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Samson Occom, journal, 1785 December 15 to 1786 January 22

ms-number: 785665

abstract: Occom details his travels throughout Connecticut, New York, Vermont, and Massachusetts as he preaches among Native, Dutch, and African-American communities.

handwriting: Handwriting is largely clear and legible. The journal is minimally overwritten by an editor, likely 19th-century; these edits have not been transcribed. There are some uncrossed t's and crossed uprights that the transcriber has corrected.

paper: Several small sheets folded together and sewn into a booklet are in good condition, with light-to-moderate staining and wear. There is some repair work done on particularly worn edges.

ink: Dark brown.

noteworthy: This journal picks up where manuscript 785655 leaves off. On four recto, it is uncertain to which lake Occom refers; however, it is possbily Saratoga Lake. On four verso, the identity of the "Honorable Congress" is uncertain, although it is possibly the New York State legislature. On 11 recto, the identity of the Captain's son is uncertain, and so he has been left untagged. On 14 recto, Occom uses the modern spelling of the word “boss,” which may predate OED's earliest citation by 25 years. On 24 verso, the name “John Shuneman” is written in a hand other than Occom's. When the spelling of a name or place name is illegible, the entity has been left untagged.

Modernized Version -- deletions removed; additions added in; modern spelling and capitalization added; unfamiliar abbreviations expanded.

I went home with Mr. Seeley
and in the evening a num
ber of People Came in to
exercise with my notes
and it was very agreeable
Meeting, Lodged here, —

Thursday December 15:

10: O: c set off for another meet
ing about 2 miles to Mr.
and there was a
Small number of People
and I Spoke to them from
[gap: omitted] — just before
meeting I was called by
a man from 5000 Aires
to marry a couple this even
ing, — and So as Soon as
the meeting was over

[gap: worn_edge][guess: I] set off, and got there
after sunset and I sat a
little while at Mr. Northrops
and then went to the house
of wedding, and married
a couple and Soon after
marriage I went with home
with Mr. Benjamin and his
wife and there I Lodged —

Friday December 16.

Soon after
breakfast, I went off to P[illegible][guess: ee]ssley
got there. about 12: and in
about an Hour we began
the meeting, and there was
a considerable number of
People Chiefly Scotch People
and I Spoke from Isaiah 16 5.5
and the People were great[gap: worn_edge][guess: ly]
bowed before the word, an[gap: tear][guess: d]
the Lord, I believe gave me
Some sense of his word,

as Soon as the meeting was
over I went off to Ballston
got to Mr. L[illegible][guess: ac]ys about Sun
down, and it was Rainy, yet
a Number of People Came to
gether, and we had agreeable
exercise with my Notes, sat up
late, and Lodge at the Same
house, and was kindly en
tertained. —

Saturday December 17:

in the
morning went to Mr. Jeremiah
and took breakfast
with them, and Soon after
eating I went off, called a while
at Mr. Benjamins, and from
there went to Mr. Cundys a
Dutchman, and was extreme
ly well received, stayed the
rest of the Day and the night
ensuing, — and we had
very agreeable exercise with

my Notes — —

Sabbath December 18

Soon after
breakfast Mr. Cundy and
I went to Galway to meet
ing with the Scotch People
we got there about 12: and
there was a great Number of
People, Chiefly Scotch People, and
I began the meeting Soon after
I got there, — I Spoke from Ephesians V: 14
and I much freedom; and there
was very deep and Solemn atten
tion, many were greatly affected,
after Service, I took Dinner with
the Family where the meeting, the
mans Name was Mr. McKinsley
Soon after Dinner, I returned
to 5000 A[illegible][guess: cr]es, I went alone, I got
to Mr. Moorhouse's before sun
set, and stopped there for the night
and was affectionately received —
in the Evening a number of

Young People and Some others
Came together, to have exercises
with my Notes, and it was
a it was a Comfortable meet
ing, the Company broke up
about 10, and after that we
sat up Some Time, and we
went to Bed quietly — —

Monday December 19:

got very
Early, and got my Mare Shod
and after breakfast, I took
good leave of the Family, and
set off to take leave of my other
Friends as Soon as could, for
a young Came for me this
morning, to go to north part
of Ballston 8. or 9. miles
from this Place, got away
from my Friends about 12
and So went on as fast as
I could, could at Mr. Seeley's
and took Dinner there, and

So went directly on again
got to the Place [guess: about] 2, and Mar
ried a couple of English, their
Names were, Sanford White and
Hannah Hide — In the evening
I went to another house one Mr.
and there we had a meet
ing, and there was a goodly
Number of People, and it was
a refreshing meeting, many
I believe felt the Power of the
Word, I Spoke from Luke XVIII 41
after I had dismissed them, a num
ber stayed, and desired to have
exercise with my Notes, and
there was great Solemnity a
mongst them, many were
Deeply affected, there was a
flow Tears, from many Eyes
it was late before we break
up, and I went to bed once
more in Peace, thanks be
to God —

Tuesday December 20:

got up very
Early and had my horse got
for me, and went one Mr.
a few Rods and there
took breakfast, after break
fast took my notes, handed out
to 3: or 4: Children, and then
I set off for Eastward, got to
Mr. Weeds about 12: took din
ner with them, and Soon after
Dinner went on again one
Mr. Nash Conducted me over
the North End of the Lake —
and Mr. Nash desired me to
go home with him and to
have a meeting in the evening
at his house or Some other
and I consented and we had
a meeting, and there was
great Number of People and
I Spoke from, Habakkuk 1.13 To what
purpose etc. — Lodged at Mr. Nashs

Wednesday December 21.

was up
early, and got ready to go a
way, And Mr. Nash had a
notion of Exchanging mares
with me, and I considered of
it a little while, and Conclud
ed to Swap with him, and
he took off my Saddle put it
the other, I gave him 2 Dollars
and an half, and I So I went
on to Mr. Beldens and took breakfast
and Soon after breakfast I
went on again; I just now
heard Brother David, had good
Luck in Selling his Roots, and
had Success with the Hono^ble
Congress, in his memorial
for help; — I got to Capt. [illegible]
a little while before
Night, found them all well

and was kindly received by
them, — took Dinner at Mr.
, — In the Evening I
went to Mr. gregorys to meeting
and there was a large num
ber of People, though it was exceed
ing bad traveling both on
horseback and foot. I Spoke
from Isaiah 1: to what purpose
and I think I had Some sense
of Divine things the bowed by
the Word, — lodged at mr gre

Thursday December 22:

breakfast Some Time I went
to Capt. Dunnigs Stay 'til
after Dinner, and then took
leave of the Family, and
set off for New Town, Capt.
went with me a
bout 2: and half miles, and

and then a kind Dutch
man Conducted me, 'til he
got me to a plain way, and
I got to Mr. Taillar, and was
inquiring where the People
meet together to worship and
he Said they had no meeting
and he found me out at last
that I was a Preacher, and
desired me to light, and I
did, he was very kind to me
and to my mare, and lodged
there, — Rested very Comfort
ably —

Friday December 23:

got me
up Some Time before Day
and made me up a fire, and
sat down by it, — and here
I stayed 'til Some Time in the
afternoon, and then I went
to Stillwater, got to Mr.

Bakers before sunset, and in
the Evening a number of People
Came in and Mr. Marsh a prea
cher amongst this People Came
in also, and we had Conversa
tion Some was not So agreeable
before we broke up we had
Some exercise with my notes
and it was late before, we had
done, lodged here, —

Saturday December 24:

noon I went to See Mr. Camp[illegible][guess: el]
and took dinner with them,
Soon after Dinner, I went
off to go back to New Town,
called at Mr. Andruss's, but
he was not at Home, and I
went on, stopped at old Mr. Millers
and there I tarried all night
and was kindly entertained
went to bed early —

Sabbath December 25:

got up Some
Time before Break of Day
and the Family got up too
and they got breakfast Soon
and a little after sunrise
we were getting ready to go
to meeting, — and Mr. Tayler
and I went off Soon, and to
his sons good while before
meeting, about 11: the People
began to flock in fast, and
about 12 we began the ex
ercise, and there was a pro
digious Number of People
Collected together, and I Spoke
from Luke 11.10: and there
was very great attention —
and in the Evening we had a
nother meeting, and there was
a large number of People, though

it was a Dreadful Storm of
Snow, and wind blew very
high, and the Snow flew and
it was Cold, — I Spoke from
the words — but one thing etc. Luke
and there was very good atten
tion again, — went to Bed
Soon this evening and had
a Comfortable rest, —

Monday December 26:

Did not
get up Soon — Some Time
after breakfast, I set off for
Stillwater, and it was very
Cold, got there before noon
Call at Mr. Andrusss and sat
a little while, and went off
and called at Mr. Bakers, and
they all insisted I should and
preach, and finally I con
sented, dined with Mrs. Norton
and her Daughter Loiss

Directly after Dinner went
to Mr. Campels and preached
there to a Small Number of
People — Spoke from XV I kings
and 14, and there was good
attendance, Soon after meet
ing, I went off in order to go
over the River, two men went
with me, but I could not get
over, there was too much Ice
and So I turned my course [illegible][guess: and]
went up to Mr. Powerss a bap
tist minister, got there a little
after sunset, and put up
there, he and his wife received
me very kindly —

Tuesday December 27

Was at
Mr. Powerss all Day, and
it was extreme Cold; in the
evening, went to meeting a
mongst Mr. Powerss People and
there was quite great many

People for the Cold season
I Spoke from Psalm 125.1
and the People Seem to be in
different in their attention, their
Bodies were Cold and I believe
Hearts too, — after meeting went
back with Elder Powers and
Lodged there again, —

Wednesday December 28:

Time after breakfast, I went
to Mr. Kalleys meeting house
to preach, got there about
12 Mr. Powers went with me
went into an house just by
the meeting, was there a few
minutes and Mr. Kalley Came
in with his Wife, and it was
So Cold they Concluded to meet
in a Dwelling house, and
we went directly, and there
was not great many People
I Spoke from I Corinthians 29:
and there was good attention

Some were affected, Soon after
meeting I went to about 2 miles
further to preach amongst Mr.
People; one Mrs. Irish
carried me in her sleigh, got to
the house just before sunset
about Candle Lighting went to
meeting in a schoolhouse just
by, and there was a crowd of
People, and I Spoke from
Luke Lord teach us to pray
lodged this night at Mr. Irish's
and sat up late, Mrs. Irish and
I had very agreeable conversation
after the rest went to bed, after
a while I went to bed Quietly,
and had a Comfortable rest —

Thursday December 29

got up very
early, and went off, stopped a few
minutes at Mr. Chatcham's and
So passed on, and stopped at Mr. Kal
and took breakfast there
and Soon after Mr. Chatcham

Came along, and I got up on
horse, and went along with him
and we stopped at Mr. Powerss and
got my things, and took my
good leave of him and his wife
and went on again, and Mr.
and parted near
the River, I went up the river
a little ways and crossed the River
and went on, and Came to an
house of one Capt. Wright, and
he desired to go into his house and
I did, and took Dinner with him
and he desired me to have meet
ing at his house, the Sabbath
following, and I consented, — and
So I passed on Seeking after my
Daughter, went to old Mr. Begles
and there they told me they were
gone towards the River, and So I
turned right about, and went
on and I called at Haukins
and there I was told, they lived
about a mile and a Quarter,

got there about sunset, and
found them all well; thanks
be to Heaven for his goodness to
me and to my Daughter,
Lodged here, once more —

Friday December 30:

it was a
Snowy Day and very Cold
Stayed 'til about 11: and then
I went off to go to meeting, but
I could not get a Horse to ride
to Mr. Haukinss for my mare
was there, and I So I got a
young man to go for my horse
and he Came back Soon, and So
I went off, and called on Mr.
, and it snowed very
hard, and they said it was
most Night, and they persuaded
me to stopped and not to go on
and I complied, and Stay
there all Night and they
treated me with all kindness
the woman I had knowledge of

when She was a little girl,
they have Six Children four
Boys and two girls, and they
agreeable, Spent the evening
with them very agreeable had
Some exercises with my Notes
after a while went to bed —

Saturday December 31:

Some Time
after breakfast, I took leave
of the Family, and went on
to the River got over on the
I[illegible]ce about 11, Call on Mr.
, and took Dinner
there, after Dinner took
leave of them, and went
down the River, called on Mr.
a few minutes and
So passed on, and called on
Mr. Bacon and there I
Stop for the Night and was
kindly entertained —

Sabbath January 1. 1786,

got me up
somewhat Early, and took
breakfast, and Soon after
after Eating, had my Mare
got up, and I took leave of
the Family, and went over
the River to Capt. Write's, and
about 11 the People Came fast
and at 12 we began the meet
ing, and there was considerable
Number of People, and I Spoke
from Genesis [gap: omitted] How old etc.
after meeting was at Capt. Writes
and intended to Stay all Night
but presently after sunset a
couple of Young Came to Capt.
, and desired me to go with
them, and I went, and exercises
with my Notes with the Family
and sat up late but at last
I went to bed, —

Monday, January 2:

got up early
and went back to Capt. Writes

Mr. L[illegible][guess: w]is Williams Carried me
part of the way to the Capt.'s and
I got there about 8. and was
getting to go on my way towards
Pitts Town, — and I was Saying
if any one to help towards up
per part of Saratoga, I would go
and Capt. Wright Said he would
Continue to Carry me, and So I Con
cluded to go, and about 10.o.C.
one of Capt.'s Sons got up a
sleigh, and we set off, and we got
to good old Deacon Hewits a
bout 1: and there I stopped, and
they Concluded to have a meet
ing in the Evening, and Mr.
went back — Deacon
was not at Home, but his
was at Home with whom he
lives — in the evening a number
of People got together, and I Spoke
to them from Jeremiah III.39.40 and
the People were exceedingly atten

tive and Solemn — went to
bed Soon, and had a quiet
Sleep once more the Lord be
praised — Lord enable me to
live this year as if I knew it
was the last, that I may live
to thee in all things that I may
consecrate my all unto Thee —

Tuesday January 3:

got up very
early, and took breakfast
with Mr. Richard Hewet and
about 10 Mr. Hewet took me
in his sleigh, and we went on
towards the North River, got
to the River about half after
11 and we were afraid to go
over the sleigh on the Ice, and
I went over a foot, went to one
Mr. Riders and tried to hire
horse, but I could not get
any, and So Mr. Hewet went
back over the River, to fetch
his horses, and he Soon got

back, and I got on upon
one of them and we went
onto Boughten Kill, and
we stopped at a house, to inquire
of the way, and there we met
with one Mr. Lake, he had
a sleigh going directly to
the place where I was going
and he was So kind as to
take me in his sleigh, and
Mr. Hewet went back, and
I went on, and we got to Mr.
past middle of the
afternoon, but there was
nobody at Home, and we
went to old Mr. Fosters, and
there I stayed, there I took
Dinner, Mrs. Tanner was
there, Mr. Foster and his
wife are old People, about
sunset I went back to Mr.
, and meeting was

appointed here, and the People
began to Come in Soon, and
Mr. Tanner got home after Sun
Set, and we Soon began the
exercise, there was but few
People, and I Spoke to them
from John 9: [gap: omitted] Soon after
meeting I went to bed —

Wednesday January 4:

got up
early, and was at the house
'til near 9, then Mr. Tanner's
Son Thomas Carried me in
a sleigh to meeting, at the house
of Mr. Forster Mrs. Tanner
and old Mrs. Foster were in the
sleigh also, got to the house a
bout 10 and there was a
great gathering of People
I began about 1 in the after
noon, and there was a
Solemn attention, many were
greatly affected, — Soon after

I went with Mr. Rose and
his Wife in his sleigh, and
took Some Victuals with them
and Soon after eating we
went to meeting again, we
met at Mr. Kinnion's, and
there was a goodly number
of People, and I believe the
Lord was present with us
and I believe the Night will
not be forgot Soon, after meeting
I went back with Mr. Rose
in his sleigh, this Mr. Rose Came
from Block-Island, I was well
acquainted with his Brother
William, — I lodged here —

Thursday January 5:

got up
very early, and they got
breakfast directly, and
about 9 Mr. Kinnion Came
to Mr. Roses to go with us and
we set off Soon, in a sleigh

and went back to Saratoga
got to generals Seat about
11: and we passed on to Fish Creek
got to Mr. Hewets about 12: and
we stayed a little while, and
we returned back to General
Seat, got there about
2: the men that brought
stayed awhile, and then went
off and I stayed at Mr. Tomsons
in one of generals Schiliers
houses, and had a meeting
there in the evening, but
there was a Small Compa
ny, and they attended well
they were Chiefly Dutch
People, and they attended
well, — after meeting Some
Time I had exercises with
my Notes, in the Family,
and it was a Solemn

Time, the poor Negroes
were surprised with the
Texts they chose, Some
Time in the Evening I
went to bed quietly and
had a Comfortable rest —

Friday January 6

we got
up very early, got breakfast
Soon, and a little after Sun
rise, a sleigh and horses were
ready to Carry me down towards
the Stillwater, and, the General's
ordered one of the General's
Negroes to Carry me, boss
in English is overseers,
we had a fine Span of horses
we got to Mr. Williams, in
about an Hour, 6 miles and
half, the negro return
right back, and I stayed
a little while, and I took
my Skonk mare, and set

off after taking good leave
leave of Mr. Williams and
his Family, and went on
towards Pitts Town, stopped a
while at Capt. Wrights and
Mrs. Wright, would get me
Dinner, and as Soon as I
had done eating, I went on
again, traveled through Woods
the biggest part of the way,
towards Night, I missed my
way, and was obliged to go
back, about half a mile
and Call at an house, the
man was a blacksmith
his Name is [gap: omitted]
and they were quite will
ing to let me Stay, and
the man and I lodged toge
ther, and I had quite a
Comfortable Nights rest
Saturday Morning got up
very early, and my mare
was got up and I went on
before sunrise, and I got
to one Col. Tomson's about
8:, and he knew me, and re
ceived kindly, and took breakfast
there, and was there Some
Time after eating, I took
my old mare, and went to
Mr. John Lambs. and was
kindly received, and there
I stayed and Lodged there
and found the couple very
agreeable, both of them are
Christians, I belive in Truth
they are youngerly couple
they are of the Baptists

Sabbath January 8

Some Time
about 10 we went to meet
ing at the house of one
Mr. [gap: omitted]

about 11: we went to meeting
and the People began to
gather thick, about 12 we
began the Divine exercise
and there was a great number
of People, one half Could not
Come into the house, and
I was obliged to Stand at the
Door, and it was Cold, and
I Spoke from Epehsians V 14:
and the People attended with
great attention, and many
were deeply affected and
there were flow of Tears
and I believe they will
not forget the Day very
Soon, — Soon after meeting
I went home with Col.
in his sleigh. Mr.
and his wife went
with us he is an old Baptist

elder, took Dinner with
them, in the evening we
had a Meeting again and
there was a great Number
of People again, many[illegible]
[illegible: [guess: full]] of People were obliged
to go back because there
no Room for them in the
house, and it was Cold, and
there was great attention
again, [illegible]Lodged at the
Col. and was extremely
kindly entertained, the Col.
and his Lady are very a
greeable couple —

Monday January 9:

after breakfast
I set off and went to See a
Young man that was Sick
and found him quite poorly
and was under deep Concern
for his poor Soul, gave him
Some counsel and prayed
with him, and then went

towards the East, Betsy Hinkly
a Young Woman went with
me, and we got to Mr. Bigalos
about 12. where the meeting
was to be — People began
to Collect Soon, and there
was not a great many
People, and I Spoke to
them from Luke VII 23:
and the People were very
much affected many of them
Just before the exercise was
over a couple of Young
men Came on purpose to
invite to go with them, to the
distance of 7: miles, and I
was at a Stand Some Time
what to Say to them, finally
Concluded to go with them, and
took Dinner and Soon after
went off with them in their
sleigh and one of them Rode

my Mare, and it was about
sunset when we set off and
was extremely bad way
and it Cold, we got to the
Place called Hoosick, put
up in the house of one Mr.
, and there Lodged
and was well received —

Tuesday January 10:

about 12
the People Collected fast, and
1: we began the worship and
there was a great number
of People, and I Spoke to them
from Matthew IV: 10 and I believe
many felt the Power of the word
Soon after meeting, I went
off with Mr. Reed, and his
, his wife ^ in their sleigh was from
New London North parish
where I was brought up
took Dinner ^ with them and directly

after Dinner we went to meet
ing again, about 2. miles
off, and there was a great
number of People again
at was at the house one Mr.
, and I Preach to them
from Matthew XI: 28, and there
was an affectionate attention
there was a Shower Tears,
the meeting was appointed
here on account of the woman
that was going to meeting
yesterday to hear me, and
She was Taken with a Fit
of Apoplexy about half a
mile from her house, and
was taken up speechless, but
She is now better, Can Speak
but not very plain and
She is Numb one Side
but She Can walk Some —
Soon after meeting I went

with Mr. Reed in their
sleigh and lodged at their
house, and was affectionately
entertained —

Wednesday January 11

got up
early and took breakfast
and a while after my
mare was brought, and I
took leave of the Family and
set off and had not gone more
than 60 rods before I met a
sleigh from St Co[illegible] to fetch
me, and I got off my mare
and in the sleigh and went
on fast, it was about 8 miles
we had to go, and got to the
Place about 12 I put up
Mr. Lathems, and about 1
in the afternoon we went
to meeting, — and there was
a Prodigious number of

People, and I Spoke from
Isaiah [illegible][guess: IX] 6: and there was
very great and Solemn at
tention, many were much
affected, — after meeting
went back to Mr. Lathems
in the Evening went to meeting
again and there was a
Number of People, and I
Spoke to them from Proverbs 5 10
and there was great attention
again, after meeting I
went with Mr. [gap: omitted] Stopped at Dr.
to See his Wife, She was Sick
and they desired me to Stay
and Concluded to Stay, sat
up very late, and went to
Bed about 11: had un-
comfortable Night it was
very Cold lay Cold,

Thursday January 12

up Some Time before

Day and sat up by the
fire, and the Dr.'s wife
got up and sat up and
desired me to Sit by her
and I did, and She gave me
a Relation of her Experien
ces, and they were somewhat
weak but appeared like the
gospel, and I think had
good affect upon her, Soon
after Day, I went away
stopped at the house where we
meets, and Soon after I got
in a man Came in, and desired
me to go[illegible] back a little way
to See a woman, that was put
to bed last Night, in Child
Birth, and I went, they
were Dutch Folks, I prayed
with them, and then went
back to Mr. Lathems, and
there a little, and then

I expected a Company, but
they did not Come, So I set off
for Little White Creek, got to
the Place about 12: went into
an old Dutch man's house
and he appeared very friendly
and took Care of my Mare
and the People began to ga
ther presently, and about
1 I went to the meeting house, it
is a Log meeting house, where
one Elder Wait Preaches,
and there was a Multitude
of People, I began the meet
ing Soon after I got in, the
People could not all get in
I Spoke from Romans VIII 13: and
I believe the People felt the
Power of the word of god, for
there was a flood of Tears —
Soon after meeting, I got
up on my Mare and went
on to wards Mr. Cross's, Mr.

Downer a Baptist Preacher
went with me, and we stopped
at Mr. Deake's, Mr. Edward
Brother formerly a
schoolmaster at Charles
among the Indians
here we took Dinner, Soon af
ter Eating we went on again
got to Mr. Cross's about sunset
and the People began to gather
directly, and we began the
meeting, and there was a
vast number of People and,
I Spoke to them from James IV: 17
and the People were greatly
bowed with the word, — Lodged
here, Mr. Cross is believe a
Sincere Christian, he gave
me an account of his Experi
ences and exercises, Some
in the Evening I went to bed
once more quietly, and had
Comfortable rest, —

Friday January 13:

Rose early
and, and we had Prayers and
after that breakfast Came
on, and Soon after Eating
I set off for Sharfburg Mr.
[gap: omitted] and his wife
went with me, we stopped at
Esq. [gap: omitted] from thence we
went to See Mrs. Burnhan
She was lately taken with
a fit, and She is very Sick
I prayed with her, and then
went on to the meeting house
got there about 12 stopped a
while at a tavern, about
1 we went to the house of god
and it was extreme Cold, there
was not a great many People
and I Spoke from Psalm 32:1
after Service went to the Same
house where I stopped took dinner
and directly after Dinner
I went on towards Benington

Mr. Amos Burroughs went
with me a little ways and
we parted, I got to Mr. Swifts
a little after sunset, and
was very kindly received and
he insisted upon it that
should keep Sabbath with
him, and Concluded to Stay,
lodged here, —

Saturday January 14:

was at the
Place all Day, towards
Night went to the Printers
and Coming back I called
on Mrs. Robbinson an old
Mother in Israel, and had
agreeable conversation, a
bout sundown went back
to Mr. Swifts and Lodged
there again —

Sabbath January 15:

about half
after 10 went into the house

and there was a great
Multitude of People, it is
a large house and it was
well filled, — I Spoke from
Luke XII: 21: and there
was a Serious attention —
in the afternoon Spoke from
1 Corinthians XVI:22: and I believe
the Power of god accompanied
the word there was a great
Shower of Tears, and I
think they will not Soon for
get the Day, — after Service
went to Mr. Swifts, took dinner
and Directly after eating
went on to Pownal, Mr. Potter
took me in his sleigh, this
Potter went from Rhode Island
Some Years back
and I have been in his
house before when he

lived west of Saybrook
got to his house about sun
set, and was kindly entertained
Slept Quietly. —

Monday January 16:

got up
very Early, and about 12
the People began to Collect and
there was a large Congrega
tion, and I Spoke to them from
Romans VIII [gap: omitted] and there was a
good attention of People and
they attend well, but I had not
much freedom — as Soon as the
meeting was over, I went in
a sleigh to Esq. Jewets, and
preached there in the evening,
and there was a great Num
ber of People, and I Spoke
to them from 1 John V:10 and
I had but a little sense of the
word, yet there was good

attention, — Lodged there, —

Tuesday January 17:

went on my
way Soon after breakfast
went through Williams Town and
Lainsbourgh, got to Pitts
in the Evening, and
Lodged at Mr. Ingasals a public
[illegible] house, and found him and
his wife very agreeable —

Wednesday January 18:

Set off
after breakfast, and it was
extreme Cold, stopped a little
at Brother David Fowlers in
Richmond, they were all well
in the afternoon Some Time
I passed on, got to Mr. Sergeant's after
sunset and Lodged there, —

Thursday January 19,

it was
somewhat pleasant Day

went about 10: Call on Capt.
, and they were well,
but most of the Indians were
much scattered, sat a little
while and So passed on, — got to
Mr. Heccocks in Sheffield a
tavern, and Lodged there —

Friday January 20:

I Conclud
ed to go with a couple of men
to Hills Deals in Noble Town
and they had to go a mile a two
to Iron Works, and they were
gone all Day, about Can-
dle Lighting, they returned back
to Mr. Hecocks and I went there
in their sleigh and left my
mare at Mr. Hecocks, and
it was about 18 miles we
had to go, and stopped Ti[illegible: [guess: ice]]
and we got to the Place at

Mr. Jordan's and it was a
bout midnight, and I was
much fatigued, and went
to Sleep Soon, and had a Com
fortable rest —

Saturday January 21:

was at
Mr. Jurdans all Day, Some
Time after sunset Mr. Jordan
Carried me in a sleigh to Mr.
about a mile, and
there I Lodged, and was kind
ly entertained, he is a Rich
man, and it was a plea‐
sant evening, and it thawed
all Night, —

Sabbath January 22:

about 9
the People Came pretty thick
and there was a great num
ber of people Collected toge-
ther and I Spoke from

Romans IV 17: and the people
attended Solemnly, Soon after
meeting Mr. Philip Lott took
me in his sleigh and Carried
to a Dutch meeting house
about 5 miles off we got
there, about sunset, and
present after we went in
to the[illegible] house of god, and there
was a large number of
People, and Spoke from
Acts 9 [gap: omitted] Soon after meeting
Mr. Lott took me again in
his sleigh and went home
with him, and it was
very bad sleighing by this
Time, and there I lodged
and was extremely well
received, and rested quiet
ly once more
John Schuneman
New York State Legislature
The Legislature of the State of New York is composed of two houses: the Senate, or upper house, led by the President (a post held ex officio by the Lieutenant Governor but usually filled by the Majority Leader), and the Assembly, or lower house, led by the Speaker. It meets at the New York State capitol in Albany. Members of both houses are elected for two year terms. The number of Senators varies, according to population, and stands now at 63. The Assembly has 150 members. The Legislature originated in the revolutionary New York Provincial Congress, assembled by patriots during the Revolutionary War, and has had a history of corruption. It is empowered to make laws subject to the governor's veto, which may be overridden by a two-thirds majority. It can also propose amendments to the New York State Constitution. In the late eighteenth century, this Legislature played a key role in the establishment of Brothertown. On a preaching tour of New York in 1784 to raise funds for Indian families moving up to Oneida country, Occom reported meeting a group of "agreeable" gentlemen who were members of the New York Assembly on a sloop he took to Albany, who are very pleased by the prospect of New England Indians moving to New York. Occom's journals for this period indicate that he was actively campaigning for the move, raising monies and meeting sympathetic ministers in upstate New York. He apparently made a good impresion, becaue in 1791, the New York Assembly and Senate paid Occom £15 for expenses to attend the Legislature on behalf of the Brotherton and New Stockbridge Indians (ms. 791174), indicating recognition of Occom's leadership. But the new settlement was beset with land troubles. In Fall 1786, the Oneidas, who had granted the New England Indians a tract of land in 1774 without reservations, wanted them to surrender the grant. Occom advised the Brothertown group to reject this dangerous proposal. When the Oneidas ceded all their lands to the State of New York in the Fort Schuyler Treaty of 1788, the Legislature intervened to recognize the Brothertown deed of 1774. But Occom and his group could not form the town's government and elect trustees until they ejected a group of whites who had won a ten-year lease from a group of trusting Indians. Again, the Legislature took action, passing the Act of March 31, 1795, insuring a large part of the Brothertown and New Stockbridge lands. Occom was responsible for this important measure, but it only slowed down the land grabbing that, after Occom's death, would eventually force the Brothertown Indians to move further west.
Dutch Reformed Church
The Dutch Reformed Church developed during the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century as part of the Netherlands' bid for freedom from Spanish Catholic control. It followed the teachings of John Calvin, a Swiss Protestant theologian, and adopted a presbyterian form of church governance. Dutch settlers to New Amsterdam brought the Church over in 1628, and when the colony passed into English hands in 1664, 11 Dutch Reformed Churches existed. This increased to 34 Churches at the beginning of the 18th century, under the jurisdiction of the Classis of Amsterdam. In 1738, the American Dutch Reformed Churches wrote a petition for independence from Amsterdam, which was granted in 1755. Practitioners and Churches spread throughout New York and New England, and in the 19th century to the mid-West. In 1766 the missionary John Brainerd passed on to Wheelock a recommendation for John Kals, a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, as a potential missionary and teacher of sacred languages. Occom recorded in his journal for 1787 that he preached several times in Dutch Reformed Churches and meeting houses in upstate New York to large and enthusiastic audiences.
Narragansett Tribe
The Narragansetts are an Algonquian tribe based in Southern Rhode Island. Narragansett students (including the Simons, the Shattocks, and the Secutors) attended Eleazar Wheelock’s Moor’s Indian Charity School, and Charlestown, RI, was also one of the seven communities that participated in the Brothertown movement (the pan-Algonquian coalition organized by former Moor’s students). The Narragansetts were recognized in the 18th-century for their indigenous Christian Separatism, and a Separatist congregation under the leadership of Samuel Niles commanded much of the Tribe’s spiritual life from the 1740s onward. While Separatism is an imprecise word, it generally denotes congregations that formally separated from Congregationalist churches and were characterized by an increased emphasis on charismatic Christianity. Samuel Niles was an illiterate preacher who had himself been ordained by lay persons (thus breaking with the formal laying on of hands by an ordained person that created a theoretical chain from the Apostles to contemporary clergy). The congregation’s practices and theology diverged from the Anglo-American norm in meaningful ways, which shocked many Anglo-American observers but also gave the Narragansetts the autonomy needed to expel Rev. Joseph Fish, a New England Company (NEC) sponsored minister, and Edmund Deake, the schoolmaster who accompanied him, in 1776. Like other New England tribes, the Narragansetts struggled with land dispossession. In this case, the sachem and colony cooperated with one another to the Tribe’s disadvantage: the sachem family, the Ninigrets, had tied themselves closely to the colony of Rhode Island when they converted to the Anglican Church in 1727. They adopted a lavish English lifestyle and funded it by selling off tribal land. By the 1760s, land sales were a massive problem, and the anti-sachem party began trying to put a halt to them. Narragansetts with powerful connections, including former Moor’s students, appealed to Eleazar Wheelock and Sir William Johnson and, in 1767, secured a temporary halt to land sales through the intervention of NEC treasurer Andrew Oliver. The next year, Tobias and John Shattock traveled to London to appeal to the privy council for a permanent solution; however, Tobias died of smallpox, and John failed. Sachem Thomas Ninigret died in 1769, and the Tribe solved the land sales problem by abolishing the office of sachem in the 1770s. The Narragansetts continued to struggle with the state of Rhode Island after the Revolution. Rhode Island unilaterally (and illegally) dissolved the Narragansett’s tribal standing in 1880, but the Narragansetts maintained tribal structures and, as much as possible, residence on their territory. They were officially re-recognized in 1983.
Stockbridge Tribe
The Stockbridge Indians were the inhabitants of the town of Stockbridge, Massachusetts, a Christian Indian town modeled on John Eliot’s 17th-century “praying towns” (Indian towns where the inhabitants lived an Anglicized life style). Established in 1734, Stockbridge was composed of Mahicans, Housatonics, Wappingers, and Esopus (at the end of the 18th century, the Stockbridge Indians also adopted many New Jersey Delaware). The Stockbridge Indians had close ties to the Brothertown Nation, a composite tribe of Algonquian Indians from around the Long Island Sound which was organized by alumni of Moor’s Indian Charity School. The town played host to a series of famous missionaries and ministers, including John Sergeant Sr., Gideon Hawley, Jonathan Edwards, and John Sergeant Jr. (Sergeant Sr. established a boarding school at Stockbridge that provided the model for Eleazar Wheelock’s Moor’s Indian Charity School.) Eventually, the problems that the Stockbridge Indians encountered with white families who owned land in their town (most notably the Williams family) convinced them of the dangers of white land expansion and influenced their later land policies. In 1785, the Stockbridge Indians relocated to a tract of land in Oneida territory adjacent to the Brothertown settlement. (During the Revolution, Stockbridge played host to displaced Brothertown and Oneida Indians who had fled central New York. These ties were extremely influential in the decision to relocate.) They called their town New Stockbridge. By the turn of the 19th century, land pressures again overwhelmed the Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians and, along with many Oneida, they sought land in the west where they could attempt to escape white expansion.
Baptists/Seventh Day Baptists
The Baptists were a dissenter sect that became especially popular in New England after the First Great Awakening. They diverged from Protestant belief mainly in insisting that only believers should be baptized, and that it should be done by immersion in water and not by sprinkling or pouring water, but they represented the most radical of the radical New Lights and were known for lay preaching and personal spirituality. Wheelock and most of his former students were more moderate New Lights and opposed this sort of radical Christianity. Occom, however, had many connections with Baptist ministers in central New York. On his preaching tour in 1774, he records visiting several Baptist ministers, largely white, and speaking to large crowds, sometimes in the woods. He also records meeting with a "Seven Day Baptist" minister. The Seventh Day or Sabbatarian Baptists differ from Baptist beliefs mainly in observing the Sabbath on Saturday, in accordance with the ten commandments. Baptist belief held a strong attraction for Native peoples because it protected their autonomy and embraced preaching and leadership by lay people. Divides over theology became problematic at Brothertown, where Occom’s moderate sect clashed with the more Baptist sect over whether or not to lease their land to Americans. After Occom’s death, Samuel Ashpo, a Baptist Mohegan minister known for his separatism, began spending more time at Brothertown and built up a substantial Baptist congregation there.
5000 Aires

Ballston is a town in central New York state, north of Albany. The area was occupied by Mohawk Indians, who resented the appropriation of their sacred grounds by European settlers. The first settlers, the MacDonald brothers, built a homestead on the west bank of Ballston Lake in 1763. Reverend Eliphalet Ball arrived in 1770 with his three sons and members of his congregation from Bedford, NY, bought the land from the MacDonalds, named it Ball's Town, and established a Presbyterian church there in 1771. Soon, settlers arrived from other parts of New England, New Jersey, Scotland and north of Ireland. In 1774, a stockaded fort was built in Ballston, which was attacked by the British and their Indian allies from Canada in 1780 and 1781. It became a town of Albany county in 1785 and was part of the religious circuit in upstate New York in which Occom travelled.

Pitts Town
Hudson River

The Hudson River, frequently referred to as the North River in Occom Circle documents, runs 315 miles from Newcomb in upstate New York to the Long Island Sound. The Algonquin-speaking tribes that originally inhabited both sides of the river called it Mahicantuck, or river that flows both ways. In 1609, Henry Hudson, an English explorer employed by the Dutch East India Company, sailed up the river while looking for a passage to India and instead found thousands of Algonquians living in the river's valley. Hudson sailed as far north as Albany before turning back. Dutch traders settled the river’s banks and established trade in the colony that would become New Netherland. The Dutch called it Noort Rivier, or North River, by contrast to South River, the Delaware River. Only when the English began to assert their claim over the North River in the 1600s did it become commonly referred to as the Hudson River, to emphasize its "discovery" by an Englishman. The Dutch eventually ceded the river to the English in 1674 under the Treaty of Westminster, but the name North River persisted into the early 20th century. In their writings, Occom and his contemporaries refer to the Hudson as North River. Occom travelled along the North River from Mohegan to Albany during his preaching tours in the mid-1780s. Eventually, Occom sailed up North River for good, settling in New Stockbridge in 1789. Today, the name North River still refers to the section of the Hudson between New Jersey and New York City.

Boughten Kill
Block Island

Block Island, roughly 10 square miles in area and composed primarily of beaches, cliffs, and grasslands, is nine miles south of mainland Rhode Island and 18 miles north of Montauk on the eastern edge of Long Island. The Narragansett Indians, Block Island’s original inhabitants, called the island Manisses, meaning “Island of the Little God.” Perhaps because of this, the Narragansetts who occupied Block Island are sometimes referred to as Manissean Indians. The island derives its current name from Dutch explorer Adriaen Block, who sighted it in 1614. In 1636, an Englishman, Captain John Oldham, was murdered while trying to establish trade with the Narragansetts on Block Island. Henry Vane, Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, used Oldham’s murder as justification to seize the land. The English slaughtered 14 Narragansett warriors and burned nearly all the crops and wigwams they found on the island. From then on, the island’s Narragansetts were outnumbered by the English settlers and subject to colonial rule. Possession of Block Island passed to several private families in 1658 before being incorporated into Rhode Island as the town of New Shoreham in 1672. By 1700, the Indian population of Block Island had been reduced to about 300. During his preaching tours of New England, Occom interacted with inhabitants from Block Island, though these interactions occurred on the mainland.Although Occom’s early residence in Montauk was not far from Block Island by water, no evidence indicates that he ever visited there.

Fish Creek
New London

New London is a city located in southeastern Connecticut along an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean called Long Island Sound. The area that would become New London was inhabited by the Pequots who called it Nameaug when the Europeans arrived in North America. Pequot villages bordered Long Island Sound and the Tribe had authority over the neighboring Tribes of the Mohegans and Niantics (all Algonquian-speaking tribes). The Dutch first explored this land in 1614 and established trade with the Native peoples, but the English soon gained possession of the land east of the Hudson in the 1630s. English animosity toward their Indian neighbors led to the Pequot War (1634-38), part of which took place in the present city of New London. The Pequots lost the war and their population deteriorated due to the violence and disease. The General Court of Massachusetts granted John Winthrop possession of Pequot territory in 1644 after which it was to be opened for settlement. By 1646, which is considered the official year of its founding, New London had permanent colonial inhabitants and municipal laws, and jurisdiction was granted to the colony of Connecticut in 1647. In 1658, the inhabitants renamed the town New London after London, England. New London was the colony of Connecticut’s first trading port and was a hub of trade with the West Indies and other colonies. Though initially part of the town of New London when it was first settled by the colonists, Groton, Montville, and Waterford were each separated from New London in 1705, 1786, and 1801 respectively. Present-day Salem was also part of New London when it was settled, but in 1819, it became a separate incorporated town composed of parts of Lyme, Colchester, and Montville. Occom kept a school in New London in the winter in 1748. New London was the home of Captain Nathaniel Shaw, one of the wealthiest merchants in the area, who gave money to Occom in the 1750s for the missionary cause and also sold materials to Occom for the building of his home. However, their positive relationship ended when Shaw refused to provide supplies for Mary Occom while Occom was in England. New London served as the port from which Occom and other missionaries traveled to reach Long Island. During the American Revolution, New London’s location and its status as a seaport made it both vulnerable to invasion and integral to colonial naval operations as well as the exchange of prisoners.New London was incorporated as a city in 1784.


Charlestown is located in Washington County in southwestern Rhode Island along the Block Island sound. For thousands of years before European settlement, the area was inhabited by Native Americans who lived by hunting, fishing and agriculture. When the English dissenter, Roger Williams, fled Massachusetts Bay in 1636 and stepped ashore in what would become the Plantation of Providence, he was welcomed by Canonicus, sachem of the Narragansett Indians. From Canonicus, Williams purchased a large tract of land that included the settlement of Misquamicut, which would become the site of an English settlement named Charlestown after King Charles II. It was incorporated in 1783. After the Great Swamp Fight in which the United Colonies massacred many Narragansetts — and hunted down and killed or enslaved those who escaped — 500 survivors (from a pre-war population of 5,000) signed a 1682 peace treaty and received permission to join with the Eastern Niantic tribe, which had remained neutral throughout the war and had a small reservation near Charlestown. Settlers continued to acquire land from the Naragansetts, and by 1880, the tribe ceased to exist as a legal entity. A portion of tribal lands were returned to Narragansett ownership in 1978 by the courts and state legislation, and the tribe was officially recognized in 1983. Charlestown is the present-day headquarters of the Narragansett Tribe and the location of their reservation.

Rhode Island

Rhode Island is a U.S. state located in southern New England along the Atlantic coast. What would become Rhode Island was originally inhabited by the Narragansett, Niantic, and Wampanoag peoples, who established semi-permanent villages of longhouses. They hunted deer, fished for tautog and striped bass, grew corn, beans, pumpkin, and squash, and gathered clams, oysters, and quahogs. From the quahog shell, the Narragansett Indians made the Native American currency wampum, which bolstered their wealth among other tribes in the region. In 1636, Roger Williams founded Providence following his expulsion from the Massachusetts Bay colony for what was perceived as his radical religious beliefs. Williams advocated dealing fairly with Native Americans and purchased the lands for Providence from the Narragansett sachems Canonicus and Miantonomi. In 1644, Williams received a charter from the British Parliament incorporating the towns of Providence, Portsmouth, and Newport as Providence Plantation and guaranteeing religious liberty. A 1663 charter issued by Charles II more firmly established the colony of Rhode Island, which tolerated different religions and maintained friendly relations with Native Americans until the outbreak of King Philip's War in 1675. This conflict resulted in the destruction of many colonial towns, including Providence. The Narragansett tribe was initially skeptical of missionaries, because of their experience of English land-grabbing, and because the church in Charlestown, RI had its own homegrown minister, a Narragansett separatist named Samuel Niles. Although the Narragansett tribal council approved the mission of Joseph Fish in 1765, which met with initial success, the tribe eventually asked Fish and Edward Deake, the schoolmaster he engaged, to leave Rhode Island in favor of Native ministers and teachers. Rhode Island residents actively protested British rule over the colonies and openly agitated for war. In 1772, a number of Rhode Islanders attacked and destroyed the British ship the Gaspee, and Rhode Island was the first state to openly declare independence from Great Britain prior to the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. Between two and five percent of Rhode Island Native Americans migrated to Brothertown.

Old Saybrook

Old Saybrook is a town located in southeastern Connecticut on the west bank of the Connecticut River, where it meets the Long Island Sound. The land that would become Old Saybrook was the territory of the Niantic Indians until the late 16th century when they were conquered by the Pequots. The first Europeans to settle in the area were Dutch, but by 1623 the colony failed due to harsh conditions. In 1635, English Puritans led by John Winthrop Jr. established a colony called Saybrook Plantation, hoping to deter the return of the Dutch. During the Pequot War of 1636, the powerful Pequot tribe conducted a siege of Saybrook Fort for eight months, but their population was ultimately decimated by the effort. Yale University, originally called Collegiate School of Connecticut, was founded in Old Saybrook in 1700 and then moved to New Haven in 1718. Because of its location, Old Saybrook was a convenient stopping point for Occom on his trips between Mohegan and Montauk, on Long Island, and was a point of embarkation for travel to other coastal cities by water. At least one Native American in Old Saybrook, the son of Josiah Wolcott, wanted to attend Wheelock’s school. Old Saybrook is one of the oldest towns in the state and was incorporated in 1854.

Williams Town
Hills Deals
Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Sealy, Jeremiah
White, Sanford
Hide, Hannah

Unidentified Smith.

Fowler, David

David Fowler was Jacob Fowler's older brother, Samson Occom's brother-in-law, and an important leader of the Brothertown Tribe. He came to Moor's in 1759, at age 24, and studied there until 1765. While at school, he accompanied Occom on a mission to the Six Nations in 1761. He was licensed as a school master in the 1765 mass graduation, and immediately went to the Six Nations to keep school, first at Oneida and then at Kanawalohale. Fowler saw himself as very close to Wheelock, but their relationship fragmented over the course of Fowler's mission, primarily because Wheelock wrote back to Kirkland, with whom Fowler clashed, but not to Fowler, and because Wheelock refused to reimburse Fowler for some expenses on his mission (767667.4 provides the details most clearly). Fowler went on to teach school at Montauk, and played a major role in negotiations with the Oneidas for the lands that became Brothertown. He was among the first wave of immigrants to that town, and held several important posts there until his death in 1807.

Norton, Loiss
Williams, Lwis
Hewitt, Walter
Hewitt, Richard
Tanner, Thomas
Rose, William
Schuyler, Philip John
Unknown, the General's boss
Lamb, John
Hinkley, Betsy
Deake, Edward

Edward Deake was an Anglo-American missionary and schoolmaster born in Rhode Island in 1732. After receiving reluctant approval from the Narragansett tribal council for the support of a schoolhouse and schoolmaster on Nov. 26 1765, Reverend Joseph Fish, who had been living among the Narragansetts, hired Edward Deake to serve as schoolmaster to the tribe in Charlestown, Rhode Island. Funded by the New England Company, Deake taught his students to read English, write, and cypher, following the pattern of other missionary schools for Native people in New England. Out of 151 school-aged Narragansetts, 53 students, boys and girls, attended Deake’s school. Deake regularly consulted a council of Indians for input on the best course of action for educating his students. In addition to his 24 pounds per year salary, Deake also received living quarters for himself and his family in the schoolhouse. After Tobias Shattock left for England in 1767, Deake became the main recruiter among the Narragansetts for Wheelock’s school, often corresponding with Wheelock to recommend students. But the Narragansetts, under the leadership of the charismatic Native preacher Samuel Niles, soon became disillusioned with Fish and Deake, distrusting the purpose and motivations of the school and fearing the colonial appropriation of their lands and right to self-government. In 1770, Narragansett leader John Shattock Sr. told Fish that the Narragansetts wanted Deake to leave, and attendance at Deake’s school evaporated in the next few years. Finally, on January 2, 1776, Deake requested relief from his position as schoolmaster and left soon after. There is some evidence he moved to New York state and worked as a minister. Deake died in 1794.

Paul, Christiana (née Occom)

Christiana Occom was born in 1757 in Mohegan, CT as the ninth child of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Christiana spent her childhood in Mohegan, where she married the Reverend Anthony Paul in 1777. The couple eventually settled in Brotherton in 1784. There, they raised at least six children, four of which Samson Occom baptized. Occom's journals tell of many joyful visits he paid to his daughter and son-in-law while on his travels. Christiana and Anthony finally left Brotherton in 1797 to settle in Lake George, NY.

Burroughs, Amos
Sergeant, Jr., John

John Sergeant Jr., like his father, served as a minister in Stockbridge, MA. In 1773, Stephen West, the minister to the Stockbridge Indians since 1757, decided to leave his post and turned over ministering duties to John Sergeant Jr. Stockbridge, MA, which John Sergeant Sr. helped establish, failed as a Christian Indian town when the Stockbridge Indians lost ownership of their land. When the Oneida Tribe offered the Stockbridgers land in central New York after the American Revolution, many of them moved to the Brothertown and New Stockbridge settlements. The Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge funded Sergeant Jr. in 1787 to continue serving as a minister to the Stockbridge Indians who moved to New York. Sergeant travelled from Stockbridge, MA, to New Stockbridge every year to serve as their minister. In 1788, the Stockbridge Indians at New Stockbridge were divided in their support for Occom or John Sergeant as the town’s minister. Mohican sachem Hendrick Aupaumut led the community members who favored Occom. According to Sergeant, 30 members of the Tribe were in favor of Occom while 50 were in favor of him (later, half of Occom’s supporters defected to Sergeant). The relationship between Sergeant and Occom was contentious, with Occom disliking Sergeant’s manner of preaching. Occom moved to Munhegunnack or New Stockbridge in 1791 and suggests in a letter that many of Sergeant’s supporters were shifting support to Occom. In his sermons, Sergeant blamed the Indians’ loss of land on what he described as their drunkenness and idleness. He suggested that the whites’ encroachment on their lands was God’s punishment for their sins. Sergeant remained the New Stockbridge minister until his death in 1824.

Yoke, Jehoiakim

Captain Jehoiakim Yoke is likely a Stockbridge Indian who enlisted with colonial forces during the American Revolution. Yoke rose through the ranks to become the Captain of a company of Indian rangers. It appears that he primarily fought on the war's western front, often against Native Americans loyal to Great Britain, and was a part of the infamous Sullivan Expedition. In response to a number of successful raids by Native allies of the British, George Washington tasked General John Sullivan with destroying Indian villages and decimating Indian food supplies in western New York. By the end of the expedition, General Sullivan’s army had destroyed more than 40 villages. A Captain Jehoiakim Yoke is mentioned in the Revolutionary War writing of David Freemoyer. In Freemoyer’s account, Captain Yoke and Freemoyer’s men were involved in conflicts with Native American troops under the command of the Mohawk leader (and Moor's alumnus) Joseph Brant. In his Revolutionary War journal, Chaplain William Rogers refers to a Captain Jehoiakim, an Indian from Stockbridge. In his entries from June of 1779, Rogers describes an incident where Native allies of the British attempted to reconnoiter the Colonial encampment but were driven away. This Captain Jehoiakim and two other Stockbridge Indians pursued the Native Americans but were unsuccessful in capturing them. William DeLoss Love writes about a Timothy Yokens, who became a captain of a company of Indian rangers. Given the similar descriptions of this Stockbridge Indian captain, it seems that the sources may be referring to the same man, with whom Occom lodged several times in 1786.

Lott, Philip
Shuneman, John
HomeSamson Occom, journal, 1785 December 15 to 1786 January 22
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