impeded them from living Christian lives. The Brothertown Indians began as a group of Christian Indians including members of the Mohegan, Pequot, Narragansett, Montauk, Tunxis, Wangunk, and Niantic tribes. In the 1770s, led by Occom and Joseph Johnson, this group of Indians moved to land granted to them by the Oneida in New York. They named the land Brothertown to both reflect their intention to live with fellow tribes as brothers and also to pay tribute to Brotherton, a Delaware Indian reservation in New Jersey that served as an inspiration for the Christian Indian settlement. When the Revolutionary War began, the Indians of Brothertown sided with the Patriots, and as a result, British sympathizers burnt the Brothertown settlement in 1777. After this, many Brothertown settlers moved east while others remained and fought alongside the colonists.In the 1780s, many more New England Indians, including Occom and his family, moved to Brothertown and the nearby settlement of New Stockbridge, forming a town government, church and schools. In the early 1800s, the state of New York began to purchase tracts of Oneida land, and the Indians were forced to leave New York and settle in Greenbay, Wisconsin.


Oneida is a city in Madison County located at the geographical center of New York state. Before European settlement of the area, the Oneida Tribe, one of the Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy, inhabited a large territory adjacent to nearby Oneida Lake. Around 1533, they built their first village on the south shore of the lake, at or near the mouth of Oneida Creek. At the end of the 17th century, this area began suffering raids by parties from the French colony of Quebec, in a battle to control the fur trade. In 1696, Oneida village was burned by the French. As a result, the Oneidas moved their chief village east of the original site, called Old Oneida, to a new site called Kanawalohale, also known as Oneida Castle, which was fortified by tall palisades and a moat. This is the site of the present-day village of Oneida Castle, a small hamlet west of the city of Oneida in the northwest corner of the town of Vernon. When used in Occom Circle documents, the place name "Oneida" usually refers to the territory inhabited by the Tribe east of Oneida Lake, but can also refer specifically to Oneida Castle. Although the Oneidas sided with the patriots during the Revolutionary War, much of their territory was sold or appropriated by the state of New York. In 1790, the first European settlers moved into the area of Old Oneida village, and the district began to expand. In the 1830s, the state built a feeder from Oneida Creek through the present city site to provide water for the new canal system, which enabled canal boats to ship freight into the town. Eventually, the railroad came through the town and helped with its expansion. This led to the incorporation of the Village of Oneida in 1848 and the establishment of the Town of Oneida in 1896. The town was chartered as the City of Oneida in 1901, and with two more railroad lines transecting the area, it became a thriving manufacturing center for the first half of the 20th century.

German Flatts

German Flatts is located in upper Mohawk Valley on the south side of the Mohawk River in Herkimer County, New York. The Oneidas had settled this land for centuries before Palatine German immigrants, for whom the town is named, settled there in the 1720s. The Palatines were granted leases from Governor Burnet to purchase land from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) in 1723. The Germans and Oneidas sustained excellent relations and had both a trading and military alliance (and even had several inter-marriages). When the French and Indian War began, the German Flatts settlers and the Oneidas agreed to maintain peace and neutrality. Both the Palatines and the Oneidas resented nearby Fort Herkimer, believing it made the area a military target. The French refused to accept the neutrality of the Indians and Germans at German Flatts, and in 1757, the French and their Indian allies attacked a Palatine settlement in German Flatts with the help of a few Oneidas who succumbed to pressure from the French. The Germans could not defend themselves (40 were killed and 150 were taken captive back to New France), and the French and their Indian allies burned much of German Flatts. After the French and Indian War, the Germans and Haudenosaunee renewed their trading relationship and maintained peace throughout the 1760s. In two separate letters in September 1761, Wheelock refers to a July 7, 1761 letter from Occom, written from German Flatts, reporting his kind reception by the Six Nations. Wheelock also recounts a July 7th letter from General Johnson from German Flatts written by two Mohawk boys whom the General recommends as interpreters or missionaries for the Indian Charity School. In a 1767 letter to Robert Keen, Wheelock quotes letters from Samuel Kirtland that express the lack of provisions due to years of poor crops. In 1778 during the American Revolution, the Loyalists and Mohawks, led by Joseph Brant, attacked German Flatts, and residents withdrew to Fort Herkimer. While the majority of the Haudenosaunee sided with the British, the Oneidas supported the colonists in the Revolution.

Mohawk River

Niskayuna is a town in east central New York State on the Mohawk River, just east of the city Schenectady. The name Niskayuna means "extensive corn flats," and is said to come from the Connestigione Indians who occupied a large area on both sides of the river when Dutch settlers arrived around 1642. The Dutch negotiated land deals with several Connestigione chiefs, and began to build homes and farms in the area in the 1660's. In 1746, George Clinton, Governor of New York colony, built one of a line of blockhouses ranging from Fort Massachusetts to Fort Hunter in Niskayuna, and in 1799, the Albany-Schenectady Turnpike (now Route 5) was built through the town. In 1822, the Erie Canal crossed the Mohawk River into Niskayuna, and in 1843 the Troy and Schenectady Railroad was built along the Mohawk River with a station in Niskayuna. The reformed Church of Niskayuna, organized around 1750, is the church at which Occom mentions preaching in his journal of 1787. Around the time that Occom and other Moor's graduates founded Brothertown on Oneida land in upstate New York, Occom commuted back and forth from Mohegan to Brothertown, often stopping to preach to large, enthusiastic crowds in churches and settlements in the area. He mentions preaching at Niskayuna and staying with acquaintances in 1786, 1787 and 1790, often in winter and braving difficult traveling conditions. He likely traveled on the trail that in 1799 became the Albany-Schenectady Turnpike.


Shinnecock, NY, was a village within the town of Southampton, NY occupied by the Shinnecock Indians. While this village no longer exists, the Shinnecocks have preserved some of their ancestral land through the Shinnecock Indian Reservation. The name Shinnecock means "people of the stony shore," in reference to the rocky southeastern edge of Long Island where the Shinnecocks lived. Shinnecock's proximity to Connecticut by way of the Long Island Sound meant that the village and its tribe experienced more missionary activity from New England than towns in the Western half of Long Island. European settlers first encountered the Shinnecocks in 1640, when they founded Southampton after purchasing land from the Tribe. During this period of colonization, the village of Shinnecock remained an enclave for the Tribe as the rest of Long Island was increasingly divided into English towns. Unlike the Montauketts to the East, the Shinnecocks were able to retain a land base, their own distinct village. From 1749 to 1761, Occom maintained a school and mission 30 miles east of Shinnecock in Montauk and often made trips to the village on his preaching tours of Long Island and New York, where he preached to largely Indian audiences. By the 1780s, however, English encroachment on Shinnecock land led many of the Shinnecocks, with Occom's encouragement, to leave Long Island for Brothertown. Those who remained in Shinnecock were subjected to a system of tribal governance that the New York State Legislature imposed in 1792, a system that lasted until 2007, when the Shinnecocks on the Shinnecock Indian Reservation reasserted their traditional governing structure.

Andrews Field
Long Island

Long Island is an island located in southeast New York State. In 1824, historian Silas Wood claimed that 13 different tribes inhabited the island when the Dutch and English arrived in 1639: the Canarsie, the Rockaway, the Matinecock, the Merrick, the Massapequa, the Nissequoge, the Secatoag, the Seatuket, the Patchoag, the Corchaug, the Shinnecock, the Manhasset, and the Montaukett. This is the commonly accepted tribal history of Long Island, and Wood’s theory is taught in New York textbooks today. Yet, in 1992, historian John Strong challenged this dominant narrative, arguing that tribal systems did not develop on Long Island until after Europeans arrived. Based on Dutch and English colonists’ accounts, the Algonquian communities on western Long Island likely spoke the Delaware-Munsee dialect and those to the east spoke languages related to the southern New England Algonquian dialects. These indigenous peoples organized themselves by language and kinship, but beyond village systems and the occasional alliance, there existed no formal tribal structure. Rather, internal structures arose among the Montauks, the Shinnecocks, the Poospatucks, and the Matinnocks to cope with English settlers, and became integral to these peoples’ survival. Although new diseases and land negotiations severely encroached on the freedom of Long Island’s Native population, these groups that developed tribal structures retain a sense of community today. By the 18th century, much of the island had fallen into the hands of the English, who were the sole European power on Long Island once the Dutch relinquished their claims to the land after the second Anglo-Dutch War in 1664. During the Great Awakening of the 18th century, Occom spent 12 years serving as a missionary to the Montaukett Indians of Long Island, along with Presbyterian minister Azariah Horton. Today, the western half of the island is densely populated due to its proximity to Manhattan, and its eastern half is mainly devoted to resort towns. The Shinnecocks and the Poospatucks retain autonomous reservations on Long Island.

Bowman's Creek

Bowman's Creek is a small village about four miles long within the town of Canajoharie in central New York's Montgomery County. Canajoharie (also known as Indian Castle or Upper Castle for the Mohawk fortifications surrounding the town) was a major Mohawk village that became a central location for the missionary activity of Wheelock and others. By the time Occom visited the area in the late 1780s, disease and war had decimated the Mohawk population and only around 250 Indians remained in the area. The village is named for Jacob Bowman, an English colonist who purchased land at the head of the creek in 1760. Occom notes the village as a location distinct from Canajoharie, which he also mentions visiting, and it was a frequent stop on his preaching tours of the 1780s. While in Bowman's Creek, Occom preached to the town's residents, likely at the Presbyterian church. In one entry, he notes baptizing a resident.

Little Nine Partners
Phillips Town

The town of Cannan is located in northwestern Connecticut and is situated along the Housatonic River. Archeological evidence suggests that Native Americans inhabited this territory thousands of years ago. When the Europeans arrived in the early 18th century, the Weantinock tribe occupied the territory. An Indian trail called Berkshire Path ran through Canaan along the Housatonic River, connecting the Weantinock tribe with Indians from western Massachusetts to the North and the Pootatuck and Paugussett tribes to the South and stretched as far as Stratford, Connecticut. Several disputes over land and resources took place in the 18th century between the Indians and the settlers, which were decided by representatives of Connecticut’s General Court, who most often found in the settlers’ favor. The resources of the land that would become Canaan made this area attractive to settlers, who bid on townships in an auction organized by the General Assembly in the 1730s. In 1738, the town was sold in divisions of 53 shares and formally named Canaan after the biblical land. Canaan was incorporated in 1739, and the population quickly increased. By 1756, the Connecticut Assembly recorded only 1,000 Indians remaining in the colony. Throughout the 18th and early 19th centuries, many colonists in Canaan had slaves; however, slavery was slowly phased out through legal measures throughout this time period. During the French and Indian War, many people from Canaan fought against the French, and in 1760, Canaan men participated in a victorious siege against Montreal. Canaan colonists fought against the British in the Revolutionary War and the town provided goods and money for the cause. In 1858, the town was divided into Canaan and North Canaan.


Goshen is a town located in the Northwest Hills in Litchfield County, Connecticut, first settled by the British colonists in 1738 and incorporated in 1739. In the 18th century, Goshen was a farming town and soon became successful producing musket rifles for the colonists during the American Revolution. In 1765, Occom wrote a sermon in Goshen that is an exegesis on Ezekiel 33:11, specifically dealing with the choices of sinners and the death of the wicked.

Old Windsor

Windham is a town in Windham County in the northeastern corner of Connecticut. Historically, the area was home to the Nipmuck Indians, but when the English began to settle Connecticut in 1634, possession of what would become Windham passed to the Pequots. In 1637, following the Pequot War, the English-allied Mohegans took possession of the area and eventually sold what would become Windham County to John Winthrop Jr. in 1652. The town of Windham, named for Wyndham in England, is at the southwest corner of this land purchase and was incorporated in 1692. Eleazar Wheelock was born in Windham in 1711, the son of a prominent farming family. He lived on his family’s 300-acre farm until leaving for Yale in 1729. After graduating and moving to to Lebanon, CT–-a mere 6 miles from Windham-–Wheelock often returned to his hometown to preach and do other business. When Wheelock needed support to advance his “great design,” he turned to his friends in Windham, many of whom were members of the Windham Association, a group of Congregationalist ministers who examined and ordained area ministers. The Windham Association examined Occom in preparation for his ordination in 1757 at Wheelock’s Lebanon home. Like Wheelock, Occom also travelled through and preached in Windham throughout his life. After a period of growth due to mills and textile factories, Windham was incorporated as a city in 1893. A village within the modern-day city of Windham still keeps its Algonquin name, Willimantic or “land of the swift running water.”

Wecus Hill
Gales Ferry
Norwich Landing

Norwich Landing is the original name of the area around the public landing built in 1694 at the head of the Thames River in the town of Norwich, CT, to faciliate trade with England. It was a site of business and trade, also called "Chelsea Landing" and "Chelsea." Eventually, this neighborhood became the downtown area of what grew to be the city of Norwich. Because of its proximity to Lebanon, CT, where Eleazar Wheelock lived and worked, and its harbor with access to the Long Island Sound, Norwich Landing became the main point of travel for Wheelock and his associates, and visitors who frequently traveled to the area by boat.


This likely refers to Stonington landing.

Massapequa Point

Lyme is a town in southern Connecticut located along the Connecticut River. The Niantic tribe inhabited the area when, around 1590, the Pequot Indians displaced them. The area that became Lyme was founded as part of the Saybrook settlement, which is located at the mouth of the Connecticut River. The Earl of Warwick established Saybrook in 1631, but it was not yet settled by the English. The Dutch purchased the Saybrook territory in 1633 from local Native peoples, but in 1665, before the Dutch could fully occupy the territory, Governor Winthrop of the colony of Connecticut sent armed men to prevent the Dutch from holding the land. Subsequently, the English settled and named the land Saybrook. In 1665, the land on the east bank of the Connecticut River was formally separated from Saybrook, and the General Connecticut Court named the separated land Lyme after the town of Lyme Regis in England. In 1669, the colonists purchased an eight square mile area of river valley from a Mohegan Indian named Chapeto and then purchased the Joshuatown area from the son of the Mohegan sachem, Uncas. In 1839, East Lyme became a separate town, and in 1854, Lyme was regionally divided into Old Lyme in the south and Lyme in the north.

Western Meeting House
Oister Point
Cold Spring Harbor

Cold Spring Harbor is a hamlet within the town of Huntington on the Long Island Sound in New York’s Suffolk County. It was originally called Cold Spring because of the naturally cold freshwater springs in the area, and the later addition of "Harbor" distinguished the town from New York’s other Cold Spring located on the Hudson River. The area’s original inhabitants were Delaware-Munsee speaking Indians whom the Dutch called the Matinnecocks. Despite the popular belief that Long Island was originally home to 13 tribes, historians argue that no formal tribal structure existed in the area before European settlement. Instead, they theorize that internal structures arose among the people called the Matinnecocks to cope with European expansion and became integral to the survival of the tribe as a people. Yet, diseases brought by the English and Dutch devastated indigenous communities on Long Island before the area’s settlement. By 1653, when three Englishmen from nearby Oyster Bay purchased what would become the town of Huntington, which encompassed Cold Spring Harbor, from Sachem Raseokan, only a small portion of the area’s Matinnecocks remained. After 1653, English settlers, who were primarily Congregationalists from Massachusetts and Connecticut, began to establish homes in Cold Spring Harbor. British troops occupied the town for the duration of the Revolutionary War following Washington’s defeat in the Battle of Long Island. After the war, Occom preached to remaining Indians in Cold Spring Harbor. Today, the town is famous for the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, founded in 1890 and home to key advancements in the fields of genetics and cancer research.

South Hampton
Shelter Island

Bridgehampton is a town on the southeastern tip of Long Island about 20 miles southwest of Montauk, NY. Its name is derived from the bridge English settlers built over nearby Sagg Pond in 1686. English settlement began on Long Island in 1640, when colonists from Massachusetts obtained land from the island's Shinnecock Indians. It wasn't until 1656, however, that the town of Bridgehampton was settled, when Josiah Stanborough built a homestead on Sagg Pond. Bridgehampton is now a part of the town of Southhampton, NY. Occom was associated with the Presbytery of Suffolk County in Bridgehampton and its Reverend James Brown. After meeting Occom at least two years earlier, Reverend Brown presided over Occom's ordination on August 29, 1759. Later, during Occom's many travels between his post as a missionary in Oneida and his home in Montauk, he often stayed with Brown at his home in Bridgehampton; they were close friends. In 1769, Occom visited Bridgehampton after confessing to "intemperate drinking" in a letter to the Presbytery. On November 1 of that year, the Bridgehampton ministers gave Occom the benefit of the doubt, concluded that he had simply been intoxicated from lack of food and a small amount of alcohol, and indicated their resepct.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Adams, Olive (née Occom)

Olive was the fourth child and third daughter born to Mary Fowler Occom and Samsom Occom during their residence in Montauk on Long Island, where Occom served as minister and schoolteacher to the Montaukett Indians. She would have moved with the family back to Mohegan in Connecticut in 1763, but little else is known about her life. From a letter Occom wrote to Joseph Johnson on April 14, 1775 (manuscript 775264), we know that Olive married Solomon Adams, a Farmington Indian. Love reports that they had three children, that Solomon died around 1783, and that Olive lived on her husband's land in Farmington. However, Occom records in his journal for 1786 visiting Olive on his preaching and fundraising tours of New England to raise money for the Brothertown project, and she is living between Old Windsor and Bolton, CT, a location northwest of Farmington and on the other side of Hartford. The following year, Occom twice mentions in his journal "Olive's affair," that he "searched into" it "and Say Writings about it to my Satisfaction," and then "left" it with a Mr. Wadsworth (manuscript 787660.1). Love notes that Olive emigrated to Brotherton, and that her children sold the family plot at Farmington in 1801. J. Brooks speculates that the "affair" Occom negotiated for his daughter probably concerned the disposition of Olive's husband's Farmington lot.

Albertson, William
Lathem, Edward
Deshon, Telex
Fowler, Esther (née Poquiantup)

Esther Poquiantup was a Mushantuxet Pequot, the daughter of Samson Poquiantup (Pequot, 1725-1787) and Esther (Mohegan, 1725-1822) and sister of Prude Poquiantup Harry (1752-1828). The Poquiantups (also spelled Pouquenup, Pauhqunnup, Uppuiquiyantup) were a prominent family of Christian Indians with one branch living in Groton and the other at Niantic, CT. In 1766, Samson and Esther were living at Groton. Samson was a church deacon who occasionally hosted Occom's religious meetings. We don't know when Esther married Jacob Fowler, a Montaukett Indian, younger brother of David, and Samson Occom's brother-in-law, but we do know that by 1774, Esther and Jacob were living in Hanover, NH, in a Dartmouth College building down the hall from Elizabeth Walcutt and her daughter Lucy. Jacob, who attended Wheelock's School, had become a preceptor there. Esther and Jacob were part of the first group to emigrate from New England to Brothertown in Oneida country. By 1787, Occom refers to Esther as a widow, and lodges frequently at her house.

Lester, Eliphalet
Brown, Elijah
Booth, William
Occom, Eunice
Fowler, David

David Fowler was Jacob Fowler's older brother, Samson Occom's brother-in-law, and an important leader of the Brothertown Tribe. He came to Moor's in 1759, at age 24, and studied there until 1765. While at school, he accompanied Occom on a mission to the Six Nations in 1761. He was licensed as a school master in the 1765 mass graduation, and immediately went to the Six Nations to keep school, first at Oneida and then at Kanawalohale. Fowler saw himself as very close to Wheelock, but their relationship fragmented over the course of Fowler's mission, primarily because Wheelock wrote back to Kirkland, with whom Fowler clashed, but not to Fowler, and because Wheelock refused to reimburse Fowler for some expenses on his mission (767667.4 provides the details most clearly). Fowler went on to teach school at Montauk, and played a major role in negotiations with the Oneidas for the lands that became Brothertown. He was among the first wave of immigrants to that town, and held several important posts there until his death in 1807.

Fowler, Hannah (née Garrett)

Hannah Fowler (née Garrett) was a Pequot woman who married David Fowler. The Garrett family boasted sachems and interpreters and was influential among the Stonington Pequots. Hannah grew up among the Charlestown Narragansetts, as her parents had affiliated with that tribe (a not-uncommon occurrence, given the close ties between the groups, especially in the realm of Christian spirituality). At Charlestown, Hannah received her basic education and was recruited for Moor’s Indian Charity School. She studied at the school from 1763 until she married David Fowler in 1766. Hannah and David’s marriage is especially noteworthy because it is the only instance where a female Moor’s student married a Native American missionary from Moor’s and joined him on missions — which had been Wheelock’s intent in admitting Native American women in the first place. Hannah assisted David on his mission to Kanawalohale from the time of their marriage in 1766 until his departure for Montauk in 1767. In 1783, the pair moved to Brothertown, where their house was the town center. Both Fowlers proved influential in town affairs, and their children and grandchildren also played a central role in the town’s administration.

Fowler, Phoebe
Fowler, Jacob

Jacob Fowler was a Montauk Indian whose life was dramatically shaped by Samson Occom, his brother-in-law. Occom taught Jacob when he was a child, and in 1762, Jacob followed his older brother David Fowler to Moor's. After three years he was approved as an usher in the 1765 examination, and in 1766 he went to assist Samuel Johnson at Canajoharie. He taught among the Six Nations until at least mid-1767. In early 1770, Occom procured him a job teaching at Mushantuxet through the Boston Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Jacob taught and preached among the Pequots at Mushantuxet and Stonington until 1774, when Wheelock hired him to teach at Moor's, which had relocated to Hanover, NH as a complement to Dartmouth College. During this time, Jacob also assisted Joseph Johnson with efforts to rally the New England Christian tribes for a move to Oneida territory (the Brothertown Movement). By 1776, there were no Indians enrolled in Moor's and Jacob moved on to serve Governor John Trumbull of CT as a messenger to the Six Nations during the Revolution. After the Revolution, he continued organizing the Brothertown Movement and was among those who initially emigrated in 1784. He was elected clerk at Brothertown, and died sometime in the spring of 1787.

Paul, Christiana (née Occom)

Christiana Occom was born in 1757 in Mohegan, CT as the ninth child of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Christiana spent her childhood in Mohegan, where she married the Reverend Anthony Paul in 1777. The couple eventually settled in Brotherton in 1784. There, they raised at least six children, four of which Samson Occom baptized. Occom's journals tell of many joyful visits he paid to his daughter and son-in-law while on his travels. Christiana and Anthony finally left Brotherton in 1797 to settle in Lake George, NY.

Tuhy, John
Folts, Conrad Jacob

Conrad Folts was the son of Jacob Melchert Folts (1710-1808) and Anna Catherine Petrie Folts (1714-1799), who settled in the area around Herkimer, near the Mohawk River in central New York. The Folts were probably part of the large German settlement concentrated around German Flatts. Conrad was a Captain, though the records do not indicate where or whom he served. In the 1780s, when Occom, David Fowler and others from Mohegan and Stockbridge began moving Christian Indians up to the Oneida lands they had been given to settle, Occom met and befriended Folts and his family, who lived close to the settlements of Brothertown and New Stockbridge. On October 21, 1785, Occom recorded the first time he lodged with "one Mr. Folts," a phrase he used to denote this as an initial meeting. By September 11, 1786, however, Occom noted, "put up at my good friends Mr Conrod Fols." He lodged and "tarried" with the family several times during 1787 after visits to and from Brothertown. Folts is buried in the Oakview Cemetery in Frankfort, Herkimer County, NY.

Waucus, Samuel
Eliot, George

Mrs. Latham was the wife of Captain Robert Latham, who was part of the extensive Latham family in Groton and New London, Connecticut. She lived in Groton with her husband, who was a friend and supporter of Occom. We know from Occom's journals for 1784-89 that he held meetings at the Lathams' house, lodged, dined with and called on the Lathams on several occasions as he crossed back and forth from Groton to New London on the ferry, which was likely operated by a descendant of Cary Latham, the first ferryman there in the 1680s. Occom notes several intriguing facts about Mrs. Latham: that she "looks quite young," which suggests she was Captain Latham's second wife, that they have no children, and that on occasion -- for example, after William Avery's funeral in January 1786 -- he calls on her specifically .

Ledyard, John
Peters, Samuel
Pumham, Hindrick
Rogers, Samuel
Ashpo, Mercy
Storrs, John
Buell, Samuel

Buell was a popular Presbyterian minister during the second half of the 18th century in Long Island, as well as a close friend of Samson Occom. He was ordained in November 1743, and was a popular itinerant minister before settling at Easthampton. He preached at Occom's ordination, published the sermon in 1761 to raise funds for Occom (he also wrote the letter addressed to Bostwick prefacing his publication), and stayed in close contact with Occom even after Occom's public break from Wheelock. Occom's diary is full of references to visiting Buell and to their close friendship. During the Revolution, Buell was the only minister on Long Island for 40 miles, and was very active in assisting the American cause. He also founded Clinton Academy on Long Island in 1785, which was the first private school chartered by the New York Board of Regents. This academy was also remarkable in that it admitted women. Multiple historical sources have misconstrued Samuel Buell as Sol or Solomon Buell, likely because Buell sometimes signed his name Sa.l, a creative abbreviation of Samuel. However, there was no Reverend Solomon Buell in Easthampton, or, it seems, Long Island, in the second half of the 18th century: Samuel had no brothers, and were there to be two Reverend S. Buell's within 10 miles of one another during the same period, related or not, doubtlessly someone would have commented on it. In addition, the handwriting in letters ascribed to "Sol" and those assigned to Samuel is identical. Lastly, the only source besides collection manuscript 765530.3 describing a "Solomon Buell" is an anthology of letters from the Revolution, which contain letters from a Rev. Sol. Buell, or S. Buell, about aiding the American cause. These letters correspond well with descriptions of Samuel's life in an 1809 biography of his life, and, as he was the only Reverend but one for 40 miles during the Revolution, it is likely that these letters belong to him.

Pickard Family

A family in Cherry Valley, New York, whose members include, at least, Nicholas, Adolf, Jona and Susanna (spelling uncertain). Occom lodged with members of the Pickard family and preached at Nicholas Pickard's home during his travels in 1786 and 1787. There appear to be no published sources that verify this family. Some amateur genealogy sites suggest that a family by this name had been residing in Cherry Valley before and after the "Cherry Valley Massacre" in 1778, including one Nicholas Pickard who was killed in 1776.

Post, John
Kimball, Jesse

Jesse Kimball was a member of the extensive Kimball family, whose ancestors immigrated from England at the end of the 17th century and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. His father was John Kimball (b. December 12, 1731) of Preston, CT, and his mother was Ruhama Sanders of Lyme, CT; they married on September 21, 1752 and had three sons and 13 daughters. Jesse was the second son. John served in the Revolutionary war and Jesse, though quite young, took the place of his brother Samuel, who contracted measles on the eve of his enlistment. Jesse served three years under Captain Adam Chapley and was stationed in New London, CT. After his service, Jesse moved to the frontier settlement of Bowman's Creek, in the present-day town of Canajoharie in Oneida country, and joined the militia. There he entertained Occom several times on Occom's preaching tours of 1785-87; the two often fished in the creek, to Occom's delight. The date when Kimball's Bowman's Creek house burned down is uncertain, but real estate records have him buying and selling land in Bowman's Creek as late as 1790, and he is listed in the first US Census for New York in 1790 as being the head of a household. His first marriage ended in divorce and in 1793 he married Elizabeth Roelofson (d. 1843). By that time, he had moved to Kentucky, where he was a farmer and miller and started his family. Some records report that he also made whiskey, and when he would not sell it to the local Indians, he was driven from his home and settled in Posey County, Indiana, where he died in 1857.

Wympy, Elijah Jr.

Elijah Wympy Jr. was a Farmington-Tunxis Indian involved in the Brothertown movement. He was born in 1765 in Farmington, Connecticut to Elijah and Eunice Wympy. Wympy Sr. was a key figure in the establishment of Brothertown, and Wympy Jr. supported his father. Like the Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Niantics and Montauketts, the Tunxis Indians shared a history of encroachment by Europeans and increasing governmental authority that produced the shared identity fueling the creation of Brothertown. Occom notes Wympy Jr.'s presence in Brothertown several times in his journals for 1786-87. Wympy Sr. was a controversial figure who initially supported leasing lands to white settlers in Brothertown, but when he changed his position on this policy, he and his son signed a petition identifying white settlers as trespassers. Wympy Jr. married the widowed Elizabeth Peters, who had a daughter from her first marriage. Together, he and Elizabeth had a son and a daughter. In 1796, Wympy Jr. served as the schoolmaster for the school in Brothertown, but he was discharged after three months and replaced by Hannah Fowler, David Fowler's daughter. Wympy Jr. died in Brothertown in 1812.

Champlen, Nathan
Williams, John
Ashpo, John
Lathrop, Benjamin

Benjamin Lathrop was a farmer, blacksmith, and minister of a Separatist church that had seceded from the local Congregationalists; several independent congregations in Connecticut at this time were called "Seperates" or Seperatists. Lathrop was well known for his charity.

William Harper was the oldest brother of the Harper family, prominent in the settlement of central New York and the Revolutionary War. His grandfather, James Harper, emigrated from county Derry in Ireland to Maine in 1720, but because of conflicts with the Indians there, moved the family to Boston. His youngest son, John (1705-1785), married Abigail Montgomery of Hopkinton, CT in 1728. They had eight children: William (b. 1729), James (b. 1731), Mary (b. 1733), John (b. 1734), Margaret (b. 1740), Joseph, Alexander and Abigail (b. between 1747 and 1749). John Sr. moved the family from Middletown to Windsor, CT and then to Cherry Valley, NY in 1754, where they purchased land, and began to clear and cultivate. In 1768, John Sr. signed a patent for land between the Delaware and Charlotte Rivers purchased from the local Indians where members of the family moved in 1771, establishing the town of Harpersfield, selling lots to emigrants from New England, and distinguishing themselves. William became a member of the Provincial Congress, a judge in Montgomery and then Otsego Counties, and a member of the State Assembly from Tryon in 1781, 1782, 1784, and from Montgomery from 1785-89. James died of smallpox in 1760. John Jr. attained the rank of Colonel and was appointed commander of the Fifth Regiment of the New York State Tryon County militia during the Revolution, in which his younger brothers, Joseph and Alexander served as Lieutenant and Captain of a company, respectively. Joseph served on the committee of safety of Harpersfield. Alexander kept the first tavern in Harpersfield after the war, the site of town meetings, and served as justice of the peace and treasurer. Abigail married William McFarland, who served as town clerk, and moved, in 1798 with Joseph and Alexander to Ohio where they founded Harpersfield in that state. A history of Harpersfield reveals that during his youth, John Jr. (and possibly William and Alexander) attended Wheelock's School in Lebanon, CT, where he became life-long friends with Joseph Brant, a Mohawk Indian who attended between 1761 and 1763, and became a leader of the Tribe and supporter of the British. This friendship, and the Harper brothers’ knowledge of the Mohawk language and customs, made them valuable leaders and even saved lives; when Harpersfield was destroyed by Indians and British soldiers in 1777, Brant sent John Jr. a secret warning, which allowed the settlers to flee to safety. Occom records visiting "Esquire Harper" in or near Fort Hunter in 1786 and 1787. While this could refer to any of the Harper brothers, it is most likely William, who had the best claim to the title of “Esquire” (whereas John and Alexander would have been titled with their military ranks) and who was the only brother to move to Montgomery county, in which Fort Hunter is located. The Harper family history illustrates how the connections forged at Wheelock's school had wide effects on the course of late eighteenth century political events.

Hogeboom, John
Vedder, Albert Jr.
Fordt Simon

Simon Fordt was a resident of Niskayuna, a town in east central New York State on the Mohawk River just east of the city of Schenectady and the site of a blockhouse built by Governor George Clinton in 1746. Fordt was probably of Dutch descent, as were many of the settlers in this area. He hosted Occom several times in 1786 and 1787 as Occom preached across the area, and should not be confused with a Mr. Fordt (also spelled Ford), who on June 19, 1787, had his slave give Occom breakfast and then took him over the Mohawk River to the house of Simon Fordt. The name Simon Fordt also appears, with only one other name, on the first page of Occom's journal for June 1786. There were many Fords and Fordts in this area of New York. A Roster of State Troops in New York during its colonial history lists 17 Fords, one Forde and eight Fordts, including two Simons: a quarter master who served in Van Schoonhoven's Regiment and a private who served in the same regiment, Vandenburgh's company.


Mr. Fordt (also spelled Ford) was a resident of a settlement called Boght, which is now in Cohoes, a town in east central New York State, east of Schenectady. This was an area of primarily Dutch people in which Occom preached in 1786 and 1787. On one occasion after preaching Occom lodged with Mr. Fordt; on another, Mr. Fordt ordered his slave to give Occom breakfast and then took him over the Mohawk River to Niskayuna to the house of Mr. Simon Fordt. These two Fordts should not be confused, but are probably related. There were many Fords and Fordts in this area of New York. A Roster of State Troops in New York during its colonial history lists seventeen Fords, one Forde and eight Fordts, including two Simons: a quarter master who served in Van Schoonhoven's Regiment and a private who served in the same regiment, Vandenburgh's company.

Fonda, Jellis Douw

Jellis Douw (also spelled Jelles Douwse) Fonda was a prominent merchant and land speculator in the Mohawk Valley. He was the son of Douw Jellese Fonda (1700-1780) and Maritjie Vrooman, part of the extensive Fonda family in the area descended from Jellis and Hester Jans Fonda who immigrated from the Netherlands to Albany in 1651. Before the American Revolution, Douw Jellis (the father) founded the Dutch village of Fonda at the site of the Mohawk hamlet of Caughnawaga along the Mohawk River about 30 miles west of Albany. Jellis Douw, his son, was the most prominent of the early Fondas. He was the first merchant in the Mohawk Valley west of Schenectady and was a close friend and associate of Sir William Johnson, Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Fonda fought in the French and Indian War and the Revolutionary War, and though he was a Captain commanding a company of exempts in that war, he was known thereafter as Major Fonda, perhaps as an expression of respect. He served as a county judge, justice of the peace, county supervisor in Tryon and Montgomery counties, and Commissioner of Indian Affairs after Johnson's death. Fonda was also one of the executors of Johnson's will and designated guardian of his children. He was elected a state senator from 1779-81 and 1788-91, and died in office. In his preaching tours of the Mohawk Valley, Occom records lodging with Major Fonda several times during the period of 1786-89, and using the "ferry" Fonda had over the Mohawk River.

Saunders, Giddeon
McClure, David

David McClure was an Anglo-American charity scholar at Moor’s Indian Charity School. He went on to become a minister, and remained exceptionally loyal to Eleazar Wheelock throughout his life. McClure is important as a primary source on Moor’s Indian Charity School: his diary (more accurately, an autobiography that he composed between 1805 and 1816) includes eyewitness accounts of the school, Samson Occom’s home life, and Separatist worship among the Charlestown Narragansett. McClure also became Wheelock’s first biographer (Memoirs of the Reverend Eleazar Wheelock, 1811). McClure was a typical charity scholar, in that he attended Moor’s primarily to obtain an education that his family could not have afforded otherwise. After a year at Moor’s, McClure enrolled in Yale, where he attended sporadically between 1765 and September 1769, when he received his degree. After graduating, McClure kept school at Moor’s (then in New Hampshire) for several years, until he undertook his only career mission in 1772. McClure was exceptionally ill-suited to the missionary business. He was a city boy from Boston, and was so unfit for farm labor at Moor’s that Wheelock had him copy out correspondence instead. Aside from a brief 1766 foray into teaching at Kanawalohale under Samuel Kirkland’s tutelage, McClure’s only mission was an aborted sixteen month effort (1772-1773) to proselytize the Delaware of the Muskingum River, during which he spent far more time preaching to Anglo-American congregations. McClure had a long career as a minister, teacher, and writer. He remained close to Wheelock throughout his life: he married into Wheelock’s family in 1780, served as a trustee of Dartmouth from 1778 until 1800, consistently informed Wheelock of Dartmouth’s PR problems, and took Wheelock’s side in his dispute with former charity scholar Samuel Kirkland.

Vasnderwarker, John
Paul, Anthony

Anthony Paul was born in Charlestown, Rhode Island, to Mary and James Paul. His family was a part of the Narragansett peoples who lived in Charlestown. There is not much information detailing Paul's early years, but he is believed to have attended Wheelock's school in Connecticut. It is through this connection that Paul is likely to have met Christiana Occom, daughter of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Paul married Christiana in 1777 and, after spending some time in Mohegan, the two settled in Brotherton in 1784. Paul worked as a preacher and helped raise at least six children with Christiana. Occom was fond of his son-in-law, and his journals tell of many happy times visiting the couple, including fishing trips and the day in 1787 when Samson baptized Paul and four of his children. As further indication of Occom's fondness for his son-in-law, he is believed to have left the books and papers that he kept in his New York home with Paul. In 1797, Paul and Christiana left Brotherton to live in Lake George, NY, where they spent the rest of their years.


Unidentified Smith.

Lenghson, John
Avery, William

William Avery was born in 1724 to the prominent Avery family of Groton, Connecticut. From January 1768 until his death, Avery served as Groton's town clerk and treasurer. During the American Revolution, Avery served on several war committees. In 1779, he represented Groton at a general convention in Hartford, and then served on a committee to secure bounties for Revolutionary soldiers by selling Groton "public lands." From 1772 until 1810, North Groton did not have an official minister, and South Groton did not have one between 1798 and 1810; it appears that religious activity waned during this time. In his journal for 1785, however, Occom recalls an experience preaching in Groton, where Avery followed his sermon with an exhortation, an extemporaneous outpouring by a layperson that in New Light churches of the time often followed the more formal sermon. Occom notes that the audience was so rapt on this occasion that they did not want to leave, and begged Occom to preach to them again. Avery died at the age of 63 and was buried in the Starr Cemetery in Groton.

HomeSamson Occom, journal, 1787 April 6
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