Skip to main content
 Previous Next
  • Zoom In (+)
  • Zoom Out (-)
  • Rotate CW (r)
  • Rotate CCW (R)
  • Overview (h)
Samson Occom, journal, 1785 December 15 to 1786 January 22

ms-number: 785665

abstract: Occom details his travels throughout Connecticut, New York, Vermont, and Massachusetts as he preaches among Native, Dutch, and African-American communities.

handwriting: Handwriting is largely clear and legible. The journal is minimally overwritten by an editor, likely 19th-century; these edits have not been transcribed. There are some uncrossed t's and crossed uprights that the transcriber has corrected.

paper: Several small sheets folded together and sewn into a booklet are in good condition, with light-to-moderate staining and wear. There is some repair work done on particularly worn edges.

ink: Dark brown.

noteworthy: This journal picks up where manuscript 785655 leaves off. On four recto, it is uncertain to which lake Occom refers; however, it is possbily Saratoga Lake. On four verso, the identity of the "Honorable Congress" is uncertain, although it is possibly the New York State legislature. On 11 recto, the identity of the Captain's son is uncertain, and so he has been left untagged. On 14 recto, Occom uses the modern spelling of the word “boss,” which may predate OED's earliest citation by 25 years. On 24 verso, the name “John Shuneman” is written in a hand other than Occom's. When the spelling of a name or place name is illegible, the entity has been left untagged.

I went home with Mr Seeley
and in the evening a n [illegible] um
ber of People Came in to
Exerciſe with my notes
and it was very agreable
Meeting, Lodged here, —

Thirdsday Decr 15:

10: O: c Sot of for a nother meet
ing a bout 2 miles to Mr
and there was a
Small number of People
and I Spoke to them from
[gap: omitted] — juſt before
meeting I was Calld by
a man from 5000 Aires
to mary a Cupple this even
ing, — and So as Soon as
the meeting was over

[gap: worn_edge] [guess: I] Sot of, and [illegible] got there
after Sun Sit and I Sot a
lettle while at Mr Northrops
and then went to the Houſe
of wedding, and married
a Cupple and Soon after
marriage I went with home
with Mr Benjamin and his
wife and there I Lodged —

Fryday Decr 16.

Soon after
Breakfaſt, I went of to P[illegible] [guess: ee] ſsley
got there. about 12: and in
a bout an Hour we began
the meeting, and there was
a Conſiderable number of
People Chiefly Scotch People
and I Spoke from Isaiah 16 5.5
and the People were great[gap: worn_edge] [guess: ly]
bowd before the word, an[gap: tear] [guess: d]
the Lord, I believe gave me
Some Senſe of his word,

as Soon as the meeting was
over I went of to ball Town
got to Mr L[illegible] [guess: ac]ys a bout Sun
down, and it was Rainy, yet
a Number of People Came to
gether, and we had agreable
Exerciſe with my Notes, Sot up
late, and Lodge at the Same
Houſe, and was kindly en
tertain'd. —

Saturday Decr 17:

in the
morning went to Mr Jeremiah
and took breakfaſt
with them, and Soon after
eating I went of, Calld a while
at Mr Benjamins, and from
there went to Mr Cundys a
Ducthman, and was extream
ly well received, Stayd the
reſt of the Day and the night
enſuing, — and we had
very agreable Exerceſe with

my Notes — —

Sabb Decr 18

Soon after
Breakfaſt Mr Cundy and
I went to Gallaway to meet
ing with the Scotch People
we got there a bout 12: and
there was a great Number of
People, Chiefly Scotch People, and
I began the meeting Soon after
I got there, — I Spoke from Eph V: 14
and I much freedom; and there
was very deep and Solemn atten
tion, many were greatly affected,
after Service, I took Dinner with
the Family where the meeting, the
mans Name was Mr Mc kinſley
Soon after Dinner, I returnd
to 5000 A[illegible] [guess: cr]es, I went alone, I got
to Mr Moorhouſe's before Sun
Sit, and Stopt there for the night
and was affectionately receivd —
in the Evening a number of

Young People and Some others
Came together, to have Exerciſes
with my Notes, and it was
a it was a Comfortable meet
ing, the Company broke up
about 10, and after that we
Sot up Some Time, and we
went to Bed quietly — —

Monday Decr 19:

got very
Early, and got my Mare Shod
and after Breakfaſt, I took
good leave of the Family, and
Sot of to take leave of my other
Friends as Soon as Coud, for
a y [illegible] oung Came for me this
morning, to go to north part
of Balls Town 8. or 9. miles
from this Place, got a way
from my Friends about 12
and So went on as faſt as
I Coud, Calld at Mr Seeley's
and took Dinner there, and

So went directly on again
got to the Place a 2, and Mar
ried a Cupple of Engliſh, their
Names were, Sanford White &
Hannah Hide — I the evening
I went to another Houſe one Mr
and there we had a meet
ing, and there was a goodly
Number of People, and it was
a refreſhing meeting, many
I believe felt the Power of the
Word, I Spoke from Luke XVIII 41
after I had diſmiſt them, a num
ber Stay'd, and deſird to have
Exerciſe with my Notes, and
there was great Solemnity a
mongſt them, many were
Deeply affected, there was a
flow Tears, from many Eyes
it was late before we break
up, and I went to bed once
more in Peace, thanks be
to God —

Tueſday Decr 20:

got up very
Early and had my Horſe got
for me, and went one Mr
Uni [illegible] ſtead's
a few Rods and there
took Breakfaſt, after Break
faſt took my notes, handed out
to 3: or 4: Children, and then
I Sot [illegible] of for Eaſtward, got to
Mr Weeds about 12: took din
ner with them, and Soon after
Dinner went on again one
Mr Naſh Conducted me over
the North End of the Lake —
and Mr Naſh deſired me to
go home with him and to
have a meeting in the eveng
at his Houſe or Some other
and I Conſented and we had
a meeting, and there was
great Number of People &
I Spoke from, Hebak 1.13 To what
purpoſs &c — Lodgd at Mr Naſhs

Wedneſday Decr 21.

was up
early, and got ready to go a
way, And Mr Naſh had a
notion of Exchanging mares
with me, and I Conſiderd of
it a little while, and Conclud
ed to Swap with him, and
he took off my Saddle put it
the other, I gave him 2 Dollars
and an half, and I So I went
on to Mr Beldens and took Brea [illegible] [guess: k]
and Soon after Breakefaſt I
went on again; I Juſt now
heard Brother David, had good
Luck in Selling his Roots, &
had Success with the Hono^ble
Congreeſs, in his memorial
for help; — I got to Capt Bel [illegible]
den's a little while before
[illegible] Night, found them all well

and was kindly receivd by
them, — took Dinner at Mr
, — In the Evening I
went to Mr gregorys to meeting
and there was a large num
ber of People, tho it was exceed
ing bad Traviling both on
horſe back and foot. I Spoke
from Isaiah 1: to what purpoſ
and I think I had Some Senſe
of Divine things the Powd by
the Word, — Lodgd at mr gre

Thirdsday Decr 22:

Breakfaſt Some Time I went
to Capt Bel Dunnigs Stay till
after Dinner, and then took
leave of the Family, and
Sot of for New Town, Capt
went with me a
bout 2: and half miles, and

and then a kind Ducth
man [illegible] Conducted me, till he
got me to a plain way, and
I got to Mr Taillar, and was
enquiring where the People
meet together to worſhip and
he Said they had no meeting
and he found me out at laſt
that I was a Preacher, and
deſired meto light, and I
did, he was very kind to me
and to my mare, and Lodgd
there, — Reſted very Comfort
ably —

Fryday Decr 23:

got me
up [illegible] Some Time before Day
and made me up a fire, &
Sot down by it, — and here
I Stayd till Some Time in the
after noon, and then I went
to StillWaters , got to Mr

Bakers before Sun Set, and in
the Evening a number of People
Came in and Mr Marſh a Pre
cher amongſt this People Came
in alſo, and we had Converſa
tion Some was not So agreable
before we broke up we had
Some Exerciſe with my notes
[illegible] and it was late before, we had
done, Lodgd here, —

Saturday Decr 24:

noon I went to See Mr Camp[illegible] [guess: el]
and took dinner with them,
Soon after Dinner, I went
of to go back to New Town,
Calld at Mr Andruſss , but
he was not at Home, and I
went on, Stopt at [illegible] old Mr Millers
and there I Taried all night
and was kindly entertaind
went to bed pretty ear [illegible] ly —

Sabb Decr 25:

got up Some
Time before Break of Day
and the Family got up too
and they got Breakfaſt Soon
and a little after Sun riſe
we were getting ready to go
to meeting, — and Mr Tayler
and I went of Soon, and to
his Sun s good while before
meeting, about 11: the People
began to flock in faſt, and
about 12 we began the Ex
erciſe, and there was a pro
digious Number of People
Collected together, and I Spoke
from Lucke 11.10: and there
was very great attention —
and in the Evening we had a
nother meeting, and there was
a large number of People, tho'

it was a Dreadful Storm of
Snow, and wind belew wvery
high, and the Snow flew and
it was Cold, — I Spoke from
the words — but one thing &c Luke
and there was very good atten
tion again, — went to Bed
Soon this evening and had
a Comfortable reſt, —

Monday Decr 26:

SDid not
get up Soon — [illegible] Some Time
after Breakfaſt, I Sot of for
Still water , and it was very
CCold, got there before noon
Call at Mr Andruſss and Sot
a little while, and went of
and Calld at Mr Bakers, and
they all inſiſted I Shoud and
preach, and finally I Con
cented, Dind with Mrs Norton
and her Daughter Loiſs

Directly after Dinner went
to Mr Campels and Preachd
there to a Small Number of
People — Spoke from XV I kings
and 14, and there was good
attendence, Soon after meet
ing, I went of in order to go
over the River, two men went
with me, but I Coud not get
over, there was too much Ice
and So I turnd my Courſe [illegible] [guess: & ]
went up to Mr Powerss a bap
tiſt miniſter, got there a little
after Sun Sit, and put up
there, he and his wife receivd
me very kindly —

Tueſday Decr 27

Wat at
Mr Powerss all Day, and
it was extream Cold; in the
evening, went to meeting a
mongſt Mr Powerss People &
there was quite great many

People for the Cold Seaſon
I Spoke from Psalm 125.1
and the People Seem to be in
deferent in their attention, their
Bodies were Cold and I believe
Hearts too, — after meeting went
back with Elder Powers and
Lodged there again, —

Wedneſday Decr 28:

Time after Breakfaſt, I went
to Mr Kalleys meating Houſe
to preach, got there about
12 Mr Powers went with me
went into an Houſe Juſt by
the meeting, was there a few
minutes and Mr Kalley Came
in with his Wife, and it was
So Cold they Concluded to meet
in a Dwelling Houſe, and
we went directy, and there
was not great many People
I Spoke from I Croni. 29:
and there was good attention

Some were affected, Soon after
meeting I went to about 2 M [illegible]
further to preach amongſt Mr
People; one Mrs Ireiſh
Caried me in her Slay, got to
the Houſe Juſt before Sun Sit
a bout Candle [illegible: [guess: l] ] Lighting went to
meeting in a School Houſe Juſt
by, and there was a Croud of
People, and I Spoke from
Luke Lord teach us to pray
Lodgd this night at Mr Ireſhs
and Sot up late, Mrs Ireiſh &
I had very agreable Converſation
after the reſt went to bed, after
a while I went to bed Quietly,
and had a Comfortable reſt —

Thirdsday Decr 29

got up very
early, and went of, Stopt a [illegible] few
minutes at Mr Chatcham's and
So paſt on, and Stopt at Mr Kal
and took Breakfaſt [illegible] there
and Soon after Mr Chatcham

Came along, and I got up on
Horſe, and went along with him
and we Stopt at Mr Powerss and
got my things, and took my
good leave of him and his wife
and went on again, and Mr
and parted n [illegible] ear
the River, I went up the river
a little ways and Croſst the River
and went on, and Came to an
Houſe of one Capt Wright, and
he deſired to go into his Houſe &
I did, and took Dinner with him
and he deſired me to have meet
ing at his Houſe, the Sabbath
following, and I Concented, — and
So I past on Seeking after my
Daughter, went to old Mr Begles
and there they told me they were
gone towards the River, and So I
turnd right about, and went
on and I Calld at Haukins
and there I was told, they livd
about a mile & a Quarter,

got there about Sun Sit, and
found them all well; thanks
be to Heaven for his goodneſs to
me and to my Daughter,
Lodgd here, once more —

Fryday Decr 30:

it was a
Snowy Day and very Cold
Stayd till about 11: and then
I went of to go to meeting, but
I Coud not get a Horse to ride
to Mr Haukinss for my mare
was there, and I So I got a
young man to go for my Horſe
and he Came back Soon, and So
I went of, and Calld on Mr
, and it Snowd very
hard, and they Sayd it was
moſt Night, and they perſwaded
me to Stopt and not to go on
and I Complyd, and Stay
there all Night and they
treated me with all kindneſs
the woman I had knowledge of

when She was a little girl,
they have Six Children four
Boys and two girls, and they
agreable, Spent the evening
with them very agreable had
Some Exerciſes with my Notes
after a while went to bed —

Saturday Decr 31:

Some Time
after Breakfaſt, I took leave
of the Family, and went on
to the River got over on the
I[illegible]ce a bout 11, Call on Mr
, and took Dinner
there, after Dinner took
leave of them, and went [illegible]
down the River, Calld on Mr
a few minutes &
So paſt on, and Calld on
Mr Bacon and there I
Stop for the Night and was
kindly entertaind —

Sabb Janr 1. 1786,

got me up
Some what Early, and took
Breakfaſt, and Soon after
after Eating, had my Mare
got up, and I took leave of
the Family, and went over
the River to Capt Write's, and
about 11 the People Came faſt
and at 12 we began the meet
ing, and there was Conſiderable
Number of People, and I Spoke
from Gene [gap: omitted] How old &c
after meeting was at Capt Writes
and intended to Stay all Night
but preſently after Sun Sit a
Cupple of Young Came to Capt
, and Deſired me to go with
them, and I went, and Exerciſes
with my Notes with the Family
and Sot up late but at laſt
I went to bed, —

Monday, Janr 2:

got up early
and went back to Capt Writes

Mr L[illegible] [guess: w]is Williams Carried me
part of the way to the Capts and
I got there a bout 8. and was
geting to go on my way towards
Pitts Town, — and I was Saying
if any one to help towards up
per part of Saratoga, I woud go
and Capt Wright Said he woud
Continue to Carry me, and So I Con
cluded to go, and about 10.o.C.
[illegible] one of Capts 's Sons got up a
Slay, and we Sot of, and we got
to good old Deacon Hewits a
bout 1: and there I Stopt, and
they Concluded to have a meet
ing in the Evening, and Mr
went back — Deacon
was not at Home, but his
was at Home with whom he
lives — in the evening a number
of People got together, and I Spoke
to them from Jerem III.39.40 and
the People were exceedingly atten

tive and Solemn — went to
bed [illegible] Soon, and had a quiet
Sleep once more the Lord be
Praiſed — Lord enable me to
live this year as if I knew it
was the laſt, that I may live
to thee in all things that I may
Conſecret my all unto Thee —

Tueſday Janr 3:

got up very
early, and took Breakfaſt
with Mr Richard Hewet and
a bout 10 Mr Hewet took me
in his Slay, and we wint on
towards the North River, got
to the River about half after
11 and we were afraid to go
over the Slay on the Ice, and
I went over a foot, went to one
Mr Riders and tryed to hire
Horſe, but I Coud not get
any, and So Mr Hewet went
back over the River, to fetch
his Horſes, and he Soon got

back, and I got on upon
one of them and we went
onto Boughten [illegible] Kill, and
we Stopt at a Houſe, to enqure
of the way, and there we met
with one Mr Lake, he had
a Slay goining directly to
the place where I was going
and he was So kind as to
take me in his Slay, and
Mr Hewet went back, and
I went on, and we got to Mr
paſt middle of the
after noon, but there was
no Body at Home, and we
went to old Mr Foſters , and
there I Stayd, there I took
Dinner, Mrs Tanner was
there, Mr Foſter and his
wife are old People, about
Sun Sit I went back to Mr
, and meeting was

appointed here, and the People
began to Come in Soon, and
Mr Tanner got home after Sun
Set, and we Soon began the
Exerciſe, there was but few
People, and I Spoke to them
from John 9: [gap: omitted] Soon after
meeting I went to bed —

Wedneſday Janr 4:

got up
early, and was at the Houſe
till near 9, then Mr Tanner's
Son Thomas Carried me in
a Slay to meeting, at the Houſe
of Mr Forſter Mrs Tanner
and old Mrs Foſter were in the
Slay alſo, b got to the Houſe a
bout 10 and there was a
great gathering of People
I began ab 1 in the after
noon, and there was a
Solemn attention, many were
greatly affected, — Soon after

I went with Mr Roſe and
his Wife in his Slay, and
took Some Victuals with them
and Soon after eating we
went to meeting again, we
met at Mr Kinnion's, and
there was a goodly number
of People, and I believe the
Lord was preſent with us
and I believe the Night will
not be forgot Soon, after mg
I went back with Mr Roſe
in his Slay, this Mr Roſe Came
from Block-Island, I was well
aqainted with his Brother
William, — I lodged here —

Thirdsday Janr 5:

got up
very early, and they got
Breakfaſt directly, and
a bout 9 Mr Kinnion Came
to Mr Roſes to go with us &
we Sot of Soon, in a Slay

and went back to Saratoga
got to generals Seat about
11: and we paſt on to Fiſh Creek
got to Mr Hewets a bout 12: &
we Stayd a little while, and
we returnd back to General
Seat, got there about
2: S the men that brought
Stayd a while, and then went
of and I Stayd at Mr Tomſons
in one of generals Schiliers
Houſes, and had a meeting
there in the evening, but
there was a Small Compa
ny, and they attended well
[illegible] they were Chiefly Dutch
People, and they attended
well, — after meeting Some
Time I had Exerciſes with
my Notes, in the Family,
and it was a Solemn

Time, the poor Negroes
were Surprizd with the
Texts they Choſe, Some
Time in the Evening I
went to bed quietly and
had a Comfortable reſt —

Fryday Janr 6

we got
up very early, got Break
Soon, and a little after Sun
riſe, a Slay and Horſes were
ready to Carry me down towards
the Still Water , and, the generls
orderd one of the genls
Negroes to Carry me, Boſs
in Engliſh is Overſeers,
we had a fine Span of [illegible] Horſes
we got to Mr Williams, in
about an Hour, 6 miles &
half, the Negroe return
right back, and I Stayd
a little while, and I took
my Skonk mare, and Sot

of after takeng good leave
leave of Mr Williams and
his Family, and went on
towards Pitts Town, Stopt a
whele at Capt Wrights and
Mrs Wright, woud get me
Dinner, and as Soon as I
had done eating, I went on
again, traveld thro Woods
the bigeſt part of the way [illegible] ,
towards Night, I miſt my
way, and was obliged to go
back, about half a mile
and Call at an Houſe, the
man was a Black Smith
his Name is [gap: omitted]
and they were quite will
ing to let me Stay, and
the man and I lodgd toge
ther, and I had quite a
Comfortable Nights Reſt
Saturday Morning got up
very early, and my mare
was got up and I went on
before Sun riſe, and I got
to one Colol Tomſon's about
8:, and he knew me, and re
ceived kindly, and took B
there, and was there Some
Time after eating, I took
my old mare, and went to
Mr John Lambs. and was
kindly received, and there
I Stayd and Lodged there
and found the Cupple very
agreable, both of them are
Chriſtians, I belive in Truth
they are youngerly Cupple
they are of the Baptiſts

Sabb Janr 8

Some Time
a bout 10 we went to meet
ing at the Houſe of one
Mr [gap: omitted]

a bout 11: we went to meetg
and the People began to
gather thick, a bout 12 we
be gan the Divine execi ſe
and there was a great Numr
of People, one half Could not
Come into the Houſe, and
I was obligd to Stand at the
Door, and it was Cold, and
I Spoke from Eph. V 14:
and the People attended with
great attention, and many
were deeply affected and
there were flow of [illegible] Tears
and I believe they will
not forget the Day very
Soon, — Soon after meeting
I went home with Colo
in his Slay. Mr
and his wife went
with us he is an old Bapts

elder, took Dinner with
them, in the evening we
had a Meeting again and
there was a great Number
of People again, many[illegible]
[illegible] [illegible: [guess: full] ] of People were obligd
to go back becauſe there
no Room for them in the
Houſe, and it was Cold, &
there was great attention
a gain, [illegible]Lo [illegible] dged at the
Colo and was extreamly
kindly entertaind, the Colo
and his Lady are very a
greable Cupple —

Monday Janr 9:

after Break
I Sot of and went to See a
Young man that was Sick
and found him quite poorly
and was under deep Concern
for his poor Soul, gave him
Some Concel and prayd
with him, and then went

towards the Eaſt, Betsy Hinkly
a Young Woman went with
me, and we got to Mr Bigalos
about 12. where the meeting
was to be — People began
to Collect Soon, and there
was not a great many
People, and I Spoke to
them from Luke VII 23:
and the People were very
much affected many of them
Juſt before the Exerciſe was
over a Cupple of Young
men Came on purpoſe to
invit to go with them, to the
diſtance of 7: miles, and I
was at a Stand Some Time
what to Say to them, finally
Concluded to go with them, &
took Dinner and Soon after
went of with them in their
Slay and one of them Rode

my Mare, and it was about
Sun Sit when we Sot of and
was extreemly bay way
and it Cold, we got to the
Place Calld Hooſuck , put
up in the Houſe of one Mr
, and there Lodged
and was well receivd —

Tueſday Janr 10:

a bout 12
the People Collected fast, and
1: we began the worſhip &
there was a great number
of People, and I Spoke to them
from Matt IV: 10 and I believe
many felt the Power of the word
Soon after meeting, I went
of with Mr Reed, and his
, his wife ^ in their Slay was from
New London North pariſh
where I was brought up
took Dinner ^ with them and directly

after Dinner we went to meet
ing again, about 2. miles
off, and there was a great
number of People again
at was at the Houſe one Mr
, and I Preach to them
from Matt XI: 28, and there
was an affectionate attention
there was a Shower Tears,
the meeting was apointed
here on account of the woman
that was goining to meeting
Yeſterday to hear me, and
She was Taken with a Fit
of Apoplexy a bout half a
mile from her Houſe, and
was taken up Speechleſs, but
She is now better, Can Speak
but not very plain and
[illegible] She is Numb one Side
but She Can walk Some —
Soon after meeting I went

with Mr Reed in their
Slay and Lodgd at their
Houſe, and was affectionately
entertaind —

Wedneſday Janr 11

got up
early and took Breakfaſt
and a while after my
mare was brought, and I
took leave of the Family and
Sot of and had not gone more
than 60 rods before I met a
Slay from St Co[illegible] to fetch
me, and I got of my mare
and in the Slay and went
on faſt, it was about 8 m
we had to go, and got to the
Place about 12 I put up
Mr Lathems, and about 1
in the after noon we went
to meeting, — and there was
a Prodigious number of

People, and I Spoke from
Isaaih [illegible] [guess: IX] 6: and there was
very great and Solemn at
tention, many were much
affected, — after meeting
went back to Mr Lathems
in the Evening went to m–
again and there was a
Number of People, and I
Spoke to them from Prov 5 10
and there was great attenn
again, after meeting I
went with Mr [gap: omitted] Stopt at Docr
to See his Wife, She was Sick
and they deſired me to Stay
and Concluded to Stay, Sot
up very late, and went to
Bed about 11: had un-
comfortable Night it was
very Cold lay Cold,

Thidsday [below] Janr 12

up Some Time before

Day and Sot up by the
fire, and the Docrs wife
got up and Sot up ad and
Deſired me to Sit by her
and I did, and She gave me
a [illegible] Relation of her Experien
ces, and they were Some what
weak but a peared luke the
goſpel, and I think had
good affect upon her, Soon
after Day, I went a way
Stopt at the Houſe where we
meets, and Soon after I got
in a man Came in, and deſird
me to go[illegible] back a little way
to See a woman, that was put
to bed laſt Night, in Child
Birth, and I went, they
were Dutch Folks, I prayd
with them, and then went
back to mr Lathems, and
there a litle, and then

I expected a Company, but
they did not Come, So I Sot of
for Little White Creek, got to
the Place about 12: went into
an old Dutch man's Houſe
and he appeard very friendly
and took Care of my Mare
and the People began to ga
ther preſently, and about
1 I went to the meeting Houſe, it
is a Log meeting Houſe, where
one Elder Wait Preaches,
and [illegible] there was a Multitude
of People, I began the meet
ing Soon after I got in, the
People Coud not all get in
I Spoke from Rom VIII 13: and
I believe the People felt the
Power of the word of god, for
there was a flood of Tears —
Soon after meeting, I got
up on my Mare and went
on to [illegible] wards Mr Cro [illegible] ſss , Mr

Downer a Baptiſt Preacher
went with me, and we Stopt
at Mr Dakes , Mr Edward
Brother formerly a
Schoolmaſter at Charles
among the Indians
here we took Dinner, Soon af
ter Eating we went on again
got to Mr Croſss about Sun Sit
and the People began to gathe
directly, and we began the
meeting, and there was a
vaſt number of People &,
I Spoke to them from James IV: 17
and the People we greatly
bowd with the word, — Lodgd
here, Mr Croſs is believe a
Sincere Chriſtian, he gave
me an account of his Experi
ences and Exerciſes, Some
in the Evening I went to bed
once more quietly, and had
Comfortable Reſt, —

Fryday Janr 13:

Roſe early
and, and we had Prayers and
after that Breakfaſt Came
on, and Soon after Eating
I Sot of for Sharfburg Mr
[gap: omitted] and his wife
went with me, we Stopt at
Esqr [gap: omitted] from thence we
went to See Mrs Burnhan
She was lately taken with
a fit, and She is very Sick
I prayd with her, and then
went on to the meeting H
got there about 12 Stopt a
while at a Tarvern, about
1 we went to the Houſe of god
and it was Extreem Cold, there
was not a great many People
and I Spoke from Psal. 32:1
after Service went to the Same
Houſe where I Stopt took dinr
and directly after Dinner
I went on towards Benington

Mr Amos Burroughs went
with me a little ways and
we parted, I got to Mr Swifts
a little after Sun Sit, and
was very kindly Receivd &
[illegible] he inſiſted upon it that
Shoud keep Sabbath with
him, and Concluded to Stay,
Loded here, —

Sa [illegible] tud Janr 14:

was at Mthe
Place all Day, towards
Night went to the Printers
and Coming back I Calld
on Mrs Robbinſon an old
Mother in Iſreal, and had
a greable Converſation, a
bout Sun down went back
to Mr Swifts and Lodged
there again —

Sabb Janr 15:

about half
after 10 went into the Houſe

and there was a great
Multitude of People, it is
a large Houſe and it was
well filled, — I Spoke from
Luke XII: 21: and there
was a Serious attention —
in the after noon Spoke from
1 Corin XVI:22: and I believe
the Power of god accompanied
the word there was a great
Shower of Tears, and I
think they will not Soon for
get the Day, — after Service
went to Mr Swifts, took Dinr
and Directly after eating
went on to Pownal, Mr Potter
took me in his Slay, this
Potter went from Rhoad Island
Some Years back
and I have been in his
Houſe before when he

livd weſt of Seabrook
got to his Houſe about Sun
Sit, and was kindly entertad
Slept Quietly. —

Monday Janr 16:

got up
very Early, and about 12
the People began to Collect &
there was a large Congrega
tion, and I Spoke to them from
Roam VIII [gap: omitted] and there was a
good attention of People and
they attend well, but I had not
much freedom — as Soon as the
meeting was over, I went in
a Slay to Esqr Jewets, and
preachd there in the evening,
and there was a great Num
ber of People, and I Spoke
to them from 1 Jon V:10 and
I had but a little Senſe of the
word, yet there was good

attention, — Lodged there, —

Tueſday Janr 17:

went on my
way Soon after Breakfaſt
went thro' Williams Town &
Lainſbourgh , got to Pitts
in the Evening, and
Lodged at Mr Ingaſals a Pub
[illegible] Houſe, and found him &
his wife very agreable —

Wedneſday Janr 18:

Sot of
after Breakfaſt, and it was
Extream Cold, Stopt a little
at Brother David Fowlers in
Richmond, they were all well
in the after Noon Some Time
I paſt on, got to Mr Sajants after
Sun Sit and Lodged there, —

Thirdsday Janr 19,

it was
Some what pleaſant Day

went about 10: Call on Capt
, and they were well,
but moſt of the Indians were
much Scaterd, Sot but a little
while and So paſt on, — got to
Mr Heccocks in Sheffield a
Tarvern, and Lodged there —

Fryday Janr 20:

I Conclud
ed to go with a Cupple of men
to Hills Deals in Noble Town
and they had to go a mile a two
to Iron Works, and they were
gone all Day, about KCan-
dle Lighting, they returned back
to Mr Hecocks and I went there
in their [illegible] Slay and left my
mare at Mr Hecocks, and
it was about 18 miles we
had to go, and Stopt [illegible] Ti[illegible: [guess: ice] ]
and we got to the Place at

Mr Jordan's and it was a
bout midnight, and I was
much Fateagued, and went
to Sleep Soon, and had a Com
fortable reſt —

Saturday Janr 21:

was at
Mr Jurdans all Day, Some
Time after Sun Sit Mr Jordan
Carried me in a Slay to Mr
about a mile, and
there I Lodged, and was kind
ly entertaind, he is a Rich
man, and it was a plea‐
ſent evening, and it thawd
all Night, —

Sabb. Janr 22:

about 9
the People Came prety thick
and there was a great num
ber of people Collected toge-
there and I Spoke from

Rom IV 17: and the Peple
attended Solemnly, Soon after
meeting Mr Philip Lott took
me in his Slay and Carried
to a Dutch meeting Houſe
about 5 miles of we got
there, about Sun Sit, and
preſent after we went in
to the[illegible] Houſe of god, and there
was a large number of
People, and Spoke from
Acts 9 [gap: omitted] Soon after m
Mr Lott took me again in
his Slay and went home
with him, and it was
very bad Slaying by this
Time, and there I Lodgd
and was Extreamly wel
receivd, and reſted quiet
ly once more
John [illegible] Schuneman
New York State Legislature
The Legislature of the State of New York is composed of two houses: the Senate, or upper house, led by the President (a post held ex officio by the Lieutenant Governor but usually filled by the Majority Leader), and the Assembly, or lower house, led by the Speaker. It meets at the New York State capitol in Albany. Members of both houses are elected for two year terms. The number of Senators varies, according to population, and stands now at 63. The Assembly has 150 members. The Legislature originated in the revolutionary New York Provincial Congress, assembled by patriots during the Revolutionary War, and has had a history of corruption. It is empowered to make laws subject to the governor's veto, which may be overridden by a two-thirds majority. It can also propose amendments to the New York State Constitution. In the late eighteenth century, this Legislature played a key role in the establishment of Brothertown. On a preaching tour of New York in 1784 to raise funds for Indian families moving up to Oneida country, Occom reported meeting a group of "agreeable" gentlemen who were members of the New York Assembly on a sloop he took to Albany, who are very pleased by the prospect of New England Indians moving to New York. Occom's journals for this period indicate that he was actively campaigning for the move, raising monies and meeting sympathetic ministers in upstate New York. He apparently made a good impresion, becaue in 1791, the New York Assembly and Senate paid Occom £15 for expenses to attend the Legislature on behalf of the Brotherton and New Stockbridge Indians (ms. 791174), indicating recognition of Occom's leadership. But the new settlement was beset with land troubles. In Fall 1786, the Oneidas, who had granted the New England Indians a tract of land in 1774 without reservations, wanted them to surrender the grant. Occom advised the Brothertown group to reject this dangerous proposal. When the Oneidas ceded all their lands to the State of New York in the Fort Schuyler Treaty of 1788, the Legislature intervened to recognize the Brothertown deed of 1774. But Occom and his group could not form the town's government and elect trustees until they ejected a group of whites who had won a ten-year lease from a group of trusting Indians. Again, the Legislature took action, passing the Act of March 31, 1795, insuring a large part of the Brothertown and New Stockbridge lands. Occom was responsible for this important measure, but it only slowed down the land grabbing that, after Occom's death, would eventually force the Brothertown Indians to move further west.
Dutch Reformed Church
The Dutch Reformed Church developed during the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century as part of the Netherlands' bid for freedom from Spanish Catholic control. It followed the teachings of John Calvin, a Swiss Protestant theologian, and adopted a presbyterian form of church governance. Dutch settlers to New Amsterdam brought the Church over in 1628, and when the colony passed into English hands in 1664, 11 Dutch Reformed Churches existed. This increased to 34 Churches at the beginning of the 18th century, under the jurisdiction of the Classis of Amsterdam. In 1738, the American Dutch Reformed Churches wrote a petition for independence from Amsterdam, which was granted in 1755. Practitioners and Churches spread throughout New York and New England, and in the 19th century to the mid-West. In 1766 the missionary John Brainerd passed on to Wheelock a recommendation for John Kals, a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, as a potential missionary and teacher of sacred languages. Occom recorded in his journal for 1787 that he preached several times in Dutch Reformed Churches and meeting houses in upstate New York to large and enthusiastic audiences.
Narragansett Tribe
The Narragansetts are an Algonquian tribe based in Southern Rhode Island. Narragansett students (including the Simons, the Shattocks, and the Secutors) attended Eleazar Wheelock’s Moor’s Indian Charity School, and Charlestown, RI, was also one of the seven communities that participated in the Brothertown movement (the pan-Algonquian coalition organized by former Moor’s students). The Narragansetts were recognized in the 18th-century for their indigenous Christian Separatism, and a Separatist congregation under the leadership of Samuel Niles commanded much of the Tribe’s spiritual life from the 1740s onward. While Separatism is an imprecise word, it generally denotes congregations that formally separated from Congregationalist churches and were characterized by an increased emphasis on charismatic Christianity. Samuel Niles was an illiterate preacher who had himself been ordained by lay persons (thus breaking with the formal laying on of hands by an ordained person that created a theoretical chain from the Apostles to contemporary clergy). The congregation’s practices and theology diverged from the Anglo-American norm in meaningful ways, which shocked many Anglo-American observers but also gave the Narragansetts the autonomy needed to expel Rev. Joseph Fish, a New England Company (NEC) sponsored minister, and Edmund Deake, the schoolmaster who accompanied him, in 1776. Like other New England tribes, the Narragansetts struggled with land dispossession. In this case, the sachem and colony cooperated with one another to the Tribe’s disadvantage: the sachem family, the Ninigrets, had tied themselves closely to the colony of Rhode Island when they converted to the Anglican Church in 1727. They adopted a lavish English lifestyle and funded it by selling off tribal land. By the 1760s, land sales were a massive problem, and the anti-sachem party began trying to put a halt to them. Narragansetts with powerful connections, including former Moor’s students, appealed to Eleazar Wheelock and Sir William Johnson and, in 1767, secured a temporary halt to land sales through the intervention of NEC treasurer Andrew Oliver. The next year, Tobias and John Shattock traveled to London to appeal to the privy council for a permanent solution; however, Tobias died of smallpox, and John failed. Sachem Thomas Ninigret died in 1769, and the Tribe solved the land sales problem by abolishing the office of sachem in the 1770s. The Narragansetts continued to struggle with the state of Rhode Island after the Revolution. Rhode Island unilaterally (and illegally) dissolved the Narragansett’s tribal standing in 1880, but the Narragansetts maintained tribal structures and, as much as possible, residence on their territory. They were officially re-recognized in 1983.
Stockbridge Tribe
The Stockbridge Indians were the inhabitants of the town of Stockbridge, Massachusetts, a Christian Indian town modeled on John Eliot’s 17th-century “praying towns” (Indian towns where the inhabitants lived an Anglicized life style). Established in 1734, Stockbridge was composed of Mahicans, Housatonics, Wappingers, and Esopus (at the end of the 18th century, the Stockbridge Indians also adopted many New Jersey Delaware). The Stockbridge Indians had close ties to the Brothertown Nation, a composite tribe of Algonquian Indians from around the Long Island Sound which was organized by alumni of Moor’s Indian Charity School. The town played host to a series of famous missionaries and ministers, including John Sergeant Sr., Gideon Hawley, Jonathan Edwards, and John Sergeant Jr. (Sergeant Sr. established a boarding school at Stockbridge that provided the model for Eleazar Wheelock’s Moor’s Indian Charity School.) Eventually, the problems that the Stockbridge Indians encountered with white families who owned land in their town (most notably the Williams family) convinced them of the dangers of white land expansion and influenced their later land policies. In 1785, the Stockbridge Indians relocated to a tract of land in Oneida territory adjacent to the Brothertown settlement. (During the Revolution, Stockbridge played host to displaced Brothertown and Oneida Indians who had fled central New York. These ties were extremely influential in the decision to relocate.) They called their town New Stockbridge. By the turn of the 19th century, land pressures again overwhelmed the Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians and, along with many Oneida, they sought land in the west where they could attempt to escape white expansion.
Baptists/Seventh Day Baptists
The Baptists were a dissenter sect that became especially popular in New England after the First Great Awakening. They diverged from Protestant belief mainly in insisting that only believers should be baptized, and that it should be done by immersion in water and not by sprinkling or pouring water, but they represented the most radical of the radical New Lights and were known for lay preaching and personal spirituality. Wheelock and most of his former students were more moderate New Lights and opposed this sort of radical Christianity. Occom, however, had many connections with Baptist ministers in central New York. On his preaching tour in 1774, he records visiting several Baptist ministers, largely white, and speaking to large crowds, sometimes in the woods. He also records meeting with a "Seven Day Baptist" minister. The Seventh Day or Sabbatarian Baptists differ from Baptist beliefs mainly in observing the Sabbath on Saturday, in accordance with the ten commandments. Baptist belief held a strong attraction for Native peoples because it protected their autonomy and embraced preaching and leadership by lay people. Divides over theology became problematic at Brothertown, where Occom’s moderate sect clashed with the more Baptist sect over whether or not to lease their land to Americans. After Occom’s death, Samuel Ashpo, a Baptist Mohegan minister known for his separatism, began spending more time at Brothertown and built up a substantial Baptist congregation there.
5000 Aires

Ballston is a town in central New York state, north of Albany. The area was occupied by Mohawk Indians, who resented the appropriation of their sacred grounds by European settlers. The first settlers, the MacDonald brothers, built a homestead on the west bank of Ballston Lake in 1763. Reverend Eliphalet Ball arrived in 1770 with his three sons and members of his congregation from Bedford, NY, bought the land from the MacDonalds, named it Ball's Town, and established a Presbyterian church there in 1771. Soon, settlers arrived from other parts of New England, New Jersey, Scotland and north of Ireland. In 1774, a stockaded fort was built in Ballston, which was attacked by the British and their Indian allies from Canada in 1780 and 1781. It became a town of Albany county in 1785 and was part of the religious circuit in upstate New York in which Occom travelled.

Pitts Town
Hudson River

The Hudson River, frequently referred to as the North River in Occom Circle documents, runs 315 miles from Newcomb in upstate New York to the Long Island Sound. The Algonquin-speaking tribes that originally inhabited both sides of the river called it Mahicantuck, or river that flows both ways. In 1609, Henry Hudson, an English explorer employed by the Dutch East India Company, sailed up the river while looking for a passage to India and instead found thousands of Algonquians living in the river's valley. Hudson sailed as far north as Albany before turning back. Dutch traders settled the river’s banks and established trade in the colony that would become New Netherland. The Dutch called it Noort Rivier, or North River, by contrast to South River, the Delaware River. Only when the English began to assert their claim over the North River in the 1600s did it become commonly referred to as the Hudson River, to emphasize its "discovery" by an Englishman. The Dutch eventually ceded the river to the English in 1674 under the Treaty of Westminster, but the name North River persisted into the early 20th century. In their writings, Occom and his contemporaries refer to the Hudson as North River. Occom travelled along the North River from Mohegan to Albany during his preaching tours in the mid-1780s. Eventually, Occom sailed up North River for good, settling in New Stockbridge in 1789. Today, the name North River still refers to the section of the Hudson between New Jersey and New York City.

Boughten Kill
Block Island

Block Island, roughly 10 square miles in area and composed primarily of beaches, cliffs, and grasslands, is nine miles south of mainland Rhode Island and 18 miles north of Montauk on the eastern edge of Long Island. The Narragansett Indians, Block Island’s original inhabitants, called the island Manisses, meaning “Island of the Little God.” Perhaps because of this, the Narragansetts who occupied Block Island are sometimes referred to as Manissean Indians. The island derives its current name from Dutch explorer Adriaen Block, who sighted it in 1614. In 1636, an Englishman, Captain John Oldham, was murdered while trying to establish trade with the Narragansetts on Block Island. Henry Vane, Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, used Oldham’s murder as justification to seize the land. The English slaughtered 14 Narragansett warriors and burned nearly all the crops and wigwams they found on the island. From then on, the island’s Narragansetts were outnumbered by the English settlers and subject to colonial rule. Possession of Block Island passed to several private families in 1658 before being incorporated into Rhode Island as the town of New Shoreham in 1672. By 1700, the Indian population of Block Island had been reduced to about 300. During his preaching tours of New England, Occom interacted with inhabitants from Block Island, though these interactions occurred on the mainland.Although Occom’s early residence in Montauk was not far from Block Island by water, no evidence indicates that he ever visited there.

Fish Creek
New London

New London is a city located in southeastern Connecticut along an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean called Long Island Sound. The area that would become New London was inhabited by the Pequots who called it Nameaug when the Europeans arrived in North America. Pequot villages bordered Long Island Sound and the Tribe had authority over the neighboring Tribes of the Mohegans and Niantics (all Algonquian-speaking tribes). The Dutch first explored this land in 1614 and established trade with the Native peoples, but the English soon gained possession of the land east of the Hudson in the 1630s. English animosity toward their Indian neighbors led to the Pequot War (1634-38), part of which took place in the present city of New London. The Pequots lost the war and their population deteriorated due to the violence and disease. The General Court of Massachusetts granted John Winthrop possession of Pequot territory in 1644 after which it was to be opened for settlement. By 1646, which is considered the official year of its founding, New London had permanent colonial inhabitants and municipal laws, and jurisdiction was granted to the colony of Connecticut in 1647. In 1658, the inhabitants renamed the town New London after London, England. New London was the colony of Connecticut’s first trading port and was a hub of trade with the West Indies and other colonies. Though initially part of the town of New London when it was first settled by the colonists, Groton, Montville, and Waterford were each separated from New London in 1705, 1786, and 1801 respectively. Present-day Salem was also part of New London when it was settled, but in 1819, it became a separate incorporated town composed of parts of Lyme, Colchester, and Montville. Occom kept a school in New London in the winter in 1748. New London was the home of Captain Nathaniel Shaw, one of the wealthiest merchants in the area, who gave money to Occom in the 1750s for the missionary cause and also sold materials to Occom for the building of his home. However, their positive relationship ended when Shaw refused to provide supplies for Mary Occom while Occom was in England. New London served as the port from which Occom and other missionaries traveled to reach Long Island. During the American Revolution, New London’s location and its status as a seaport made it both vulnerable to invasion and integral to colonial naval operations as well as the exchange of prisoners.New London was incorporated as a city in 1784.


Charlestown is located in Washington County in southwestern Rhode Island along the Block Island sound. For thousands of years before European settlement, the area was inhabited by Native Americans who lived by hunting, fishing and agriculture. When the English dissenter, Roger Williams, fled Massachusetts Bay in 1636 and stepped ashore in what would become the Plantation of Providence, he was welcomed by Canonicus, sachem of the Narragansett Indians. From Canonicus, Williams purchased a large tract of land that included the settlement of Misquamicut, which would become the site of an English settlement named Charlestown after King Charles II. It was incorporated in 1783. After the Great Swamp Fight in which the United Colonies massacred many Narragansetts — and hunted down and killed or enslaved those who escaped — 500 survivors (from a pre-war population of 5,000) signed a 1682 peace treaty and received permission to join with the Eastern Niantic tribe, which had remained neutral throughout the war and had a small reservation near Charlestown. Settlers continued to acquire land from the Naragansetts, and by 1880, the tribe ceased to exist as a legal entity. A portion of tribal lands were returned to Narragansett ownership in 1978 by the courts and state legislation, and the tribe was officially recognized in 1983. Charlestown is the present-day headquarters of the Narragansett Tribe and the location of their reservation.

Rhode Island

Rhode Island is a U.S. state located in southern New England along the Atlantic coast. What would become Rhode Island was originally inhabited by the Narragansett, Niantic, and Wampanoag peoples, who established semi-permanent villages of longhouses. They hunted deer, fished for tautog and striped bass, grew corn, beans, pumpkin, and squash, and gathered clams, oysters, and quahogs. From the quahog shell, the Narragansett Indians made the Native American currency wampum, which bolstered their wealth among other tribes in the region. In 1636, Roger Williams founded Providence following his expulsion from the Massachusetts Bay colony for what was perceived as his radical religious beliefs. Williams advocated dealing fairly with Native Americans and purchased the lands for Providence from the Narragansett sachems Canonicus and Miantonomi. In 1644, Williams received a charter from the British Parliament incorporating the towns of Providence, Portsmouth, and Newport as Providence Plantation and guaranteeing religious liberty. A 1663 charter issued by Charles II more firmly established the colony of Rhode Island, which tolerated different religions and maintained friendly relations with Native Americans until the outbreak of King Philip's War in 1675. This conflict resulted in the destruction of many colonial towns, including Providence. The Narragansett tribe was initially skeptical of missionaries, because of their experience of English land-grabbing, and because the church in Charlestown, RI had its own homegrown minister, a Narragansett separatist named Samuel Niles. Although the Narragansett tribal council approved the mission of Joseph Fish in 1765, which met with initial success, the tribe eventually asked Fish and Edward Deake, the schoolmaster he engaged, to leave Rhode Island in favor of Native ministers and teachers. Rhode Island residents actively protested British rule over the colonies and openly agitated for war. In 1772, a number of Rhode Islanders attacked and destroyed the British ship the Gaspee, and Rhode Island was the first state to openly declare independence from Great Britain prior to the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. Between two and five percent of Rhode Island Native Americans migrated to Brothertown.

Old Saybrook

Old Saybrook is a town located in southeastern Connecticut on the west bank of the Connecticut River, where it meets the Long Island Sound. The land that would become Old Saybrook was the territory of the Niantic Indians until the late 16th century when they were conquered by the Pequots. The first Europeans to settle in the area were Dutch, but by 1623 the colony failed due to harsh conditions. In 1635, English Puritans led by John Winthrop Jr. established a colony called Saybrook Plantation, hoping to deter the return of the Dutch. During the Pequot War of 1636, the powerful Pequot tribe conducted a siege of Saybrook Fort for eight months, but their population was ultimately decimated by the effort. Yale University, originally called Collegiate School of Connecticut, was founded in Old Saybrook in 1700 and then moved to New Haven in 1718. Because of its location, Old Saybrook was a convenient stopping point for Occom on his trips between Mohegan and Montauk, on Long Island, and was a point of embarkation for travel to other coastal cities by water. At least one Native American in Old Saybrook, the son of Josiah Wolcott, wanted to attend Wheelock’s school. Old Saybrook is one of the oldest towns in the state and was incorporated in 1854.

Williams Town
Hills Deals
Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Sealy, Jeremiah
White, Sanford
Hide, Hannah

Unidentified Smith.

Fowler, David

David Fowler was Jacob Fowler's older brother, Samson Occom's brother-in-law, and an important leader of the Brothertown Tribe. He came to Moor's in 1759, at age 24, and studied there until 1765. While at school, he accompanied Occom on a mission to the Six Nations in 1761. He was licensed as a school master in the 1765 mass graduation, and immediately went to the Six Nations to keep school, first at Oneida and then at Kanawalohale. Fowler saw himself as very close to Wheelock, but their relationship fragmented over the course of Fowler's mission, primarily because Wheelock wrote back to Kirkland, with whom Fowler clashed, but not to Fowler, and because Wheelock refused to reimburse Fowler for some expenses on his mission (767667.4 provides the details most clearly). Fowler went on to teach school at Montauk, and played a major role in negotiations with the Oneidas for the lands that became Brothertown. He was among the first wave of immigrants to that town, and held several important posts there until his death in 1807.

Norton, Loiss
Williams, Lwis
Hewitt, Walter
Hewitt, Richard
Tanner, Thomas
Rose, William
Schuyler, Philip John
Unknown, the General's boss
Lamb, John
Hinkley, Betsy
Deake, Edward

Edward Deake was an Anglo-American missionary and schoolmaster born in Rhode Island in 1732. After receiving reluctant approval from the Narragansett tribal council for the support of a schoolhouse and schoolmaster on Nov. 26 1765, Reverend Joseph Fish, who had been living among the Narragansetts, hired Edward Deake to serve as schoolmaster to the tribe in Charlestown, Rhode Island. Funded by the New England Company, Deake taught his students to read English, write, and cypher, following the pattern of other missionary schools for Native people in New England. Out of 151 school-aged Narragansetts, 53 students, boys and girls, attended Deake’s school. Deake regularly consulted a council of Indians for input on the best course of action for educating his students. In addition to his 24 pounds per year salary, Deake also received living quarters for himself and his family in the schoolhouse. After Tobias Shattock left for England in 1767, Deake became the main recruiter among the Narragansetts for Wheelock’s school, often corresponding with Wheelock to recommend students. But the Narragansetts, under the leadership of the charismatic Native preacher Samuel Niles, soon became disillusioned with Fish and Deake, distrusting the purpose and motivations of the school and fearing the colonial appropriation of their lands and right to self-government. In 1770, Narragansett leader John Shattock Sr. told Fish that the Narragansetts wanted Deake to leave, and attendance at Deake’s school evaporated in the next few years. Finally, on January 2, 1776, Deake requested relief from his position as schoolmaster and left soon after. There is some evidence he moved to New York state and worked as a minister. Deake died in 1794.

Paul, Christiana (née Occom)

Christiana Occom was born in 1757 in Mohegan, CT as the ninth child of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Christiana spent her childhood in Mohegan, where she married the Reverend Anthony Paul in 1777. The couple eventually settled in Brotherton in 1784. There, they raised at least six children, four of which Samson Occom baptized. Occom's journals tell of many joyful visits he paid to his daughter and son-in-law while on his travels. Christiana and Anthony finally left Brotherton in 1797 to settle in Lake George, NY.

Burroughs, Amos
Sergeant, Jr., John

John Sergeant Jr., like his father, served as a minister in Stockbridge, MA. In 1773, Stephen West, the minister to the Stockbridge Indians since 1757, decided to leave his post and turned over ministering duties to John Sergeant Jr. Stockbridge, MA, which John Sergeant Sr. helped establish, failed as a Christian Indian town when the Stockbridge Indians lost ownership of their land. When the Oneida Tribe offered the Stockbridgers land in central New York after the American Revolution, many of them moved to the Brothertown and New Stockbridge settlements. The Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge funded Sergeant Jr. in 1787 to continue serving as a minister to the Stockbridge Indians who moved to New York. Sergeant travelled from Stockbridge, MA, to New Stockbridge every year to serve as their minister. In 1788, the Stockbridge Indians at New Stockbridge were divided in their support for Occom or John Sergeant as the town’s minister. Mohican sachem Hendrick Aupaumut led the community members who favored Occom. According to Sergeant, 30 members of the Tribe were in favor of Occom while 50 were in favor of him (later, half of Occom’s supporters defected to Sergeant). The relationship between Sergeant and Occom was contentious, with Occom disliking Sergeant’s manner of preaching. Occom moved to Munhegunnack or New Stockbridge in 1791 and suggests in a letter that many of Sergeant’s supporters were shifting support to Occom. In his sermons, Sergeant blamed the Indians’ loss of land on what he described as their drunkenness and idleness. He suggested that the whites’ encroachment on their lands was God’s punishment for their sins. Sergeant remained the New Stockbridge minister until his death in 1824.

Yoke, Jehoiakim

Captain Jehoiakim Yoke is likely a Stockbridge Indian who enlisted with colonial forces during the American Revolution. Yoke rose through the ranks to become the Captain of a company of Indian rangers. It appears that he primarily fought on the war's western front, often against Native Americans loyal to Great Britain, and was a part of the infamous Sullivan Expedition. In response to a number of successful raids by Native allies of the British, George Washington tasked General John Sullivan with destroying Indian villages and decimating Indian food supplies in western New York. By the end of the expedition, General Sullivan’s army had destroyed more than 40 villages. A Captain Jehoiakim Yoke is mentioned in the Revolutionary War writing of David Freemoyer. In Freemoyer’s account, Captain Yoke and Freemoyer’s men were involved in conflicts with Native American troops under the command of the Mohawk leader (and Moor's alumnus) Joseph Brant. In his Revolutionary War journal, Chaplain William Rogers refers to a Captain Jehoiakim, an Indian from Stockbridge. In his entries from June of 1779, Rogers describes an incident where Native allies of the British attempted to reconnoiter the Colonial encampment but were driven away. This Captain Jehoiakim and two other Stockbridge Indians pursued the Native Americans but were unsuccessful in capturing them. William DeLoss Love writes about a Timothy Yokens, who became a captain of a company of Indian rangers. Given the similar descriptions of this Stockbridge Indian captain, it seems that the sources may be referring to the same man, with whom Occom lodged several times in 1786.

Lott, Philip
Shuneman, John
HomeSamson Occom, journal, 1785 December 15 to 1786 January 22
 Text Only
 Text & Inline Image
 Text & Image Viewer
 Image Viewer Only