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Poem, written by Levi Frisbie, in praise of Wheelock and the Grand Design, 1768 May 15

ms-number: 768315.1

abstract: Long verse in couplets praises Wheelock and his plan to christianize the Indians.

handwriting: Handwriting is small and slanting, yet largely clear and legible.

paper: Large sheet folded in half to make four pages is in good condition, with light-to-moderate staining, creasing and wear.

ink: Black ink varies in intensity. There are some random ink dots and splatters.

noteworthy: On two recto, Frisbie quotes the Alexander Pope poem "Messiah." On two verso, an editor, possibly 19th-century, has added the (erroneous) note: "Probably David Macclure who graduated in 1769." This poem was enclosed with a brief letter of the same date (manuscript 768315.2), which is not included in the Occom Circle.

signature: The document is unsigned.

To the Revd Docr Wheelock
Most worthy Sir, with modesty & fear,
I crave the honour of your listening Ear,
To my weak Muſe who in her humble Ryme,
Attempts a Subject lofty and sublime:
Pardon the raſhneſs of my youthful Lays,
Whilst I would try to celebrate the praiſe,
Of your grand Scheme your great and noble Plan,
Well worthy of the moſt illustrious Man — . —
Sure bounteous Heaven inspird your pious Mind,
With fervent Love and pity to Mankind,
With generous Concern inflamd your Soul,
And movd your heart with Sorrow to condole,
The dismal Lot of thouſands of Mankind
Who under Satans Tyranny confind,
Bow to his Sceptre tremble at his nod,
Proſtrate and before him confeſs him God.
Thus Adams tawny Sons you saw [illegible]inslavd
You longd and wiſh'd and pray'd they might be sav'd
From hells black Tyrant and their piteous Caſe,
And made the subjects of triumphant Grace.
The Devil you beheld with stern Command,
Controul the Natives of this fertile Land;
That roaring Monster hideous feirce and fell,
Led Millions of theſe Ignorant Souls to Hell,
But God propitious movd you to contrive,
A glorious Scheme whereby he might deprive,
Satan of all his vaſsals and throw down
His hellish Kingdom and infernal Crown.
The Plan first laid was small in infant state
The means were slender tho' the End was great,
But the great God beholding from the Skies
Smild on th' attempt and bid it grow and riſe,
Or'e ruld it by his gracious Providence
His mighty Power becomes its strong Defence.
By Day he guards it and by night protects,
Bleſses its Intreſts its concerns directs:
It flouriſhes and blooms beneath his hands.
Its fame illustrious sounds to foreign Lands.
The Good, and wiſe adore its guardian Lord
And, Gold and Silver to its help afford,
Their pious hearts unite and all combine,
To for ward and up hold the grand Deſign.
As when the Aunt tuggs at his ponderous Load
and strives to bear it thro the narrow Road,
The neighbouring Train view from their humble Dome,
Run to his help and bring the Burden home.
So here your Friends with pleaſure, & surprize
behold your great and glorious Enterprize
Inflamd with Zeal for such a heavenly plan
with Joy afford it all the[illegible] help they can

And pleaſd behold the Seminary riſe
Bleſs'd by the almighty Father of the Skies,
Old Satan saw and was with motive fill,d
The serpent hiſs'd and the great Dragon yell,d
Fearing his Pow'r and kindgom would be loſt,
He marshals all his black infernal Hoſt
His Servants all with execrable Lies
Reproach the Author and his Enterprize
Mocking revile him with malicious Taunts,
"Ay, Gold he covets Money's all he wants,
"Cloak'd under this pretext, he craves an alms,
"He is a Priest, they all have itching Palms,
"Their greateſt care is how they may grow rich,
"So, blindly lead the blind into the Ditch.
"What will he christianize this savage Brood?
"He'd sooner much make Devils Saints of God,
"What give him Money? I'll not give a groat,
"I'd rather give him Powder Guns and Shott
"I'd rather ravage all their B barbarous plains,
"And cut their throats, and daſh out all their Brains.
But God beholds old Satan and his Tools,
Laughs at their Rage, their Envy ridicules:
[illegible]Brings down their Pride their Malice he ristrains
And binds the Devil in his iron Chains
Satan is baff[illegible]led & his hoſts give way
The glorious Plan is wafted or'e the Sea
Its fame reſounds in Britains Proſperous Iſe
Her Sons rejoice and and all her Daughters smile
Her nobleſt Heros deign to patronize
The heavenly Scheme the glorious Enterprize
Great George who rules his Realm with mild command
Freely contributes with a liberal hand
Nor thinks it far beneath his Dignity
To look upon it with propitious Eye
While Peers and Peaſants immitate their Lord
Orphans, & Widows each their Mites afford.
All but the Devil and his Imps combine
To proſecute the great, and good Design
They bleſs the Lord with moſt exalted Lays
The noble Founder shares the second praiſe
And now great Sir review the small foundation,
Which firſt you laid; to what exalted Station,
Your School has roſe by the Almighty Smils.
And by your Labours, & unwearyd Toils.
NNo doubt your Soul rejoices in the Lord
And calmly reſts upon his glorious word
That he'll one day fullfull your great Deſire
Affect the End to which you moſt aſpire.
The great Jehovah,s been your constant Guide
Remov,d your fears, and all your wants supply.d
In spite of hell, and all infernal Arms,
your Institution stands amidst the Storms

of Envy Malice Rage and Enmity.
As ponderous Rocks amidst the foaming sea
Break the Loud Billows when the Ocean raves,
And Scorns the Vengence of the Thret'ning waves.
Now pleas.d behold what bliſsfull Proſpects riſe
Gladden our hearts and bleſs our longing Eyes,
The Glorious Sun of righteouſneſs deſplays.
His genial Infl'ence his life-giving Rays
Begins t'illumine the benighted Part
of savage Lands, and bow their Stubborn hearts
To the Mieſiſiahs [illegible]mild, and gentle Sway;
Scatters the Gloom, and chaſes clouds away.
Shall not the gracious promiſe be fullfilld?
And the Immanuals Glory be reveald,
When Chriſt adorn'd with Light, and Righteouſneſs
Shall the moſt distant barberous Lands poſseſs,
Rule o're the Nations with auſpicious Power
Exalt his Saints his Foes in wrath devour.
Hail happy Day by antient Bards foretold
When heathen Nations shall with Joy behold
Freſh Roſes bloom, and sudden verdure riſe
Where the tall groves stand towering to the Skies
When barren Deſarts overgrown with wood,
Afford a peaceful Manſion for our God.
When Rocks shall triumph and the Mountains sing
The Flood rejoice and vales with Muſick ring.
As sang illuſtreous Pope of deathleſs fame
who tund his Anthem to Meſsiahs Name.
"When Lambs with wolves shall graze the verdant Mead
"And Boys on flowry Banks the Tygers lead
"The Steer, and Lyon at one Crib shall meet,
"And harmleſs Serpents lick the Pilgrims feet
In lofty Forreſts, Haunts of savage Beaſts,
Where Birds of prey build, up their artful Ne[illegible]ſts
Lilies shall spring; freſh verdure green appear,
And plenteous harveſts crown the smiling year.
Tall Ranks of Corn shall meet our wondering Eyes,
and fill our Joyful hearts with new suprize,
Magnific Temples Sacred to our God
adorn the Place where smoaky huts [illegible] late stood.
Soon may the Lord to this [illegible] glad Day give birth
and joy and gladneſs fill the extended Earth
May Grace and Glory spread from shore to shore
and savage barbarous yells be heard no more
ye tawny Mortals leve your wild reſorts
Your dismal Powwows and your cruel Sports.
For bear to range the woods in queſt of Prey
your Arrows break, your weapons caſt away
Meſsiah woos you with his boundleſs Love,
yield to his Sceptre, and his Laws approve,
Give over all your necromantic Schemes
Delucive Viſions and fantaſtic Dreams,
Forbear to worſhip the black hoſts of Hell
Fell Rage, and Malice from your Minds expell
In stead of bloody songs, your voices raiſe
In heavenly Anthems & Meſsiahs Praiſe

Thus the old Serpents Plots you shall confound
His tottering throne shall tumble to the Ground
His ruined Kingdom with Destruction fill'd
Shall force him with disgrace to quit the Feild.
Darkneſs and Clouds shall all be chaſ'd away
Gods glorious Truth and Grace their Light deſ[illegible][guess: pl]ay,
and fill your Souls with bright reſplendous Rays
And tune your Heart to sing eternal praiſe.
Such heart reviving Times such bliſsful years
Great Sir, will recompence your heavieſt Cares.
Now may that God who rules unnumber'd Spheres
Attend propitious to your ardent praysers
Grant you the fervent wiſhes of your Soul
Extend his Truth divine from Pole to pole.
And when Cold Death shall cloſe your [illegible][guess: swim]ing Eyes
And your bleſs.d Soul triumphant mount the Skies,
May Heaven receive you with this Salutation,
Come favourite Soul poſseſs thy great Salvation.
With never ceaſing Songs come join our hoſt
And praiſe the Father, Son, & holy Ghoſt.
There may you see throned in eternal Light,
Each soul that by your Means hath shun.d the Spite
of Satan and his black infernal Race,
And gaind the Realms of everlaſting Bliſs.
[illegible]May every Savage you to Chriſt have won
Sparkle like Stars in your eternal Crown.

[right]A. Poem presented in a Letter
from Philo-muſaYale College
May 1768

Moor’s Indian Charity School
Moor’s Indian Charity School was a grammar school for Native Americans that Eleazar Wheelock opened in North Lebanon, Connecticut in 1754. The school was named for Colonel Joshua Moor, also spelled More, who donated the land and school building. Moor’s was essentially an expansion of the grammar school that Wheelock opened in 1743 to support himself during the fallout from the First Great Awakening, when Wheelock, who'd participated in itinerant ministry during the Awakening, had his salary confiscated by the colony of Connecticut. In December of that year, Samson Occom asked Wheelock to teach him as well. Wheelock's work with Occom was so successful that Wheelock decided to replicate the experiment with other Native American boys. He accepted his first Indian students in 1754, and in 1761 began taking female students as well. Wheelock believed that in time, his school would become just one part of a larger missionary enterprise. He planned to send his Anglo American and Native American students to various tribes as missionaries and schoolmasters, with explicit instructions to pick out the best students and send them back to Moor’s to continue the cycle. His ultimate goal was to turn his school into a model Christian Indian town that would include farms, a college, and vocational training. However, Wheelock’s grand design did not survive the decade. Wheelock lost the vast majority of his Native American students; he fought with many of the best, including Samson Occom, Joseph Johnson, David Fowler, and Hezekiah Calvin, and other former and current students accused him of subjecting Native Americans to disproportionate amounts of manual labor. In 1769, perhaps due to concerns about corporal punishment, the Oneida withdrew all their children from Moor’s. When Wheelock relocated to Hanover in 1769, only two Native American students came with him, and it became clear that Wheelock’s focus was on Dartmouth and that Dartmouth was for white students. After Wheelock’s death in 1779, Moor’s Indian Charity School receded further into the background as John Wheelock, his father’s reluctant successor, stopped taking Indian students. Some Native American students were enrolled in Moor’s until 1850, when the school unofficially closed.
Yale University
Yale University is a private research university and member of the Ivy League located in New Haven, CT. It was founded in nearby Saybrook in 1701 by a group of 10 Congregationalist ministers from Harvard, who felt their alma mater had become too liberal in terms of church polity. They established the "Collegiate School," whose mission was to educate men for public service, and ministers in theology and the sacred languages, in the hopes the school would maintain Puritan religious orthodoxy. Chartered by the Colony of Connecticut, Yale is the third oldest institution of higher education in the US. It moved to New Haven in 1716 and in 1718 was renamed "Yale College" in recognition of a gift from Elihu Yale, a Welsh merchant and philanthropist who had made his fortune in trade through the East India Company. In 1777, the College's curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences, and during the 19th century it established graduate and professional courses, awarding the first doctoral degree in the US in 1861, and becoming a university in 1887. Today, the undergraduate school is called "Yale College." From its inception, Yale was committed to training Christian missionaries. During the first Great Awakening, Yale graduates missionized Indian tribes in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic; in the Second Great Awakening in the 19th century, Yale missionaries travelled world-wide. Many Yale graduates, some associated with Wheelock, who graduated in 1733, became missionaries. The best-known of these include: Jonathan Edwards (Yale MA 1720), who missionized to the Stockbridge Indians; David Brainerd, who had to leave Yale because of illness and died young, but whose diary inspired many to missionary work; John Sergeant (Yale MA 1729), whose outline for an Indian boarding school influenced Wheelock; John Brainerd (Yale MA 1746) who continued the work of his brother David. Other associates of Wheelock who graduated from Yale, such as James Davenport, a notorious itinerant preacher (who converted Occom), and Benjamin Pomeroy, a life-long friend and colleague, became caught up in the New Light revivalism of the 1740s. Their "enthusiasm" did not necessarily sit well with their alma mater; President Clap refused to allow Wheelock to preach at Yale in 1742, at the height of the revivals. Still, Wheelock had strong connections with the school. During the 1740s and 1750s, to help support his growing family, Wheelock prepared young men, including Occom, to enter Yale (In 1744, Wheelock took Occom to see the commencement exercises, but Occom did not matriculate because of severe eye strain). The initial curriculum at Dartmouth College was closely modeled on Yale's.
Frisbie, Levi

Levi Frisbie was a very intelligent and unreligious charity scholar. He came to Wheelock with substantial schooling already, and after a few months at Moor's, Wheelock sent him on to Yale. There, Frisbie excelled academically. However, he never wanted to be a missionary. He arrived at Moor's sometime during April of 1767, and by May 5, he was already writing Wheelock asking to be released from missionary obligations. While at Yale, this trend continued: Levi went so far as to confess to Wheelock that he was not even a church member. Although he was not passionate about Scripture, he was quite the classicist. Under the name Philo Musae, he would write Wheelock long chains of heroic couplets styled on epic about the Indian mission. In 1769, Levi went on his first mission (a short stint to the Oneidas). Shortly thereafter, Wheelock pulled Levi out of Yale to help make up Dartmouth's first class. Levi graduated in 1771, and was ordained with David McClure in May 1772. He and McClure set out on a mission on June 19, 1772, but Levi fell ill immediately and stayed at Fort Pitt. It is unclear whether he rejoined McClure on the mission. The two men returned to Hanover on October 2, 1773. Levi stayed involved with Wheelock and the Indian mission for a few years, but by 1776, he had assumed the pulpit at Ipswich, where he remained for the rest of his life. Levi's poetry appears at the end of Wheelock's 1771 Narrative, as well as in McClure and Parish's biography of Wheelock.

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Frederick, George William

George William Frederick (King George III) became heir to the throne of England in 1751 upon the death of his father Frederick, Prince of Wales. He became King George III of England in the fall of 1760 at age 22, following the death of his grandfather King George II. George III passed many important edicts during his reign including that of the Royal Marriage Act of 1772; the Treaty of Paris in 1762, which ended the Seven Years War; the Stamp Act of 1765; and the Townshend Duties of 1767. However, he is most well-known for being the reigning monarch during the Revolutionary War. After the surrender of British forces to the Americans in 1782, George III considered abdicating the throne, but chose not to do so because he felt it would be too detrimental to Britain. The last 30 years of George's life were plagued with illness. In 1788 he had the first of many attacks of insanity, now believed to have been caused by an inherited disease known as porphyria. With George III unfit to rule, it was decided that his son George would become regent, an arrangement which was made permanent in 1810. King George III died on January 29, 1820 at the age of 81 after a reign of nearly 60 years (the third longest in British history). He was succeeded by his son George IV.

Pope, Alexander
HomePoem, written by Levi Frisbie, in praise of Wheelock and the Grand Design, 1768 May 15
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