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Eleazar Wheelock to Joseph Bingham, account, 1767 April 30

ms-number: 767280.1

abstract: Settlement of Joseph Bingham's account for labor, board, and lodging.

handwriting: Unknown hand is clear and legible with some abbreviations. Dashes and dots are occasionally difficult to decipher; the transcriber has used her discretion.

paper: Oversized sheet is folded in half vertically and is in good condition, with light-to-moderate creasing, staining and wear.

ink: Brown.

noteworthy: In instances where Wheelock's intention regarding a word or abbreviation is uncertain, the word or abbreviation has been left unmodified in the modernized transcription. Due to format of ledger transcription, line breaks may not exactly match those of the document. Please see image for exact layout.

Modernized Version -- deletions removed; additions added in; modern spelling and capitalization added; unfamiliar abbreviations expanded.

Rev. Eleazar Wheelock to Joseph Bingham
To 1 day Work upon Fence — 0..3—
To 1 day drawing Logs to Mill ..... 0..3..6
To 2 days getting Logs to Mill ...... .0..8—
To 1 1/2 day drawing Stones ...... 0..5..3
To 1 day loading Stones by O[illegible]ias ..— 0..2..6
To 1 1/2 day Work on Fence ..— 0..5..3
To 9 days making Wall.. @ 4/ .... 1..16—
To 1 day carting Boards from Mill — ..3..6
To 1 day getting posts and making fence — ..3..6
To Carting Lime and Goods from Norwich ..6—
To paid prince Tracy for sawing Boards — ..12—
To 2 days Work on board Fence — — ..7—
May To 1 day Work ⅌ Mr. Woodward ..4—
To a Calf — — ..15—
To 2 days Work upon Fence — — ..7—
To mending Cart Wheel ... — ..5—
To 1 day Work upon Fence .. — ..3—
June To paid Mr. Tracy for sawing — — ..3—
To Cutting brushes 2 days — ..6—
To 8 days Work upon Barn @ 3/6 — 1..8—
To 2 1/2 Days carting Stones — ..9—
August To a Plough — — 1..10—
To 9 1/2 days Work upon Barn @ 3/6 — 1..13..3
September To 1 do — do ..3..3
To 5 do — do — @ 3/ — ..15—
December To 7 do — do — @ 2/6 — ..17..6
To 1 days Work clearing — ..2..6
To getting out your Corn — — ..4..6
To 2 days Work making Wall and}
carting Stones —} — ..8—
To 2 days ditto — @ 2/9 — ..5..6
To 1 1/2 day clearing — @ 3/ — ..4..6
April To 2 days laying Wall — ..7—
To 1 day Carting Stones — ..2..6
To 1 day Carting Clay — ..2..6
To 1 day laying Wall — ..3..6
To 1 day Carting Stones — ..2..6
To 1 day cutting Stones for the Stow — ..4—
To 4 days carting Stones and laying Wall — ..14—
To 1 day laying Wall — ..4—
To 1 day Carting Stones — ..3..6
To keeping the Masons — ..3—
To Mr. Allen's Board — — ..1—
To attending Masons — ..11—
To making Wall and Bars 1 1/2 day — ..5..6
To clearing 2 Days — ..7—
To carting Sand for plastering and
making Mortar —} ..3..6
To 2 1/2 days Work clearing @ 3/6 — ..8..9
Carried Over 19..2..9
Joseph Bingham's
account Settled April 30th
Brought over — 19..2..9
To 1/2 day making Lath — ..1..9
To 1 day ditto — ..3..6
To Mr. Dodge's Board — ..3..—
To 2 days getting Timber and making
Lath — — } ..7..—
To 1 1/2 day making mortar and
attending Masons — } —..6..—
To 1 day Work clearing — —..3..6..—
To Mr. Allen's Board — ..2..—
To Cash paid John Allen 1.14.5
paid Simons and Jennings 10.6
paid for Wheat — 4—
paid Mr. Waterman 1— 9.5
paid Silas Bingham ..8..—
paid Mr. Waterman ..3..—
paid David Huntington ..2..6
paid for Rum — ..1..1
paid [gap: omitted] Caulkins ..2..6
paid for Pork — — ..6..—
paid Mr. Waterman ..2..9
paid Mr. Spafford ..3..—
paid Mr. Frink for underpinn-
ing Barn —} ..6..6
paid for Wheat — ..4..—
paid James Flint ..18..6
paid for Rum — ..9..—
paid Mr. Waterman 1..6..6
paid Eleazar Bingham ..18..6
paid for Rum — ..3..—
paid for Tobacco — ..6..—
paid Mr. Spafford ..7..—
paid Mr. Backus for Rum 1..15..—
paid Mr. Badger 2..5..6
paid Mr. Ripley ..6..—
paid for Wheat — ..4..—
paid Daniel Hibberd ..17..6
paid Eleazar Bingham ..2..—6
paid Dr. Elderkin for Rates 1..5..—
paid Mr. Calkins ..3..—
paid Mr. Woodward for Rye — ..7..—6
paid Mr. Allen 1..4..—
paid Mr. Woodward 0..12..—
paid ditto — — 1..0..6
paid Mr. Taylor ..1..10
paid Amos Allen 3..6
paid Mr. Flint for Nails — ..6..—
paid Eleazar Bingham for Hay — ..18..—
To weaving 20 yds Diaper — 10—
do. 32 yards checked linen ..16—
do. 40 yards Tow Cloth — 1..—
do. 7 1/4 yards white worsted — ..3..—
do. 11 yards Bed ticking @ 9d ..8..3
Carried forward 45..4..9
Brought forward — 45..4..9
To boarding Molly Mohawk 2..13..—
To making 2 Shifts for M[illegible] Eliſh
— }
April 30.
Balance due to the Rev. Eleazar Wheelock — }
referred to New account
April 30.
Supra— Cr
By Sundries ⅌ your account — 82..16..—
Windham April 30th 1767
Errors Excepted

Norwich is a city in New London County in the southeast corner of Connecticut. It was founded in 1659 when Major John Mason and Reverend James Fitch led English settlers inland from Old Saybrook, CT, on the coast. They bought land from Uncas, sachem of the local Mohegan tribe, and divided it into farms and businesses mainly in the three-mile area around the Norwichtown Green. In 1668, a wharf was built at Yantic Cove and in 1694 a public landing was built at the head of the Thames River, which allowed trade with England to flourish. The center of Norwich soon moved to the neighborhood around the harbor called "Chelsea." During the revolutionary period, when transatlantic trade was cut off, Norwich developed large mills and factories along the three rivers that cross the town: the Yantic, Shetucket and Thames, and supported the war effort by supplying soldiers, ships, and munitions. Norwich was the largest town in the vicinity in which Occom, Wheelock and their associates lived and worked, and it was possible to get there by water because of the harbor and access to the Long Island Sound. Lebanon, CT, the site of Wheelock's school, is 11 miles north and present-day Uncasville, the center of the Mohegan tribe, is a few miles south of Norwich. James Fitch did missionary work among the Mohegans in Norwich until his death in 1702, and Samuel Kirkland, the most important Protestant missionary to the Six Nations trained by Wheelock, was born in Norwich in 1741. On his evangelical tour of North America in 1764, George Whitefield planned to travel to Norwich to meet with Wheelock. The Connecticut Board of Correspondents of the Scottish Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge frequently met in Norwich, and many letters by people involved in the missionary efforts of Wheelock were written from Norwich.


Windham is a town in Windham County in the northeastern corner of Connecticut. Historically, the area was home to the Nipmuck Indians, but when the English began to settle Connecticut in 1634, possession of what would become Windham passed to the Pequots. In 1637, following the Pequot War, the English-allied Mohegans took possession of the area and eventually sold what would become Windham County to John Winthrop Jr. in 1652. The town of Windham, named for Wyndham in England, is at the southwest corner of this land purchase and was incorporated in 1692. Eleazar Wheelock was born in Windham in 1711, the son of a prominent farming family. He lived on his family’s 300-acre farm until leaving for Yale in 1729. After graduating and moving to to Lebanon, CT–-a mere 6 miles from Windham-–Wheelock often returned to his hometown to preach and do other business. When Wheelock needed support to advance his “great design,” he turned to his friends in Windham, many of whom were members of the Windham Association, a group of Congregationalist ministers who examined and ordained area ministers. The Windham Association examined Occom in preparation for his ordination in 1757 at Wheelock’s Lebanon home. Like Wheelock, Occom also travelled through and preached in Windham throughout his life. After a period of growth due to mills and textile factories, Windham was incorporated as a city in 1893. A village within the modern-day city of Windham still keeps its Algonquin name, Willimantic or “land of the swift running water.”

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Backus, Nathaniel

Captain Nathaniel Backus Junior (II) provided Occom with supplies. Like Elijah Backus, he was a member of the prominent Backus family. Although he also had a son named Nathaniel Backus (III), it is more likely that Nathaniel Backus Jr. refers to Nathaniel Backus II, as Nathaniel Backus II regularly went by N. Backus Jr, since he co-existed in Norwich politics with his father, Nathaniel Backus Sr. (I).

Dodge, Phineas

Phineas Dodge was an Anglo-American charity scholar at Moor’s Indian Charity School who served Samuel Kirkland as a schoolmaster at Kanawalohale twice, in 1767/8 and again in 1771. Phineas was the youngest son of Amos Dodge, a carpenter in Windham, CT. As was the case for other charity scholars, Moor’s afforded Dodge with an education he likely could not have accessed otherwise. While many of Dodge’s classmates attended Yale, Dodge himself did not, though it is unclear why. Dodge was sent to Oneida in 1767 to replace David Fowler as schoolmaster at Kanawalohale, but returned that spring as both he and Samuel Kirkland, the missionary in charge, were ill. He did not work for Wheelock again. However, he stayed in close contact with Kirkland, and served as his schoolmaster in 1771. Again, his health cut his mission short, and he retired from missionary service to keep school in Windham, CT, until his death in 1773. Dodge seems to have been exceptionally religious: his letters to Kirkland are predominantly abstract and religious in nature, with local news thrown in and little personal information.

Allen, John
Allen, Amos
Bingham, Eleazar
Bingham, Joseph
Bingham, Silas
Flint James
Hibberd, Daniel
Huntington, David
Huntington, Elis.h
Mohawk, Molly
Tracy, Prince
HomeEleazar Wheelock to Joseph Bingham, account, 1767 April 30
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