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Samson Occom, Journal, 1786 June 26

ms-number: 786376

abstract: Occom details his travels during the second half of 1786. As Occom notes, he spends a great deal of time among the Dutch.

handwriting: Handwriting is largely clear and legible. There are several crossed l’s and uncrossed t’s that have been corrected by the transcriber.

paper: Small sheets of paper folded into a booklet and bound with thread or twine are in good-to-fair condition, with some staining and wear, mostly on edges and outer pages. The cover of the booklet is loose, and shows some repair work on the top of the crease.

ink: Brown ink varies in intensity over the course of the journal.

noteworthy: An editor, likely 19th-century, has made notes on the front cover; these notes have not been transcribed. The final transcribed page is not a journal entry, but rather is a list of people (including those for whom Occom has peformed baptisms), and a draft of a message to the people of Kanawalohale. Individuals and places with names that are not legible have not been tagged. Individuals who are not named, and whose names cannot be deduced (for instance, an unnamed daughter) are not tagged. On 18 verso, Occom mistakenly notes the date as September 6 rather than October 6. On 33 verso, he mistakenly notes the date as November 2 rather than December 2. On 39 verso, Occom has written “[illegible]liana, Wealth, Levene and }Griffin.” As the meaning of these words are unclear, they have not been tagged.

Modernized Version -- deletions removed; additions added in; modern spelling and capitalization added; unfamiliar abbreviations expanded.

James Proud[illegible][guess: f]it
Mr. Simon Fortt

Blank page.

Monday June 26:

Time in the morning I
went over the River, and
ride down the River, called
at Mr. Gregg's, and he
was not at Home, but Mrs.
was at Home, and She knew
me and was glad to See
me, and I was glad to See
her after She told me whose
Daughter She was, for I had
been to her Fathers house in
Blooming grove, many years
back, when She was a little
girl, and She showed me
a Book, which I gave her,
at her Fathers house, She is
a pretty little, handsome dis
creet Woman and talked
very sensible; sat there a
while, and then went on
got to Mr. Vedders Some Time
about 12 and there I took dinner

with them, old Mrs. Vedder and
her Daughter Molly Came to
me at her Sons Soon after I
got there, and after a while
the old gentleman Came, and
we sat together all the after
noon, Just at Night I went
with the old Lady to her house
and there I Lodged and was
kindly entertained they are
Dutch, and exceeding agreea
ble Family, old and Young
a Christian Like Family —

Tuesday June 27:

It began
to rain about Break of Day
it rained 'til near Noon, and
as Soon as it slacked, I went
on to Esq. Harper's at Hunt
, got there about 12 and
about 2: we went to meet at fort
, and there was but
few People; and I Spoke from
John 12:[gap: omitted] and after meeting

went with Esq. Harper and
Lodged there again —

Wednesday June 28:

Time after breakfast, went
to the River, and went over
at Mr. W[illegible][guess: am]ps, and the River
was higher, ride over very
well, for all went down on the
North Side; called
at the Door of Mr. Young Vedder
and So passed on, and stopped
at a Tavern and while I
was there I discovered my Son
Anthony and his his Family
John Tuhy with them in a
canoe going up the River
and So went down to the river
and they stopped a few minutes
and past on, and I went back
to the house, and got up my
mare and went back and
stopped a while at Mr. Vedders
and they passed on, Just at

at Night I went over the River
and directed my course southward
and it was just Night, and a little
way, I called a Certain house to in
quire the way to one Esq. McMasters
and desired me to Stay and I accepted
his kind offer, his name was Mr.
[gap: omitted] and was kindly treated
found them very agreeable People
went to Bed Soon —

Thursday June 29:

got up very
early, and it was very lowery
and it began to rain Soon, and
after breakfast, I set out, and
got about to the house where I
was to preach, and I was informed
that they had not heard of any
meeting appointed, and I turned
right about, and went back
to the northward, — Call on Capt.
, and he was at home
and I dined with them, the Capt.
is very agreeable man, this is
the man that was killed at Fort
in the last war, he was
shot, by an Indian, through the back,
tomahawked on the Head, and
scalped, yet is alive, and
well, and is as likely to live

to the Common age of man
as any man. — Soon after
Dinner I went on again, and
I overtook my Folks just be
fore Sun Set near Major Fun-
's and I went over the Ri
ver there, and went on to Esq.
, and there I lodged,
and they were glad to See me
and took Supper with them and
after Supper I went to bed once
more quietly —

Friday June 30

was at Esq.
, 'til after Dinner
and then I went off to go to Bow
mans Creek
, got to Esq. Kem
s Some Time before noon
and was kindly received by
them, and Lodged there —

Saturday July 1

was at the Esq.'s
'til about 10 and then I went
to See a Remarkable Spring
about 3 miles off got there
Soon, though it was a very bad
way, and it was amazing
Sight to me, it is sulphurous

it Boils right out at a bottom
of a mountain, close by a little
Creek, the hole is near as big
as a barrel's head, and it makes
all the Stones are white with Brim
Stone, I Drank of the water and
it was very ugly taste and
it is Cold as Ice, all the poor
Toads that Come to the water
dies . — I Scraped Some of the
brimstone off the Stone, and
put in Paper; and I Carried
it to Esq. Kibels I put
on a coal of Fire and it
burned and smelled like brimstone
after a while I returned to
the Place, and this Night I
lodged at one Mr. John Whites
and was kindly treated —

Sabbath July 2,

about 9 went to
meeting at Mr. [gap: omitted] Barn
and there was a great number
of People, I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
[gap: omitted] and the People at
tended with great Solemnity and
affection — Soon after meeting I
took Dinner, and then went off

Springfield got there Sun about
two hours high; the People had
been waiting for me, and had
just dispersed, and they gave
out word directly, that I would
preach, and they immediately
Collected, in a Certain Dutch meeting
house, and there was a large
Number of People, and I Spoke
from Ecclesiastes i. 15 and there was
a deep attention among the
People, after meeting I went
home with two Mr. Winters two
Brothers Youngerly folks, all
have a hope of experimental
Religion, and they talk and ap
pear as Such —

Monday July 3,

took Breakfast
early, and Soon after went to
meeting, to a Certain house in
the Woods and there was a large
Collection of People, we began
the exercise a little after nine
I Spoke from the words what
think ye of Christ — and there
was an affectionate melting

attention amongst the People and
Soon after meeting, I baptised
three Children, one by the Name
of Joseph Nakolas Piohits Son
the Children Mr. Griffin Hanna
and Isaac , — then I went home
with Mr. Griffin, (and baptised
another for Mr. griffin), took
Dinner with them, and Soon
after eating, I set off for the
German Flats, Got to Mr Conrad
s after Sun sunset. Some
Time, and there I Lodged and
had Comfortable rest —

Tuesday July 4,

went to See
my folks at Mr. Tygert's and
Wednesday was there there
yet. —

Thursday July 6

in the
morning Some Time we set
of to go through the Woods, near
12 we reached at Ch[illegible][guess: uccaugui]de
we turned out our our horses
and my mare run away

and we were obliged to Stay
there all Night, we could not
find her, —

Friday July 7:

we went
off pretty early, and got to
our Settlement Some Time in
the afternoon, and we were
glad to See one another, but
many of our People were gone
away to Seek after provisions
for food is very Scarce —

Saturday July 8:

and James Fowler Waucus
went after my mare —

Sabbath July 9:

we met to go
then at Abraham Simon's
there was but few of our folks
and good many Stockbridgers
were with us, I Spoke from
Corinthians [gap: omitted] Romans VIII and there was
good attention amongst the
People —

Monday July 10:

In the evening
Anthony and Jame Came back
without my mare, they found

her in a mire, Dead, Sunk
almost all over, there is the end
of her. —

Friday July 14

Andrew Corricomb
had a Son Born

Sabb July 16,

Preached at
Brother David Fowler's, Spoke
from Matthew, Jesus Cried. and
from Romans, if god be for us etc.
most of our People were there
and a great number of Stockbrid
, and and there was great
and Solemn attention, —

Sabbath July 23

went from
Roger Wawby's to the Town
of Stockbridgers
, and many
of our People went and we
had a large assembly, Mr. Dean
and four with him Came to
meeting they live about Six
miles off, and I Spoke from
Matthew VI: 9: and Psalm 133: 1
and the People attended well.
we had a Shower just as

meeting was Concluded, and
we sat 'til it was over and
that was Soon, and then we
pushed on homeward, I got
Jacob Fowler's about Sun
Set, and I was somewhat
wearied — —

Sabbath July the 30

About 9
I went to Brother Davids and
there I preached, and many
of the Stockbridgers were there
and four young Oneida men
were there, and were dressed
complete in Indian way
they shined with Silver, they
had large clasps about
their arms, one had two
Jewels in his No[illegible][guess: o]se, and
had a large Silver half
moon on his breast; and
Bells about their Legs, and
their heads were powdered
up quite Stiff with red
paint, and one of them
was white as any white

man and gray Eyes, his
appearance made me
think of the old Britains
in their heathenism, —
I Spoke from Hosea XIII: 9: and
Ecclesiastes XII. 1 and
there was great attention
among the people, after meet
ing the Singers Sang Some
Time and then we all dis
persed —

Monday July 31

a number
of us went to the Flatts, we
got there before night, and
I put up at Mr. Conrad
s, Tuesday was at
the place all Day —

Wednesday August 2

about two hours high we
set again for home, and
I got home just about
sundown, all well, and
found our Folks well.
Thanks be to god . —

Sabbath August 6:

Preached at Jacob
s in forenoon, and
there was but few, People
it was rainy morning. —
In the afternoon we went
to David Fowlers, and there
was a large number of People
Several of the Stockbridgers
Came, I Spoke from Romans
II.28 29: and Luke XVI 13 — and the
People attended well. in
the evening I returned again
to Brother Jacob. —

Tuesday, August 8:

Some Time
in the morning I went to
fishing at Oriskany creek, and
I catched 5 dozen and five
Salmon Trouts, — and just
at Night I removed to Brother
David Fowlers to Stay a
while, — .

Saturday August 12

In the
afternoon I set out for
Stockbridgers, stopped a while

at Roger Waubys, took
Dinner there, and after eat
ing, went on, got to the Place
Some Time before Night,
lodged at Sir Peter Pauq
s. —

Sabbath August 13:

About 10
we began the holy exercise
at the house of Jacob Conc
, and there a large
Collection of People, Some
white people, — I Spoke
from Jeremiah XXXV 14. in the
afternoon from Luke X. 42
and the People attended with
great Solemnity, and with
Some affection; and it it
was a Rainy afternoon,
I lodged again at Sir
s — —

Monday August 14:

got up
very early, and set off for
Brothertown, — stopped at Roger
s, and took break
fast, and Soon after eating

I went on again; got at
Brother Davids about 10 and
found them all well —

Wednesday August 16:

Night, the Young People
Came together at Jacob Fowlers
to receive instruction; and
I gave them a Short discourse
from Proverbs IV. 13: and they
attended exceeding well, they
behaved becomingly, and
were Solemn, and there was
Some affection, with Tears
after I had Spoke and prayed
I ordered them to Sing, and
they Sung three Tunes, with
great Decency and Solemni
ty, and as they were going
out, Elijah Wympy first gave
me thanks, and all mani
fested thankfulness; The
Lord bless them, and give
them teachable Hearts, that
they be wise unto eternal salvation

Sabbath August 20:

Went to Da
vid Fowler
s somewhat early
and about 10 began the
Holy Service, and there was
a large Number of People
many Stockbridgers Came
and there were four out
of Mr. Deans Family, and
one more white man, — I
Spoke from Luke II:10:11
and Psalm XXXI: 1 and there
was great and Solemn atten
tion in the assembly; after
meeting our People stayed
Some and Psalms — near Sun
Set I went down to Brother
Jacobs, and to bed soon and
rested quietly once more —

Wednesday August 23

Night the Young People Came
to Jacob Fowlers, to receive in
struction; and I Spoke to them
from Proverbs [gap: omitted] a little while
and then we prayed, and af

ter Prayer I exercised
with my Christian Cards
with them, and they were
agreeable to them, and they
awed with the various Texts
of Scripture, and I believe
they will not forget the even
ing very Soon, there was
one Stockbridge Girl Came
on purpose, and there was
one English Girl, and
they also chose each of them
a Text; and they Conclud
ed with Singing Several
Tunes, and the whole was
carried on with Decency, and
Solemnity — —

Sabbath August 27

Had a meeting
at Abraham Simon's on account
of his wife's sickness; he was
not at Home, he has been gone
five weeks tomorrow, — There was
a great Number of People
a number of Stockbridgers
was there, and two white Men

from the New Town, I Spoke
from Genesis XXII. 12 and in the
afternoon from John III. 16 and
I believe we had the presence of
god with us, there was uncommon
attention, and great Solemnity
and many Tears flowed down the
Cheeks of many; after meeting
a Number of Singers went to
Jacob Fowlers and Sung a
while, and then we prayed and
So every one went Home Soberly and
quietly —

Wednesday August 30

Soon after
breakfast thirteen of us set
out into the Woods they went
after ginseng Roots, and I
was going to Mr. James Dean's
we traveled together about 3
miles, and there they encamped
made up great Fire, and
Soon after I went on, Sister
Hannah Fowler went with

me and then we went through
a hideous wilderness for three
or four miles, we had only
marked Trees to go by and
there was but very poor track
we arrived to Mr. Deans Some
Time in the afternoon, found
them all well, and we were
received with all kindness, and
I sundown Brother David Came
running in puffing and Blowing
and all of afoam with Sweat,
he had treed a Couple of rac
coons and he for a gun and one young man, and
went right back; and Some
Time in the he Came in with
one raccoon — —

Thursday August 31

11. we took leave of the family
and went to New Stockbridge
—- got there Some Time in the
afternoon, we called on Sir

Peter Pauquunnuppeet and
I put up there, —

Friday September 1:

Some Time
in the afternoon, we had
a meeting, and I Spoke
from Psalm, 32:9 and
there was very good atten
tion — In the evening they
got together to Sing, and
after Singing, we had exer
cise with Christian Cards, and
it was new them and very a
greeable, they attended with
great Solemnity, but all did
not draw that intended to
draw. it grew late. and So
we broke up. — —

Saturday September 2:

I was at
the Place all Day long, I
visited Some Families, as I
did yesterday, in the evening

we met together again
to go through the exercise we
began the last Night, with
my Christian Cards and it
was very agreeable, Some
were much affected, we
Concluded with Singing
a Psalm. —

Sabbath September 3.

About 10 we
began the Divine worship
of god and there was a
great number of People
for this wilderness Some white
People. — I Spoke from
Matthew XI. 12 and 1 Kings XIX.13
and I be the Lord was present
with us, I Some sense of the
great things [illegible][guess: I] delivering, and
I believe many felt the
Power of the word, for there
was great Solemnity, and

awful attention through the assem
bly many Tears flowed from
many Eyes, — as Soon as
the meeting was done, I went
Home with our People, we got
Home just before sunset; and
our Singers got together and
they Sung Some Time, we
had Some newcomers, at
the Singing meeting, — last
Saturday 13: of our People
Came to our Place to Settle,
a Family from Mohegan and
a Family from Montauk
and Some from Narraganssett
and one from Farmington

Wednesday September 6:

Night, I attended upon our
Young People, and ten Stock
Came to the meeting
old and young, and many
of our old People Came too.

We begun with Singing, and
then prayed, after Prayer
the Young People rehearsed
the Texts and verses they
had chosen at our Second
meeting, and they were very
Solemn, and when they had
done, I began a discourse
with them, from 1 Timothy VI.19
and it was a Solemn Time with
the People, many were much
affected. Concluded with Prayer
and Singing. —

Sabbath September 10

In the morn
ing we went Abraham Simons
to meeting, began about 10
and there was a great num
ber of People, many from
Stockbridge and we had
two white men at the meeting
they were going to Niagara
from Johns Town, and

and there was a Solemn
attention through the assembly
I spoke from Matthew IX
In the afternoon we went
to David Fowlers, and I
Spoke from Job XXI. 14. 15
and there was greater at
tention many affected deep
ly, after meeting the singers
stopped and Sang Some Time
and Concluded with Prayer
and So we parted —

Monday September 11.

I went
down to the German Flatts
Young Elijah Wympy and
I went together, we got through
just before sunset, and I
put up at my good Friends
Mr. Conrad Folt[illegible][guess: 's] was somewhat
wearied and went to bed Soon
but had uncomfortable night
of it there were So many vermin

Tuesday September 12

got up very
early, and it was very Lower
ry and So did not set out
So Soon as I intended, took
breakfast, and about 10 I
set out for Springfield, and
just before I got to the Place
I missed my way, got to South
west of the Place good way[illegible][guess: ,]
and towards Night it began
to be lowery, and just at
Night, I called at a Certain
house, to of the way, and it
began to rain, and asked me
whether I Might Stay there
and I thanked him told I would
and So I stayed; took Supper
with them, — and went to bed
Soon, and had Comfortable
rest, —

Wednesday September 13

Got up
very early and got ready
and they would had me stay

to take breakfast with them
but I told them I would take
it another Time — The mans
Name is Mr. Nicholas Lowe
they were very kind to me
the man had heard me at
New York above 20 Years
back. So took good leave of
them and went on my way
got to the Place about 9 and
called on Mr. Winters but
they were not at Home, the
Women were at Home, and
they got me breakfast, they
were exceeding kind, — and
from thence I went to Mr. grif
s, and was there 'til near
sunset, and then I went to Mr.
s, where a meeting was ap
pointed, and there was a large
Number of People Collected to-
gether, and I Spoke from Romans
II. 28-29: and the People attended
with all gravity, and believe

Some felt the Power and Love
of god, — I stayed at the Same
house, it is a Dutch Family
and there is one Young man in
this house, Very Remarkable in
Religion. he is a living Christian
I believe is not ashamed of his Lord
and master, he was Converted last
Winter, and he is much opposed by
the most of the Family, yet he
keeps on — he and I lodged toge-
ther this night, after we had
a long conversation in the
Family; I was Treated well
by the Whole Family, rested
Comfortably —

Thursday September 14

and Friday
was at the place went to See
Some Families lodged once
at Mr. Dicks and once at
Mr. Crippins. —

Saturday September 16:

Just after
Dinner we went to one Mr.

Nicholas Pickards where
the Christian People were to
have a Conference meeting,
the People Collected Some Time in
the afternoon, and they began
by Prayer and Sung, and they
began to relate their experi
ences, and there were 12 men
and three women, that related
the work of god on their Souls
and it took them, 'til near Mid
Night, and it was the most
agreeable meeting that ever
I was at, there were Several
Nations and Denominations and
yet all harmonious, there was
no Jar amongst them, but
Peace and Love, there experi-
ences were according to the
Doctrines of the gospel, —
I lodged at the Same house and
was very kindly entertained
the man is a Dutchman and
his is Irish woman, and
both I believe were Sincere

Christians —

Sabbath September 17:

Near 10 we went
to meeting, at old Mr. Pickards
in his New house only covered o
ver head, and there was a Pro
digious Number of People, and
I Spoke from Acts XI. 26 in
the afternoon from the last Psalm
and the last verse — after meeting
went to Deacon Childs, and in
the Evening, a number of
young People Came to the house
to recieve instruction, and I Spoke
to them from Some passages of
Scripture, and after [illegible]that
we had exercise with my
Notes, and there was great So
lemnity amongst them, they
were most all Dutch People
they stayed late — —

Monday September 18:

It was a
Rainy Day, and I did not Sit
out, towards Night I went
to Mr. Pickards from Mr. Crippens
Mr. Nicholas Pickard went with

me the old gentleman and
his wife received me with all
kindness — and in the evening
the Young People Came together
again for instruction, and
I Spoke to them the words Re-
member thy Creator etc. and
after that we had exercise
with my Cards again, and
the People were much solem
nised, we sat up somewhat late again, I rested Comfort
ably once more —

Tuesday September 19:

got up
early, and got Breakfast
and then set off, and got
to Mr. Folts just after Sun
Set, went to Bed Soon —

Wednesday September 20

set of
somewhat early old Elijah
went with me
and we got through before
Night we overtook a number

of Stockbridgers just Come
from their old Settlement,
found our Folks well —

Sabbath Sepr 24

Had a meeting
in David Fowlers Barn, and
there was a large number of
People Collected, great many
from old Town, the biggest
assembly we have had Since
I Came to this Place. I Spoke
from 1 Corinthians VII 29.30.31: and
Acts XVI. 28, and I believe
we had the presence of god
with us many were deeply
affected there was flow of Tears
from many Eyes, — in the
evening the singers went to
Jacob Fowlers to Sing, and
I went there too, and they
Sung near two Hours and
then gave them a word of
Exhortation and prayed, and
things were done decently
and in order; and So we

parted once more in Peace
and Love, I went back to
Brother Davids and Soon
went to bed quietly once
more The Lord be praised —

Monday September 25

set off
about midday for old
David went with
me in order to the Lake
to fishing, — lodged at widow
s, —

Tuesday September 26,

I did not
feel well, and it looked like
for Storm, and so we returned
back got home Some time
before noon —

Friday September 28:

in the
morning went to Stockbridge
, and toward Night preached
a discourse to them, I spoke
from Galatians VI.15 and there

was great Solemnity in
the Congregation — lodged
at Sir Peters —

Sabbath, October 1:

Had our
meeting in Jacob Concoppots
and there was a Prodigi
ous large Congregation
for this wilderness, Some
white People — I Spoke
from Psalm 58: 15: in the
afternoon from Ezekiel XXXII: 11
and we had an awful Solem
nity in the assembly, there
was a Shower Tears, I felt
Bowels of compassion towards
my poor Brethren; in the
Evening the Stockbridgers
met at Sir Peters, and they
rehearsed what they heard
in the Day, and they were
Very Solemn; at the end
of their rehearsal, Sir Peter
a confession of his wanderings

from God, and asked the
Peoples forgiveness, and he
was very Solemn, and the
People received him in their
Charity —

Wednesday October 4:

had a
meeting with our Young
People, and there was many
old People also, — I Spoke
from Proverbs XXII. 1 and there
was uncommon attention a
mongst the People, Especial
ly the Young People —

Saturday morning September 6:

ter the reading a chapter
I took notice of Some pas
sages and Spoke to the Fa
mily, and there was a So
lemn attention, and then
I attempted to Pray, and I
had an awful Sense of the

miserable Situation of
mankind, and the goodness
of god which melted down
my Soul before god, and
there was much affection
in the Family,, —

Sabbath October 7:

Had a meet
ing in Brother Davids and
there was but a little num
ber of People by reason
of the uncommon Floods in
all the Creeks and on the
Land , most of the Bridges
were Carried off, for it had
been Raining Several Days
last Week; and it Rains
Yet; Some Stockbridgers
Came to meeting for all
the dreadful traveling there
five women and four men

I Spoke from Isaiah XL 22 and
I think I had an awful sense
of the Deplorable State of Sin
ful race of Adam, and Some
sense of the greatness and
goodness of God, and there
was an awful attention
and flow of Tears — in the
afternoon I Spoke from
Genisis XXIV. 58: and there was
again a moving among
the People; I hope they
they will not Soon forget the
Day, — In the evening they
Sung at Davids, and af
ter Singing, I Spoke to the
Young People in particu
lar, and they were great
ly bowed down before the
word, Some were deeply
affected; and it was Some

before we broke up the
meeting, and they went
home with Solemnity, —

Wednesday October 11:

Night had a meeting with
the Young People, and we
had exercise with Christian
Cards out of the Old Testament
and there was an uncommon
affection amongst them, I
believe there was Scarcely
one but what was Some
what moved, and old People
were moved too, — we Sung
a little after the exercise —
and So parted —

Sabbath October 15

Had a meeting
in Brother David Fowler's
and there was great Number
of People, and we had a Solemn
Meeting, I Spoke from Matthew 5

Monday October 16:

a number
of us, I think Sixteen, all
men, went to New-Town to
have a Treaty with the Oneidas
we had called them to our Town
but they to choose have us Come to
their Town, and we drove
one Creature to them to kill
we got there after sunset
went directly to the council
house, David and I lodged
there, and there rest were
ordered elsewhere. I had but
poor rest all Night, they have
too many vermin for me —

Tuesday October 17:

Some Time
in the afternoon, were called
to appear before the council,
and we were permitted to Speak
for ourselves, — and we rela
ted the whole of our transacti
ons with them about the Land
they gave us — for they had
a notion to take it back a

again last Summer, and
only allow one mile Square
which we utterly refused, and
we [illegible][guess: could] not got through that
Day, and we were dismissed
in the evening, we all went
together in a Certain house
to Sing and Pray together, and
after prayers Brother David and I
Back to the council house
to Lodge —

Wednesday October 18

Near mid
Day we were called again to
the council, and we resumed
our relation and Soon finished
and then we went out, and
were called again Soon, and
they began to rehearse we had
delivered, and they Said it was
all good and True, and then
they made a New offer to
to us, to live on the Same
Spot of ground, but to be
bound by any Bounds, but
live at large with them on

their Land, which we re
fused, and we told them, we
choose to bounded, and they
had bound us all r[illegible][guess: on]d, all
most all round, and we wanted
only to be bound all 'round where
we were, and they took it un
der consideration, —

Thursday October 19:

We were
called again, and, about
11 o c: we received the News
of the Death of our oldest
man in our Town, old un
cle Cornelus
Dead the evening
before, and So we were obliged
to Drop our business, and went
homeward; I stopped at old Town
Lodgd at Sir Peter Pauquunnuppeets

Friday October 20.

I went off
Early to our Town about
10: Towards Night we all
to the house of mourning, and
I deliver a Short discourse
from XXXIX.4.5 and from

thence went to the grave, and
we finished burying after sun
set and I went home —

Saturday October 21:

Soon after
breakfast, set off for old Town
Sally Skesuck and I went toge
ther got there before Noon, I
sat a while in Widow Quinnees
and then went to Sir Peters—
and was there a while, and there
Came a man, and brought a
melancholy word; Concerning
Sally as She was returning
and had just got out of the Town
the Mare got a fit of kicking
up her heels, and crowded up
against a fence, and She fell
Backwards and broke her right
Arm; I went directly to See her
and found her in great misery, we
Splinted up her arm, and So left
in the evening, went again to
See her, and She was in great
Pains, and I tried to bleed her
but I could not make out

Sabbath October 22,

at usual
Time went to meeting and
our Folks had just Come
and most of them went back
to try to Carry home Sally
the assembly was not So large
as usual by reason of the
above mentioned accident
And I Spoke from 1 Corinthians X. 21
in the afternoon from Matthew III: 11
and there was most solemn at
tention through the Day, I Baptiz
ed Sir Peters wife and Child, —
In the evening a Number of [illegible][guess: men]
met at Sir Peters, and there
were 9: or so manifested, their exer
cises of mind, they never were
So awakened about their Souls
affairs as they are now, there
never was So many men brought
to Such consideration as they are
now, they confessed, they have
been [illegible][guess: are] vile Sinners, and
determine, by the help of god,
to turn from their evil ways
and Seek god, They say, they

it is by hearing me Preach to
them; one old woman Said, She
had, Some thoughts about Religi
on, and was baptized Some time
ago, and She thought it was well
enough with her, 'til She heard
me, She thinks now, She never has
met with anything, and She thinks
it is a gone case with her; I gave
her encouragement to press forward
if at eleven Hour with her, She
may Yet Come in — we sat up a
long while at last we broke
up, and I went to bed Soon, —

Monday October 23

A little past
Noon four of our men Came to
old Town on their way to New
, and I set off with them di-
rectly, and we got there just be-
fore sunset, and the council
was then Sitting, and were ordered
to a Certain house, and in the
dusk of the evening of the even
ing we were called, and after
we sat there good while, they
read their Speech and conclus
ion, and it was if did not accept
of their offer they would take

the Land back again, and we
would not accept of their offer
it was take the Land at large
without any bounds — —

Tuesday October 24:

our men went to
Canaseraga to fishing, and
I set off for home, stopped at the
old Town, and intended to pass
along, but they desired me to
Stay to have a meeting in the
Evening, and I consented; in
the evening they Collected toge
ther I believe most all the old
People, and many Young people
I Expound upon II Corinthians XIII: 11
and there was deep attention
with flow of Tears, after I had
done two or three Spoke in
their own Tongue, rehearsing
what I had delivered, and their
Chief man asked me, as I was
about to leave them, how
they should go on in their
religious Concerns, and I told

them, as they were not formed
into Church State, they should
enter into Christian fellowship
and put themselves under watch
Care of one another, and carry
on the public worship of god
in Singing Praying and read
ing of the word of god, and
[illegible][guess: Some] Exhortation, and Some
explanation of the word of god
and maintain Family worship
constantly — —

Wednesday October 25

Some Time
in the morning I left old Town
and went to our Town, got there
a little before noon, and found
Davids Family well, but one
Child, was unwell, but not very
Sick — —

Saturday October 28:

Our People
pretended to have a Con[illegible][guess: ver]ence
meeting, but one man who was
most concerned in the meeting
did not Come, and So they did
nothing, they Concluded to Cut
the Road through to the Flatts

Just at Night two white men
Came to our Town from Spring
, about forty miles from
h[illegible][guess: er]e, they Came on purpose to
give us a Christian visit, we
expected them and according they
Came, and we were Glad to See
each other, In the Evening we
had a meeting, and there were
Some Stockbridge Brethren with
us, and there was great moving
and Some making, and there
was Some Crying out, had the
meeting late, —

Sabb. Octor 29:

Many Stock
Came to meeting, about
ten we began the exercise and
there was great assembly. I Spoke
from [gap: omitted] Matthew XXIV: 14:
and we had a Solemn meeting
many were affected — in the
evening we had another meet
ing, and there was great mov
ing, and Some making up, and
many were affected, but I believe

there was more Natural affecti
on then Gracious affection
there was considerable noise we
were late before we left the
Place, —

Wednesday November 1,

I had a
meeting with the Young people
at David Fowler’s, and they
repeated the verses upon the
Texts they chose, the last
Time they met, and it was
a Solemn Time with us, many
Tears were Shed, Several indeed
are Deep Convictions, and been
So for Some Time —

Saturday November 4:

near noon
I set off for New Stockbridge
stopped a while at Brother Ro
ger Wauby
s and took dinner
there, and after eating passed
on got to the Place towards
Night, put up at Capt. Hendrick

in the Evening we had a meeting
I dropped a few words, and many
discovered their Spiritual exercises
and it was a Solemn Time,
many Confessed and lamented
their past Conduct, and deter
mined to live a Regular life
in Time to Come etc. —

Sabbath November 5:

People began
to Collected together, and there
was a great Number of people
we began the exercise about
ten. I Spoke Joshua XXIV: 15
and I believe the Lord accom
panied his word by his Divine
Spirit, the People were bowed
before the word, — after Speaking
I Baptized
[gap: omitted]

[gap: omitted]
in the evening we met again
I did not Say much, and there
was a number again that
discovered their concern and re
solutions, and it was a Solemn
season, and we held the meeting
late, lodged at Capt. Hendricks
again — —

Monday November 6:

We had
another meeting quite ear
ly, and there was much af
fection, I Spoke to them a
bout the Nature of baptism
very close, and I Baptized
[gap: omitted]

Some Time towards noon I
left New Stockbridge, stopped a
little while at Roger Wauby’s
and So passed on, got to Brother
s Some Time in the after
Noon, — in the evening we had
a meeting, and it was a Com
fortable meeting; — — —

Tuesday November 4

was getting
ready to return homeward, visit
ed Some Families — —

Wednesday November 8:

visited again
and was busy getting ready — —

Thursday, Novembers 9:

set off early
Sir Peter Pauquunnuppeet,
[illegible] Catty Quinney Betsy Fowler
and Elizy Corricomb went with
me, and we were obliged to
Lodge in the Woods we could not
get through, and it rained Some
we found a good hut, and

made out to make fire, and
we lodged quite Comfortable
I had good rest — —

Friday November 10:

got up Some
Time before Day, and as Soon
as it was break a Day, we ta
ckled our horses and went on
we got to Mr. Folss just after
sunrise, took breakfast at
Mr. Folss: and about 8: we
set off again, stopped a little at
Esq. Franks, and near 12 we
went on again, Got to Spring-
, Some Time in the Evening
we put up at Brother Crippins
and we were Gladly received
and we were glad to See them — —

Saturday November 11:

We we were
at the Place all Day, in the
Evening, we had a meeting in
Mr. Crippin's house, and we had
a Comfortable Time, the Christians
were much refreshed, and there

was one Boy Spoke, he was much
exercised in his mind, John Tuhy
Came here just before meeting
began, — we of my Company lodged
at Mr. Crippin's — — — — —

Sabbath November 12:

About 9: we went
to Mr. Pickards where the meeting
is to be about 11: we began the
exercise, and there was a great
Number of People, and I Spoke
from John XII: 36: and the People
attend with great Solemnity and
many were much affected, — in
the Evening we had another meet
ing in the Same house, and the
People were greatly moved, Seve-
ral Cried out, the Christians were
much strengthened. I Lodged at
Mr. Pickard’s — — — —

Monday November 13:

Betsey Fowler
and Eliza Corricomb Came to
me very early, they were go
ing home, and I got up, and
went directly to Mr. Crippin’s

and As Soon as they got break
fast they went off, poor girls they
were all in Tears, when we part
ed, and I went back to Mr. Pick
s: and from thence I went to
Brother Nicholas Pickards, and
and after a while Brother Tuhy
and Peter Came to me, and sat
there a while, and then took leave
of Sister Pickard, and we went
on to Mr. Ways where meeting is
to be, he lives in Cherry Valley
we got there before Night, we
were received with all kindness
and Brotherly affection, — took
Dinner there, — in the evening
a few People Came together, I
Spoke to them from the words
what will Ye that I Shall do
unto you, and we had a good
meeting —

Tuesday November 14

Some Time
after Breakfast we set of and

our course to Bowmans Creek
we got to Esq. Kimbels about
12: and took dinner there, and soon
after Dinner, we went on again
and we got Esq. Maybee’s in the
dusk of the Evening and I lodged
there, and John and Peter went
over the River. — — —

Wednesday November 15:

got breakfast
early and Soon after, I went
over and got to Major Fundees
Soon, there I found my Company
and was there Some Time; and
then Peter Pauquunnuppeet and
I set off and went down, we called
on Capt. Gregg, and was there
a few minutes, and went on
again, and I stopped at Mr.
Albert Vedder
s, and was
kindly received, Peter passed
on, — —

Thursday November 16,


Time after breakfast, I went
over to Mr. Bartlets and was
kindly received, and Concluded
to have a meeting on the next
Day at Mr. Keenes: towards
Night, I went back to Mr. Vedder’s
and Lodged there again and
had Comfortable rest — — —

Friday November 17,

about 12 we
went over to meeting, got there
about 2: and Soon began the
Meeting, and there was a conside
rable number of People, I Spoke
from Mark V. 4: and many
were affected, it was a Solemn
Time, — after Sermon we attended
upon the ordinance of baptism
I baptised two white Children
and one Negro Child, one for
Mr. David Wright by the name
of Sarah, one for Mr. John Robbin
by the Name of Martin, one
Cato Quash by the name Simon

after meeting I went home with
Mr. Eliot, and there I lodged, and
was very kindly treated, — —

Saturday 18,

Some Time in the
morning a number of Neigbours
Came together, and had an exer
cise with my Cards, and it
was very agreeable, and Solemn
towards night I went to Mr.
’s and there I lodged
and Lodged Comfortably once
more — — —

Sabbath November 19:

About 9 we
went over the River, and so went
down to Mr. Ahasuerus
, and there was a
great Number of People and
we begun the Service about
12: I Spoke from Rom: II. 28-29
and the People attended exceed
ing well and was affection,

after meeting took dinner at
the Same house, and there was
one Mr. John Connoot Dine there
also, he is a Reader of Divine
Service, on Sabbaths, among
the Dutch, he is filing and Pre-
paring, to be a Preacher, he is
a Zealous Young man, — after
Dinner I went back to Mr. Vedders
and Lodged there once more
was very kindly entertained — —

Monday November 20:

Set off early
in the morning, and we found it
had to get over the River, there
good deal of Ice Came down the
River, I went down the river
and got Mr. John H[illegible][guess: o]eg[illegible][guess: e]boom’s
about 12: and there I had a
meeting, there was considera
ble number of People; I Spoke
from Mark VIII. 36: 37, and the
People were much affected, they
were Chiefly Dutch, and Mr.
John Cannoot
was here again

I lodged at the Same house and
was very kindly Treated — —

Tuesday November 21:

Some Time
after breakfast, I took leave
of the Family, and went on to
Schenactady, called on one Mr.
Elias Guisley
, but was not at
Home, there was only Mr. Vedders
Daughter at Home, and I soon
passed on, and got Mr. John
’s about 12: and there I
put up —

Wednesday November 22:

was at the
Place, got Some cloth for a great
and a Jacket, and got them
made up, and had a Shirt
made also,. — —

Thursday November 23:

was about
to Set off, but the English people
desired to Stay over the Sabbath
and I consented, — — —

Sabbath November 26:

about 10

went to meeting, and it was
extreme Cold, and was but
few People, I Spoke from Mark 66
in the afternoon from Jonah 3:5
and there was great Number of
People, and they attended with
great Solemnity, — — —

Monday November 27:

Some Time
in the morning, I took leave of
my Friends and went on to
Niskayuna, got there about
12: and about 1: went into
the meeting and there was
great Number of People, and
I Spoke from Hebrews XI: 6
and the People were much
moved many of them, it was in
deed a Solemn Time, they made
a Some Collection, — Soon after
meeting, I went with one
Mr. Fordt about a mile and

eastward from the meeting
and there I Lodged, and was
very kindly treated; we set
up somewhat late, and
went to bed at last, and had
Comfortable rest — —

Tuesday November 28,

It was
very Cold, and Some Time
after breakfast, I took leave
of the Family, and went on
to Debought, I called on My
old Friend Mr. Sanford, and
took dinner with him; and
Soon after Dinner, I went on
and called on Mr. Cornelius
, and stayed
there Some Time took tea
there, Just at Night, I went
to Mr. David Feros, and kind
ly received,

about sunset we went meeting
at the house one Major Fondee
and there was a large number
of People, and I Spoke from 1 Epistles
of John V. 10. and the People at
tended with great Solemnity, and
Shed Tears, Soon after meeting I
went back with Mr. Feros Family
in a Slay, and there I Lodged, — —

Wednesday November 29:

Some Time
after breakfast, Mr. Henry Fero
and I went to See the Falls, and
it is a grand Sight, the Power
of god is to be Seen in it, after
a while we went back, and I
took Dinner with him; and
towards night, I went to Mr.
Jacob Lawnson
s; and I had no
thoughts of a meeting, but Soon
after dusk, the People began to
Come in and there was large num
ber of People, and I preached
to them from, Mark V: 4: and

and there was great Solemnity
and affection among the People
and I believe they will Soon
forget Evening. I lodged at
the Same house, and was exceed
ingly well treated, went to bed
somewhat late, and had Com-
fortable rest, — —

Thursday November 30:

was at
Mr. Lawnsons 'til about 10
then I went to meeting, I stopped
a little while at Mr. Levinus
, and about 11: we
went to the meeting house,
and there was a large number
of People, and I Spoke to them
from Daniel: V. 25 [gap: omitted]
and there was a great Solemni
ty, and many were I believe
felt the Power of the word,
after meeting, went to Mr.
Levinus Le[illegible][guess: e]ghson
s again, —
and took Dinner with them

and Some Time towards night
I went to Mr. David Fero’s, and
the People Collected together again
for a meeting, and there was a large
Number got together; and I Spoke
from Romans II. 28-29 and the People
attended with much affection, I
believe they will not forget the
Night, very Soon — Lodged at
the Same house and rested Com
fortable — —

Friday December 1

got up very
early and we were getting
ready to Go to Albany, one
of Mr. Feros Sons one Daughters
and a Daughter in Law; we set
off in a wagon, before sunrise, and
we got to Albany, near 10, it is a
bout 9 miles, I called at a Certain
house, from thence I went into
the City, one Mr. Blackney went
with me, and as I was going a
long I cast my Eyes down Street and

and Saw my good Brother Peter
, and another man
with him they were returning
to Oneida, and we Spent Some Time
together in a Certain Tavern, and
there I Saw Mr. Kirkland a minute
or two, about 12 Sir Peter and I
parted, I went to See Mr. McDonal
a minister of the Presbyterian
Congregation, found him very
Sociable, and a lively gentleman
took Dinner with him, and Soon
after Dinner, went off to took my
Company, and went to the Same
house, that I went into first, and
was there but few minutes and
had an opportunity to return to
Debought in another wagon
and we to Mr. [gap: omitted]
and presently after I we got there
there was a number of Neighbours
Came in to hear Something from
the Word of god, and I dropped a
few words to them, and I Lodge
there and was exceedingly well

Treated, and the People of the
house appeared and talked like
Christians, there was one old gentle
man, helpless, has been So for Some

Saturday November 2.

Soon after breakfast the
man of the house got his horses and
Wagon ready and he carried me
to Mr. Fero’s, and I was there a
while, and then took leave of the
Family, and left the Place and
went to half Moon, stopped at Mr.
’s and took Dinner with
him, and Soon after Dinner I went
on and stopped at Mr. Fundees
he keeps a Ferry, and he was
not at home, and presently after
Mr. Le[illegible][guess: e]ghsen, came to me, and
So we went on together to half Moon
he went afoot, and we got to Mr.
’s Some Time before night
and I was kindly received; and
in the Evening, we went to Col.
[gap: omitted] and there was a num
ber of men, and we had very a

agreeable conversation, took supper
there, and Some after I returned
with Mr. Clute, and there I lodged
and a Comfortable rest — —

Sabbath December 3:

about 10: went to
meeting, about a mile, and there
was a large Number of People,
though it was a Cold Day, [illegible] I Spoke
from Mark VIII. 36. 37: and the
People were greatly bowed before
the word, many were deeply affect
ed, — after meeting I with one
Mr. Comstock, and took dinner there
he is an Englishman, after dinner
we had exercise with my Christian
Cards with a few People, and it
was agreeable to them; — In then
Evening, went to meeting to a
Certain house, but there were
So many People, we were obliged
to go to Meeting house again
and there was near as many
this evening as there was in
the daytime and I Spoke

from 1 Kings XIX 13 and there was
greater Solemnity than in the
daytime. it was a Night to be
remembered, — after meeting went
home with Mr. Clute, went to bed
somewhat Early, and had a
Comfortable Sleep — — —

Monday December 4:

After break
fast, a Number of People Came
in, and we had exercise with
my Christian Cards and it was
very agreeable to them —
Some Time towards Noon I took
leave of the Family, and of, and
went to the Point, intended to
go over the River there. I
went to Mr. John
R. Venderwarken
and they
had a great Mind to have me
Stay so as to have a meeting
evening, and Finally I Con
cluded to stopped, and so in the
evening I went to meeting

So in the evening we went to
the City and had a meeting in
a large [illegible][guess: upper] Room, very elegant
and there was a considerable of
People and I Spoke from John XII
and the People attended with great
and Solemn attention; and after
exercise I sat down awhile by the
Fire, and Capt. Morgan the man
of the house began to ask me
Some questions, in favour of
universal Salvation, and we
had a mile conversation, and
many People heard us, and they
may Judge between us — and
So after a while I returned home
with Mr. John R. Venderwarken
and it snowed quite fast, and
we set a long while after we got
home, and we had very agreeable
conversation, and at length I went
to Bed quietly once more — — —

Tuesday December 5:

We found con
siderable depth of Snow this
Morning, and it Continued to

Snow, — This morning I Baptized
a Child for one Mr. Stephen Picket
by the Name Stephen Gregory, I
stayed here all Day. it was Cold
Day, and it snowed 'til about 12
in the Evening, we had exercise
with my Cards, and it was very
agreeable to the Company and was
much pleased; we sat up Some
what late, and it was very Cold
all Night — —

Wednesday Decemberr 6,

It was ex
treme Cold, and I Continued to be
here all Day again, in the
Evening a few Neighbours Came
in, and we exercise with my Cards
and we had quite agreeable even
ing, the Company was much gratified, and well pleased. —

Thursday December 7:

Soon after eat
ing, Mr. Venderwarken Got his
sleigh ready, and took me and
Carried me to Mr. Fundee’s ferry
I called at Mrs. Fundees, and

and took Dinner there, Soon
after Dinner, Mr. Funde took
me in his sleigh, and we went
to Mr. Fero’s, we called at Mr.
Le[illegible][guess: n]ghsen
s and he went
with us, and we Came back
Soon, and we stopped at Mr. John
s, and there we took
Tea; Soon after Tea, we went
along; and I stopped at Mr. R.
Le[illegible][guess: n]ghsen
, where meeting is
to be this evening. Just at
dusk, the People began to
Come together, and there was
a large number of People, and
I Spoke from III Hebrews two last
verses, and it was a Solemn
Time, the People attended
with great affection — I
Lodged at the Same house
and was Treated with

great tenderness and Friend
ship, went to bed in good Sea
ſon and Comfortable rest — —

Friday December 8:

I got up a
great while before Day, and
a Young Woman, a housekeeper
got up too, and as I was going
downstairs, She took hold of
me, and helped me down; and
the old gentleman got up too
Soon after, and we had very
agreeable conversation, upon
Religious Concerns; and before
Day we had our Breakfast;
after that we had exercise with
my Cards, there was only one
white person, and Several Negroes
and after that we prayed, and
it was broad daylight, and [illegible]
my horse was got up, and be
fore sunrise Some Time I was
on horse back, and I just called

on Mr. John Lenghsen, and So
passed on, called at [gap: omitted]
a few minutes, and so passed on
my way to Albany; got there
a little after 9: put up at a Ta-
vern, — went to See Some Friends —
about 2 I left Albany, and
went over the River, got to
Esq. Woodworths just after sun
set and found them well but
one girl, and there lodged —
It is remarkable, that Since
I left Oneida; I have been with
Dutch People almost altogether
I have lodged in English families
but twice, and I never was
treated better by any People
nor So well, — and I have preached
amongst chiefly, and there is
a remarkable attention a
mongst them, as ever was Seen
amongst hereabouts, indeed
there is great moving amongst

them in Several Places, especi
al at Debought, I preached there
Six Times, Yea, they would get
together, wherever I am, to get
instruction, they Seem to be real
ly hungry after the word of god.
at half moon, the Dutch People
are the forwardest for meetings
there are a great Number of
English Families, but not half
So forward for meetings, as the
Dutch are, — I believe the Lord
is about to Call them by his
Divine operations in a more
Remarkable manner, than they
have had Yet in this Country,
they have been looked upon, in
general, both by Christian People
and Heathen Indians, as a Care
less profane People, as any that
pretends to Christianity, or those
that are called Christian People

Saturday December 9

was at Esq.
s all Day, and it snowed
all Day, and it was quite Cold —

Sabbath 10:

It snowed Still and
there was a great Body of Snow on
the ground, it was about 3: feet
and 3 Inches Deep upon a level
and it was exceeding Cold, about
10 the People began to Come toge
ther, and there was a few got together
Yet as many again could be ex-
pected for the weather and Snow,
and about 12: we began the
Service, and I Spoke from
2 Corinthians VI. 17. 18 and the People at
tended well, — lodged at the Same
house again, and it was extreme
Cold Night, I was [gap: omitted]

Blank page.
Brethren of the N Town,
Called Brothertown,
Send greetings to the
Brethren of Kanawalohale
and invite them to Come,
to our Town
Mr. David Write [illegible] Sarah
John Robbinson..Mertin
Cato QuashSimon
Seth Vedder of Niskayuna
Blank page. Blank Page.

Stockbridge Tribe
The Stockbridge Indians were the inhabitants of the town of Stockbridge, Massachusetts, a Christian Indian town modeled on John Eliot’s 17th-century “praying towns” (Indian towns where the inhabitants lived an Anglicized life style). Established in 1734, Stockbridge was composed of Mahicans, Housatonics, Wappingers, and Esopus (at the end of the 18th century, the Stockbridge Indians also adopted many New Jersey Delaware). The Stockbridge Indians had close ties to the Brothertown Nation, a composite tribe of Algonquian Indians from around the Long Island Sound which was organized by alumni of Moor’s Indian Charity School. The town played host to a series of famous missionaries and ministers, including John Sergeant Sr., Gideon Hawley, Jonathan Edwards, and John Sergeant Jr. (Sergeant Sr. established a boarding school at Stockbridge that provided the model for Eleazar Wheelock’s Moor’s Indian Charity School.) Eventually, the problems that the Stockbridge Indians encountered with white families who owned land in their town (most notably the Williams family) convinced them of the dangers of white land expansion and influenced their later land policies. In 1785, the Stockbridge Indians relocated to a tract of land in Oneida territory adjacent to the Brothertown settlement. (During the Revolution, Stockbridge played host to displaced Brothertown and Oneida Indians who had fled central New York. These ties were extremely influential in the decision to relocate.) They called their town New Stockbridge. By the turn of the 19th century, land pressures again overwhelmed the Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians and, along with many Oneida, they sought land in the west where they could attempt to escape white expansion.
Oneida Nation
The Oneidas are one of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Six Nations. During the 18th century, they were largely considered the most Christianized Haudenosaunee tribe. The Oneidas had a rich tradition of indigenous ministers, including Good Peter, Deacon Thomas, and Isaac Dakayenensere, and played host to several Moor’s missionaries, including Samson Occom, David Fowler, Samuel Ashpo, Joseph Johnson, Joseph Woolley, Titus Smith, and Samuel Kirkland (who went on to found Hamilton Oneida Academy, now Hamilton College). They were also the interpreter James Dean’s adoptive tribe. Notable Oneida towns included Onaquaga, Kanawalohale, and Old Oneida. Onaquaga was the central fire of the Six Nations. By the 18th century, it also had a sizeable contingent of Onondagas and Tuscaroras. Good Peter and Isaac Dakayenensere taught there, as did Joseph Woolley. Kanawalohale and Old Oneida were more predominantly Oneida. The Oneidas were involved in several crucial moments in the history of Moor's Indian Charity School. Onaquaga was the site of the 1765 confrontation between Wheelock and the New England Company, in which the New England Company disrupted Titus Smith's mission, first by sending their own missionary, and second by repossessing Elisha Gunn, the interpreter they had agreed to "loan" to Titus Smith. Left without an interpreter, Titus Smith was forced to abandon his mission (Wheelock repaid the favor a few years later by hiring James Dean away from the New England Company). A few years later, in 1769, Deacon Thomas led the Oneidas in withdrawing all their children from Moor's. The Oneidas' departure struck a devastating blow against Wheelock's Indian education plans, and provided more momentum for his shift to educating predominantly Anglo-Americans. The Oneidas sided with the colonists during the Revolution, but they were still affected by the general devastation in Six Nations territory, especially the Sullivan Expedition (1779). After the Revolution, the Oneidas granted tracts of their land to two Christian Indian organizations: the Brothertown tribe, a composite tribe of Moor’s alumni from New England, and the Stockbridge Indians. It was not long before the groups came into conflict with one another. Encroachment from the new State of New York put increasing pressure on Oneida land, and the Oneidas tried to renegotiate their treaties with the Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians to compensate. The Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians fought back, but by the 1820s all three groups had lost, and many of them relocated to Wisconsin.
Blooming Grove

Blooming Grove is a town in New York's Orange County, on the western bank of the Hudson River north of New York City. The area was originally inhabited by the Minisink Indians, an Algonquian-speaking part of the Lenni-Lenape Nation, before colonists pressured them to sell their lands in the 17th and 18th centuries. By 1765, only 750 Minisinks remained in Orange County. When Henry Hudson sailed up the Hudson River in 1609, he dropped anchor near what would become Cornwall, NY. Blooming Grove was an area of the town of Cornwall until 1799, when it separated to form its own town. In his journal for 1775, Occom records a visit to Blooming Grove, which had a Presbyterian Church and, thus, an interested populace, as part of his preaching tour. He stayed with John Brewster, the Cornwall town clerk, and preached to the townspeople. In another undated journal entry, Occom fondly recounts a past visit to Blooming Grove during which he gave a young girl a book, and his later encounter with this woman as an adult while visiting near Fort Hunter, NY.

Fort Hunter

Located in Montgomery County, and named after Governor Hunter of New York, Fort Hunter refers to the land located where the Mohawk River and the Schoharie Creek converge in Old Albany County, New York, as well as to the fort built on that land. Fort Hunter was also referred to as the Lower Mohawk Castle, while Upper Mohawk Castle referred to another Mohawk village located near present day Danube, New York. The Mohawk people, who originally occupied this land, referred to the village as Tionondoroge (also spelled Thienderego, Teantontalago, Tiononderoga, Tienonderoga, and Icanderoga). In 1686, the city charter gave Albany the right to the land that would comprise Fort Hunter. According to a European account, "Four Mohawk Kings," including Hendrick Peters Tejonihokarawa who hailed from the Fort Hunter area, met with Queen Anne in 1710 to request protection from the French and aid for the Anglican missionaries; she complied in 1711 and authorized the building of the actual fort. The following year, Anglican clerics, who were funded by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in England, built a mission on the land. Because the Mohawk tribe fought with the British against the American colonists, most Mohawks from Fort Hunter fled to Montreal after the American Revolution.

Mohawk River
Fort Stanwix

Fort Stanwix (also known as Fort Schuyler) is located northeast of Syracuse in present-day Rome, New York. Under the direction of British General John Stanwix, for whom the fort is named, the British began constructing the fort in 1758 in order to control the Oneida Carry, which is the portage path between the Mohawk River and Wood Creek. During the French and Indian War, the British built several forts in the Oneida Carry area, but by August 1756, the British ordered all the forts destroyed when they received word that British posts nearby were quickly falling to the French. In 1758, the British attempted to reoccupy Oneida Carry by building Fort Stanwix. The building of the fort did in fact give the British the dominant position in the area, which they retained throughout the remainder of the French and Indian War. The British Army abandoned the fort in 1765. In October 1768, David Avery wrote a letter to Wheelock describing the possibility of recruiting students for the Indian Charity School from a gathering of Indians from the Six Nations, at Fort Stanwix. This gathering and the negotiations that took place resulted in the signing of the Treaty of Fort Stanwix on November 5, 1768. This treaty, between the British and the Six Nations, Shawnees, Delawares, Mingos and other tribes, delineated territory between the British and the Indians. The treaty drew a boundary line from Fort Stanwix down to the Ohio River, and followed the Ohio River west to where it meets the present-day Tennessee River. During the American Revolution, the colonists built a new fort in place of Fort Stanwix. This fort was named Fort Schuyler but was often referred to as Fort Stanwix.

Bowman's Creek

Bowman's Creek is a small village about four miles long within the town of Canajoharie in central New York's Montgomery County. Canajoharie (also known as Indian Castle or Upper Castle for the Mohawk fortifications surrounding the town) was a major Mohawk village that became a central location for the missionary activity of Wheelock and others. By the time Occom visited the area in the late 1780s, disease and war had decimated the Mohawk population and only around 250 Indians remained in the area. The village is named for Jacob Bowman, an English colonist who purchased land at the head of the creek in 1760. Occom notes the village as a location distinct from Canajoharie, which he also mentions visiting, and it was a frequent stop on his preaching tours of the 1780s. While in Bowman's Creek, Occom preached to the town's residents, likely at the Presbyterian church. In one entry, he notes baptizing a resident.

German Flatts

German Flatts is located in upper Mohawk Valley on the south side of the Mohawk River in Herkimer County, New York. The Oneidas had settled this land for centuries before Palatine German immigrants, for whom the town is named, settled there in the 1720s. The Palatines were granted leases from Governor Burnet to purchase land from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) in 1723. The Germans and Oneidas sustained excellent relations and had both a trading and military alliance (and even had several inter-marriages). When the French and Indian War began, the German Flatts settlers and the Oneidas agreed to maintain peace and neutrality. Both the Palatines and the Oneidas resented nearby Fort Herkimer, believing it made the area a military target. The French refused to accept the neutrality of the Indians and Germans at German Flatts, and in 1757, the French and their Indian allies attacked a Palatine settlement in German Flatts with the help of a few Oneidas who succumbed to pressure from the French. The Germans could not defend themselves (40 were killed and 150 were taken captive back to New France), and the French and their Indian allies burned much of German Flatts. After the French and Indian War, the Germans and Haudenosaunee renewed their trading relationship and maintained peace throughout the 1760s. In two separate letters in September 1761, Wheelock refers to a July 7, 1761 letter from Occom, written from German Flatts, reporting his kind reception by the Six Nations. Wheelock also recounts a July 7th letter from General Johnson from German Flatts written by two Mohawk boys whom the General recommends as interpreters or missionaries for the Indian Charity School. In a 1767 letter to Robert Keen, Wheelock quotes letters from Samuel Kirtland that express the lack of provisions due to years of poor crops. In 1778 during the American Revolution, the Loyalists and Mohawks, led by Joseph Brant, attacked German Flatts, and residents withdrew to Fort Herkimer. While the majority of the Haudenosaunee sided with the British, the Oneidas supported the colonists in the Revolution.


Stockbridge is a town in Madison County in central New York state, named for the Stockbridge Indians of Western Massachusetts. During the Revolutionary war, the Stockbridge Indians had befriended the Oneidas, whose villages were burned down by Indians allied to the British. When the Stockbridge tribe lost ownership of their Christian Indian town, the Oneidas invited them to settle on a six-mile square township, known as "The New Stockbridge Indian Territory." Although the details are unclear, a letter from the Stockbridge chief, Hendrick Aupaumut, to Governor George Clinton of New York suggests that the Oneidas gave the Stockbridge Indians a written deed in 1784, possibly at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix that year. The state of New York confirmed the Tribe's ownership of the town on several later occasions, but would ultimately rescind its promise, forcing the Stockbridge Indians to remove further west to Indiana and Wisconsin, where they ultimately settled in the early 19th century. By 1785, the majority of the Stockbridge tribe from Massachusetts had moved to the town of New Stockbridge, originally called "Tuscarora" or "Old Oneida" by the white settlers. In 1787, the Scottish Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge hired John Sergeant, son of the original missionary in Massachusetts, as minister for the tribe; Sergeant travelled between his home in Stockbrige, MA, to New Stockbridge every year for nearly forty years in that capacity. In 1788, Occom, who had been invited as minister for the Brothertown settlement nearby, opposed Sergeant's mission but Occom's death in 1792 settled the conflict. In 1795, three New York Quakers visited New Stockbridge and began an exchange that helped the village to flourish. The first Europeans settlers arrived in 1791, and the present day town was created in 1836 from parts of four adjoining towns.

Oriskany Creek

Oriskany Creek is a 33 mile-long tributary of the Mohawk River in Oneida County, NY. The Oneida village of Oriskany grew up at the juncture of the Mohawk River and the Oriskany Creek, which was the beginning of an east-west trading route known as the Oneida Carry, part of an extensive trail and water-way system connecting the Atlantic to the Great Lakes. The creek provided fertile land and fish for the Oneida trading village.


Brothertown was a multi-tribal Indian settlement in the center of what is now New York state. In the 1760s, Indians in New England and New York were devastated by war, disease, and European settlement, and many who had converted to Christianity believed that pressures and influences from surrounding European settlers impeded them from living Christian lives. The Brothertown Indians began as a group of Christian Indians including members of the Mohegan, Pequot, Narragansett, Montauk, Tunxis, Wangunk, and Niantic tribes. In the 1770s, led by Occom and Joseph Johnson, this group of Indians moved to land granted to them by the Oneida in New York. They named the land Brothertown to both reflect their intention to live with fellow tribes as brothers and also to pay tribute to Brotherton, a Delaware Indian reservation in New Jersey that served as an inspiration for the Christian Indian settlement. When the Revolutionary War began, the Indians of Brothertown sided with the Patriots, and as a result, British sympathizers burnt the Brothertown settlement in 1777. After this, many Brothertown settlers moved east while others remained and fought alongside the colonists.In the 1780s, many more New England Indians, including Occom and his family, moved to Brothertown and the nearby settlement of New Stockbridge, forming a town government, church and schools. In the early 1800s, the state of New York began to purchase tracts of Oneida land, and the Indians were forced to leave New York and settle in Greenbay, Wisconsin.


Mohegan is a village in southeastern Connecticut at the site of the present-day town of Montville, and is the location of the Mohegan Indian Reservation. The village gets its name from the Mohegan Tribe, or wolf people, who split from the Pequots in the early 17th century under the leadership of the sachem Uncas. In the 1720s, the Mohegans requested the colony of Connecticut provide them with an English educator. An English minister and schoolteacher named John Mason (no relation to Captain John Mason) moved to Mohegan in order to provide English-styled education to the Mohegans, convinced his sponsors, the New England Company, to build a schoolhouse at Mohegan, which eventually served as a boarding school for other Native American children from the surrounding area. During the 17th century, the Mohegan Tribe became embroiled in a complicated controversy over control of Mohegan land — known as the Mason Land Case or, more specifically, Mohegan Indians v. Connecticut — that included the village of Mohegan. The Tribe claimed that it never authorized a transfer of their lands, held in trust by the Mason family, to the colonial government. In 1662, the colony of Connecticut was incorporated by a royal charter, which included the disputed tribal land. The land controversy was revived in 1704 when descendants of John Mason, the original trustee, petitioned the Crown on behalf of the Mohegans, but the suit was finally decided against the Tribe in 1773. Born in Mohegan, Occom became involved in the Mason Land Case and vehemently argued for the rights of the Mohegan Indians to maintain their land, opposing Eleazar Wheelock and other ministers in the area. Although Occom left Mohegan for a 12-year mission with the Montauk Indians of Long Island, he returned at the end of 1763 with his large family to build a house in Mohegan, establishing it as his base of operations. Even after the creation of the Brothertown settlement in Oneida country, for which he served as minister, Occom continued to commute back and forth from Mohegan; he didn't sell his house in Mohegan and move his family to Brothertown until 1789. Many members of his family remained in Mohegan, including his sister Lucy Tantaquidgeon, who lived there until her death at 99 in 1830.


Montauk is an unincorporated hamlet located on the eastern tip of Long Island in southeastern New York. The town was named after the Montaukett Indians who lived on much of eastern Long Island when Europeans first made contact in the 17th century. Archeological records show that Native Americans occupied eastern Long Island at least 3,000 years prior to European contact. The Montaukett Indians derived their name from the land they lived on, Montaukett meaning hilly country. The Montauketts made great use of Long Island’s abundant resources, and the nation subsisted by growing crops such as corn, squash, and beans as well as gathering berries, herbs, and roots. In addition to game such as deer and fish, the Montauketts also hunted whales and used every part of the whale, including its oil, which they burned in large clamshells. Living on an island at first isolated the Montaukett people, but they soon became a strong economic force in the region thanks to the production of the American Indian currency wampum. Wampum was constructed out of polished sea shells, which were found in abundance along Long Island’s beaches. The Montauketts' rich resources, however, led to wars with surrounding Indian nations, including the Pequots and Narragansetts to the north. The Pequots eventually forced the Montauketts to forfeit wampum as tribute. By the early 17th century, the Montauketts were faced with wars against surrounding Native Americans and an onslaught of European diseases, and in order to preserve his nation’s territorial integrity, the Montaukett sachem, Wyandanch, established an alliance with English settlers in Connecticut in 1637. Over time, however, the Montauketts' began selling off land to the English settlers, and disease further decimated their numbers. A 1650 smallpox epidemic killed around two-thirds of the Montaukett people. In 1665, Wyandanch granted the English permission to pasture livestock on Montaukett lands. In 1686 a group of East Hampton settlers known as the Proprietors bought the territory of Montauk from the Montauketts, and would continue to hold on to the land in a joint trust for the next 200 years. Despite attempts over the years, the town has never been incorporated as a village. Many years later, the Montauketts attempted to reassert their land rights on Long Island by petitioning New York State Judge Abel Blackmar in 1909. Blackmar refused to recognize the Montauketts as an Indian tribe, which has to this day left them without a reservation on the land that still bears their name.


Narragansett is a town in Washington County, Rhode Island, covering a narrow strip of land along the eastern bank of the Pettaquamscutt River to the Narragansett Bay in the southeastern part of the state. Today, it is known for its summer recreation and beaches. It is named for the most powerful Indian tribe in the area, the Narragansetts (meaning people of the small point), who are descendants of the aboriginal inhabitants of the area. Known as warriors, the Narragansetts customarily offered protection to the smaller tribes, the Nipmuck bands, the Niantics, Wampanoags and Manisseans, who paid tribute to them. Their sachem, Canonicus, met and befriended the English dissenter Roger Williams as he fled the Massachusetts Bay colony in 1636 and founded the settlement of Providence Plantation. The mutual respect they achieved disappeared in 1658 and 1659 as two groups of English investors hungry for land purchased two tracts of valuable land, which became known as "Narragansett Country," including what would become the town of Narragansett. This consisted of three peninsulas called "Boston Neck," "Little Neck," and "Point Judith Neck," which were used for grazing, farming and fishing. In 1675, the Narragansett allied themselves with the Wampanoag leader Metacom (aka King Philip), in his effort to regain tribal land in Massachusetts. A military force of English Puritans from Plymouth, Massaschusetts Bay and Connecticut massacred a group of Narragansetts, mostly women, children and the elderly living in their winter camp in the Great Swamp. The survivors retreated deep into the forest lands, which make up today's Reservation; others who refused to be subjected to the authority of the United Colonies were hunted down and killed, sold into slavery in the Caribbean, or migrated to Brothertown in upstate New York and Wisconsin. For the next 200 years, the population of the town expanded slowly, large plantations emerged, commerce evolved and the area became known for its cheese, sheep, horses, and grain. The Narragensett Pier was built in 1781 in the center of the village to accommodate shipping in Narragansett Bay.


The Tunxis Indians first established a village on the east side of a river (now named the Farmington River) and called it Tunxis Sepus, meaning at the bend of the little river. English settlers renamed it Plantation at Tunxis in 1640, and in 1645, the Connecticut General Assembly incorporated the land, in central Connecticut, as the town of Farmington. Throughout the 18th century, the Tunxis Indians attended church and school with the settlers. In a letter to George Whitefield, Wheelock wrote of a 14-year-old Farmington Indian who demonstrated a gift for learning and knew how to read and write English, indicating that the young Indian might make a great addition to his school. At least six male students who were possibly from Farmington entered the Indian Charity School between 1761 and 1762. Also, Occom's son-in-law, Joseph Johnson, resided in and wrote a letter from Farmington prior to establishing the Brothertown settlement in upstate New York. According to Calloway, the possible Farmington students were Moses, Samuel Ashpo, Daniel Mossuck, and Jacob Fowler, Enoch Closs, Samuel Tallman. However, the letter does not indicate whether the student Wheelock mentions ever attended the school.

Johns Town
New York City
Cherry Valley

A village, now within the town of Cherry Valley, in Otsego County, east central New York state. It was founded in 1739 by John Lindesay, a Scot who got a land grant from King George II, and who traded with the Indians throughout western New York. It became one of the strongest settlements on the frontier, and was the site during the Revoutionary War of the Cherry Valley Massacre of 1778 led by Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant and Tory rangers.


Schenectady is a city located in eastern New York State. The area that would become Schenectady was originally controlled by the Mohawk Indians, the easternmost and most powerful of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy. The land making up Schenectady was one stop on the much larger Mohawk Trail, which extended from Schenectady to what would become Albany, New York. The name of Schenectady was a derivation of the Mohawk word, Schau-naugh-ta-da, which meant the place beyond the open pines. The first Europeans to arrive at Schenectady were the Dutch who established a settlement there in 1661. Schenectady would come under British control as Dutch power in the Americas waned and the British established the colony of New York. In 1690 during King William’s War, Schenectady became the target of French and Indian soldiers who attacked the town and killed 60 of its residents, an event that became known as the Schenectady Massacre. There was a smallpox outbreak in Schenectady in 1767, as noted in this collection’s documents. In 1780, Oneidas found refuge from Loyalist and Mohawk attacks in Schenectady, and the town served as a stop on the way to Brothertown, the pan-Indian settlement founded by Occom and other graduates of Wheelock’s school. Schenectady was designated a borough in 1765 and eventually incorporated as a city 1798.


Niskayuna is a town in east central New York State on the Mohawk River, just east of the city Schenectady. The name Niskayuna means "extensive corn flats," and is said to come from the Connestigione Indians who occupied a large area on both sides of the river when Dutch settlers arrived around 1642. The Dutch negotiated land deals with several Connestigione chiefs, and began to build homes and farms in the area in the 1660's. In 1746, George Clinton, Governor of New York colony, built one of a line of blockhouses ranging from Fort Massachusetts to Fort Hunter in Niskayuna, and in 1799, the Albany-Schenectady Turnpike (now Route 5) was built through the town. In 1822, the Erie Canal crossed the Mohawk River into Niskayuna, and in 1843 the Troy and Schenectady Railroad was built along the Mohawk River with a station in Niskayuna. The reformed Church of Niskayuna, organized around 1750, is the church at which Occom mentions preaching in his journal of 1787. Around the time that Occom and other Moor's graduates founded Brothertown on Oneida land in upstate New York, Occom commuted back and forth from Mohegan to Brothertown, often stopping to preach to large, enthusiastic crowds in churches and settlements in the area. He mentions preaching at Niskayuna and staying with acquaintances in 1786, 1787 and 1790, often in winter and braving difficult traveling conditions. He likely traveled on the trail that in 1799 became the Albany-Schenectady Turnpike.


Albany is a city located in eastern New York. When Netherlander Henry Hudson arrived in what would become Albany in 1609, the Mohican Indians lived in several villages in the area. The Mohicans gave Hudson’s crew furs, and the Dutch East India Company sent representatives to trade with the Native peoples. The Dutch established the village of Beverwyck within the territory of the New Netherlands. Beverwyck hosted a diverse population of Germans, French, Swedes, English, Irish, Scots, Dutch, and Africans. After the fall of New Netherlands to Britain in 1664, Beverwyck was renamed Albany in honor of the colony’s proprietor James, Duke of York and Albany. In 1686, Albany was granted a charter that incorporated the city and provided it the sole right to negotiate trade with Native Americans. During the French and Indian War, Albany was designated as the British military headquarters in the Americas. During the Revolutionary War, most Albany residents supported the revolution because of their opposition to British trade restrictions.


Oneida is a city in Madison County located at the geographical center of New York state. Before European settlement of the area, the Oneida Tribe, one of the Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy, inhabited a large territory adjacent to nearby Oneida Lake. Around 1533, they built their first village on the south shore of the lake, at or near the mouth of Oneida Creek. At the end of the 17th century, this area began suffering raids by parties from the French colony of Quebec, in a battle to control the fur trade. In 1696, Oneida village was burned by the French. As a result, the Oneidas moved their chief village east of the original site, called Old Oneida, to a new site called Kanawalohale, also known as Oneida Castle, which was fortified by tall palisades and a moat. This is the site of the present-day village of Oneida Castle, a small hamlet west of the city of Oneida in the northwest corner of the town of Vernon. When used in Occom Circle documents, the place name "Oneida" usually refers to the territory inhabited by the Tribe east of Oneida Lake, but can also refer specifically to Oneida Castle. Although the Oneidas sided with the patriots during the Revolutionary War, much of their territory was sold or appropriated by the state of New York. In 1790, the first European settlers moved into the area of Old Oneida village, and the district began to expand. In the 1830s, the state built a feeder from Oneida Creek through the present city site to provide water for the new canal system, which enabled canal boats to ship freight into the town. Eventually, the railroad came through the town and helped with its expansion. This led to the incorporation of the Village of Oneida in 1848 and the establishment of the Town of Oneida in 1896. The town was chartered as the City of Oneida in 1901, and with two more railroad lines transecting the area, it became a thriving manufacturing center for the first half of the 20th century.


Kanawalohale was a village located in the present-day town of Vernon in central New York state. In the 18th century, it was an Oneida village located about 60 miles west of the Mohawk village Canajoharie. Because the village’s name was similar to the Mohawk village of Canajoharie, many sources conflate the two. Founded in the mid-18th century, Kanawalohale was made up of a cluster of about 40 homes along the Oneida Creek, south of Oneida Lake. The name means head on a post in reference to an enemy soldier's skull displayed in the village. In 1765, David Fowler established an Indian school in Kanawalohale, where Wheelock’s son, Ralph, worked. Between the years of 1765 and 1767, Kanawalohale hosted many of Wheelock's missionaries including Samuel Kirkland, Joseph Johnson, David Avery, and Aaron Kinne. The Indians of Kanawalohale used their relationship with missionaries such as Kirkland to gain prestige over the formerly central Oneida village, Old Oneida. Kirkland often wrote in his journal about the dialogues he had with the Indians at Kanawalohale, who refused to receive his teachings silently. The Christian Indian population grew throughout the 1760s with at least 200 Indians attending church in the village. In 1780, Joseph Brant, a Mohawk allied with the British, led a war party against the revolting colonists, with whom the Oneidas had allied, that destroyed the Oneida village of Kanawalohale. This area is known today as Oneida Castle.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Fortt, Simon
Gregg, James

James Gregg was a member of the New York Continental Infantry during the Revolutionary War. He was appointed 2nd Lieutenant on June 28, 1775 and 1st Lieutenant on June 26, 1776. He was a captain when the remarkable incident that Occom records in his journal for June 29, 1786 occurred. According to the military journal of Dr. Thatcher at Fort Stanwix in central New York, on June 25, 1777, Captain Gregg left the Fort with Corporal Madison, both of Colonel Gansevoort's regiment, to shoot pigeons. About a mile and a half from the Fort, they where shot down by two Indians. Though never identified, the attackers could have been from any of the Haudenosaunee tribes allied with the British. Madison was killed and scalped. Gregg was shot, tomahawked in the head and back, and scalped. A dog with them alerted nearby soldiers who brought Gregg and Madison back to the Fort. Gregg survived under the care of Dr. Thatcher, and was taken to a hospital in Albany. Thatcher reports that after a year or so of recovery, Gregg was back on duty. Another muster list records Gregg transferred to the 1st Regiment of New York in 1783. In the 1780s, Gregg and his wife were living in central New York along the Mohawk River in the area east of Brothertown where Occom frequently preached. Occom records dining and lodging with the Greggs on numerous occasions.


Mrs. Gregg was the wife of Captain James Gregg, veteran of the Relutionary War. While serving at Fort Stanwix in 1777, Gregg left the Fort to shoot pigeons and was shot, tomahawked and scalped by unidentified Indians. He recovered, returned to duty, and in the 1780s was living with his wife in central New York near the Mohawk River in the area east of Brothertown where Occom frequently traveled to preach. Occom records staying with the Greggs on numerous occasions. On June 26, 1786, he notes that he stopped at the Greggs to find only Mrs. Gregg at home, who told him that she was the daughter of a man he visited in Blooming Grove many years ago when she was very young, and showed him the book he gave her. There is no more information on Mrs. Gregg or how she and her husband came to know Occom so well, but Mrs. Gregg's memory of Occom and his gift seems to suggests how generous and renowned he was in the region.

Vedder, Albert Jr.
Vedder, Sr. the old gentleman

William Harper was the oldest brother of the Harper family, prominent in the settlement of central New York and the Revolutionary War. His grandfather, James Harper, emigrated from county Derry in Ireland to Maine in 1720, but because of conflicts with the Indians there, moved the family to Boston. His youngest son, John (1705-1785), married Abigail Montgomery of Hopkinton, CT in 1728. They had eight children: William (b. 1729), James (b. 1731), Mary (b. 1733), John (b. 1734), Margaret (b. 1740), Joseph, Alexander and Abigail (b. between 1747 and 1749). John Sr. moved the family from Middletown to Windsor, CT and then to Cherry Valley, NY in 1754, where they purchased land, and began to clear and cultivate. In 1768, John Sr. signed a patent for land between the Delaware and Charlotte Rivers purchased from the local Indians where members of the family moved in 1771, establishing the town of Harpersfield, selling lots to emigrants from New England, and distinguishing themselves. William became a member of the Provincial Congress, a judge in Montgomery and then Otsego Counties, and a member of the State Assembly from Tryon in 1781, 1782, 1784, and from Montgomery from 1785-89. James died of smallpox in 1760. John Jr. attained the rank of Colonel and was appointed commander of the Fifth Regiment of the New York State Tryon County militia during the Revolution, in which his younger brothers, Joseph and Alexander served as Lieutenant and Captain of a company, respectively. Joseph served on the committee of safety of Harpersfield. Alexander kept the first tavern in Harpersfield after the war, the site of town meetings, and served as justice of the peace and treasurer. Abigail married William McFarland, who served as town clerk, and moved, in 1798 with Joseph and Alexander to Ohio where they founded Harpersfield in that state. A history of Harpersfield reveals that during his youth, John Jr. (and possibly William and Alexander) attended Wheelock's School in Lebanon, CT, where he became life-long friends with Joseph Brant, a Mohawk Indian who attended between 1761 and 1763, and became a leader of the Tribe and supporter of the British. This friendship, and the Harper brothers’ knowledge of the Mohawk language and customs, made them valuable leaders and even saved lives; when Harpersfield was destroyed by Indians and British soldiers in 1777, Brant sent John Jr. a secret warning, which allowed the settlers to flee to safety. Occom records visiting "Esquire Harper" in or near Fort Hunter in 1786 and 1787. While this could refer to any of the Harper brothers, it is most likely William, who had the best claim to the title of “Esquire” (whereas John and Alexander would have been titled with their military ranks) and who was the only brother to move to Montgomery county, in which Fort Hunter is located. The Harper family history illustrates how the connections forged at Wheelock's school had wide effects on the course of late eighteenth century political events.

Paul, Anthony

Anthony Paul was born in Charlestown, Rhode Island, to Mary and James Paul. His family was a part of the Narragansett peoples who lived in Charlestown. There is not much information detailing Paul's early years, but he is believed to have attended Wheelock's school in Connecticut. It is through this connection that Paul is likely to have met Christiana Occom, daughter of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Paul married Christiana in 1777 and, after spending some time in Mohegan, the two settled in Brotherton in 1784. Paul worked as a preacher and helped raise at least six children with Christiana. Occom was fond of his son-in-law, and his journals tell of many happy times visiting the couple, including fishing trips and the day in 1787 when Samson baptized Paul and four of his children. As further indication of Occom's fondness for his son-in-law, he is believed to have left the books and papers that he kept in his New York home with Paul. In 1797, Paul and Christiana left Brotherton to live in Lake George, NY, where they spent the rest of their years.

Tuhy, John
Fonda, Jellis Douw

Jellis Douw (also spelled Jelles Douwse) Fonda was a prominent merchant and land speculator in the Mohawk Valley. He was the son of Douw Jellese Fonda (1700-1780) and Maritjie Vrooman, part of the extensive Fonda family in the area descended from Jellis and Hester Jans Fonda who immigrated from the Netherlands to Albany in 1651. Before the American Revolution, Douw Jellis (the father) founded the Dutch village of Fonda at the site of the Mohawk hamlet of Caughnawaga along the Mohawk River about 30 miles west of Albany. Jellis Douw, his son, was the most prominent of the early Fondas. He was the first merchant in the Mohawk Valley west of Schenectady and was a close friend and associate of Sir William Johnson, Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Fonda fought in the French and Indian War and the Revolutionary War, and though he was a Captain commanding a company of exempts in that war, he was known thereafter as Major Fonda, perhaps as an expression of respect. He served as a county judge, justice of the peace, county supervisor in Tryon and Montgomery counties, and Commissioner of Indian Affairs after Johnson's death. Fonda was also one of the executors of Johnson's will and designated guardian of his children. He was elected a state senator from 1779-81 and 1788-91, and died in office. In his preaching tours of the Mohawk Valley, Occom records lodging with Major Fonda several times during the period of 1786-89, and using the "ferry" Fonda had over the Mohawk River.

Kimball, Jesse

Jesse Kimball was a member of the extensive Kimball family, whose ancestors immigrated from England at the end of the 17th century and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. His father was John Kimball (b. December 12, 1731) of Preston, CT, and his mother was Ruhama Sanders of Lyme, CT; they married on September 21, 1752 and had three sons and 13 daughters. Jesse was the second son. John served in the Revolutionary war and Jesse, though quite young, took the place of his brother Samuel, who contracted measles on the eve of his enlistment. Jesse served three years under Captain Adam Chapley and was stationed in New London, CT. After his service, Jesse moved to the frontier settlement of Bowman's Creek, in the present-day town of Canajoharie in Oneida country, and joined the militia. There he entertained Occom several times on Occom's preaching tours of 1785-87; the two often fished in the creek, to Occom's delight. The date when Kimball's Bowman's Creek house burned down is uncertain, but real estate records have him buying and selling land in Bowman's Creek as late as 1790, and he is listed in the first US Census for New York in 1790 as being the head of a household. His first marriage ended in divorce and in 1793 he married Elizabeth Roelofson (d. 1843). By that time, he had moved to Kentucky, where he was a farmer and miller and started his family. Some records report that he also made whiskey, and when he would not sell it to the local Indians, he was driven from his home and settled in Posey County, Indiana, where he died in 1857.

White, John
Piohits, Joseph

Peter Pauquunnuppeet's wife


Peter Pauquunnuppeet's child

Piohits, Nakolas
Griffin, Hanna
Griffin, Isaac
Folts, Conrad Jacob

Conrad Folts was the son of Jacob Melchert Folts (1710-1808) and Anna Catherine Petrie Folts (1714-1799), who settled in the area around Herkimer, near the Mohawk River in central New York. The Folts were probably part of the large German settlement concentrated around German Flatts. Conrad was a Captain, though the records do not indicate where or whom he served. In the 1780s, when Occom, David Fowler and others from Mohegan and Stockbridge began moving Christian Indians up to the Oneida lands they had been given to settle, Occom met and befriended Folts and his family, who lived close to the settlements of Brothertown and New Stockbridge. On October 21, 1785, Occom recorded the first time he lodged with "one Mr. Folts," a phrase he used to denote this as an initial meeting. By September 11, 1786, however, Occom noted, "put up at my good friends Mr Conrod Fols." He lodged and "tarried" with the family several times during 1787 after visits to and from Brothertown. Folts is buried in the Oakview Cemetery in Frankfort, Herkimer County, NY.

Waucus, James
Simon, Abraham

Abraham Simon was a Narragansett Moor’s student who played a prominent role in Brothertown’s early civic life. Abraham was born in 1750 into the prominent Simon family, a Charlestown Narragansett family that sent five children to Moor’s (James, Emmanuel, Sarah, Abraham, and Daniel). The minister at Groton, Jacob Johnson, recommended Abraham Simon to Wheelock during the Fort Stanwix Congress in 1768 (how Jacob Johnson knew Abraham and why he had brought him to Stanwix is unclear. His ministry was only 30 miles away from Charlestown, so that may have been the connection). Abraham studied at Moor’s from 1768 until 1772, and, with his brother Daniel, was one of the few Indian students to relocate with Wheelock from Connecticut to New Hampshire. In 1772, Abraham made a brief journey on Wheelock’s behalf to the Tuscaroras, who proved uninterested in missionaries or schoolmasters. The next written record of Abraham Simon dates to 1774, when he wrote to Wheelock to inform him that he was going to keep school among the Pequots, which he did for approximately six months. In 1775, he enlisted in the army and served as a medic at Roxbury for at least part of the Revolution. Abraham immigrated to Brothertown in 1783 and was elected to the town’s first council. His house was a center of communal life, and appears many times in Occom’s diary as the location of religious meetings. Abraham died in Brothertown sometime before 1795, when his land was recorded under his widow’s name. Some confusion exists regarding Abraham’s death and burial. In 1925, some Dartmouth students became aware of an Indian named Abraham Symons who had lived in East Haddam, Connecticut, from 1790 until 1812. They assumed that this Abraham Symons was the Narragansett Abraham Simon, and erected a tombstone for him in East Haddam. Had they consulted William DeLoss Love’s account of Brothertown, perhaps they would not have done so. The town of East Haddam remains convinced that Abraham Simon is Abraham Symons, despite the fact that their account of Abraham’s life and connection to East Haddam relies on conflating his life with his brother Daniel Simon’s.

Corricomb, Andrew
Fowler, David

David Fowler was Jacob Fowler's older brother, Samson Occom's brother-in-law, and an important leader of the Brothertown Tribe. He came to Moor's in 1759, at age 24, and studied there until 1765. While at school, he accompanied Occom on a mission to the Six Nations in 1761. He was licensed as a school master in the 1765 mass graduation, and immediately went to the Six Nations to keep school, first at Oneida and then at Kanawalohale. Fowler saw himself as very close to Wheelock, but their relationship fragmented over the course of Fowler's mission, primarily because Wheelock wrote back to Kirkland, with whom Fowler clashed, but not to Fowler, and because Wheelock refused to reimburse Fowler for some expenses on his mission (767667.4 provides the details most clearly). Fowler went on to teach school at Montauk, and played a major role in negotiations with the Oneidas for the lands that became Brothertown. He was among the first wave of immigrants to that town, and held several important posts there until his death in 1807.

Waupieh, Roger

Roger Waupieh was one of the founders of the Brothertown community. In early life, he lived in Stonington and served in the Revolutionary War. The maiden name of Occom's mother, Sarah, was Wauby, suggesting that Occom and Roger Waupieh may have been related. Some sources suggest "Woyboy" as an alternate spelling of Waupieh; Roger Waupieh may have been related to the Woyboy who was an early student at Moor's.

Dean, James

James Dean, an adopted member of the Oneida tribe, was an interpreter and American government agent. When he was nine years old, his parents sent him to live with the Oneidas at Onaquaga; they may have thought that interpreting would be a secure career, or they may have acted out of a missionary impulse. Dean lived at Onaquaga for four or five years and was formally adopted by the Oneidas. He may have lived at Good Peter's house. Dean learned an array of Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) and Indian languages. In 1762, Rev. Forbes retrieved Dean on a mission to Onaquaga under the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. After that Society folded, the New England Company educated Dean and employed him as a missionary. Naturally, Wheelock coveted the services of this Anglo-American boy who was fluent in multiple Indian languages. Dean was also interested in working for Wheelock because he wanted a college education, which the New England Company was not going to provide. Thus, Dean became yet another point of contention between Wheelock and the New England Company: the New England Company's Boston Board accused Wheelock of trying to poach their best interpreter, while Wheelock maintained that it was Dean who was pursuing him. Dean finally joined Dartmouth College in November of 1769; as Chase points out, by this time Wheelock's relations with the Boston Board were irreparable and he had nothing to lose by accepting Dean as a student. Dean graduated from Dartmouth in 1773 and served Wheelock for the next two years. He worked primarily with Abenakis in Canada and the Oneidas, and was often paired with Kirkland. In August of 1775, Wheelock gave Dean his blessing to leave the missionary service and work as an interpreter and Indian agent for the Continental Army. Dean interpreted at several important conferences and, along with Kirkland, was instrumental in convincing the Oneidas to side with the colonies during the Revolution. After the war, Dean continued to work as a liaison between Indian tribes and American governments, especially between the Oneidas and the New York Government. Although one might expect Dean to have protected his adoptive tribe's interests, he did not. Dean was heavily involved in land speculation, and did not see a cooperative future between Indians and Anglo-Americans. He helped New York State acquire massive amounts of Oneida land, and amassed substantial territory for himself in the process. While Dean did not help the Oneidas hold on to their land, he did make some efforts to defend Oneida sovereignty from New York intervention. Dean farmed his land and turned it into the settlement of Westmoreland. He was a prominent citizen in Central New York: he served as a judge and assemblyman and played an important role in establishing the region's trade lines. Occom refers to visiting Dean several times in his later diaries.

Fowler, Jacob

Jacob Fowler was a Montauk Indian whose life was dramatically shaped by Samson Occom, his brother-in-law. Occom taught Jacob when he was a child, and in 1762, Jacob followed his older brother David Fowler to Moor's. After three years he was approved as an usher in the 1765 examination, and in 1766 he went to assist Samuel Johnson at Canajoharie. He taught among the Six Nations until at least mid-1767. In early 1770, Occom procured him a job teaching at Mushantuxet through the Boston Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Jacob taught and preached among the Pequots at Mushantuxet and Stonington until 1774, when Wheelock hired him to teach at Moor's, which had relocated to Hanover, NH as a complement to Dartmouth College. During this time, Jacob also assisted Joseph Johnson with efforts to rally the New England Christian tribes for a move to Oneida territory (the Brothertown Movement). By 1776, there were no Indians enrolled in Moor's and Jacob moved on to serve Governor John Trumbull of CT as a messenger to the Six Nations during the Revolution. After the Revolution, he continued organizing the Brothertown Movement and was among those who initially emigrated in 1784. He was elected clerk at Brothertown, and died sometime in the spring of 1787.

Pauquunnuppeet, Peter

Sir Peter Pauquunnuppeet (there are several variant spellings), a son of an Indian deacon by the same name, was a Stockbridge Mohican Indian and student of Eleazar Wheelock, who studied at Moor’s Indian Charity School from 1771 until 1775, and graduated from Dartmouth College in 1780. Together with Daniel Simon, class of 1777, and Lewis Vincent, class of 1781, he was one of the three Indian students to graduate before the turn of the century, and they became the last native graduates until 1835. The “Sir” that precedes Pohquonnoppeet’s forename originated from his status as a senior in school, and remained a part of his name for the rest of his life. After graduating, Pauquunnuppeet returned to Stockbridge, where he taught school and was involved in tribal affairs. Joseph Quanaukaunt (Quinney) became sachem in 1777, and along with Hendrick Aupaumut and John Konkapot, Pauquunnuppeet was a member of the his council. Pauquunnuppeet was also influential in the Brothertown movement and the founding of New Stockbridge six miles from Brothertown, New York. In 1785, when Americans in New York were driving the Oneidas to cede land that bordered Pennsylvania, Pauquunnuppeet represented the Stockbridge Indians in what became the Treaty of Herkimer. Pauquunnuppeet had an influential friendship with Samson Occom. Occom recorded many occasions in his diary during his missionary tours of 1785-1787 when Peter hosted him, and noted a few instances when they traveled together. Often during Occom’s visits to New Stockbridge Captain Hendrick and Pauquunnuppeet would translate his sermons for those who could not understand English. The Stockbridge Indians favored Occom over the white missionary John Sergeant, Jr., and on August 29, 1787 Pauquunnuppeet was one of nine Indians to write to Occom declaring their devotion and inviting Occom to become their minister. However, the tribe had no means by which to pay Occom, and so, in the winter of 1787 Pauquunnuppeet, Occom, and David Fowler embarked on a fundraising journey through New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York. They were not, however, able to raise as much money as they had sought to collect. Pauquunnuppeet’s strong presence within the tribe may have led to his death, although the precise date and circumstances of his decease is unknown. Sectionalism within New Stockbridge was growing due to the friction between those who supported Occom and those who preferred Sergeant, Jr. as their minister. The politics of Brothertown as an independent entity contributed to the tension. Finally, when Hendrick Aupaumet rose to the position of chief, Pauquunnuppeet became the leader of a rival faction. It has been suggested that Pauquunnuppeet’s increasing authority provoked his enemies to poison him.

Concoppot, Jacob
Wympy, Elijah

Elijah Wympy was a prominent Farmington Indian who was instrumental in establishing Brothertown, yet he subsequently led a group that disregarded the primary vision of the community. In his early years he was a student at the school in Farmington, CT, and in 1757 he served in the Seven Years’ War. During negotiations around 1773 between the Oneida and New England Indians concerning a tract of land, Wympy acted as a delegate for Farmington and asked other tribes to send envoys too. The Oneidas granted the territory the following year, and in 1775 Wympy was among the first to move to what became Brothertown. He was chosen as a trustee of the town in 1785, but around this time the Oneidas attempted to reclaim the land. Accordingly, Wympy participated in the effort to maintain the territory. Fortunately, when the state of New York gained Oneida territory in 1788, it acknowledged the Christian Indians’ right to the tract as it had originally been granted; the state passed an act in 1789 that recognized the Indians’ property and instituted a 10-year limit on leases for lots. Wympy and his followers, comprised mainly of outsiders, thus leased numerous parcels, including invaluable ones, to white settlers. Occom strongly opposed this and petitioned the Assembly, which passed an act in 1791 restricting the power to lease lands to the council. While Occom and Wympy had previously been friends -- Wympy had even partaken in the movement to establish Occom as the local minister -- their disagreement on the issue of leasing Brothertown lands to whites opened a strong divide between them. Wympy apparently regretted his actions, for in 1794 he was among the signers of an address to the governor seeking to remove the whites. He remained in Brothertown until his death around 1802.

Wympy, Elijah Jr.

Elijah Wympy Jr. was a Farmington-Tunxis Indian involved in the Brothertown movement. He was born in 1765 in Farmington, Connecticut to Elijah and Eunice Wympy. Wympy Sr. was a key figure in the establishment of Brothertown, and Wympy Jr. supported his father. Like the Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Niantics and Montauketts, the Tunxis Indians shared a history of encroachment by Europeans and increasing governmental authority that produced the shared identity fueling the creation of Brothertown. Occom notes Wympy Jr.'s presence in Brothertown several times in his journals for 1786-87. Wympy Sr. was a controversial figure who initially supported leasing lands to white settlers in Brothertown, but when he changed his position on this policy, he and his son signed a petition identifying white settlers as trespassers. Wympy Jr. married the widowed Elizabeth Peters, who had a daughter from her first marriage. Together, he and Elizabeth had a son and a daughter. In 1796, Wympy Jr. served as the schoolmaster for the school in Brothertown, but he was discharged after three months and replaced by Hannah Fowler, David Fowler's daughter. Wympy Jr. died in Brothertown in 1812.

Fowler, Hannah (née Garrett)

Hannah Fowler (née Garrett) was a Pequot woman who married David Fowler. The Garrett family boasted sachems and interpreters and was influential among the Stonington Pequots. Hannah grew up among the Charlestown Narragansetts, as her parents had affiliated with that tribe (a not-uncommon occurrence, given the close ties between the groups, especially in the realm of Christian spirituality). At Charlestown, Hannah received her basic education and was recruited for Moor’s Indian Charity School. She studied at the school from 1763 until she married David Fowler in 1766. Hannah and David’s marriage is especially noteworthy because it is the only instance where a female Moor’s student married a Native American missionary from Moor’s and joined him on missions — which had been Wheelock’s intent in admitting Native American women in the first place. Hannah assisted David on his mission to Kanawalohale from the time of their marriage in 1766 until his departure for Montauk in 1767. In 1783, the pair moved to Brothertown, where their house was the town center. Both Fowlers proved influential in town affairs, and their children and grandchildren also played a central role in the town’s administration.

Lowe, Nicholas
Stansel, Henry
Pickard Family

A family in Cherry Valley, New York, whose members include, at least, Nicholas, Adolf, Jona and Susanna (spelling uncertain). Occom lodged with members of the Pickard family and preached at Nicholas Pickard's home during his travels in 1786 and 1787. There appear to be no published sources that verify this family. Some amateur genealogy sites suggest that a family by this name had been residing in Cherry Valley before and after the "Cherry Valley Massacre" in 1778, including one Nicholas Pickard who was killed in 1776.

Quinney, Widow
Cornelus, Uncle
Skesuk, Sally
Aupaumut, Hendrick

Hendrick Aupaumut, most likely a descendant of the Mohawk chief Hendrick, was a Mahican Indian who was born in Stockbridge, Massachusetts in 1757. He was educated by the Moravians and became very involved in tribal affairs and relations with the United States. Along with other Stockbridge Indians, Aupaumut fought as part of Captain William Goodrich’s company in the Revolutionary War, rising to captain in 1778. In 1777, when Joseph Quanaukaunt became sachem, Aupaumut became a member of his council along with Peter Pohqunnoppeet and John Konkapot. He also became close friends with Samson Occom and would often host the preacher or translate his sermons when the latter visited New Stockbridge, to where the Stockbridges moved in the mid 1780s. In 1787 he was one of nine Indians to write to Occom declaring their faith and asking Occom to become their minster. He was also one of the Indians to sign the proclamation that Occom, Pohqunnooppeet, and David Fowler carried during their tour to raise funds to support Occom as their pastor. By the 1790s, Aupaumut was acting as an agent for the United States. He helped the government combat Tecumseh and his brother Elskwatawa, and he fought under General Harrison in the War of 1812. Both conflicts interrupted the various land deals between tribes, as well as treaties and other negotiations, in which he was involved. Although he encouraged Indians to convert to Christianity and learn English, Aupaumut opposed leasing land to whites. Occom and Aupaumut agreed that the Stockbridges must move west to escape the influence of outside cultures, and to preserve their Christianity. In the 1820s, Aupaumut led land deals with Wisconsin tribes, and he finally moved west in 1829 along with the remainder of the Stockbridge tribe.

Quinney, Catty
Fowler, Elizabeth

Elizabeth Fowler was the daughter of David Fowler, Occom's brother-in-law, and Hannah Garrett.

Corricomb, Eliza
Frank, Lawrence

Lawrence Frank, also identified in histories of Frankfort as "Lewis," was one of the earliest settlers of the town of Frankfort (originally Frank's Ford), located east of present-day Utica, which was named in his honor. He was the son of Henry Frank (c 1725-1790) and Maria Catharine. Henry immigrated to Pennsylvania from Germany, probably Bavaria, with his brother Christopher in 1740 and was a trader between the Mohawk and Lehigh Valleys in the 1740s and 50s. He settled in German Flatts, an area originally belonging to the Mohawk Nation but populated with German immigrants who bought up the fertile river lands. Lawrence married Mary Myers in 1769 and they helped found the new town of Frankfort on land originally bought from the Mohawks by Dutch settlers. The land was set off as a separate town from German Flatts by an act of the NY Legislature on February 5, 1796. Lawrence Frank owned a large tract of land, and town history reflects that he actively promoted the industrial and agricultural progress of Frankfort, which was severely damaged in the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars. In fact, Frank and a group of other patriots were taken as prisoners of war during the Revolution and housed in Quebec from August 31 1778 until May 15 1781, when he was released and made his way back home. His popularity is reflected in the fact that the village of Howard's Bush was renamed Frankfort Center and McGowansville was renamed East Frankfort. Later in life, Frank moved with some of his family to a new settlement called Busti in Chautauqua County, NY, which is where he died. On his first journey to the Oneidas in 1761, Occom records paying for lodging at Mr. Franks, a tavern keeper in German Flatts. Although there is no historical record of such a place, Occom returned to this tavern many times on his preaching tours of the area between 1786 and 1790. Frank's Tavern must have been a major establishment because in early July of 1761, Occom notes that William Johnson met him and David Fowler there, and that the next day Johnson met with chiefs of the Oneidas to work out an agreement about an Oneida who killed a Dutchman. In June 1789, Occom records preaching in Esquire Frank's barn to "a vast number of people."

Wright, David
Wright, Sarah
Robbinson, John
Robbinson, Martin
Quash, Cato
Quash, Simon
Marcelus, Ahasuerus
Connoot, John
Hogeboom, John
Guisley, Elias
Fordt Simon

Simon Fordt was a resident of Niskayuna, a town in east central New York State on the Mohawk River just east of the city of Schenectady and the site of a blockhouse built by Governor George Clinton in 1746. Fordt was probably of Dutch descent, as were many of the settlers in this area. He hosted Occom several times in 1786 and 1787 as Occom preached across the area, and should not be confused with a Mr. Fordt (also spelled Ford), who on June 19, 1787, had his slave give Occom breakfast and then took him over the Mohawk River to the house of Simon Fordt. The name Simon Fordt also appears, with only one other name, on the first page of Occom's journal for June 1786. There were many Fords and Fordts in this area of New York. A Roster of State Troops in New York during its colonial history lists 17 Fords, one Forde and eight Fordts, including two Simons: a quarter master who served in Van Schoonhoven's Regiment and a private who served in the same regiment, Vandenburgh's company.

Vendenbergh, Cornelius
Fero, Henry
Fero, David
Lawnson, Jacob
Lawnson, Levinus
Kirkland, Samuel

Samuel Kirkland (b. Kirtland) was Eleazar Wheelock’s most famous Anglo American student. He conducted a 40-year mission to the Oneidas and founded Hamilton College (established in 1793 as Hamilton Oneida Academy). Kirkland won acclaim as a missionary at a young age by conducting an adventurous and risky mission to the Senecas, the westernmost of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Six Nations. After his year and a half among them, which was well publicized by Wheelock, he was ordained and sent as a missionary to the Oneidas under the auspices of the Connecticut Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. He spent most of the rest of his life serving the Oneidas as a minister. Kirkland’s sincere devotion to serving as a missionary was excellent publicity for Wheelock’s program, but it also brought the two men into conflict. Wheelock became jealous of Kirkland when the school’s British benefactors began urging Wheelock to make Kirkland his heir, and Kirkland, meanwhile, was upset that Wheelock had failed to provide him with sufficient supplies on his mission — a complaint that he was unafraid to publicize (and that almost all of Wheelock’s other students shared). The breaking point came in 1770, when Kirkland split from Wheelock’s Connecticut Board and affiliated with the New England Company, a missionary society that had abruptly turned against Wheelock in 1765. Wheelock and Kirkland briefly made up in 1771, but their relationship quickly dissolved into further acrimony. Although Kirkland spent most of his life as a missionary to the Six Nations, he generally held disparaging views of Native Americans. He did not approve of Wheelock’s plan to educate Indians as missionaries, and was haughty towards the Moor’s alumni that worked with him (notably David Fowler, Joseph Johnson, and Joseph Woolley). Prior to the Revolution, Kirkland had been stringent in his refusals to take Oneida land, even when offered to him. The Revolution seems to have shifted his loyalties from the Oneidas to local Anglo Americans. Kirkland served as a chaplain in the American army and was instrumental in convincing the Oneidas to remain neutral (or, more accurately, to side with the Americans). At one point he was the chaplain with General Sullivan’s army, the force sent to ransack Seneca and Cayuga territory in 1779. It is unclear what emotions this aroused in Kirkland, who had served the Senecas less than 15 years earlier, yet after the war, Kirkland freely engaged in Oneida dispossession. Along with James Dean, another Wheelock alumnus with close ties to the Oneidas, Kirkland played a pivotal role in urging the Oneidas to sell land illegally to the state of New York. The land deals that resulted gave Kirkland the property, financial capital, and connections to establish Hamilton Oneida Academy. The last decades of Kirkland’s life were difficult. He found himself in a three-way battle with Samson Occom and John Sergeant Jr., who were also ministers in Oneida territory, for the hearts and minds of their congregations; he was fired as a missionary in 1797, although he continued to serve sans salary; one of his son’s business enterprises failed, leaving Kirkland nearly destitute; and two of his three sons died unexpectedly. Hamilton Oneida Academy, like Moor’s Indian Charity School, largely failed at its goal of educating Indians, and in 1812, four years after Kirkland’s death, it was re-purposed as Hamilton College, a largely Anglo-American institution. At some point in the mid-to-late 18th century, Kirkland changed his name from Kirtland, although the reasons for this are uncertain.

Vasnderwarker, John
Picket, Stephen
Picket, Stephen Gregory
Lenghson, John
Lenghsen, R
Vedder, Seth
Post, John
HomeSamson Occom, Journal, 1786 June 26
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