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Samson Occom, journal, 1787 September 20 to December 5

ms-number: 787520.1

abstract: Occom describes his activities as an intinerant preacher and community leader in the fall and early winter of 1787.

handwriting: Handwriting is largely clear and legible. There are uncrossed t's and crossed l's that have been corrected by the transcriber.

paper: Small sheets folded together into a booklet and bound with thread or twine are in fair-to-poor condition, with moderate-to-heavy yellowing and wear. The outer pages are especially worn, resulting in some loss of text. Repair work has been done on these outer pages.

ink: Brown ink varies in intensity throughout.

noteworthy: An editor, likely 19th-century, has overwritten Occom's hand in spots, and added the note “ Sep. 20, 1787 Thursday to Dec. 5, 1787 Weday” to one recto. These edits have not been transcribed.

Kings XVII. 33
Isai 43: 21
Matt VIII: 36. 37
John Conell New Town
James Tuck of
Blank page

Thirdsday Sepr 20. 1787

Just at Night had a meeting
at widow Fowlers, and there
was not many People, and
I gave them a few words of
of Exhortation, from Luke
VI. 8 and the People attended
with great Solemnity, and
Some affection — after meeting
I went to Brother Davids &
Lodged there — —

Fryday Sepr 21

Some Time
in the morning, went to
New-Stockbridge, David
Fowler Jur
went with me,
we got there about 2, Call
on Mr Sergant, and he ap
pered good Condition'd, and
So to Sir Peters, and direct[gap: tear]
from there, we went to m[gap: tear][guess: eet]
ing and there was Conſide
rable number of People,
and I Spoke from Mark V. 9
and there was very good at
tention, This meeting was
Deſignd, Chiefly for the young
People,— Soon after meeting
went back to Sir Peter's, and
took Some refreſhment, and
Soon after Sunt-Set, went
to meeting again, and there
was great Number of People
and there was Several, that
related there exerciſes of
mingd; three men, three wo
men, relate their Exerciſes, a
Young man, and a maried
woman, manifested their de‐
ſire of Bening Beptized, and
Some Children, were to be Bap
tized all alſo,— Mr Serjant
[gap: tear][guess: m]ade Some o[illegible]bjection, against
two[illegible] Being Baptizd, but
the Profeſsors, gave their fel
lowſhip, to their Deſire, — &
So we broke up our meeting
Some late in the Evening, I
to Peter's and their I Lodged,
and had good reſt — —

Saturday Sepr 22

was all
Day at the Placke, — —

Sabb Sepr 23:

about 10 we
went to meeting, and there was
a large number of People,
many of our People from
Brotherton Came alſo, and
Some PWhite were there, and
Mr Serjant, read a Diſcourſe
to the Indians, in their Tongu[gap: worn_edge][guess: e]
and read it alſo in Engliſh,
he read his Prayer alſo in
Indian, and he prayed part
ly in Engliſh — — — —
In the after noon I tried
to Preach, I Spoke from
Acts X. 34. 35 and there was
very great Solemnity, Some
were much affected,— and
I Baptized, at this Time
Eight perſons two adults &
the reſt Children; The Name
of the Young is Solomon
and the woman [gap: omitted]
Soon after meeting I went
to Sir Peters. — In the evening
we had another meeting, one
of the men reharſd, what
had deliver'd in the Day,
after meeting went back
with Sir Peter and Lodged
there again — —

Monday Sepr 24,

I took
Breakfaſt with Mr Serjant
and Soon after Breakfaſt
I return'd to Brotherton, Betſey
rid behind me and
got to the Place near Noon
Stopt but few minutes at
Brother Davids, and paſt
on to my Daughters — —

Tueſday Sepr 25:

Stockbridgers Came to
our Place to help and
Some of our men Came
alſo. — —


I had help a
gain till after Noon —

Thirdsday Sepr 27

the Evening, had meeting
at Widow Fowler's, there
was but few People, and I
Spoke from [gap: omitted] and
there was a Solemn attention
after I had done Speaking
two of our People Spoke a
words one after another. &
when they had done a white
man got up and Spoke, and
he Spoke with a feeling Senſe
of Divine Concerns, he gave
an account of a remarka
ble Remarkable reforma[illegible]
tion in Vergena — He
Came from Stockbridge
after meeting, I went up
to Brother David Fowler's &
Lodged there. — — —

Saturday Sepr 29

1 in the after Noon, my
Son in Law; Anthony Paul
and Daughter Christiana
and Betſey Fowler; Sot of
for Whites Bourrow, but
we were overtaken with
Night at one Mr Blanchets
and there we Lodged, and
ware exceedingly well en‐
tertaing, and we had a
a little Exerciſe with a Chris
tian Card, — we went to Bed
in good Seaſon, and I had
a Comfortable Reſt — —

Sabb Sepr 30

got up very
Early and Prayed together
and then we Sot of. we had
near four Miles to go and
it was extremely Bad ridin[below]g
Dreadful miry,— we got
to the Place juſt as Esqr
was about taking
Breakfaſt, and we Sot
down with them — and Soon
after Breakfaſt, we went
to meeting to another Houſe
and there was a large Nr
of People, and I Spoke from
Isaia 43: 21: and wthere was
great attention in the As
ſembly I believe the felt
the weight of the word,—
after meeting, I went home
with Mr Weatmore, and
took Dinner with them,
in the after Noon meeting
was removed to this Houſe
on account of a funeral
that is to be attened in
this Houſe, for an Infant
juſt Born Dyed in this
Houſe last Monday, it
livd about two Hours after
it was Born, and they
have kept the Corps to
this Day, for they expected
me here this Day, this
is the firſt Death that
happened in this Place.
Since it has been Settled
it has been Settling three
years, and it is now a
large Sittlement. this
after Noon I Spoke from
Isaia 38: 1 and it was
a Solemn Time indeed
many were deeply affect
ted there was a Shower
of Tears, Soon after meet
ing we Carried the little
Corps to the grave it was
but a few Rods from
the Houſe, after Burying
returned to the Houſe,—
in the Evening went to Mr
L[illegible][guess: e]vingworth
's and Spent the
evening there,— about 10 went
back to Mr Weatmores and
Lodged there —

Monday Octor 1

got up
early took Breakfaſt
with Family, after Break
faſt went to Esqr Whites, and
got ready, and about 9
we Sot off for Home, Lieut
& Mr Leavett went
to our Place,— as we past
a long, took Notice of the
Settlement, and it is a
fine Spot of Land, and
a very large Spot too,
and the People has made
a rapped Progreſs in Cul
tivating the Land, if the
People were as ingagd
in Religion as they are. in
their Temporal Concerns.
this Settlement would be
very much like the garden of
Eden, which was the gar
den of god. the Lord be
with them and Bleſs them
that they may indeed be
a Peculiar People unto
god, that they may be
Lights in this Wilderneſs —
We Stopt a While at
Clenton,— and we got
Home juſt as the Sun
was Setting. — —

Thirdsday Octr 4:

in the
Evening had a meeting in
Widow Fowlers, and there
was but few People, and
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and we had a Comforta
ble Seaſon —–

Sabb Octr 7:

had a mee
ting in Brother Davids
and there was not many
People, and I Spoke from
[gap: omitted] and we had a
Solemn meeting; Lodg'd
at Brother Davids — —

Tueſday Octr 9:

1 in the after noon, I Sot
of for Clenton, got there
Some Time before Night
Stopt a little while at Mr
s to See his wife
had been Sick Some Time
and She was very poorly,
and went from there to
Capt Foot's and in the
Evening the People Collec
ted together and I Spoke
to them from John XXI: 22
and there was great So
lemnity amongſt the People
I believe Some felt the weight
of the word,— the Begining
of last March there was
no Houſe in this Place, a
perfect wild Wilderneſs,
Now there are 20 Familie[below]s
and there were Seventy odd
Perſons in the meeting this
evening. and have made
great apperance in their
improvements. there are
Chiefly from New England
and youngerly People — —

Wedneſday Octr 10

here till after Dinner, and
then went to a Certain Houſe
between this Place, and
Whitesbourough about half
way, the mans Name is Blan
, I got there Some Time
before Night, and had
a meeting, and there was
a Conſiderable Number
of People, and I Spoke
from Psalm CVII. 31: and
the People attended exceed
ing well, this was all a
[illegible]wild Wilderneſs in the
beginning of laſt Spring &
now the People are Settleing
alalong from Whitesbourgh
to Clenton — in few Years
this will be Settled thick
as any part of the globe
the Land is so good, it draws
all Sorts of People and
Nations are flocking
here Continually — —

Thirdsday Octor 11

Time Breakfaſt I Sot of
for home,-– Stopt a while
at Capt Foots in Clenton
and took Dinner there.
and Soon after Dinner
went on again, got to
my Daughters — and in
the evening we had a meet
ing Siſter E[illegible]ſther, and
was not many People,
and I Spoke from Psal
CVII. 31 and there was an
uncommon attention, many
were deeply affected. —

Fryday Octor 12

Time in the morning I
Sot of for N. Stockbridge
and had a meeting there
in the Evening, and I Spoke
from [gap: omitted] and there was
good atention, Lodgd at
Sir Peters — — —

Saturday Octor 13:

2 in the after noon I went
to Deanville, got to the Place
about Sun Set Peter went [below]with me found Mrs
exceedingly diſtreſt
with uncommon Difficulties
in her Pregnancy, and
Peter and I went to mr Jonat
s and Lodged there,
and 2. o. c. in the Night
I was Calld up, to the other
Houſe, and Bleed Mrs Dean
and I went directly, and
found her much diſtreſt
and took Blood from her
foot, and Bled exceeding
well,— and her diſtreſes
begun to mitigate direct
ly, and I Stayd the reſt
of the Night and She was
Some what Comfortable —
I was Calld up again be‐
fore Day to write to Docr for
them, for they were Sending
to Albany for one, and were
Sending for Mr Dean too
for he had been gone Some
Time to Spencertown — —

Sabb Octor 14:

about 10
the People got together, and
there was a large number
of People, many white
People from other Places
and many Indians from
Both our Towns, I Spoke
from Matt V. 20: & 5 and
there was a Solemn attention
all Day. Soon after meet
ing Peter and I went to Clenton
got there a little after Sun
Set, we put up at Capt Foots
and the People Collected
directly and there was quite
a large number, and I Spoke
from [gap: omitted] we lodgd
at the Same, MondayHouſe &
had Comfortable reſt —

Monday Octor 15:

after Breakfaſt went
to milel, and was there
Some Time, before we
we Coud get grinding —
we got to our Place about
1: and Sir Peter paſt on
to his Place —

Thirdsday Octor 18:

a meeting at Widow Fowlers

Went to Stockbridge to a
wedding Juſt before Sun
Set, attended upon Marriage
the young man was, one
the Sachem's Son and the
young woman was of noted
Family, and there was
a vast Concourſe of People
of many Nations, it was
Said, there were ten different
Languages among the people
and the People behaved de
cently, but the Onoydas be
gan to behave unſeamly,
and in the Night the had
a t[illegible][guess: err]ble froleck even all
Night — — —


was all Dady
at the Place,— in the e
vening we Collected together
at Capt Hindrecks I Spoke
from Matt 6: 22:23 and there
was a Solemn attention, after
I had done Capt Hindreck
rehearſed the Same, Lodgd
at the Same Houſe — —

Saturday Octor 20:

Time in the morning after noon I returnd
to Brotherton, Mr Warmſly
went with me, we Stopt at
Roger Waubys and there
took Dinner, Soon after Dinr
I went on and Mr Warmſly
went back, I got to Brother
s before Night and
I Lodgd at David's — —

Sabb. Octor 21:

about 10
the People got together &
was a large Number of
People Some white People
and I Spoke from John XIII 17
[gap: omitted] and the People were
very Solemn and many
were affected, Lodged at
the Same Houſe — —

Monday Octor 22,

in the
evening had a meeting in
Siſter Fowlers, and there
was not many People and
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People attended well
Lodgd at the Same Houſe

Tueſday Octor 23.

from Stockbridge Came to
help me. the were 5 of them
and the workd two Days

Thirdsday Octor 24:

were Calld Suddently to
appear before the Chiefs
of the onoyd, that had Juſt
Come to our Place, — and
we eat our Breakfaſt in
hast, and went directly to
widow Fowlers, and there
the Chiefes meet with us,
and it was about our Lands
But there was Such Confu
ſion, I would not Say a
word about it, it was a
party Scheam, Contrivd by
a few of our People, they
been agreeing with the
the onoydas for a Piece
of Land; without the know
ledge of the Headmen
of the Place, Some of the
Contrivers of this miſchief
were much intoxicated
and they drove on the
Buſineſs with all fury in
no order, it was like
Whirlwind, Some Time
towards Night we brok
up and every one went his
way: in great Confuſion
of mind,— I went to Br
s and there Lodgd
with a Sorrowful mind. — —

Fryday Octor 25

at our Places all Day

Sabbturday Octor 27 Octor 26

Towards Night Juſt as
I was going away to Clenton,
Brother Chrippin and Br
Came to my Son
in Law
s and we had a
little Converſation, theſe
Brethren are from a Place
Calld Springfield, Going
to Cherry valley; So I left
them and went on to >Clenton
got there about Sun Set,
put up at Capt Foots,
found them all well. —

Sabb Octor 27

half after 10 we began
the exerciſe, and there was
a large Number of People
Some from other Places, &
Several Stockbridgers were
with us, and there was very
great attention, both be‐
fore noon and after noon
I Spoke from John, I know
you that the Love of god is
not in you, in the after
noon from Mark VIII. 36.37
as Soon as the meeting was
done, I went [illegible] of to Brother
, the Stockbridgers went
with me, we got there a
bout Sun Set, we eat a
few mouthfulls and went
to meeting. at Siſter eaſters
and there was not much
moving there Seemed to
be Some party Spirit in
the meeting.—

Sabb Novr 4

at New Stockbridge &
Spo[illegible]ke from [gap: omitted]
and there was very Se
riouſs attention all Day

Monday OctoNovr 5:

back to Brotherton

Sabb Novr 11:

at Brotherton once more
and Baptized Brother
David Fowler
's Children
Six of them, and we had
a Solemn Day of it, in
the evening we had a
nother meeting, and it
was a Comfortable meet
ing — —

Monday Novr6 12

Day intended to Set out
for home but it began
in the morning, and So
Stopt for the Day —

Tueſday Novr 13:

up very early and got
ready, and we Sot out
Son about an Hour and
half half high, Betiy
[illegible] Jeruſha Wympe
and Henry Stenſel a young
Dutch man went with me
we had exceeding fine
warm Day, got thro' the
woods before Sun Sit I
put up at Conrad Folss
Jeruſha and Betſey went
to Mr Smiths about 2 miles
further. — —

Wedneſday Novr 14

got up
very early and went on
Stopt a little while at
Esqr Franks, and So paſt
on, and Stopt at Andrews
and there we took
Dinner, and paſt on, and
we got to Mr Thomas Creppins
Juſt before Sun Sit and we
Lodged there, and we had
a meeting this evening, and
there was a Conſideral Nr
of People,— and it was a
refreſhing Time I Spoke
from theſe words, Love is
the fulfilling of the Law,—

Thirds Day Novr 15:

were at the Place all
Day we went to See Some
Frieds — Lodeged at Mr
— —

Fryday Novr 16:

Time in the afternoon
had a meeting in Mr Pickards
and there was a large Nr
of People, and I Spoke from
Matt, [gap: omitted] he doeth the will
of my Father the Same is
my Brother &c: and the
People attended well. — —

Saturday Novr 17:

at the Place, Towards night
went to Brother Nicholas
s, and in the even
ing a few People Came to
gether to sing, and we
Lodged there. — —

Sabb. Novr 18

had a
meeting at Mr Dyks and
there were So many People
we were obliged to meet out
in the Field, and it very
warm, I Spoke from Psalm
cxix. o how Love I thy Law &c
and it was a Solemn meet
ing, — towards Night I marri
ed a Copple, and it was a
Solemn weding, Cunducted
very agreeable, Supped
with them — and Soon after
Supper, we went to old
Mr Stanſels, and there we
had a meeting, and there
was a large Collection of
People, and I Spoke from
[gap: omitted] and the attended
well we Lodgd at the Same
Houſe — — —

Monday Novr 19:

leave of Some of my Friends
and So went out of the
Place, the girls rode along
with me a little ways &
took leave of them, They
went on with Tears, and
I went on my way Stopt
at Brother Swans and
took Breakfaſt with
them, and Soon after
eating I went on. and
was going on, but was obligd
to wait Some Time for a girl
that was going with me, but
they Coud not find the Horſe
that She was to ride, and so
I took her behind me, and
went a Little way, and a
young man overtook us
and I deſired him to take
her behind him, and he
readily took her and we
went on, and Soon got to
Bowmans Creek, where I
was to preach, and the People
had been waiting Some Time
and So I began the worſhip
of god directly, and there
was but few People, I Spoke
from [gap: omitted] I Lodged
at Mr Whites, — —

Tueſday Novr 20:

got me
up early, and went to Esqr
s and there took[illegible]
Breakfaſt,— Towards Night
I went to Esqr Younglove's
and juſt in the evening
People began to Come in
and there was a large Nr
Collected, and I Spoke to
them from, Matt 6: 33:
and there was a Solemn at
tention. I Lodgd at the Same
Houſe but lay uncomforta
ble all Night. — —

Wedneſday Novr 21:

got up
very early, and had my
Horſe brought, and I went
to Cherry Valley, and it was
rainey, and I won faſt
and Soon got to the Place
Calld on Colo Cambel, &
there took Breakfaſt, and
about 10 went to meeting
at [illegible]one Mr Rechee's and
there was a Conſiderable
of People, and I Spoke
from Psalm CVII and the
People attended well, and
Soon after meeting went
to Colo Cambels again
and there Dined; and was
detained by a Black Smith
he was Shewing my Horſe,
and I Coud not get a way
till the Sun was going down
and then I went to Bowmans
got there Some Time
in the evening, it was very
bad riding, and Some few
People got together, at Mr
s. and I Baptized a
Child for one Mr Griſwool
by the Name of Joenna,
and Lodge at the Same
Houſe and reſt well.—

Thirdsday Novr 22

got up
early, and went over to
to Eqr Kimbel, and took
Breakfaſt, and Soon after
eating, went of and, got
to Mr Romines Some Time
in the afternoon, and Stopt
there a while and took Some
Victuals, and Soon after went
on again, got to one Mr
[gap: omitted] and Lodged there
here I met with a woman
that was much in exerciſe
of mind and had Some Con
verſation with her, and
found under great Concern
of Soul, and I gave her
advice and Councel — —

Fryday Novr 23:

got up early
in the morning, and went
on, got to Capt Grigss
about Breakfaſt Time
and took Breakfaſt with
him, and Soon after went
on again, and got to Mr
s before 10: and went
over the River, and Stopt
at Mr Bartlet's and there took
Dinner and Soon after got
up my Horſe. and went to
Yangey Hill, and Lodged
at Mr Mudges the People
got together directly, and
I obligd to preach to them
before I went to Bed, and it
was a Solemn Time, the
Chriſtians got quite warm
Some Spoke. — —

Saturday Novr 24:

Roſe very
early, and I went to Esqr
's Mr Mudge went
with me, Soon got there and
found them all well, there
took Breakfast, and Stayd
till after Dinner, and then
went back to Mr Mudges and
was there but few minutes &
I paſt by and went to Mr [gap: omitted]
and juſt in the evening
People began to come in &
the Houſe Soon filld, and
I was obligd to preach to
them, I Spok from the
words Set thiy Houſe &c.
and there was great Solemni
ty, and affection amongſt
the People, I Lodgd at the
Same Houſe, and reſted
Comfortably. — —

Sabb Novr 25

about 9
to the Place of meeting &
there was a prodigious Nr
of People and I Spoke fr
Job: XXIII. 8: 1 Joh 1: 6: and there
was great Solemnity amongſt
Soon after meeting I took Dr
with Mr Frank, and then went
to Mr Bartlet's by the River, and
had another meeting there. and
there was a large Number of
People. and attend well, but
juſt as the last Singing was
began, Mr Bartlets Daughter
fainted, and we diſſiſted Singg
and I Lodged not at the Same
Houſe, but I went over to
Mr Vedder's eaſt Side of the
River, and reſted well.— —

Monday Novr 26:

got up
early, and after Break
faſt, went over the other Side
of the River, and Juſt Calld
at Mr Bartlets and got my
up and took leave of them
Calld on Mr Keenys a few
Minutes, and paſt on, — in
the evening had a meeting
at Mr Andrew Eliots and
was great many People.
and I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
Viſited a Young woman
that was very Sick, pray
with her,. — — —

Tueſday Novr 27:

got up
early and to Viſt the youn[below]g
woman again, and She was
Some what better, and then
took leave of them and o
ther Families, and to one
Mr [gap: omitted] and there was
many People, and Lodged
there — —

wedneſday Novr 28:

Night went over the River
to one Mr Groot and Preachd
there in the Evening, and
there was great many Peop
and Lodged there, —

Thirdsday Novr 29:

went back
to weſt Side of the River, and
got up my Horſe at Mr
Mertin Vanolenda
s; and
took leave of them, and Juſt
as I got on my Horſe, I heard Some
one hallow and I looked to
the River, and behold I Saw
my Saw my Son Anthony
and his Family, and the[below]y
went Down the River they
a Connoo. and I went on
to Sckenactada, I got there
Some Time in the after Noon
and put up at Mr John Poſts
Juſt before night Anthony
got there alſo: I Viſited Some
few Friends, Lodged at
old Mr Poſt's my good old
Friend. — — —

Fryday Novr 30

got up
early and Mr John Poſts
and got up my Horſe &
went down the river a little
and went over. and so on
Downwards, to a Place Calld
put at Mr [gap: omitted]
here Lives Mr John Mudge
a Baptiſt Preacher, in the
after Noon Preachd, and
there was great many Peop
Spoke from what is thy Name
in the evening had another
meeting there was a large Nr
again. Lodge at the Houſe where
the meeting was, — — —

Saturday Decr 1:

after Break
faſt, went on towas Neſquan
, got to Mr Fiſhers early
in the Day. and took Dinner
there, after Dinner went to See
Mr Peters in the evening went
back to Mr Fiſhers and Lodged
there and went to bed Soon — —

Sabb: Decr 2:

after Break
faſt, went with the Family
in a large Connoo to Church
over to Neſquana. and there
was large gathering of P
and I Spoke to them from
[gap: omitted]
and as Soon as the meeting
was over, I went back to Mr
s and took Dinner with
them, and Soon after, went to
back in the woods, and Preahd
Twice, and Lodgd at the last
Houſe I Preachd in — —

Monday Decr 3

went to new
and Preahd at Mr
[gap: omitted] Spok from [gap: omitted]
and Soon after meeting went
to the Southward, and [illegible]Stopt
at Mr Conell, and took Dinner
[illegible] there, and then went to
another Houſe and Preachd
there, and Soon after meeting
went back to Mr Conells and
Lodged there — — —

Tueſday Decr 4:

got up
early and went to onle old
School‐Maſters and there took
Breakfaſt, and Soon aft[gap: tear][guess: er]
went to half Moon Church,[gap: tear]
Stopt at one Mr Clules a[gap: tear][guess: nd]
from thence to Colo [gap: omitted]
and to Capt Compſtocks[gap: tear]
[gap: tear][guess: w]as there a while, and
[gap: tear][guess: J]uſt as I was going a way
Brother Peter Pokquanuppeet
Came to me, and was glad
to See him, and then Came
alſo Mr John Venderwarker
and wen went with him to
his Houſe, and Lodged there

Wedneſday, Dec r 5

in the after noon
went to the Church and Preah[gap: tear][guess: d]
there, but there was not man[gap: tear][guess: y]
People, I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
Soon after meeting went ba[gap: tear][guess: ck]
with Mr Venderwarker a[gap: tear][guess: nd]
Lodged there —
Blank page.
Stockbridge Tribe
The Stockbridge Indians were the inhabitants of the town of Stockbridge, Massachusetts, a Christian Indian town modeled on John Eliot’s 17th-century “praying towns” (Indian towns where the inhabitants lived an Anglicized life style). Established in 1734, Stockbridge was composed of Mahicans, Housatonics, Wappingers, and Esopus (at the end of the 18th century, the Stockbridge Indians also adopted many New Jersey Delaware). The Stockbridge Indians had close ties to the Brothertown Nation, a composite tribe of Algonquian Indians from around the Long Island Sound which was organized by alumni of Moor’s Indian Charity School. The town played host to a series of famous missionaries and ministers, including John Sergeant Sr., Gideon Hawley, Jonathan Edwards, and John Sergeant Jr. (Sergeant Sr. established a boarding school at Stockbridge that provided the model for Eleazar Wheelock’s Moor’s Indian Charity School.) Eventually, the problems that the Stockbridge Indians encountered with white families who owned land in their town (most notably the Williams family) convinced them of the dangers of white land expansion and influenced their later land policies. In 1785, the Stockbridge Indians relocated to a tract of land in Oneida territory adjacent to the Brothertown settlement. (During the Revolution, Stockbridge played host to displaced Brothertown and Oneida Indians who had fled central New York. These ties were extremely influential in the decision to relocate.) They called their town New Stockbridge. By the turn of the 19th century, land pressures again overwhelmed the Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians and, along with many Oneida, they sought land in the west where they could attempt to escape white expansion.
Oneida Nation
The Oneidas are one of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Six Nations. During the 18th century, they were largely considered the most Christianized Haudenosaunee tribe. The Oneidas had a rich tradition of indigenous ministers, including Good Peter, Deacon Thomas, and Isaac Dakayenensere, and played host to several Moor’s missionaries, including Samson Occom, David Fowler, Samuel Ashpo, Joseph Johnson, Joseph Woolley, Titus Smith, and Samuel Kirkland (who went on to found Hamilton Oneida Academy, now Hamilton College). They were also the interpreter James Dean’s adoptive tribe. Notable Oneida towns included Onaquaga, Kanawalohale, and Old Oneida. Onaquaga was the central fire of the Six Nations. By the 18th century, it also had a sizeable contingent of Onondagas and Tuscaroras. Good Peter and Isaac Dakayenensere taught there, as did Joseph Woolley. Kanawalohale and Old Oneida were more predominantly Oneida. The Oneidas were involved in several crucial moments in the history of Moor's Indian Charity School. Onaquaga was the site of the 1765 confrontation between Wheelock and the New England Company, in which the New England Company disrupted Titus Smith's mission, first by sending their own missionary, and second by repossessing Elisha Gunn, the interpreter they had agreed to "loan" to Titus Smith. Left without an interpreter, Titus Smith was forced to abandon his mission (Wheelock repaid the favor a few years later by hiring James Dean away from the New England Company). A few years later, in 1769, Deacon Thomas led the Oneidas in withdrawing all their children from Moor's. The Oneidas' departure struck a devastating blow against Wheelock's Indian education plans, and provided more momentum for his shift to educating predominantly Anglo-Americans. The Oneidas sided with the colonists during the Revolution, but they were still affected by the general devastation in Six Nations territory, especially the Sullivan Expedition (1779). After the Revolution, the Oneidas granted tracts of their land to two Christian Indian organizations: the Brothertown tribe, a composite tribe of Moor’s alumni from New England, and the Stockbridge Indians. It was not long before the groups came into conflict with one another. Encroachment from the new State of New York put increasing pressure on Oneida land, and the Oneidas tried to renegotiate their treaties with the Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians to compensate. The Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians fought back, but by the 1820s all three groups had lost, and many of them relocated to Wisconsin.

Albany is a city located in eastern New York. When Netherlander Henry Hudson arrived in what would become Albany in 1609, the Mohican Indians lived in several villages in the area. The Mohicans gave Hudson’s crew furs, and the Dutch East India Company sent representatives to trade with the Native peoples. The Dutch established the village of Beverwyck within the territory of the New Netherlands. Beverwyck hosted a diverse population of Germans, French, Swedes, English, Irish, Scots, Dutch, and Africans. After the fall of New Netherlands to Britain in 1664, Beverwyck was renamed Albany in honor of the colony’s proprietor James, Duke of York and Albany. In 1686, Albany was granted a charter that incorporated the city and provided it the sole right to negotiate trade with Native Americans. During the French and Indian War, Albany was designated as the British military headquarters in the Americas. During the Revolutionary War, most Albany residents supported the revolution because of their opposition to British trade restrictions.


Brothertown was a multi-tribal Indian settlement in the center of what is now New York state. In the 1760s, Indians in New England and New York were devastated by war, disease, and European settlement, and many who had converted to Christianity believed that pressures and influences from surrounding European settlers impeded them from living Christian lives. The Brothertown Indians began as a group of Christian Indians including members of the Mohegan, Pequot, Narragansett, Montauk, Tunxis, Wangunk, and Niantic tribes. In the 1770s, led by Occom and Joseph Johnson, this group of Indians moved to land granted to them by the Oneida in New York. They named the land Brothertown to both reflect their intention to live with fellow tribes as brothers and also to pay tribute to Brotherton, a Delaware Indian reservation in New Jersey that served as an inspiration for the Christian Indian settlement. When the Revolutionary War began, the Indians of Brothertown sided with the Patriots, and as a result, British sympathizers burnt the Brothertown settlement in 1777. After this, many Brothertown settlers moved east while others remained and fought alongside the colonists.In the 1780s, many more New England Indians, including Occom and his family, moved to Brothertown and the nearby settlement of New Stockbridge, forming a town government, church and schools. In the early 1800s, the state of New York began to purchase tracts of Oneida land, and the Indians were forced to leave New York and settle in Greenbay, Wisconsin.

Cherry Valley

A village, now within the town of Cherry Valley, in Otsego County, east central New York state. It was founded in 1739 by John Lindesay, a Scot who got a land grant from King George II, and who traded with the Indians throughout western New York. It became one of the strongest settlements on the frontier, and was the site during the Revoutionary War of the Cherry Valley Massacre of 1778 led by Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant and Tory rangers.

New England

Stockbridge is a town in Madison County in central New York state, named for the Stockbridge Indians of Western Massachusetts. During the Revolutionary war, the Stockbridge Indians had befriended the Oneidas, whose villages were burned down by Indians allied to the British. When the Stockbridge tribe lost ownership of their Christian Indian town, the Oneidas invited them to settle on a six-mile square township, known as "The New Stockbridge Indian Territory." Although the details are unclear, a letter from the Stockbridge chief, Hendrick Aupaumut, to Governor George Clinton of New York suggests that the Oneidas gave the Stockbridge Indians a written deed in 1784, possibly at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix that year. The state of New York confirmed the Tribe's ownership of the town on several later occasions, but would ultimately rescind its promise, forcing the Stockbridge Indians to remove further west to Indiana and Wisconsin, where they ultimately settled in the early 19th century. By 1785, the majority of the Stockbridge tribe from Massachusetts had moved to the town of New Stockbridge, originally called "Tuscarora" or "Old Oneida" by the white settlers. In 1787, the Scottish Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge hired John Sergeant, son of the original missionary in Massachusetts, as minister for the tribe; Sergeant travelled between his home in Stockbrige, MA, to New Stockbridge every year for nearly forty years in that capacity. In 1788, Occom, who had been invited as minister for the Brothertown settlement nearby, opposed Sergeant's mission but Occom's death in 1792 settled the conflict. In 1795, three New York Quakers visited New Stockbridge and began an exchange that helped the village to flourish. The first Europeans settlers arrived in 1791, and the present day town was created in 1836 from parts of four adjoining towns.

Mohawk River

Schenectady is a city located in eastern New York State. The area that would become Schenectady was originally controlled by the Mohawk Indians, the easternmost and most powerful of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy. The land making up Schenectady was one stop on the much larger Mohawk Trail, which extended from Schenectady to what would become Albany, New York. The name of Schenectady was a derivation of the Mohawk word, Schau-naugh-ta-da, which meant the place beyond the open pines. The first Europeans to arrive at Schenectady were the Dutch who established a settlement there in 1661. Schenectady would come under British control as Dutch power in the Americas waned and the British established the colony of New York. In 1690 during King William’s War, Schenectady became the target of French and Indian soldiers who attacked the town and killed 60 of its residents, an event that became known as the Schenectady Massacre. There was a smallpox outbreak in Schenectady in 1767, as noted in this collection’s documents. In 1780, Oneidas found refuge from Loyalist and Mohawk attacks in Schenectady, and the town served as a stop on the way to Brothertown, the pan-Indian settlement founded by Occom and other graduates of Wheelock’s school. Schenectady was designated a borough in 1765 and eventually incorporated as a city 1798.


Stockbridge is a small town on the Housatonic River in Berkshire County in western Massachusetts. The area was the home of the Mohekanew or Muh-he-ka-nuk people (people of the continually flowing waters), also known as the Mahicans, (or Mohicans and not to be confused with Mohegans from the Connecticut area), who had been driven there because of tensions with the Mohawk tribe over the expansion of the fur trade with the Dutch in the 17th century. European traders and settlers in the area brought disease and land greed, weakening the Mahicans and their traditional lifeways. In 1734, a missionary named John Sergeant from New Jersey came to live in the Mahican village of Wnahktukuk, baptizing those who accepted his teachings. In order to survive in a rapidly changing world, the Tribe accepted the misson and in 1736, the town of Stockbridge was created, named after a village in Hampshire, England, the last of the "praying towns" in Massachusetts, also known as "Indian Town." It was, for the English, strategically located along a military trail to Canada and created a Protestant buffer against Indian allegiance to the Catholic French. Sergeant built a church and schoolhouse, and brought four English families to settle there, ostensibly as models. Wappinger, Nipmuck and Tunxis Indians joined the community and the Mahicans made Stockbridge their chief village. They and the other Native peoples who lived there were called the "Stockbridge Indians." With the end of the French and Indian war, new settlers flooded into the town, buying up land and excluding the Indians from town government; the experimental community became divided into white and Indian neighborhoods. Although the Massachusetts General Court promised that the land given to the Indians as a reward for their service in the recent war and held in common would never be sold, that agreement was breached. In 1774, Indians from seven praying towns––Charlestown, Groton, Stonington, Niantic, Farmington, Montauk, and Mohegan––who were also in debt and dispossesed, accepted the invitaion of the Oneidas to settle on their lands in central New York state, but were driven back by the Revolution and retreated to Stockbridge. Eventually, in 1783 many Stockbridge Indians moved to Oneida lands and founded "new" Stockbridge near the Brotherton settlement established by Occom and other Mohegan Indians. Stockbridge, MA, was a destination for many of the missionaries trained by and associated with Wheelock and his Indian school, and eight Stockbridge Indians enrolled at Dartmouth College between 1771 and 1780. In 1778, Daniel Simon, a Narragansett Indian, one of five children in his family to go to Wheelock's Charity School, and the first Indian educated by Wheelock to receive a degree from Dartmouth College in 1777, was licensed to preach and taught at Stockbridge. As late as 1785, Occom recounts in his journals traveling to Stockbridge, MA to preach and visit Sergeant, Jr. and Kirkland, and finds the Indians "scattered," many removed to Oneida country.

Bowman's Creek

Bowman's Creek is a small village about four miles long within the town of Canajoharie in central New York's Montgomery County. Canajoharie (also known as Indian Castle or Upper Castle for the Mohawk fortifications surrounding the town) was a major Mohawk village that became a central location for the missionary activity of Wheelock and others. By the time Occom visited the area in the late 1780s, disease and war had decimated the Mohawk population and only around 250 Indians remained in the area. The village is named for Jacob Bowman, an English colonist who purchased land at the head of the creek in 1760. Occom notes the village as a location distinct from Canajoharie, which he also mentions visiting, and it was a frequent stop on his preaching tours of the 1780s. While in Bowman's Creek, Occom preached to the town's residents, likely at the Presbyterian church. In one entry, he notes baptizing a resident.


Clinton is a small village about 10 miles south of the Mohawk River in Oneida County at the center of New York state. It is named for George Clinton, the first governor of the state. Originally, the area was Oneida land, but in 1787, the State of New York issued what the records call "Coxe’s Patent," granting land in what would become Clinton to veterans of the Revolutionary War and their families. These veterans, led by Captain Moses Foote, came from Plymouth, CT to establish the village, which was first a part of Whitestown, then the town of Paris, and finally, in 1827, the town of Kirkland. Occom, who lived in nearby Brothertown when Clinton was founded, visited the village in its early years to preach to Indians and new settlers. In 1793, Samuel Kirkland, Wheelock’s most famous Anglo-American student and missionary, founded Hamilton-Oneida Academy on what is now Clinton’s College Hill. His aim was to educate both white settlers and Oneidas, with whom he had worked as a missionary for many years. While Kirkland hoped the school would promote harmony between Clinton’s original and new settlers, very few Oneidas attended the school, and in 1812, it dropped the "Oneida" from its name and became Hamilton College. Many Oneidas relocated from Clinton to Wisconsin in the 1820s because of pressure to give up more land than they had already given. Clinton became an incorporated village in 1843 and remains mostly agrarian.

Half Moon Church

Niskayuna is a town in east central New York State on the Mohawk River, just east of the city Schenectady. The name Niskayuna means "extensive corn flats," and is said to come from the Connestigione Indians who occupied a large area on both sides of the river when Dutch settlers arrived around 1642. The Dutch negotiated land deals with several Connestigione chiefs, and began to build homes and farms in the area in the 1660's. In 1746, George Clinton, Governor of New York colony, built one of a line of blockhouses ranging from Fort Massachusetts to Fort Hunter in Niskayuna, and in 1799, the Albany-Schenectady Turnpike (now Route 5) was built through the town. In 1822, the Erie Canal crossed the Mohawk River into Niskayuna, and in 1843 the Troy and Schenectady Railroad was built along the Mohawk River with a station in Niskayuna. The reformed Church of Niskayuna, organized around 1750, is the church at which Occom mentions preaching in his journal of 1787. Around the time that Occom and other Moor's graduates founded Brothertown on Oneida land in upstate New York, Occom commuted back and forth from Mohegan to Brothertown, often stopping to preach to large, enthusiastic crowds in churches and settlements in the area. He mentions preaching at Niskayuna and staying with acquaintances in 1786, 1787 and 1790, often in winter and braving difficult traveling conditions. He likely traveled on the trail that in 1799 became the Albany-Schenectady Turnpike.

Yankee Hill

Yankee Hill was a hamlet in what is now the town of Florida, in Montgomery County, New York, in the center of the state. Yankee Hill refers to an actual hill, located south of the Mohawk River and west of Schoharie Creek. In 1781, British troops and their Iroquois allies raided Yankee Hill during the Revolutionary War. In the late 1780s, Occom preached in Yankee Hill and the surrounding areas, crossing over the Mohawk River and back again to reach different audiences. At the time, Yankee Hill was home to many farms. Today, the name Yankee Hill refers to a section of the Erie Canal’s Schoharie Aqueduct, which crosses over the creek near modern-day Florida, NY.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Aupaumut, Hendrick

Hendrick Aupaumut, most likely a descendant of the Mohawk chief Hendrick, was a Mahican Indian who was born in Stockbridge, Massachusetts in 1757. He was educated by the Moravians and became very involved in tribal affairs and relations with the United States. Along with other Stockbridge Indians, Aupaumut fought as part of Captain William Goodrich’s company in the Revolutionary War, rising to captain in 1778. In 1777, when Joseph Quanaukaunt became sachem, Aupaumut became a member of his council along with Peter Pohqunnoppeet and John Konkapot. He also became close friends with Samson Occom and would often host the preacher or translate his sermons when the latter visited New Stockbridge, to where the Stockbridges moved in the mid 1780s. In 1787 he was one of nine Indians to write to Occom declaring their faith and asking Occom to become their minster. He was also one of the Indians to sign the proclamation that Occom, Pohqunnooppeet, and David Fowler carried during their tour to raise funds to support Occom as their pastor. By the 1790s, Aupaumut was acting as an agent for the United States. He helped the government combat Tecumseh and his brother Elskwatawa, and he fought under General Harrison in the War of 1812. Both conflicts interrupted the various land deals between tribes, as well as treaties and other negotiations, in which he was involved. Although he encouraged Indians to convert to Christianity and learn English, Aupaumut opposed leasing land to whites. Occom and Aupaumut agreed that the Stockbridges must move west to escape the influence of outside cultures, and to preserve their Christianity. In the 1820s, Aupaumut led land deals with Wisconsin tribes, and he finally moved west in 1829 along with the remainder of the Stockbridge tribe.

Pauquunnuppeet, Peter

Sir Peter Pauquunnuppeet (there are several variant spellings), a son of an Indian deacon by the same name, was a Stockbridge Mohican Indian and student of Eleazar Wheelock, who studied at Moor’s Indian Charity School from 1771 until 1775, and graduated from Dartmouth College in 1780. Together with Daniel Simon, class of 1777, and Lewis Vincent, class of 1781, he was one of the three Indian students to graduate before the turn of the century, and they became the last native graduates until 1835. The “Sir” that precedes Pohquonnoppeet’s forename originated from his status as a senior in school, and remained a part of his name for the rest of his life. After graduating, Pauquunnuppeet returned to Stockbridge, where he taught school and was involved in tribal affairs. Joseph Quanaukaunt (Quinney) became sachem in 1777, and along with Hendrick Aupaumut and John Konkapot, Pauquunnuppeet was a member of the his council. Pauquunnuppeet was also influential in the Brothertown movement and the founding of New Stockbridge six miles from Brothertown, New York. In 1785, when Americans in New York were driving the Oneidas to cede land that bordered Pennsylvania, Pauquunnuppeet represented the Stockbridge Indians in what became the Treaty of Herkimer. Pauquunnuppeet had an influential friendship with Samson Occom. Occom recorded many occasions in his diary during his missionary tours of 1785-1787 when Peter hosted him, and noted a few instances when they traveled together. Often during Occom’s visits to New Stockbridge Captain Hendrick and Pauquunnuppeet would translate his sermons for those who could not understand English. The Stockbridge Indians favored Occom over the white missionary John Sergeant, Jr., and on August 29, 1787 Pauquunnuppeet was one of nine Indians to write to Occom declaring their devotion and inviting Occom to become their minister. However, the tribe had no means by which to pay Occom, and so, in the winter of 1787 Pauquunnuppeet, Occom, and David Fowler embarked on a fundraising journey through New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York. They were not, however, able to raise as much money as they had sought to collect. Pauquunnuppeet’s strong presence within the tribe may have led to his death, although the precise date and circumstances of his decease is unknown. Sectionalism within New Stockbridge was growing due to the friction between those who supported Occom and those who preferred Sergeant, Jr. as their minister. The politics of Brothertown as an independent entity contributed to the tension. Finally, when Hendrick Aupaumet rose to the position of chief, Pauquunnuppeet became the leader of a rival faction. It has been suggested that Pauquunnuppeet’s increasing authority provoked his enemies to poison him.

Sergeant, Jr., John

John Sergeant Jr., like his father, served as a minister in Stockbridge, MA. In 1773, Stephen West, the minister to the Stockbridge Indians since 1757, decided to leave his post and turned over ministering duties to John Sergeant Jr. Stockbridge, MA, which John Sergeant Sr. helped establish, failed as a Christian Indian town when the Stockbridge Indians lost ownership of their land. When the Oneida Tribe offered the Stockbridgers land in central New York after the American Revolution, many of them moved to the Brothertown and New Stockbridge settlements. The Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge funded Sergeant Jr. in 1787 to continue serving as a minister to the Stockbridge Indians who moved to New York. Sergeant travelled from Stockbridge, MA, to New Stockbridge every year to serve as their minister. In 1788, the Stockbridge Indians at New Stockbridge were divided in their support for Occom or John Sergeant as the town’s minister. Mohican sachem Hendrick Aupaumut led the community members who favored Occom. According to Sergeant, 30 members of the Tribe were in favor of Occom while 50 were in favor of him (later, half of Occom’s supporters defected to Sergeant). The relationship between Sergeant and Occom was contentious, with Occom disliking Sergeant’s manner of preaching. Occom moved to Munhegunnack or New Stockbridge in 1791 and suggests in a letter that many of Sergeant’s supporters were shifting support to Occom. In his sermons, Sergeant blamed the Indians’ loss of land on what he described as their drunkenness and idleness. He suggested that the whites’ encroachment on their lands was God’s punishment for their sins. Sergeant remained the New Stockbridge minister until his death in 1824.


Unidentified Smith.

Frank, Lawrence

Lawrence Frank, also identified in histories of Frankfort as "Lewis," was one of the earliest settlers of the town of Frankfort (originally Frank's Ford), located east of present-day Utica, which was named in his honor. He was the son of Henry Frank (c 1725-1790) and Maria Catharine. Henry immigrated to Pennsylvania from Germany, probably Bavaria, with his brother Christopher in 1740 and was a trader between the Mohawk and Lehigh Valleys in the 1740s and 50s. He settled in German Flatts, an area originally belonging to the Mohawk Nation but populated with German immigrants who bought up the fertile river lands. Lawrence married Mary Myers in 1769 and they helped found the new town of Frankfort on land originally bought from the Mohawks by Dutch settlers. The land was set off as a separate town from German Flatts by an act of the NY Legislature on February 5, 1796. Lawrence Frank owned a large tract of land, and town history reflects that he actively promoted the industrial and agricultural progress of Frankfort, which was severely damaged in the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars. In fact, Frank and a group of other patriots were taken as prisoners of war during the Revolution and housed in Quebec from August 31 1778 until May 15 1781, when he was released and made his way back home. His popularity is reflected in the fact that the village of Howard's Bush was renamed Frankfort Center and McGowansville was renamed East Frankfort. Later in life, Frank moved with some of his family to a new settlement called Busti in Chautauqua County, NY, which is where he died. On his first journey to the Oneidas in 1761, Occom records paying for lodging at Mr. Franks, a tavern keeper in German Flatts. Although there is no historical record of such a place, Occom returned to this tavern many times on his preaching tours of the area between 1786 and 1790. Frank's Tavern must have been a major establishment because in early July of 1761, Occom notes that William Johnson met him and David Fowler there, and that the next day Johnson met with chiefs of the Oneidas to work out an agreement about an Oneida who killed a Dutchman. In June 1789, Occom records preaching in Esquire Frank's barn to "a vast number of people."

Post, John
Paul, Anthony

Anthony Paul was born in Charlestown, Rhode Island, to Mary and James Paul. His family was a part of the Narragansett peoples who lived in Charlestown. There is not much information detailing Paul's early years, but he is believed to have attended Wheelock's school in Connecticut. It is through this connection that Paul is likely to have met Christiana Occom, daughter of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Paul married Christiana in 1777 and, after spending some time in Mohegan, the two settled in Brotherton in 1784. Paul worked as a preacher and helped raise at least six children with Christiana. Occom was fond of his son-in-law, and his journals tell of many happy times visiting the couple, including fishing trips and the day in 1787 when Samson baptized Paul and four of his children. As further indication of Occom's fondness for his son-in-law, he is believed to have left the books and papers that he kept in his New York home with Paul. In 1797, Paul and Christiana left Brotherton to live in Lake George, NY, where they spent the rest of their years.

Paul, Christiana (née Occom)

Christiana Occom was born in 1757 in Mohegan, CT as the ninth child of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Christiana spent her childhood in Mohegan, where she married the Reverend Anthony Paul in 1777. The couple eventually settled in Brotherton in 1784. There, they raised at least six children, four of which Samson Occom baptized. Occom's journals tell of many joyful visits he paid to his daughter and son-in-law while on his travels. Christiana and Anthony finally left Brotherton in 1797 to settle in Lake George, NY.

Folts, Conrad Jacob

Conrad Folts was the son of Jacob Melchert Folts (1710-1808) and Anna Catherine Petrie Folts (1714-1799), who settled in the area around Herkimer, near the Mohawk River in central New York. The Folts were probably part of the large German settlement concentrated around German Flatts. Conrad was a Captain, though the records do not indicate where or whom he served. In the 1780s, when Occom, David Fowler and others from Mohegan and Stockbridge began moving Christian Indians up to the Oneida lands they had been given to settle, Occom met and befriended Folts and his family, who lived close to the settlements of Brothertown and New Stockbridge. On October 21, 1785, Occom recorded the first time he lodged with "one Mr. Folts," a phrase he used to denote this as an initial meeting. By September 11, 1786, however, Occom noted, "put up at my good friends Mr Conrod Fols." He lodged and "tarried" with the family several times during 1787 after visits to and from Brothertown. Folts is buried in the Oakview Cemetery in Frankfort, Herkimer County, NY.

Kimball, Jesse

Jesse Kimball was a member of the extensive Kimball family, whose ancestors immigrated from England at the end of the 17th century and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. His father was John Kimball (b. December 12, 1731) of Preston, CT, and his mother was Ruhama Sanders of Lyme, CT; they married on September 21, 1752 and had three sons and 13 daughters. Jesse was the second son. John served in the Revolutionary war and Jesse, though quite young, took the place of his brother Samuel, who contracted measles on the eve of his enlistment. Jesse served three years under Captain Adam Chapley and was stationed in New London, CT. After his service, Jesse moved to the frontier settlement of Bowman's Creek, in the present-day town of Canajoharie in Oneida country, and joined the militia. There he entertained Occom several times on Occom's preaching tours of 1785-87; the two often fished in the creek, to Occom's delight. The date when Kimball's Bowman's Creek house burned down is uncertain, but real estate records have him buying and selling land in Bowman's Creek as late as 1790, and he is listed in the first US Census for New York in 1790 as being the head of a household. His first marriage ended in divorce and in 1793 he married Elizabeth Roelofson (d. 1843). By that time, he had moved to Kentucky, where he was a farmer and miller and started his family. Some records report that he also made whiskey, and when he would not sell it to the local Indians, he was driven from his home and settled in Posey County, Indiana, where he died in 1857.

Waupieh, Roger

Roger Waupieh was one of the founders of the Brothertown community. In early life, he lived in Stonington and served in the Revolutionary War. The maiden name of Occom's mother, Sarah, was Wauby, suggesting that Occom and Roger Waupieh may have been related. Some sources suggest "Woyboy" as an alternate spelling of Waupieh; Roger Waupieh may have been related to the Woyboy who was an early student at Moor's.

Bartlet, Mr. Bartlet's daughter
Fowler, David Jr.

David Fowler, Jr., was the son of David Fowler and Hannah Garrett Fowler. He was born in Brothertown, inherited property upon the death of his father, and served as town clerk in the early 1800s.

Chreppen, Thomas
Conell, John
Eliot, Andrew
Fowler, Esther (née Poquiantup)

Esther Poquiantup was a Mushantuxet Pequot, the daughter of Samson Poquiantup (Pequot, 1725-1787) and Esther (Mohegan, 1725-1822) and sister of Prude Poquiantup Harry (1752-1828). The Poquiantups (also spelled Pouquenup, Pauhqunnup, Uppuiquiyantup) were a prominent family of Christian Indians with one branch living in Groton and the other at Niantic, CT. In 1766, Samson and Esther were living at Groton. Samson was a church deacon who occasionally hosted Occom's religious meetings. We don't know when Esther married Jacob Fowler, a Montaukett Indian, younger brother of David, and Samson Occom's brother-in-law, but we do know that by 1774, Esther and Jacob were living in Hanover, NH, in a Dartmouth College building down the hall from Elizabeth Walcutt and her daughter Lucy. Jacob, who attended Wheelock's School, had become a preceptor there. Esther and Jacob were part of the first group to emigrate from New England to Brothertown in Oneida country. By 1787, Occom refers to Esther as a widow, and lodges frequently at her house.

Field, Andrew
Foot, Foot
Fowler, Elizabeth

Elizabeth Fowler was the daughter of David Fowler, Occom's brother-in-law, and Hannah Garrett.

Fowler, David

David Fowler was Jacob Fowler's older brother, Samson Occom's brother-in-law, and an important leader of the Brothertown Tribe. He came to Moor's in 1759, at age 24, and studied there until 1765. While at school, he accompanied Occom on a mission to the Six Nations in 1761. He was licensed as a school master in the 1765 mass graduation, and immediately went to the Six Nations to keep school, first at Oneida and then at Kanawalohale. Fowler saw himself as very close to Wheelock, but their relationship fragmented over the course of Fowler's mission, primarily because Wheelock wrote back to Kirkland, with whom Fowler clashed, but not to Fowler, and because Wheelock refused to reimburse Fowler for some expenses on his mission (767667.4 provides the details most clearly). Fowler went on to teach school at Montauk, and played a major role in negotiations with the Oneidas for the lands that became Brothertown. He was among the first wave of immigrants to that town, and held several important posts there until his death in 1807.

Fowler, Sister
Fowler, Widow
Gregg, James

James Gregg was a member of the New York Continental Infantry during the Revolutionary War. He was appointed 2nd Lieutenant on June 28, 1775 and 1st Lieutenant on June 26, 1776. He was a captain when the remarkable incident that Occom records in his journal for June 29, 1786 occurred. According to the military journal of Dr. Thatcher at Fort Stanwix in central New York, on June 25, 1777, Captain Gregg left the Fort with Corporal Madison, both of Colonel Gansevoort's regiment, to shoot pigeons. About a mile and a half from the Fort, they where shot down by two Indians. Though never identified, the attackers could have been from any of the Haudenosaunee tribes allied with the British. Madison was killed and scalped. Gregg was shot, tomahawked in the head and back, and scalped. A dog with them alerted nearby soldiers who brought Gregg and Madison back to the Fort. Gregg survived under the care of Dr. Thatcher, and was taken to a hospital in Albany. Thatcher reports that after a year or so of recovery, Gregg was back on duty. Another muster list records Gregg transferred to the 1st Regiment of New York in 1783. In the 1780s, Gregg and his wife were living in central New York along the Mohawk River in the area east of Brothertown where Occom frequently preached. Occom records dining and lodging with the Greggs on numerous occasions.

William Harper was the oldest brother of the Harper family, prominent in the settlement of central New York and the Revolutionary War. His grandfather, James Harper, emigrated from county Derry in Ireland to Maine in 1720, but because of conflicts with the Indians there, moved the family to Boston. His youngest son, John (1705-1785), married Abigail Montgomery of Hopkinton, CT in 1728. They had eight children: William (b. 1729), James (b. 1731), Mary (b. 1733), John (b. 1734), Margaret (b. 1740), Joseph, Alexander and Abigail (b. between 1747 and 1749). John Sr. moved the family from Middletown to Windsor, CT and then to Cherry Valley, NY in 1754, where they purchased land, and began to clear and cultivate. In 1768, John Sr. signed a patent for land between the Delaware and Charlotte Rivers purchased from the local Indians where members of the family moved in 1771, establishing the town of Harpersfield, selling lots to emigrants from New England, and distinguishing themselves. William became a member of the Provincial Congress, a judge in Montgomery and then Otsego Counties, and a member of the State Assembly from Tryon in 1781, 1782, 1784, and from Montgomery from 1785-89. James died of smallpox in 1760. John Jr. attained the rank of Colonel and was appointed commander of the Fifth Regiment of the New York State Tryon County militia during the Revolution, in which his younger brothers, Joseph and Alexander served as Lieutenant and Captain of a company, respectively. Joseph served on the committee of safety of Harpersfield. Alexander kept the first tavern in Harpersfield after the war, the site of town meetings, and served as justice of the peace and treasurer. Abigail married William McFarland, who served as town clerk, and moved, in 1798 with Joseph and Alexander to Ohio where they founded Harpersfield in that state. A history of Harpersfield reveals that during his youth, John Jr. (and possibly William and Alexander) attended Wheelock's School in Lebanon, CT, where he became life-long friends with Joseph Brant, a Mohawk Indian who attended between 1761 and 1763, and became a leader of the Tribe and supporter of the British. This friendship, and the Harper brothers’ knowledge of the Mohawk language and customs, made them valuable leaders and even saved lives; when Harpersfield was destroyed by Indians and British soldiers in 1777, Brant sent John Jr. a secret warning, which allowed the settlers to flee to safety. Occom records visiting "Esquire Harper" in or near Fort Hunter in 1786 and 1787. While this could refer to any of the Harper brothers, it is most likely William, who had the best claim to the title of “Esquire” (whereas John and Alexander would have been titled with their military ranks) and who was the only brother to move to Montgomery county, in which Fort Hunter is located. The Harper family history illustrates how the connections forged at Wheelock's school had wide effects on the course of late eighteenth century political events.

Griswool, Joenna
Mudge, John
Pickard Family

A family in Cherry Valley, New York, whose members include, at least, Nicholas, Adolf, Jona and Susanna (spelling uncertain). Occom lodged with members of the Pickard family and preached at Nicholas Pickard's home during his travels in 1786 and 1787. There appear to be no published sources that verify this family. Some amateur genealogy sites suggest that a family by this name had been residing in Cherry Valley before and after the "Cherry Valley Massacre" in 1778, including one Nicholas Pickard who was killed in 1776.

Stansel, Henry
Tuck, James
Vanolenda, Mertin
Vasnderwarker, John
Wympe, Jerusha
Vedder, Albert Jr.
Dean, Jonathan
Peters, Samuel
Romine, Domine
HomeSamson Occom, journal, 1787 September 20 to December 5
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