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Robert Keen, letter, 1767 April 14

ms-number: 767264.2

abstract: Keen writes to Whitaker regarding the funds raised in England. He includes an account of donations and a letter to Occom.

handwriting: Handwriting is formal, clear and legible.

paper: Large sheet folded in half to make four pages is heavily reinforced, which makes it difficult to gauge the exact condition of the paper; there appears to be moderate creasing, staining, and wear.

ink: Brown-black.

noteworthy: It is uncertain to what Keen refers when, on one verso, he mentions "the meeting of the General Assembly in Scotland." However, he is likely referring to the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. In instances where Keen's intention regarding a word or abbreviation is uncertain, the word or abbreviation has been left unmodified in the modernized transcription. Money notation includes symbols for pounds, shillings, and pence. These have been transcribed with the pound sign before the number and the shilling and pence superscripted after. Due to account formatting, transcription line breaks may not exactly match those of the manuscript.

events: Fundraising Tour of Great Britain

Dear Sr

The Acco..ts being as material as any part of our Correspondence
I shall begin with them & after you've compar'd them with Yours let me
know if they agree & if not wherein that I may properly post them &
you nor I need not overhale these any more, which takes in from your leaving
London to ye 9th April Includeing Worcester — but begin regularly from thence —
at Hitchin [below]and formerly} J. Radcliffe Esqr G 4 5. RM 2 G Mr Moore [illegible] 1 Mr Flock 10/6 Unknown 10/6 — £9..9s.-d
at Olney Collected at ye Revd Mr Drakes £9..4s..7d at New Port Revd Mr Bull 10/6 — 9..15.1
at Northampton Collectd at ye Revd Mr Hextals £24.3s at ye Revd Mr Rylands £20.10s.11 1/2d Revd Mr Rylands £1.1s &— 48..1..5 1/2
Welford Collected at ye Revd Mr Kings £4..1s..6d Bakewell £2..2s Unknown of Sundry's £2..6..6— £8..6s..6d & 0..14s..6d — — — 15..4..6
Willingborough Collected at ye Revd Mr Grants — — — 9..1..1
Coventry Meſ Jacksons & Lloyds people £56..7..2 1/2
The Revd Mr Butterworth [illegible] 10..19..6
The Revd Meſsrs Simpson & Allcott 39..14..10 1/2
The Revd D.r Edwards & 3 of his Parishoners 3..13..6} — — —
110..15..0 3/4
Revd Mr Keddle's at Warwicke £5..13s..4d Revd Mr Broadhurst at Alecoker £2..4s..4d— — — 7..17..8
The Revd Mr Keddle's at Evesham £6..13s..2 1/2d given by the Revd Mr Whitmore of Hooknorton £2..3s. — 8..16..2 1/2
at Bourton on ye Water Collectd at ye Revd Mr Bedham £19..10s Mr Wm Snook £10..10 — — — 30..—..—
at Cirencester Revd Mr Johnson 10s.6d Mr Wavet 10/6 Mr Kimber £1..1s Revd Mr Davis £1..11s..6d Mr Freeman £2..2s Mr Wilkins £1..1s [below]Francis Turner 10/6 Jn[illegible] Reeve & unknown 10s} — 7..17..—
at Tewksbury Collected at ye Revd Meſ Golsham & Haydon's £21..00.10 John Humphries £10
Revd Mr Jones £1..1 — Revd Haywards 0..10..6 from Sundries £1..19.. — — — } —
at Parshore Collected at ye Revd Mr Aske's £7..7..6 Saml Rickards £1..1 James Rickards £1..1s
Revd Mr Dark 10s..6d Revd Mr Beal 10/6 Revd Mr Aske 10/6 Mr Smith 5s — — —}
at Worcester Collected at ye Revd Meſ Unwicke & Pointings £21..2..6 a private [below]Gain
Subscription £21..[illegible]5..3 a Donation from the Publick Fund £7..13s..3d Cooke & Blackmon 3}
53..4.. —
then both ye followg accot & a Bill for it was sent me by the Revd B. Boyce
& I sent him & Revd Mr Brown a letter each acknowge it &c
£355..18..4 3/4
Kettering Collected at ye meeting in ye afternoon & Evening £20..7s..3d
Recd by Md Whitaker from ye Revd Mr Brown & put in Mr Boyce's hands 3..13..6
from The Revd Mr Matlock 0..14..6 several of Mr Boyces people £6..8..9 }
£387..2....4 3
here follows all ye Bills you've remitted me as there are before me none
being yet due but one of ye 1st from Northampton wch I took ye accot of Vizt
March 16th. in yr letter from Northampton Recd 2 Bills Vizt One on George Roſs for £30..—..—
another on Tho.s Orton in Woodstreet made payble to & Endors'd by W.m Cooper & yr Self 31..10..—
March 27th from Coventry. Two Bills One on Meſsrs S & W Smith drawn by Meſsrs Little & Lowke made
payable to & Endor'd by Saml Reader .. for — — — } —
the other dated Coventry 28th March drawn by T & S Oldham on Meſsrss. Fletcher & Hunt & endors'd [below]by Nath.l Whitaker for } 89..5..—
Apl. 2 One dated [illegible] date at 7 days Sight drawn by W. Palmer on Meſ Pearson & Co & endors'd by N. [below]Whitaker for — — — } 44..2..—
6th. Recd a Bill on W.m Mee payable to & Endors'd by J. Humphries & y.r self for — — — 20..—..—
d.o a Bank Post Bill N.o 6552 payable to Richd Durnford & Endors'd by yose 10..—..—
9th. Reced a Bill dated Ap.l 9th from Worcester payble to & Endors'd by N. Whitaker on W & J. Ewer 90..—..—
Recd a Bill from Kettering dated 27th March due ye 30th April drawn by Epm & Saml Burwell
made payable to Robt Keen or Order on Meſsrs Sawbridge & Barnston — for}
thus stands the Accots & the reason of your differing in ye Bill of £40..14s..6d (whereof you say
£31..13) Mr Saml Reader explains at ye end of your letter from Coventry March 27th — but his is
dated 4 days after vizt on ye 31st. he says The Revd Mr Whitaker left my house yesterday morning & gave me
£22..8 with what was Collected at the ye Revd Meſsrs Simpson & Allicotts meeting doors wch was in my hands & order'd
me to have £7.7 from Mr Buxton which I had & £1..18.. from Mr Euson but Mr Euson had £9..1..6 more left at
his house beside 2 bad Shillgs reced at ye Collection which makes the sum £40..14..6 which I have here enclos'd a
Bill for — besides a Bill of £89..5 — which Mr Whitaker left to go in this letter — I am Dr Sr yr Very Hble Servt [below]Saml Reader
I've inserted his Note as above will set you right — — — — as you are at Birmingham it will be
by farr be ye best way to go through with it, wether you get little or much — there will be a vast
Number of places you'll not be able to go to at all, much leſs when you're at or near a place their
desireing you to take another Opportunity — I Gave Dr Gibbons Mr Parry's letter &c
he'll write no more about it, the thing is done if Mr Parry has hinder'd you
of 30 or £40 & 'twill be made up another way ye D.r is not for your regarding
him or any others but be content & raise Money upon the laudible plan
it has hitherto been conducted with — as you go farther North you go
among the circle of his acquaintance & he will write letters of recom‐
‐mendations & send them — Mr Whitefield went out of Town in 3 or 4
days after you left London & then return'd for a week after which he
went to Cambridge &c & is now at Norwich but is expected home by
Friday next.... I sent a large parcell of Narratives & Appendix directed
as this letter is. Vizt To The Revd M.r Howel &.c & among is I believe several
of Mr Wheelock's Narratives or those printed at Boston wch is those you so
much want, if not when you write again, the mor I'll send you some of them
or any others you write for — The Meeting of the General aſsembly
in Scotland is the 24th of May. if you are there a week or 10 days before
I imagine will do — so that you may visit as many of ye Capital places
in your way thither as you can — you repeatedly write for your Recommendts
from America & your commiſsion from the Board of Connecticut sign'd by
Solomn Williams, Titus Smith's, Mr Salters letters &c. to be sent you as thinking
you'll greatly need them in Scotland — what recommendations can you want
more then you have? or what better acco..ts can you shew then is in the
Narratives, Appendix's &c? — If you have any thoughts of Collecting Monies
in Scotland or else where [illegible] to run in any other channel then this One plan
already pursu'd, reject such thoughts, for the Gentn of the Trust will not be
concern'd if any other methods takes place — mind this & let all your intentions
be upright, never fear but providence will provide Sufficient — only let our
Eye be single & all will prosper — you see I've [illegible]here no Accots yet from Rothwell
Adington, Harborough, Lutterworth &c. but when I do I shall let you know — I'm
going to write a short [illegible][guess: letter] to M,r Occom as we have never heard from & very
little of him since he left London but as here is room enough in this, it may do as well — desireing
he may read the whole of this, as he ought to do all the letters you receive
from me or the trust — I'm glad to hear your hoarseneſs is abated in part
& hope you'll be [illegible]Restor'd to all your wonted usefulneſs — may the Lord
Guide you by his Counsel & protect you by his power, is the earnest Wish
& prayer of Dr S.r in the best of Bonds
Robt Keen

M:r Occom
[illegible]How can you be so remiſs as never to write here
you have been at Bedford, Stroude Hampton & many other
places, beside those in company with Your Inseperable Companion
Mr Whitaker — has the Lord done nothing for you nor by You ?
you could tell us when preaching on these words, the master is come &
calleth for You — how he was a Good Master, a kind master, a loveing
Master, a Never failing Master & so on ad infinitum — pray let
us hear wether he is the same to you in the Country, as he was
when you [illegible] found him so in London — he is unchangeable I trust
you & I shall find him so, not only to ye end of our Lives only, but to Eternity
— however from this day we desire you would write once a week
or at farthest once a fortnight — beside it will give us more satisfaction
to find Mr Whitaker & you consulting & [illegible]Advising with one another
that you see & read all my letters & sign your name with his
when you are together & sometimes write your self, as a beginning let
me receive a letter from you before you leave Birmingham & acquaint
that as a beginning to do busineſs you have read not only this part
directed to you but the whole letter as all is directed to you the same
as to Mr Whitaker — I must conclude to save the post — wishing you
both — health of Body & [gap: tear][guess: pro]sperity of Soul
I remain in
our dear Redeemer

Robt Keen
London 14th April 1767
From Mr Keen
Apr 14, 1767

The Revd Mr Nathl Whitaker
at ye Revd Mr Howel's
From Mr Keen
Apr. 14, 1767
Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge
The Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge (SSPCK) is a Presbyterian missionary society formed in 1709 and still active today. The SSPCK was founded to anglicize the Scottish Highlands, which at the time were predominantly Gaelic and had little in common with lowland Scotland. British Protestants identified many of the same “problems” in Gaelic and Native American society, and in 1730, the SSPCK expanded into the colonies via a board of correspondents in Boston. Although most of Wheelock’s contact with the SSPCK took place through its Boston, New Jersey/New York, and Connecticut boards, he did work directly with the SSPCK parent organization during Occom’s fundraising tour of Great Britain (1765-1768). Since Occom was technically sent to England by the Connecticut Board of the SSPCK, it was only natural that his tour include a visit to the parent organization in Edinburgh. The SSPCK, headed by the Marquis of Lothian, issued a bulletin to its member churches which allowed Whitaker and Occom to collect a substantial sum of money with little time or travel. While most of the money that Occom raised went into a trust under the Earl of Dartmouth (the English Trust), the money he raised in Scotland (approximately £2,500) went into an SSPCK-controlled fund that ultimately proved difficult to access. While the English Trust essentially gave Wheelock a blank check for the money it controlled (much of which went toward clearing land and erecting buildings for Dartmouth College), the SSPCK was much more stringent about requiring that the money Occom had raised be applied only to Native American education. As was often the case in the 18th-century British-Atlantic world, religious politics were a powerful motivator. Wheelock and the SSPCK both practiced Reformed Protestant Christianity, but New Hampshire was an Episcopalian colony. To make Wheelock’s Reformed Protestantism more palatable to Episcopalian New Hampshire, the New Hampshire governor attempted to make the Anglican Bishop of London a member of the English Trust and possibly the Dartmouth Trustees (the Bishop of London seems to have never replied to the invitation). Dartmouth’s geographic association with the Episcopalian Church, in addition to concerns about the use of the fund, gave the SSPCK an incentive to withhold money from Wheelock. It only issued Wheelock £190 throughout his life, although it did provide financial support to Samuel Kirkland out of the fund. It is worth noting that Wheelock seems to have been well aware that he would have trouble getting money from the SSPCK: he went through the entirety of the English Trust’s fund before soliciting the SSPCK. Subsequent Dartmouth presidents struggled to access the money, with limited success, until 1893. In 1922, the SSPCK concluded that since Moor’s Indian Charity School had become defunct, it was within its rights to devote the remainder of the fund—then valued at £10,000—to other missionary operations.
Connecticut Board of Correspondents of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge
The Connecticut Board of Correspondents of the SSPCK was founded in 1764 at Wheelock's request. He wanted a public board's support so that his school would seem more credible since it was a private organization with no charter. The Boston Board of the SSPCK would not do since they generally opposed Wheelock, so his solution was to petition the SSPCK for his own board. The SSPCK acquiesed, and the board met for the first time on July 4, 1764. While the board was nominally separate from Wheelock's school, in practice, he exercised considerable control over it. The members of the board were Wheelock's handpicked friends and supporters: Jonathan Huntington, Elisha Sheldon, Samuel Huntington, Solomon Williams, Joseph Fish, William Gaylord, Samuel Moseley, Benjamin Pomeroy, Richard Salter, Nathaniel Whitaker, David Jewett, and Wheelock himself. Wheelock used this board to send Occom and Whitaker to England, hold exams for Moor's Indian Charity School, and generally support his designs. When Wheelock moved to New Hampshire, he tried to establish a New Hampshire Board as well, but by that point the SSPCK was much more cautious when it came to Wheelock's plans and refused. The Connecticut Board dissolved in 1771 as Wheelock was its raison d'etre.
Trust in England
The Trust in England was an organization formed in 1766 to safeguard money raised by Samson Occom and Nathaniel Whitaker on their fundraising tour of Great Britain. Initially, no trust had been planned, but less than a year into their trip, Occom and Whitaker had raised so much money it became clear that a trust was necessary to keep the money raised reputable and thus protect the images of those involved. On November 28, 1766, a trust was formed consisting of William Legge (the Earl of Dartmouth), Baron Smyth, John Thornton, Samuel Roffey, Charles Hardey, Daniel West, Samuel Savage, Josiah Robarts, and Robert Keen. These men all had prominent public reputations, and by association provided a guarantee that funds would be used for the purposes for which they had been given. All told, Occom and Whitaker raised nearly £10,000 (not including £2,000 in Scotland, which was put under the control of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge), a far greater sum than initially projected. The amount raised attracted intense public scrutiny and, given that its members had tied their reputations to the money’s collection and maintenance, the trust became enormously concerned with how Wheelock would employ it. Despite a minor scandal involving an impolitic and ultimately abandoned plan to transmit funds to America by buying trade goods and selling them at a profit, Wheelock and the English Trust managed to avoid any serious breach until March 1770, when Wheelock informed the men in England that he had obtained a charter for Dartmouth College. Wheelock had tried to get a charter for Moor’s Indian Charity School in Connecticut throughout the late 1750s and early 1760s, and there were two components to his plan: he wanted to move the school to a place where he could have room to expand, and he wanted to obtain a charter to open a college. The English Trust supported the first goal, but not the second, as a charter would interfere with its control of the funds. Wheelock was determined to have his charter, however, and when the time came, he told the English Trust only about his plan to move. The trust helped Wheelock select New Hampshire as the site for his relocation, but it did not learn about the charter -- granted by New Hampshire governor John Wentworth, with whom Wheelock had been secretly negotiating -- until more than three months after it had been issued. Adding insult to injury, Wheelock, without consultation, named the college after Lord Dartmouth, informing the man himself after the fact. (After the charter was issued, Dartmouth never wrote to Wheelock again.) The members of the English Trust were outraged; to placate them, Wheelock made superficial motions to keep Moor’s and Dartmouth separate, though in practice the institutions were one and the same. Despite its displeasure, the English Trust continued to honor Wheelock’s requests for money until 1775, when the fund ran out. It also drew from the fund to support Occom, whom it believed Wheelock had mistreated, and Kirkland, whom it saw as more faithful to the design of Christianizing Indians than Wheelock. Once the fund ran out, Thornton and Savage continued to provide Wheelock with some financial assistance when he found himself in debt.

The first English immigrant to settle on a peninsula in a harbor on the northeastern coast of North America the local Algonquin Indians called "Shawmet" was William Blackstone in 1629. A year later, John Winthrop arrived with a group of English Puritans and other settlers and named the area Boston after his hometown in Lincolnshire, England. The colony quickly developed representative political institutions that would help shape a democratic nation. Over the next few centuries, Boston emerged as an intellectual and educational center, and, because of its excellent harbor, became a leading commercial hub and a primary port for North America. It is the capital and largest city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and the largest city in New England. Boston was the home for the Boards of Commissioners of several overseas religious societies who sent missionaries throughout the colonies in the 18th century, and was the site of many important events of the American Revolution.

Bourton on the Water

A village in Gloucestershire, southwest England, in the Cotswolds area on the river Windrush, Bourton-on-the-Water is often called the "Little Venice" because of its series of low bridges.


A market town of Roman origins in east Gloucestershire, southwestern England. Formerly producing wool and grain, it is now the largest town in Cotswold region with a thriving tourist industry.


The capital and largest city of the United Kingdom, London is located in the southeastern region of England along the Thames River. The outpost that would become London originated as a military storage post for the Romans when they invaded Britain in the year 43. It soon developed as a trading center and financial hub for Roman Britain. During a revolt against the Romans in 61, London was burned to the ground; the rebuilt town appeared in Tacitus’s Annals as Londinium. With the decline of the Roman Empire in the 4th century, Londinium became a Saxon trading town. Following the Norman Conquest, London retained its central political and commercial importance. In the 14th century, under Edward II, Westminster became an administrative center and London became the capital of England. In the early 18th century, London was an important hub for evangelical Christianity and home to many influential people, like the charismatic Anglican minister, George Whitefield, who were sympathetic to Wheelock’s missionary endeavors. Occom arrived in London in February 1766 on his fundraising tour for Wheelock’s school and preached his first sermon at Whitefield’s Tabernacle. London would be Occom’s home base for the next two years, as he and Whitaker travelled throughout England and Scotland. Occom made many friends in London who would continue to support him after his break with Wheelock and the School. By the late 18th century, London had replaced Amsterdam as the center of world commerce, a role it would maintain until 1914.


Cambridge is a town located in southeastern England about 60 miles north of London in the county of Cambridgeshire. When the Iron Age Belgic tribe built the first settlement in the area in the first century BCE, Cambridge was the site of dense forests and marshes on the River Cam (at the time known as the River Granta). In 40 CE, the Romans first acquired the territory on which Cambridge would be built, followed later by the Saxons and the Normans. Cambridge’s roots as an intellectual center and university town date back to the Middle Ages. In 1209, scholars began arriving in Oxford, and 75 years later Hugh de Balsham, the Bishop of Ely, founded the first college in Cambridge. Five more colleges were established in the 13th century and ten more in the 15th and 16th centuries.


Norwich is a city on the River Wensum in the mid-eastern area of England. In the middle ages, it was the largest city in England after London, and until the Industrial Revolution, it was the capital of the most populous county in England, vying with Bristol for the position of England's second city. The area was originally the capital of the Iceni tribe, but became the Roman capital of East Anglia following an uprising led by Boudica around AD 60. The Anglo-Saxons settled on the site of the modern city between the 5th and 7th centuries, calling it "Northwic." It became a major center of the wool trade, markets and export, with many churches, a castle and a cathedral. Norwich experienced a strong Reformation movement in the mid-16th century and was home to various dissident minorities, such as the French Hugenots and the Belgian Walloon communities. After the Restoration of 1660, Norwich excelled in cloth manufacture, which brought increasing urbanization and a flourishing of intellectual life. The city's fortunes suffered in the 19th century until the railroad connection was established in 1845, and several manufacturing industries developed in the early 20th century. Norwich was an important stop for Occom and Whitaker on their fundraising tour of England.


Great Addington and Little Addington are neighboring villages in Northamptonshire, England, with a collective population of around 600. The two Addingtons, as they are known, are similar in size, although Great Addington is about 100 acres larger. The Addingtons were established in the 800s under the manorial system. There are two Anglican churches in the Addingtons, both built in the 13th century. Robert Keen mentions Addington and surrounding villages in Northamptonshire to Nathaniel Whitaker as possible sites for Occom to visit on their fundraising tour.

Stroude Hampton
Keen, Robert

Robert Keen was a London wool merchant and an ardent supporter of George Whitefield, the eminent evangelical. Although it is unclear when Keen and Whitefield first came into contact, by the 1760s Whitefield was writing to Keen frequently. In 1763, Keen, along with Daniel West, was given the task of managing Whitefield’s religious enterprises in London (specifically, his Tottenham Court Chapel and the Tabernacle, another London church), which they continued to do after Whitefield’s death. Keen was also one of the four executors of Whitefield’s affairs in England (along with West and Charles Hardy). As a result of his relationship with Whitefield, Keen was introduced to Occom and Whitaker upon their arrival in February 1766. He was a member of the informal committee that collected donations before October 1766 and provided Occom and Whitaker with advice on their route and strategies. Keen also became a member of the English Trust, the formal organization formed in October 1766 to safeguard donations. As secretary and deputy treasurer of the Trust, Keen played an important role in transmitting accounts and correspondence between the Trust and Wheelock during the tour and the long process of Wheelock’s relocation to New Hampshire. Along with fellow Trust members Samuel Savage and John Thornton, Keen continued to provide financial support to Wheelock after the Trust had been exhausted.

Whitaker, Nathaniel

Nathaniel Whitaker was an outspoken Presbyterian minister with a long and wide-ranging career. Between his ordination in 1755 and his death in 1795, Whitaker ministered to five different congregations. His longest tenure was at Chelsea, CT (near Norwich), from 1761-1769, during which he joined Occom on his two-and-a-half-year fundraising tour of Britain. While in Chelsea, Whitaker was very involved in Wheelock's project. The two engaged in frequent correspondence, and Whitaker served on Eleazar Wheelock's Board of Correspondents in Connecticut, as well as on the Board of Trustees of Moor's Indian Charity School. At one time, he was Wheelock's presumed successor, but Dartmouth's Trustees demanded that Wheelock appoint another. Wheelock, in part due to his strongly-held belief that Native Americans were childlike and rash, was convinced that Occom needed an Anglo-American supervisor on his fundraising tour. After several candidates turned down the job, Wheelock selected Whitaker. He proved to be a poor choice; he was, by many accounts, a difficult man to get along with, and many of Wheelock’s British allies, including George Whitefield and the English Trust (the organization that took control of the money Occom raised in England) preferred to deal with Occom, although Whitaker insisted on handling the tour’s logistics. Furthermore, in Britain, Occom was the obvious star of the tour, and it was unclear to many why Whitaker asserted himself so prominently. Whitaker’s poor decisions seriously alienated the English Trust and increased their suspicion of Wheelock’s later dealings and treatment of Occom. He gave the English Trust the impression that they would have control over money raised in Scotland (which was in fact lodged with the parent organization of the SSPCK), and he was the executor of the “Eells Affair,” a plan initiated by the CT Board of the SSPCK to bring the money that Occom and Whitaker raised back to the colonies by investing it in trade goods and selling them at a profit (Eells was one of the merchants who was to help with the resale of goods). The English Trust learned about the plan by reading letters that Whitaker had given them permission to open in his absence, and were immediately shocked. The wording of certain letters made it appear that only a percentage of the profit from the resale of the goods would go towards Moor’s Indian Charity School, but beyond that detail, the English Trust was scandalized at the thought of money raised for charity being invested in trade. The English Trust blamed Whitaker entirely for these affairs, and issued specific instructions for Occom to notarize all documents requiring Whitaker’s signature. In short, they wanted Occom to supervise Whitaker, when Wheelock had envisioned the opposite relationship (both Occom and Whitaker seem to have ignored their instructions, preferring to have as little contact with one another as possible). In 1769, a year after his return to Connecticut in 1768, Whitaker found himself dismissed by his Chelsea congregation (likely because he had spent two and a half years away from them). He went on to serve several more congregations before his death in 1795. Whitaker was an outspoken Whig, and during the Revolution he published several pamphlets on his political opinions.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Salter, Richard
Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Whitefield, George

George Whitefield, the English itinerant preacher who helped spark the Great Awakening, was an essential supporter of Eleazar Wheelock’s project. Whitefield studied at Pembroke College, Oxford, where he met the pioneers of Methodism, John and Charles Wesley. He was ordained in 1736, and he made the first of his seven trips to America two years later. While abroad in 1740, Whitefield founded an orphanage in Georgia, and went on a preaching tour during which he met Wheelock and spread ideals that prompted the Great Awakening. Although Whitefield was ordained in the Church of England, his enthusiastic preaching style and charismatic personality made him a controversial figure, and traditional clergyman on both sides of the Atlantic censured him. Nonetheless, he continued to be an important contact and friend of Wheelock’s, and his dedication to Wheelock’s vision was evident. He contributed money to the cause, secured various other funders, and donated an eighty-pound prayer bell to the school. More importantly, Whitefield not only suggested to Wheelock the idea of a fundraising tour in Great Britain, he hosted Occom and Whitaker shortly after they arrived in England, provided a house for them to reside in for the remainder of their tour, and introduced the pair to influential figures such as William Legge, the Earl of Dartmouth. Whitefield tabernacle’s was the setting of Occom’s first sermon in England on February 16, 1766, and many believe that Whitefield wrote the introduction to a pamphlet printed in London during the campaign (although he was not credited). Whitefield continued to be involved in Wheelock’s work until he died in Newburyport, MA in September of 1770.

Williams, Solomon

Solomon Williams was a Congregationalist pastor in Lebanon, CT from 1722 until his death in 1776. As pastor at Lebanon, Williams rose to prominence as a theologian and engaged in extensive correspondence and debate with some of the most eminent minds of the day. He was one of the rare truly moderate New Lights during the Great Awakening: he managed to maintain the respect of both Charles Chauncy, the rabid anti-revivalist, and George Whitefield, the famous evangelical. Williams also established a library in Lebanon and a very well-known grammar school, which became something of a feeder for Yale. Williams supported Eleazar Wheelock and Moor’s Indian Charity School through much of the 1750s and 1760s. He was something of a mentor to Samson Occom, and he became president of Wheelock’s Connecticut Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge (SSPCK). It is unclear why Williams is not named as a trustee of Moor’s in Wheelock’s 1768 will; perhaps Wheelock feared that Williams would not outlive him. Williams continued to run the Connecticut Board even after Wheelock relocated to New Hampshire in 1770. Despite the SSPCK’s disappointment in Wheelock, Williams and Wheelock seem to have remained on cordial terms. Their correspondence ceased in 1772, after Wheelock tried (and failed) to open a New Hampshire Board to replace the one in Connecticut (with, it might be added, the Connecticut Board’s blessing).


Unidentified Smith.

Smith, Titus

Titus Smith was a Yale graduate whom Wheelock trained and ordained as a missionary and sent to the Six Nations with the 1765 mission. Together with Theophilus Chamberlain, a Yale student with whom he was examined and ordained, Smith led the band of newly-examined schoolteachers and ushers into the Six Nations to set up day schools. After Ebenezer Moseley replaced him, Smith retired from the missionary life and became an itinerant preacher in Connecticut until 1768, when he converted to Sandemanianism and was re-ordained. Because of his religion (Sandemanians opposed violence), as well as his Tory politics, Smith found himself in danger when the Revolution broke out. His family fled to Long Island, and from there to Halifax, Nova Scotia, where Smith lived out his remaining years.

Radcliffe, J.
Snook, William
Turner, Francis
Reeve, Jn.
Humphries, John
Rickards, Samuel
Rickards, James
Boyce, B.
Ross, George
Orton, Thomas
Cooper, William
Smith, S
Smith, W
Reader, Samuel
Oldham, S.
Fletcher, S.
Palmer, W.
Mee, William
Durnford, Richard
Ewer, W.
Ewer, J.
Burwell, Ep.m
Burwell, Samuel
Fundraising Tour of Great Britain
After many months of planning and shifting personnel, Occom, accompanied by the minister Nathaniel Whitaker, sets sail in December 1765 for a two-and-a-half year tour of England and Scotland in order to solicit contributions to Wheelock’s Indian Charity School and missionary efforts. Introduced to aristocrats and prominent clergy by the minister George Whitefield, Occom preaches many sermons, travels widely, and collects a large sum of money.
HomeRobert Keen, letter, 1767 April 14
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