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Samson Occom, journal, 1765 November 21

ms-number: 765621.6

abstract: Occom details the events of his time in Great Britain.

handwriting: Occom's hand is largely clear and legible. There are several uncrossed t’s, crossed l’s, undotted i’s, and dotted numeral I’s; these have been corrected by the transcriber. In several instances, Occom has dotted an e; although it is uncertain whether he intended to correct an e to an i or vice versa, the transcriber has used the correct spelling in each case. In cases where it is uncertain as to whether or not Occom is purposely indenting, transcriber has used her discretion.

paper: Several small sheets are folded into a book with a sewn binding and marbled-paper cover. The paper is in good condition, with light-to-moderate staining and wear.

ink: Brown-black.

noteworthy: There are red pencil marks throughout. Another hand, likely 19th-century, has underlined various names and words throughout in black ink. This editor's changes and additions have not been transcribed. On 12 recto, at the bottom of the page, the same hand has written “(see W–d vol 3. p. 339)” possibly a reference to the journals of George Whitefield. Beginning with 26 verso, the text is upside-down in relation to the first 24 pages of the journal. On 27 verso, Occom notes that he has written to “a Negro Girl Boston.” It is highly likely that this refers to the poet Phillis Wheatley. Place and person names that are not legible have not been tagged.

events: Fundraising Tour of Great Britain, Occom’s inoculation


Nineteeth-century editor not transcribed.Not transcribed.

Mohegan Novr 21: 1765

The Honorable Commiſsioners
In Connecticut New England for
propigating Chriſtian Knowledge &
Letterature among the Indians
hav­
ing Maturely Conſulted the Expeediancy
of Sending Some fit Perſon to Europe
to Cali[illegible][guess: ect] aſsiſtance from God's People
at Home in this Heavy and good Work —
and appointed the Revd Nathaniel
Whetaker
to go — and thought it
good to Send me to acompany him —
and Acordingly, not Doubting the
Call of god, and my Duty to go, on
Thirdſday the 21 of Novr as above;
in obediance to the Strange Call
of Providence, having Commited
my Self Family and Friends to
the Care of Almighty God, took
Lieve of them about 11 A:M: and
went on my Journey towards Boſton

Boſton in order to take a
voige from thence to Europe

Saturday Novr 23

ariv'd
at Boſton about 3 in the
after noon, and put up at
Mr Moſes Peck's and was
very kindly receiv'd by him
— on Wedneſday following Mr
Whetaker
, with whome I was to tra­
vel return'd to Boſton from
Portſmouth, met with good
incouragement by Friends
Eaſtward, he Brought with
him, almoſt Enough for our
voige Paſage, — Heare we Stayd
in Boſton near 5 weeks, —
Friends in this place to the
affair we are upon appear
as [illegible] near [illegible]and Sincere as
ever and increace Daily —

The Adverſaries Stand at
a Diſtance Like Shemei,
But they don't Speak a
Loud as they did, they now
Contrive their Projects in
Secret, — and it is Suppoſed
they are preparing whips
for us (Letters) for us to
Send to Europe by the Same
Ship, we are to igo in —

Monday Decr 23

a bout
9 in the Morning went
a Board in Boſton Pa[illegible]cket
a Ship, John Marſhall
Capt, and at 9 and half
we Spread Sail to wind — Truſt
ing in ye Living god — there was
four Paſanger of us Mr John
Williams
and Mr Thomas Brom­
field
of Boſton, Mr Whetaker
and I —

we had very agreeable Company,
The worſhip of god was Caried on
Daily, and had a Sermon every
Sabbath, the goodneſs of god is very
great to us, — we had favourable
Winds except 3 Short Spells of hard
Gail, we lay tow, and when we
got within [illegible][guess: 3]200 Leagues of Lands
End
, moderate Eaſterly winds
met us, SAnd Stopt us 1520 days
and remarkable warm weather
we had moſt of the Time — and
then we had Some favourable
winds, — and Sabbath the 2d day
of Feruary 1766
about 10 in the
morning we diſcover'd the land
of England, — and the wind head
ed us again, and the next wDay
which was ye 3 of Febr we went
a Shore on great Briton in
a [illegible]Fiſh Boat, and land at
a Place Call'd Bricksham, [illegible]

in Tar Bay 1200 mils from Land
Juſt after Sun Set, and put
at one widow womans Houſe —
Beſsed be thiy great Name oi
god for thy goodneſs to us over
the waters and hast brought
us upon the Land, Lord wri[illegible][guess: g][illegible][guess: te]
a Law of thankfullneſs in our
Hearts, and preſerve me on
the Land as wthou hast done
on the [illegible]Seas, and deliver
me from all Evil, eſpecially
from the Evetl of Sin — —

Febr 4

went on our Journey
Early in the Morning on Horſe
Back, got to Exon about 4 pm
30 M' from Bricksham
we were Calld up half after 10 in
the Night, & went off in a Coach of [illegible][guess: Six] Horſe
at 11, from Exon prety Large
City and reachd to a City Call'd
Salsbury about 10 in the eveng
we went a 100 miles this Day

But we had very Cold Day,—
Thanks be to god for his goodneſs to
us heatherto —

[illegible] Thirdsday Fer 6

we were Calld
up again Juſt before 2 and at
2 in the Morning we went on
our Journey — and by the goodneſs
of [illegible]God, we ariv'd to London about
7 in the Evening, and we Call'd
upon Mr Debert, and were Kind
ly re[illegible][guess: ie]ivd, and Lodg'd there, in
ye Morning Mr Smith of Boſtn
Came to See us, and Conducted
us to Mr Whetfields, and were
Extreemly well receiv'd by him,
O how marvillous is gods goodneſs
to us thus far — Mr Whitfield &
other[illegible][guess: del s] Friends here adviſe [illegible]not to
be open as yet, — we rode with
Mr W[illegible]hitfield in his Chaiſe to a good Friends H
and Din'd there but we were Private about it,
Lodgd at Mr Whitefields —

Saturday Februr 8:

was at
Mr Whitefields Conceil'd — and
on Sabbath 9th Febr was Still Conceld

Monday Februr ye 10th

Mr Whitefield
took Mr Whetaker and I in his Coach
and Introduc'd us to my Lord Dart­
mouth
, and apear'd like a worthy
Lord indeed, Mr Whitefield Says
he is a Chriſtian Lord and an un­
Common one — after we Pay'd
our Compliments to my Lord
Mr Whitefield Caried us to my
Lady Hotham's, and She receiv'd
us with all Kindneſs, and She is
an aged woman, and a mother
in Israel, and we w rode about
Both in the City and out, — the
Land about the City & in the Coun­
try is like one Continued CGar
den. — laſt Sabbath Evenig I
walk'd with Mr Wright to Cary
a letter to my Lord Dartmouth
and Saw Such Confution as I
never Dreamt of — there was
Some at Churches Singing p[illegible]
& Preaching, in the Streets Some
Curſing [illegible]Swaring & Damning

one another, others was holl[illegible][guess: ow]ing,
wheſtling, talking gigling, & Laugh
ing, & Coaches and footmen paſs­
ing and repaſsing, Croſsing and
Creſs-Croſsing, and the poor Begers
Praying, Crying and Beging up
on their knees — Tueſday Dind
with Mr Savage, and in the eveng
Mr Whitefield and his people had
Love Feaſt at the Chappel. Mr
Whitaker
and I Join'd with them

Wedneſday Febr 12

rode out again

Thirdſday Febr 13

Mr Whitefeld
Caried us to the Parlament Houſe
there we Saw many Curioſitees,
from thence went over Weſtmin­
ſter Bridge a Croſs the River
Thames
made all of Stone —
thence went to Greenwich,
and had a glance of ˄ Hoſpital there
But it a Tedious Cold rainy [illegible]Day
it was — — we were Introducd by Mr
Whetefield
to M Faudagal a Quaker —

got home again in the Evening —

Fryday Febr 14

Early in the
morning Mr Whitefield Carried tous to
Mr Romains and Introducd tus to him
and to Mr Madin — and to Mr
Singenhagan
and old Apoſtolec
german Miniſter, — and returnd
Home again — —
Mr Whetefield takes unwearied
Pains to Introduce us to the reli
gious Nobility and others, and
to the beſt of men in the City of
London — Yea he is a tender father
to us, he provids every thing
for us, hase has, got a Houſe for us, —
ye Lord reward him a thouſand
a Thouſand fold — He is indeed
a father in God, he has made him a
Sprititual Father to thouſands
and thouſands, and god has
made him a Temporal father
to the poor, — His Houſe is

Surrounded with the poor,
the Blingd, the Lame, the Halt
and the mamed, the widow, &
the Fatherleſs, from Day to
Day, God Continue his uſeful Life,
Sabbath I Preach'd in Mr White­
field
's Tabernacle
to a great
Multitude of People; I felt .....

Monday Feby 17

Mr Whitefield
preſented us to Dr Gifford a
famous Paptiſt Miſniſter and
were receiv'd Extreamly well —
and Dined with him — — —

Tueſday

we Stayd Home —

Wedneſday Febr 19

we were Con­
ducted to See the Kings Horſes
Carriages and Horſemen &c —
and t[illegible]hen went to the Pt Houſe
and went in the Robing Room
and Saw the Crown firſt, and
Saw the King, had ye Pleaſure

of Seeng him put on his Royal
Robes and Crown, — He is quite
a Comly man — his Crown is
Richly adorn'd with Diamonds.
how grand and Dazling is it to
our Eyes — if an Earthly Crown
is So grand — How great and glo
rious muſt the Crown of the glorious
Redeemer be at the right hand of
the majeſty on High — [illegible] tho'
he was once Crown'd with
Thorns — The aAtendence
of King[illegible] greorge is [illegible]very Sur­
prizing, as he went to the Houſe
of Parlament
he & his glorious Coach
was was atended with foot men
Juſt before and behind yea
all round, and the Horſemen
Juſt behind and before the
foot men, and the Bells &
all Sorts of Muſickal Inſtru

Inſtruments Playing, and the
Cannan Firing, and Multitudes
of all Sorts of People Throning
all Round — if an Earth King
with his atendc So great, — How grand
how Dreadful and g[illegible]lorious muſt
the appearing of the Son of god
be — when he Shall Deſend
from Heaven, to Judge the
World, He will deſend with
Cherubems and Sarephems
with Angels and Archangels,
and with Sound of the Trumpet
and with great Power and
glory with Thunder & Lighting, — and the Family
of Heaven, and Earth, and
Hell Shall appear before
him, and the Eliments Shall
melt with fervent Heat —
Lor Jeſus prepare me for thy
Second Coming —

we went Emediately from Seing
The King, to Dine with a Noble
man My Lord DartMouth a moſt
religious Noble-man and his
Lady
alſo, the moſt Singular
Cupple amongſt Nobility in
London Dinner, — This Day alſo went
to W[illegible]eſtminſter Abey, and had
a fuler Vew of the Moniments
[below]Saw Bedlem alſo — in the Evenig we return'd again
to Mr Whitefields — —

Thurdſday Febr– 20

this is
the [illegible]Queen Chalottes Birth Day,
was Conducted to St James's where
the Royal Family and the Nobi­
lity were to be together to keep
a Joyful Day — but we were too
late, however we Saw Some of the
Nobility In their Shining Robes
and a throng of People all a
'round, — the Sight of the Nobi­
lity put me in mind of Dives and

and the Rich Gluton, and the
poor reminded me of Larzerus —
what great Difference there is
Between the Rich and the Poor —
and what Diference there will is
and will be, Between [illegible]Gods poor
and the Devils Rich &c —
o Lord God Amighty let not my
Eyes be Dazled with the gliter­
ing Toys of this World, but let
my be fixt and my Soul Long
after JX who is the only Pearl
of great Price — This even
ing went into our Houſe whic[illegible][guess: h]
Mr Whitefield Provided for us
and all the Furniture alſo —
and a Made to wait on us —
Bleſsed be god, that he has
Sent he Dear Servant before,
us —

Fryday Febr 21:

was Con­
ducted to the Tower Saw the
Kings Lions Tygers Wolf and

Leopards &C — —
Saw the Kings Guns and the
monoments of antient Kings
on Horſe Back and their Soldiers
on foot with their Antient Ar­
mour of Braſs and Tin — —
Din'd with Mr Keen, and then
went to a funeral, Mr White­
field
gave and Exhortation to
the People and then Pray'd —
Saturday Febr 22 went to
See Docr Burton a Miniſter
of the Church of Endgland, was
Introduc'd by Mr Smith of Boſ­
ton
, and the Docr was very
Kind, he wou'd have feign
perſwaded me to ˄ Holier Orders
and I modeſtly toold him,
had no Such vew when I Came
from Home, and added, I had
been Ordained Six Years in a
Diſsenting way. —

this after Noon Mr Whitaker & I
went to wait upon Docr Chandler
an[illegible] old Diſenting Miniſter, found
him very Careful in his own way
Gave us Advice not to own
Mr Whitefield a Friend either
to Deſenters, or to the old Stand
ards of the Church of England
Promiſ'd his Countenance to the
Affair we are upon —

Sabbath Feb.r 23

in the morng
I heard Mr Davis in the Tabernacle
in the after noon I heard Dr Gifford
in the Evening I Preachd at
Dr Giffords — and Lodg'd at his H–
this Night —

Monday Feb.r 24

went home
Early in the morning —

Tueſday F 25

Din'd with Mr
Savage

Wedneſday Febr 26:

this af­
ter noon went to See Dr Gibbons
an Independent Miniſter, receiv'd

us kindly[illegible] and promiſ'd to aſsiſt
us according to his Influance,
in our Great Buſineſs, —

Thurſday Febr 27

Preach'd at
Docr Conder's Meeting Houſe,
went from the meeting to Sup
with Mr Randal, —
I have kept Houſe now a
bove a week by reaſon of a
Cold I have — —

March 11: 1766 on wedneſday

about a Quater after 3 PM —
I was Inoculated by the Revd
Mr Whitaker Near Mr G–
Whitefield
s Tabernacle
in
London

Wedneſday March 13:

I was
violently Shoikd with the
working of Phiſicks was very

full of Pain all Day —
was kindly viſited by genn
and Ladies Conſtantly — and
had two Dors to do for me —
on the 20th of March I began
to Break out — and had it but
light — and was attended like
a Child by my Friends — I
Cou'd'n't be taken Care of better
by my own Relations, I had
a very tender and Carefull —
Nureſe a Young woman —
and by the firſt Day of April
I was Intirely well, all my
Pock Dried up, and Scabs
Dropt off — O how great is
gods gooddneſs and Mercy
to me — O that god wou'd
enable me to live Anſwera
ble to the mercies and fa­
vours I injoy — and that he
wou'd Cure my Soul of

all Spiritual Diſeaſes by the
Blood of JX which Cleanſeth
of from all Polution —
and that he woud fit and prepare
me for himſelf —

April 5

went to Some Diſtance
from our Houſe —

Sabbath April 6:

took my
laſt Phyſick after my Pox —
Juſt at Night My Lady
Huntington
Came to Mr
Whitefield
s, and we were
Introduc'd to her by Mr
Whitefield
and She is moſt
Heavenly woman I believe in the
World, She apears like a
Mother in Israel indeed — a
woman of great Faith —

Monday April 7

[illegible] I went
about the City good Deal —
I am Now Continually Invited by my
our Good Friends, —

[illegible][guess: Fri]Th[illegible][guess: u]rſday April 10

went over Thames
with Mrs Webber to a Private
Meeting — —

Fryday April 11

went with
Mr Weekes to Meeting at the
Lock

Sabath April 13:

Preach'd
at Dr Chandler's —
and was very ill a midſt
my Diſcource —

Wedneſday April 16:


we Din'd with Docr Stennet
a Paptiſt Mineſter, a very
worthy Man — and hearty
Friend to the Buſineſs we

are upon — V — —

Turſdaywedneſday April 23

we Break
faſted with Dr Stennet

Thurſday April 24:

I went
to See Dr Condor, a very
worthy Miniſter and a Hearty
Friend to the Buſineſs we
are upon, — and went
from the Drs to Mr Brew
er
s, and was very kindly
receivd — he is a warm Sevt
of JX —

Wedneſday April 22:

Preach'd in the Evening at
Mr Whitefield's Capel, to a
great Multidtude, andthe
Ld was preſent with us
I hope —

Sabbath April 27:

In the
Preach'd at Little St Hellens
[illegible][illegible] the Davenſhare Square
and I S[illegible]omthing of a freedom
in the after Noon —

Monday April 28

went
to See Several Gentn Mr
Dilly
gave me 4 Book for
my own uſe — —
Din'd with Mr Barber
a good Diſenting Miniſter —
then went with Mr Whitaker
to Mr Baileys, and Mr
Whitaker
Baptiz'd a Child
for him, — and then went
home,

Wedneſday April 30

we went
to wait upon his grace the
Arch Biſhop of Canterbury

and he apear'd quite a
greable and Friendly —
In the evening I Preach'd
at Mr Whitefield's Tarberna­
cle
to a Crouded Audience
and I believe the Ld was
with us of a trouth —

Thur[illegible]dsday AprilMay 1st

[illegible]Dr Stennet Introduc'd
us to the Arch Biſhop of
York
, and we found him
a greable Gentleman, and
and Friendly Diſpoſ'd to
our Cauſe, and Promiſ'd to
do Something towards it — and
then went from there to Mr
onſlow
an old Genttleman
from Speaker in the Houſe
of Commens
— he apear'd

w very Freindly to us &
was well pleaſd to Heer the Indi­
ans in America were In­
clind to receiv'd the Goſpel —

Sabbath may 4:

Preachd
at Mr Barber's meeting
and had Some Freedom
in Speaking — and in
the after noon I Preach'd
at Mr Brittons Meeting
a worthy Baptiſt — to a
Crouded Audiance and the
Ld was with us in a
meaſure — — —

Monday May 5

we
went out with Dr Stennet
but we were Diſapointed
in our viſets —
and we went to Sr Charles
Hotham
to return thanks

to him for generous Donation
to our Buſineſs — found him
full of god, his talk was no­
thing but about Jeſus X —

Wedneſday May 7

we Din'd
with a Number of Miniſters
and other Gentlemen at Bar­
bers Hall
, and found many
gentlemen well Diſpoſd to­
wards our Buſineſs — —

Thurſday May 8:

we went
to Clapham, found Some Friends
and oppoſition — — —

Sabbath may 11:

Preach'd
at Mr Brewers to a Crouded
Audience, and the Ld gave
me freedom to Speak, and
the People attended with great
affection — Praiſe be to god —

In the evening I Preachd at
Mr Shillon's to a throng'd
Congregation, and there
was a Solemn appearence
of the People. the was with
us, Glory be to his great
Name forever & ever —

Monday May 12

we went
to wait upon Mr onſlow
and he appeard very
Friendly to our Buſineſs
highly aproved of it —

T[illegible] Tueſday

we Dind
with Mr Savage — —

Wedneſday

I Din'd with
Mr Moriſon

Thurſday

we Din'd with

Thornton at Clapham
a Sincere Chriſtian Gentn
and a Hearty Friend to
our afaire, and will
uſe his Influence — we
have Seen much of the
goodneſs of god this week
thanks be to his holy N–

Fryday may 16:

in the Evg
Preach'd at Mr Clarkes &
the gave me Some Strenght
to Preach — and the People
were very attentive —

Saturday may 17

we went
to wait on Mr Jackſon the
Second time Met Some what
cold reception, —

Sabbath may 18:

Preachd
at Docr Gifford's AM: with

Some freedom, in the after
Preach'd at Dr Stennet's with
Strength, beſsed be god for his
Assiſtance —

wedneſday may 21:

I went to
See Mr Romain was kindly
receiv'd by him, he is freer
man to talk about religion
at Heart than Mr Whitfield
we came into the Town together
in a Coach — and then Mr
Bulkley
Conducted me to a
Baptiſt Meeting where there
was a Number of Baptiſts
Miniſters about 20 of them
after meeting I Dined with
them, and they were very
civil to me — and then I
returnd home —

Thurſday may 22:

went to
Mr Skinner's then Home, and
from thence to a Meeting with
Mr Told and his Family
Mr Told Preach'd, — returning
home we heard [illegible] a Man
and woman killd By the
Coach's over Setting, and a
Cart runing over them —
this Evening I was taken
with a violent Purging. —

Fryday May 23

was very
Sick with a Sort of Bloody
and Kept me down a week
before I was able to go out —

Sabbath June 1

I was able
to go out to Preach in Preachd
[illegible]at Mr Bulkley's a Baptiſt Mir
and had but few hearers

In the after Noon Preachd
for Mr Winter to a great
Congregation found my
Self but week in Body —
this weak I was Buſiy. geting
ready to Send Some things to
my Children, S

Saturday June 7

I went
to North Hampton, got there
Juſt before Night, and was
receivd with all kindneſs —

Sabbath June 8.

Preach'd
to at Mr Riland's Meeting Ho
to a throngd Congregation, &
the Ld gave me Some Strenght
and the People attended with
great Solemnity and Affection
and was told afterwards one
young Man was Converted
and hopefully Converted —

in the after Noon Preach'd
in Riland's Yard to about
3000 recken'd, — . —

Monday June 9:

Mr Newton
of olney about 15 miles off
Came to fetch me to his Place
after Breakfaſt we Sot off [illegible]
[illegible]got rode in a Poſt chace
there a little after 12: this
Mr Newton is a Miniſter of
the Church of England, he
was a Sailor, and god mar
vellouſly turn'd him and
he is a flaming Preachder
of the Goſpel, — at Evening
I Preach'd at one of the meet
ings in the Place, to a Croud
of People, — Lodgd at Mr
Newton
's, — a Number of
good people live in this place but
very poor in this world —

Tueſday June 10

Mr Newton
and I took a walk towards
Northampton about miles —
and there Breakfaſted, —
and there we parted he
went Back afoot, and I
went on Horſe to Northampn
got there about 12: Din'd
with Mr Hextal one[illegible] of the
Deſenting Miniſters of the
place, — at 6 in the Even-g
I Preachd the Meeting Houſe
where Great Docr Doddrege
was Miniſter, and there was
a great Concourſe of people
and attended with great
Solmenity — Lodgd at Mr
Riland
's — there is a number
of warm Chriſtians in this
Town —

Wedneſday June 11

got up
a little after 3 and was in
a Coach before 4: and returnd
to London — Got there a little
after 6: — found my friends
well. Thanks be to god for
his goodneſs —

Sabbath June 15:

Preachd
in the Morning at Mr Bur­
ford
's Meeting had Some free­
dom — in the after Noon I
preachd at Mr Pitts, with
Since of Divine things in
the Evening Pr[illegible][guess: ea]cd at Shake
ſpearss walk
— and Supd —
with Mr ware's this Evening —

Monday June 16

wendt to Mr Thorntons
at Clapham and was Entertaind
with all Kindneſs. he is a genn
of emence fotune, and he is
the right Sorts of Chriſtiens
and a very Charitable man —

Lodgd with him this Night —

Tueſday Morning

Mr Thornton
took me in his Chariot and
Caried me to my Lodgings —

Wedneſday June 18:

I went
in the Morning to See Mr
Guinap
a Baptiſt miniſter
of Saffron Walden Breakfaſt[illegible]'d
with him —

W Thurdsday June 19

Preach'd in Mr John Weſley's
Toundry to a Crouded Au­
dience begun at 7 in the
Evening — — —

Saturday June 21:

Mr
wWhitaker
and I went to
Saffron Walden got there

before Night Lodg'd at Mrs
Fuller
's —

Sabbath June 22:

went
to Meeting Mr Whitaker P[illegible][guess: d]
and in the after Noon I
Preachd to a Crouded Con
gregation, and I was very
[illegible]Poorly, but I belive the
Ld was with us of a truth
and in the evening Preachd
again to great Aſsembly
and I had Some Strength,
and the People made a
Collection — —

Monday June 23

we re­
turn'd to London, got there
Some time before night —
The Ld be Praiſd for all
his goodneſs to us — —

this Evening I heard, the Stage
Players, had been Minicking
of me in their Plays, lately —
I never thought I Shou'd ever
Come that Honor, — o' god wou'd
give me grearter Courage —

Thurdſday June 2[illegible]6

Din'd with
Savage, in the Evening was
viſeted by Mr Furly a Miniſter
from Yorkſhare, one who truely
Loves the Ld Jx I believe —

Fryday June 27.

Preach'd
Early in the Morning at Mr
Richadſon
's Meeting,

Sabbath June 29:

Preachd
at Mr Brewers in the [illegible]latter
Part of the Day to a Crouded
Congregation, and they th

made a Collection for us to
the amount of 100:.[illegible][guess: 3]0.
the Ld reward them a many
fold in this life and in the
world to Come Life everlaſ­
ting —

Monday June 30

Mr Smith
of Boſton in America, and I
went Down the River Thames
to Shearneſs by the Sea Side
near Sixty miles from London
we went by water So far as gra-ves
end
, a fine Proſpect we had
each Side of the River, flat
Land, and very Fruitful,
indeed it is like one Continueed
garden — But the maloncholy
Sight was to See So many

Malefactors Hung up in Irons
by the River — we took Coach
at Gravesend to Chatham
and then wen by water a
gain, and we Sail'd through
a great Number of Man of
War all the way to Share­
neſs
. Got there between and
eleven, —

Tueſday, July 1.

we went
all about Shearneſs, vewing
every thing we Cou'd See, to­
wards night we went to Bath­
ing in Salt water, —

Wedneſday July 2:

we re­
turn'd went by water So far
as Chatham, and it Rian'd
and Thunder'd very hard —
while we were on the water

got to Chatham about 9
and there took Poſt Chaiſe
and went on to London, got
there about 6, found my friends
well, and receiv'd Some Letters
from America and by them
my family was well the 29
of April laſt
— Bleſsed be god
for his tender Mercies to me
and to mine, O that the Ld
wou'd teach us to be thankful
at all times —

Sabbath Junely 6:

Preachd at
Mr Webb's Meeting to a Small
Congregation — in the afternoon
I heard Mr Preach, —

Monday June 7

I went to Clap­
ham
to See Esqr Thornton, and
was very kindly recev'd, after
Dinner Mr Thornton and I went

in Chace to [gap: omitted] and
[illegible]ode all the after Noon and
had very agreeable w ride —
and we had a greable Con­
verſation about religion
of Jx — — Juſt at Night
[illegible]we went to See his Sister Willber– at
winbleton, and they were
very urgent to have me
Stay there that Night, and
Lodgd there —

Tueſday Junely 8:

Mrs
Willberforce Caried me in her
Coach to London — She is a
Sound Chriſtian — in the after
Noon I Din'd with Miſs gideon
a Jewis [illegible]by Birt but a true
Chriſtian, had a Sweet Con­
verſation with her — from
there went to See Sr Jame

Jay of new York in Ameria
and then went to See Mr Wint[illegible][guess: forth]
worth
of [illegible]Portſmouth in Ame[illegible]rica
and then went home —

wedneſday July 9

went to
viſeting a gain but found none
that I wanted to See —

Thurdſday July 10

went
with Mr Whitaker to Several
Places, and then went to
Stepney and Din'd with a
Number of Miniſters and
were very kindly receivd
by them — from thence I went
thome —

Fryday July 11

went to wait upon
Mr Penn but he was not at
Home and it Thundred and
rain'd very hard in the morn.g
and returnd home again —

Sabbath July the 13

went in the
morning to Dodford and at Mr
olding
's Meeting, a good Purita
nical Independent, and we had
a very Crouded Audience, and
they made a Collection for us.
went Directly to London and
Preachd at Mr Stafford's Meetg
But it was not very Crouded —
after Meeting went with one
Mr Cocks to Drink DTea and
while we were at Tea I Se­
riouſly aſ[illegible][guess: k]d Mr Cocks, who was to
Preach at Mr whitefields's T.
he with all gravity Said Mr
Occom
, Mr Occom? Says I, Yes
Says he, I kown nothing of it
Say I again, it is So Conclud
ed Says he — So I emediately
went and Preachd to a mul­
titude of People, and the Ld
gave me Some Strength

Bleſseded be his great Name

Tueſday July 15

went to Din'd
MDocr Gifford, after Dinner went
with Sir James Jay to wait on
one Mr Perſon, and Saw many
of [illegible] his Curioſsities — and then
went home —

Wedneſday July 16:

in the
Evening Preach'd at Dr Giffords
Meeting — to a Small number
of People —

Thuirdſday July 17:

Mr W.
and I went to Hitchin in a
Stage Coach, about forty
Miles from London, got there
Jut about 12. and were re­
ceiv'd with all kindneſs by
our Friends — I Lodgd at Mr

Thomas's and Mr LWhitaker
Lodg'd at Mr Wellſhare's —

Fryday July 18:

we wViſited
all Day at Hitchin

Saturday July 19:

we went
to Southwell I Preach'd to a Small
number of People — the People
made a Collection for us
they a bCollected a bout £15
returnd again in the Even
ing to Hitchin

Sabbath July 20

I Preachd
in the Morning at Mr Hick­
Man
's Meeting a very worthy
Minſter of Jx, — and in the
after Noon Preach'd at
Mr James's a Baptiſt Min–
and a very worthy Man —
the Meeting very Much Crouded

and as Soon as the meeting
was done — a Poſt Chaiſe
was ready for mey at the Door
and I went Emediatly to
Luton about 9 Miles from
Hitchin, and in Mr Hall's
Meeting, to a great Multitude
and as Soon as the was done
I went Back to Hitchin
got there about 10. —
the Lord gave me Some
Since of Divine Things
this Day, and gave me
Some Strength — Glory be to
his g[illegible]reat N[illegible]ame for his
Condeſention —

Monday July 21

went
Back to London — got there
about 5 PM

Tueſday July 22,

went
about to leave of my
good Friends and wed­
neſday and thurſday to
Leave of my good Friends
Heitherto the Ld helped
us and glory be to his
great and holy Name —

blank page blank page blank page
Mr Matth Meller
Lennin Draper Ro[illegible][guess: ſs]
Herrefor[illegible]d Shire
Briſtol, Coriſpodent
Mrs Sarah Pearſe
Mrs Mary Pollard

blank page
Letters Sent to America March 1766
 to Mrs Occom — — — — 4
 to Mr Peck [illegible] of Boſton — — 1
 to Mrs Wheatley Boſton 1
 to a Nergro Girl Boſton 1
 to Capt Shaw N. London — 1
 to Jo Uppauquiyantup — 1
 to Mr Buell — — — — 1
 to Mrs Tallmadge & Daughters. 2
 to Ben Hedges — 1
 to Loper — — — 1
 to Mulford — — 1
to Mrs Occom April — 15 — 3[illegible][guess: 2]
to Mrs Occom Ju[illegible]ne 2
to Mr wWells New York — — 1
to Mr Wood Shady Grove — 1
to Mr Bruſh Goſhen — 1

Mrs Routledges St Mart[illegible]
Legrand in Deans C[illegible][guess: ourt]

blank page
Connecticut Board of Correspondents of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge
The Connecticut Board of Correspondents of the SSPCK was founded in 1764 at Wheelock's request. He wanted a public board's support so that his school would seem more credible since it was a private organization with no charter. The Boston Board of the SSPCK would not do since they generally opposed Wheelock, so his solution was to petition the SSPCK for his own board. The SSPCK acquiesed, and the board met for the first time on July 4, 1764. While the board was nominally separate from Wheelock's school, in practice, he exercised considerable control over it. The members of the board were Wheelock's handpicked friends and supporters: Jonathan Huntington, Elisha Sheldon, Samuel Huntington, Solomon Williams, Joseph Fish, William Gaylord, Samuel Moseley, Benjamin Pomeroy, Richard Salter, Nathaniel Whitaker, David Jewett, and Wheelock himself. Wheelock used this board to send Occom and Whitaker to England, hold exams for Moor's Indian Charity School, and generally support his designs. When Wheelock moved to New Hampshire, he tried to establish a New Hampshire Board as well, but by that point the SSPCK was much more cautious when it came to Wheelock's plans and refused. The Connecticut Board dissolved in 1771 as Wheelock was its raison d'etre.
Church of England
The Church of England is the governing body of the Anglican Church in Britain and the Episcopalian Church in America. In the eighteenth century, the Church of England was at odds with the “dissenting” sects that had broken off from it during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, including the Congregationalists and Presbyterians. The divide continued in the colonies. The southern colonies (Virginia, Carolina, etc) and New York were predominantly Anglican, while the mid-Atlantic and New England colonies were home to an assortment of dissenting sects. Wheelock and Occom both had conflicts with Episcopalians. Wheelock feuded with the Anglican Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG), a functional arm of the Church of England, over access to the Six Nations (the other important Anglican missionary organization, the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, or SPCK, was more concerned with book distribution). Meanwhile, Episcopalian ministers in America ordained their own Indian minister and sent him to England prior to Occom’s 1765 fundraising tour to distract attention away from Occom. However, this Indian spoke no English and was not a success. Once in England, Occom met with a cool reception from Anglican clergy, and Occom doubted their sympathy for the Indian cause. He wrote, "they never gave us one single brass farthing. It seems to me that they are very indifferent whether the poor Indians go to Heaven or Hell. I can’t help my thoughts; and I am apt to think they don’t want the Indians to go to Heaven with them" (quoted J. Brooks 86-87). In the broader history of Moor’s Indian Charity School, notable Anglicans include George Whitefield, the famous New Light preacher, and Sir William Johnson, the Superintendent for British Indian Affairs in the North East. Anglican influence, especially via Sir William Johnson, was a large part of the reason why the Mohawks sided with the British during the Revolution.
House of Commons
The House of Commons, also called the Commons, is the popularly elected legislative body of the bicameral British Parliament. The House of Lords is the other body of the British government, though the term "Parliament" is often used to refer solely to the House of Commons. Its origins date from the 1250s, when property owners began sending representatives to Parliament to present grievances and petitons to the king. These representatives, mostly knights and burgesses (or commoners) started to meet in a chamber separate from the one used by nobles and high clergy (the lords). The House of Commons was initially less powerful than that of the Lords, but its powers have gradually increased over time. It is the legislative authority in Great Britain with the power to originate laws, impose taxes, and vote subsidies; its acts are not subject to judicial review.
Boston

The first English immigrant to settle on a peninsula in a harbor on the northeastern coast of North America the local Algonquin Indians called "Shawmet" was William Blackstone in 1629. A year later, John Winthrop arrived with a group of English Puritans and other settlers and named the area Boston after his hometown in Lincolnshire, England. The colony quickly developed representative political institutions that would help shape a democratic nation. Over the next few centuries, Boston emerged as an intellectual and educational center, and, because of its excellent harbor, became a leading commercial hub and a primary port for North America. It is the capital and largest city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and the largest city in New England. Boston was the home for the Boards of Commissioners of several overseas religious societies who sent missionaries throughout the colonies in the 18th century, and was the site of many important events of the American Revolution.

Bristol

A city in the southwest of England. In the mid-18th century, Bristol became England's second biggest city due to its thriving importation of sugar cane, tobacco, rum, and cocoa, all products of the slave trade. Its affluence made it an important and lucrative stop for Occom and Whitaker on the fundraising trip to the west of England.

Clapham

A district in southwest London, England, in the Borough of Lambeth, known for its large green space, Clapham Common. Originally a Saxon village, it began to grow in the late 17th century as refugees poured in from the Great Plague of London in 1665 and the Great Fire of 1666. By the late 18th century, it became a fashionable location for the rich, who wanted to live in a rural setting close to the amenities of the city.

Exton

Exton, Somerset is a village located in the southwest region of England. Somerset borders Bristol, Gloucester, Wiltshire, Dorset, and Devon counties. In a letter to Whitaker, Thomas Ludlow refers to the town of Exon, which is most likely Exton, Somerset, given its proximity to Bristol (where the letter was written). Furthermore, there is speculation that the Somerset dialect favored the pronunciation Exon over Exton. Exton was one intended stop on Occom and Whitaker's fundraising tour of England.

Great Britain
Bethlehem Royal Hospital
Mohegan

Mohegan is a village in southeastern Connecticut at the site of the present-day town of Montville, and is the location of the Mohegan Indian Reservation. The village gets its name from the Mohegan Tribe, or wolf people, who split from the Pequots in the early 17th century under the leadership of the sachem Uncas. In the 1720s, the Mohegans requested the colony of Connecticut provide them with an English educator. An English minister and schoolteacher named John Mason (no relation to Captain John Mason) moved to Mohegan in order to provide English-styled education to the Mohegans, convinced his sponsors, the New England Company, to build a schoolhouse at Mohegan, which eventually served as a boarding school for other Native American children from the surrounding area. During the 17th century, the Mohegan Tribe became embroiled in a complicated controversy over control of Mohegan land — known as the Mason Land Case or, more specifically, Mohegan Indians v. Connecticut — that included the village of Mohegan. The Tribe claimed that it never authorized a transfer of their lands, held in trust by the Mason family, to the colonial government. In 1662, the colony of Connecticut was incorporated by a royal charter, which included the disputed tribal land. The land controversy was revived in 1704 when descendants of John Mason, the original trustee, petitioned the Crown on behalf of the Mohegans, but the suit was finally decided against the Tribe in 1773. Born in Mohegan, Occom became involved in the Mason Land Case and vehemently argued for the rights of the Mohegan Indians to maintain their land, opposing Eleazar Wheelock and other ministers in the area. Although Occom left Mohegan for a 12-year mission with the Montauk Indians of Long Island, he returned at the end of 1763 with his large family to build a house in Mohegan, establishing it as his base of operations. Even after the creation of the Brothertown settlement in Oneida country, for which he served as minister, Occom continued to commute back and forth from Mohegan; he didn't sell his house in Mohegan and move his family to Brothertown until 1789. Many members of his family remained in Mohegan, including his sister Lucy Tantaquidgeon, who lived there until her death at 99 in 1830.

London

The capital and largest city of the United Kingdom, London is located in the southeastern region of England along the Thames River. The outpost that would become London originated as a military storage post for the Romans when they invaded Britain in the year 43. It soon developed as a trading center and financial hub for Roman Britain. During a revolt against the Romans in 61, London was burned to the ground; the rebuilt town appeared in Tacitus’s Annals as Londinium. With the decline of the Roman Empire in the 4th century, Londinium became a Saxon trading town. Following the Norman Conquest, London retained its central political and commercial importance. In the 14th century, under Edward II, Westminster became an administrative center and London became the capital of England. In the early 18th century, London was an important hub for evangelical Christianity and home to many influential people, like the charismatic Anglican minister, George Whitefield, who were sympathetic to Wheelock’s missionary endeavors. Occom arrived in London in February 1766 on his fundraising tour for Wheelock’s school and preached his first sermon at Whitefield’s Tabernacle. London would be Occom’s home base for the next two years, as he and Whitaker travelled throughout England and Scotland. Occom made many friends in London who would continue to support him after his break with Wheelock and the School. By the late 18th century, London had replaced Amsterdam as the center of world commerce, a role it would maintain until 1914.

New London

New London is a city located in southeastern Connecticut along an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean called Long Island Sound. The area that would become New London was inhabited by the Pequots who called it Nameaug when the Europeans arrived in North America. Pequot villages bordered Long Island Sound and the Tribe had authority over the neighboring Tribes of the Mohegans and Niantics (all Algonquian-speaking tribes). The Dutch first explored this land in 1614 and established trade with the Native peoples, but the English soon gained possession of the land east of the Hudson in the 1630s. English animosity toward their Indian neighbors led to the Pequot War (1634-38), part of which took place in the present city of New London. The Pequots lost the war and their population deteriorated due to the violence and disease. The General Court of Massachusetts granted John Winthrop possession of Pequot territory in 1644 after which it was to be opened for settlement. By 1646, which is considered the official year of its founding, New London had permanent colonial inhabitants and municipal laws, and jurisdiction was granted to the colony of Connecticut in 1647. In 1658, the inhabitants renamed the town New London after London, England. New London was the colony of Connecticut’s first trading port and was a hub of trade with the West Indies and other colonies. Though initially part of the town of New London when it was first settled by the colonists, Groton, Montville, and Waterford were each separated from New London in 1705, 1786, and 1801 respectively. Present-day Salem was also part of New London when it was settled, but in 1819, it became a separate incorporated town composed of parts of Lyme, Colchester, and Montville. Occom kept a school in New London in the winter in 1748. New London was the home of Captain Nathaniel Shaw, one of the wealthiest merchants in the area, who gave money to Occom in the 1750s for the missionary cause and also sold materials to Occom for the building of his home. However, their positive relationship ended when Shaw refused to provide supplies for Mary Occom while Occom was in England. New London served as the port from which Occom and other missionaries traveled to reach Long Island. During the American Revolution, New London’s location and its status as a seaport made it both vulnerable to invasion and integral to colonial naval operations as well as the exchange of prisoners.New London was incorporated as a city in 1784.

New York City
Portsmouth

Portsmouth is a city located in southeastern New Hampshire. Europeans began settling along the Piscataqua River in 1623. By 1640, the first four plantations, or towns, in what is now the state of New Hampshire — Dover, Portsmouth, Exeter, and Hampton — were settled by the British. In the wake of this influx, native settlements, specifically that of the Abanakis who historically fished and hunted in Portsmouth, were largely reduced by disease and war. Originally called Strawbery Banke, the settlement was renamed in 1653 in honor of Captain John Mason (not to be confused with the John Mason of the Mason Land Case) who hailed from Portsmouth, England. Located along the Atlantic Ocean and the Piscataqua River, Portsmouth quickly became a regional center for trade and served as New Hampshire’s colonial capital from 1679 until the middle of the American Revolution. Following Queen Anne’s War, American colonists and the Wabanaki Confederacy of Native Americans signed an agreement in Portsmouth called The Portsmouth Indian Treaty of 1713 establishing peace between colonists and surrounding Native Americans. In 1763, Wheelock went to Portsmouth to solicit money for the funding of his school, and in 1765, Occom and Whitaker accompanied him to Portsmouth to fundraise for their trip to England.

Sheerness
Stepney

Stepney is a district between the Thames River and Mile End Road in the East End of London that developed out of Stibenhede, a medieval village surrounding St. Dunstan’s Church. Because of its docks and Mile End Road, a busy thoroughfare running east from London, Stepney expanded in the 16th century, and in the 17th century, it became a locus for Protestant dissenters, independents, and separatists who were forced to meet outside London. In 1644, a congregation of dissenters began to meet in the area and created the Stepney Meeting in 1674, also known as the Broad Street Church, which became the largest dissenting congregation in London. From 1746 until 1796, Reverend Samuel Brewer, a close associate of George Whitefield and a popular figure in London religious circles, preached at Stepney Meeting. In 1765, Brewer was one of the eminent clergymen who welcomed Occom and Whitaker to London during their fundraising tour, using Stepney Meeting as a base to connect Occom to other area churches. While in London, Occom preached at Stepney Meeting several times to crowded audiences and raised a significant amount of money for Wheelock’s school. Today, Stepney is a working-class, immigrant neighborhood home to many post-war tower blocks and housing estates.

Tabernacle at Moorfields

The Tabernacle at Moorfields was George Whitefield’s first London church, built in 1741, two years after his return from North America. When touring abroad, Whitefield preached to crowds too large for any existing church, so he held outdoor revivals. This practice, combined with his zealous preaching style, spurred the First Great Awakening. Upon returning to London, the Anglican-ordained Whitefield found most church doors closed to him because his methods and theology had become controversial with the Church of England. As a result, Whitefield began delivering outdoor sermons in London, preaching in Moorfields, one of the city’s last open spaces. At the same time, John Wesley, who converted Whitefield to Methodism during their time at Oxford, opened the Moorfields Foundry, where he also preached to large crowds. After preaching in America, however, Whitefield moved closer to Calvinism, which deviated from Wesleyan doctrine. Although he occasionally preached at the Foundry and avoided a public break with John Wesley and his brother Charles, Whitefield found it necessary to build his own church in 1741. The first building was a temporary wooden structure, named for the tabernacle the Israelites built and carried through the wilderness. In 1753, this makeshift structure was replaced by a brick one that could hold up to 4,000 people, and was the spectacular setting for Occom’s first sermon in England, in February of 1766, as well as the site of his smallpox inoculation that March. Occom preached several more times to huge crowds accommodated by the Tabernacle. Robert Keen and Daniel West, who managed the Tabernacle for many years, took its helm upon Whitefield’s death in 1770. The Tabernacle was replaced by a smaller stone structure in 1868, which no longer stands. Today, London’s Tabernacle Street runs by the former site of Whitefield’s Moorfield church.

Salisbury
Goshen

Goshen is a town located in the Northwest Hills in Litchfield County, Connecticut, first settled by the British colonists in 1738 and incorporated in 1739. In the 18th century, Goshen was a farming town and soon became successful producing musket rifles for the colonists during the American Revolution. In 1765, Occom wrote a sermon in Goshen that is an exegesis on Ezekiel 33:11, specifically dealing with the choices of sinners and the death of the wicked.

Lands End
Tottenham Court Road Chapel

Tottenham Court Road Chapel

Tower of London
Parliament House
Westminster Abbey
the Foundry
Yorkshire
Gravesend
Wimbledon
Southwell
Herefordshire
Thames River
Greenwich
St. James's
Little St. Helens
Devonshire Square
Barber's Hall
Northampton
Shakespeares Walk
Saffron Walden
Shady Grove
Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Wheatley, Phillis

Phillis Wheatley is the first African-American woman to publish her writing. Born in West Africa around 1753, she was brought to America as a slave when she was eight. She was purchased by John Wheatley, a Boston merchant, as a servant for his wife, Susanna; they named her Phillis after the ship that transported her. The Wheatley children tutored Phillis, who was an avid student and quickly learned to read Greek and Latin classics as well as the Bible. Recognizing her abilities, the Wheatley family curtailed Wheatley's household duties and encouraged her reading. The Wheatleys supported the Revolutionary cause, as well as the same evangelical and missionary movements as Wheelock. Wheatley began writing elegies, occasional poems, and poems with religious and political themes in the Augustan style, several addressed to famous men of the time, which brought her acclaim. In 1770, she wrote a tribute to the English evangelical preacher George Whitefield, and in 1775 she wrote "To his Excellency George Washington," then general of the Continental Army, which solicited an invitation to visit him in Cambridge. Occom corresponded with Susanna Wheatley, who supported his activities, and from those letters we know that Wheatley and Occom also corresponded, as early as 1765. The only surviving letter of that correspondence, which was reprinted in several New England newspapers, is by Wheatley and dated February 11, 1774, in which she deplores the practice of slavery and points out the hypocrisy of Americans’ demands for freedom. Despite her renown, Bostonians doubted that a young slave girl could write poetry, and in 1772, the Wheatleys invited a group of illustrious men to "examine" Phillis, including Reverend Charles Chauncy, John Hancock, Thomas Hutchinson, the Royal governor of Massachusetts, and his lieutenant governor, Andrew Oliver, who was also treasurer of the Boston Board of the New England Company, which funded some of Wheelock's endeavors. Not finding a publisher, she traveled to England where she was supported by the Countess of Huntingdon and the Earl of Dartmouth, a member of the English Trust that handled the funds raised for Wheelock's School by Occom. "Poems on Various Subjects Religious and Moral" appeared in 1773. Freed in 1778, Wheatley married a free black man named John Peters. They struggled with poverty, and lost two children in infancy. Shortly after Peters was imprisoned for debt in 1784, Wheatley and her third infant child died; there is evidence that she had written another volume of poetry, but it has never been found.

Whitaker, Nathaniel

Nathaniel Whitaker was an outspoken Presbyterian minister with a long and wide-ranging career. Between his ordination in 1755 and his death in 1795, Whitaker ministered to five different congregations. His longest tenure was at Chelsea, CT (near Norwich), from 1761-1769, during which he joined Occom on his two-and-a-half-year fundraising tour of Britain. While in Chelsea, Whitaker was very involved in Wheelock's project. The two engaged in frequent correspondence, and Whitaker served on Eleazar Wheelock's Board of Correspondents in Connecticut, as well as on the Board of Trustees of Moor's Indian Charity School. At one time, he was Wheelock's presumed successor, but Dartmouth's Trustees demanded that Wheelock appoint another. Wheelock, in part due to his strongly-held belief that Native Americans were childlike and rash, was convinced that Occom needed an Anglo-American supervisor on his fundraising tour. After several candidates turned down the job, Wheelock selected Whitaker. He proved to be a poor choice; he was, by many accounts, a difficult man to get along with, and many of Wheelock’s British allies, including George Whitefield and the English Trust (the organization that took control of the money Occom raised in England) preferred to deal with Occom, although Whitaker insisted on handling the tour’s logistics. Furthermore, in Britain, Occom was the obvious star of the tour, and it was unclear to many why Whitaker asserted himself so prominently. Whitaker’s poor decisions seriously alienated the English Trust and increased their suspicion of Wheelock’s later dealings and treatment of Occom. He gave the English Trust the impression that they would have control over money raised in Scotland (which was in fact lodged with the parent organization of the SSPCK), and he was the executor of the “Eells Affair,” a plan initiated by the CT Board of the SSPCK to bring the money that Occom and Whitaker raised back to the colonies by investing it in trade goods and selling them at a profit (Eells was one of the merchants who was to help with the resale of goods). The English Trust learned about the plan by reading letters that Whitaker had given them permission to open in his absence, and were immediately shocked. The wording of certain letters made it appear that only a percentage of the profit from the resale of the goods would go towards Moor’s Indian Charity School, but beyond that detail, the English Trust was scandalized at the thought of money raised for charity being invested in trade. The English Trust blamed Whitaker entirely for these affairs, and issued specific instructions for Occom to notarize all documents requiring Whitaker’s signature. In short, they wanted Occom to supervise Whitaker, when Wheelock had envisioned the opposite relationship (both Occom and Whitaker seem to have ignored their instructions, preferring to have as little contact with one another as possible). In 1769, a year after his return to Connecticut in 1768, Whitaker found himself dismissed by his Chelsea congregation (likely because he had spent two and a half years away from them). He went on to serve several more congregations before his death in 1795. Whitaker was an outspoken Whig, and during the Revolution he published several pamphlets on his political opinions.

Peck, Moses

Watchmaker Moses Peck took collections for Occom, and Wheelock had an account with him that involved shipping items to Lebanon and debits/credits for funding Occom. It is possible that Peck was Occom’s credit source in Boston. He was enthusiastic about and involved in the Indian education mission, and offered Wheelock advice about how to deal with Anglicans. Wheelock had Peck print his brief defense of Occom to counter the London Society’s rumors. Peck paid to send his son Elijah to school with Wheelock, although Elijah eventually failed his graduation examinations.

Marshall, John
Williams, John
Bromfield, Thomas
Whitefield, George

George Whitefield, the English itinerant preacher who helped spark the Great Awakening, was an essential supporter of Eleazar Wheelock’s project. Whitefield studied at Pembroke College, Oxford, where he met the pioneers of Methodism, John and Charles Wesley. He was ordained in 1736, and he made the first of his seven trips to America two years later. While abroad in 1740, Whitefield founded an orphanage in Georgia, and went on a preaching tour during which he met Wheelock and spread ideals that prompted the Great Awakening. Although Whitefield was ordained in the Church of England, his enthusiastic preaching style and charismatic personality made him a controversial figure, and traditional clergyman on both sides of the Atlantic censured him. Nonetheless, he continued to be an important contact and friend of Wheelock’s, and his dedication to Wheelock’s vision was evident. He contributed money to the cause, secured various other funders, and donated an eighty-pound prayer bell to the school. More importantly, Whitefield not only suggested to Wheelock the idea of a fundraising tour in Great Britain, he hosted Occom and Whitaker shortly after they arrived in England, provided a house for them to reside in for the remainder of their tour, and introduced the pair to influential figures such as William Legge, the Earl of Dartmouth. Whitefield tabernacle’s was the setting of Occom’s first sermon in England on February 16, 1766, and many believe that Whitefield wrote the introduction to a pamphlet printed in London during the campaign (although he was not credited). Whitefield continued to be involved in Wheelock’s work until he died in Newburyport, MA in September of 1770.

Legge, William

William Legge, the second Earl of Dartmouth, was the reluctant namesake of Dartmouth College. Like many of his countrymen, Legge became involved in Eleazar Wheelock’s plans through George Whitefield, the famous evangelical who introduced Samson Occom and Nathaniel Whitaker to Legge shortly after the pair’s February 1766 arrival in London. Legge proved critical in promoting Occom’s tour among the nobility, and took on a logistical role by helping to collect and oversee donations. Although Legge and Whitefield both felt it would be best if Wheelock were in total control of the funds raised in England, Occom eventually collected so much money that a formal trust was necessary to preserve propriety. This trust was formed in late 1766, with Legge as its president, to guarantee that Wheelock used the money appropriately. It soon proved that the Trust and Wheelock had different ideas as to what was, in fact, appropriate, but they were largely able to cooperate until 1769, when Wheelock obtained a charter for his school without informing the trust. (The trust, feeling that a charter would obviate its control over the British funds, had vehemently opposed it.) Adding insult to injury, Wheelock named the resulting institution Dartmouth—again without consulting Legge, and perhaps more to reassure the multitudes who had donated money than to honor the Earl. Legge never wrote to Wheelock again. Outside of his involvement with Wheelock, Legge had a brief political career. Although he was generally more concerned with religious and philanthropic matters, his station and connections (he was the step-brother of Frederick North, who was prime minister from 1770 to 1782) led him to take his first political post in 1765 as a member of the Board of Trade. During his tenure (1765-1767), and again while he was Secretary of State for the Colonies (1772-1775), Legge’s search for cooperative solutions proved unsuccessful during the build-up to the Revolution. His later positions were primarily ceremonial.

Savage, Samuel

Samuel Savage was a London merchant and a member of the English Trust, the body formed to oversee money raised by Samson Occom and Nathaniel Whitaker in England between 1766 and 1768. His shop was on Gun Street, in Spitalfields, and he was likely a weaver. Few other personal details are known. Like most of Eleazar Wheelock’s English contacts, Savage was a follower of the evangelical George Whitefield, transatlantic celebrity of the First Great Awakening, and it was through Whitefield that Savage became involved in Wheelock’s initial attempts to gain a charter in the 1760s. Once Occom and Whitaker arrived in London in February 1766, Savage was part of the informal committee that handled their correspondence and suggested targets for fundraising. He was also made a member of the Trust when it was formally established in 1766. Savage, like John Thornton, continued to provide Wheelock with financial support after the fund was exhausted in 1775. Although most of the Englishmen who worked with Whitaker and Occom found Whitaker insufferable and praised Occom, Savage displayed a marked preference for Whitaker. Like Wheelock, he was worried that Occom would become prouder than he thought was appropriate for an Indian, and he expressed concerns that Whitaker had not been paid enough to compensate for his long absence from his family (no similar concerns about Occom’s family were voiced). Since Savage’s views on Occom were very close to the New England norm and represent a deviation from most Englishmen’s views, one is tempted to conclude that he had spent time in America or had been born there, but that is pure conjecture.

Fothergill, John
Singenhagen
Gifford, Andrew

Andrew Gifford was the leading Baptist minister in England in the 18th century. He was born in Bristol, the son of Emmanuel Gifford (1673–1723), a Baptist minister, and his wife, Eleanor Lancaster (1662–1738); and grandson of Andrew Gifford, also a Bristol Baptist minister. He served as a Baptist minister in Nottingham (1725–1726) and Bristol (1727-1729). In January 1730, Gifford became Baptist minister at Little Wild Street, London, but was ostracized because of charges of sodomy that were never proven, and in 1736, he formed a new congregation in Eagle Street, where he remained as pastor for the rest of his life. Also a noted coin collector, he was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and was appointed assistant librarian in the British Museum in 1757. With the fortune of his second wife, Gifford encouraged an educated Baptist ministry through his support of Bristol Baptist College. His unusual combination of Calvinist theology with evangelical passion made him a partisan of George Whitefield, whose "Eighteen Sermons" (1771) Gifford edited; it was a volume that sold widely in England and America. He also supported Wheelock's missionary efforts; in his "Narrative" for June 1764, Wheelock records that Gifford sent the school “a neat Pair of Globes, and a valuable Collection of Books," and appeals to him for help in advancing the School's interests in London. Gifford was one of several prominent clergymen who befriended Occom and Whitaker on their fundraising tour in England. Occom records hearing Gifford preach, preaching at his church, and dining and lodging at his house. A measure of Occom's affection for Gifford is that he and Mary Occom named their youngest son Andrew Gifford (b 1774 in Mohegan).

Frederick, George William

George William Frederick (King George III) became heir to the throne of England in 1751 upon the death of his father Frederick, Prince of Wales. He became King George III of England in the fall of 1760 at age 22, following the death of his grandfather King George II. George III passed many important edicts during his reign including that of the Royal Marriage Act of 1772; the Treaty of Paris in 1762, which ended the Seven Years War; the Stamp Act of 1765; and the Townshend Duties of 1767. However, he is most well-known for being the reigning monarch during the Revolutionary War. After the surrender of British forces to the Americans in 1782, George III considered abdicating the throne, but chose not to do so because he felt it would be too detrimental to Britain. The last 30 years of George's life were plagued with illness. In 1788 he had the first of many attacks of insanity, now believed to have been caused by an inherited disease known as porphyria. With George III unfit to rule, it was decided that his son George would become regent, an arrangement which was made permanent in 1810. King George III died on January 29, 1820 at the age of 81 after a reign of nearly 60 years (the third longest in British history). He was succeeded by his son George IV.

Legge, Frances Catherine (née Nicholl)
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Keen, Robert

Robert Keen was a London wool merchant and an ardent supporter of George Whitefield, the eminent evangelical. Although it is unclear when Keen and Whitefield first came into contact, by the 1760s Whitefield was writing to Keen frequently. In 1763, Keen, along with Daniel West, was given the task of managing Whitefield’s religious enterprises in London (specifically, his Tottenham Court Chapel and the Tabernacle, another London church), which they continued to do after Whitefield’s death. Keen was also one of the four executors of Whitefield’s affairs in England (along with West and Charles Hardy). As a result of his relationship with Whitefield, Keen was introduced to Occom and Whitaker upon their arrival in February 1766. He was a member of the informal committee that collected donations before October 1766 and provided Occom and Whitaker with advice on their route and strategies. Keen also became a member of the English Trust, the formal organization formed in October 1766 to safeguard donations. As secretary and deputy treasurer of the Trust, Keen played an important role in transmitting accounts and correspondence between the Trust and Wheelock during the tour and the long process of Wheelock’s relocation to New Hampshire. Along with fellow Trust members Samuel Savage and John Thornton, Keen continued to provide financial support to Wheelock after the Trust had been exhausted.

Chandler, Samuel
Smith, John

John Smith was an affluent Boston merchant who supported Wheelock’s school throughout the 1760s. It is likely that Smith and Wheelock were introduced by George Whitefield or someone similarly involved in evangelical and missionary efforts in the British Atlantic world: John Smith made somewhat regular trips to London for business, and had been in contact with Whitefield since the 1740s. Like the other Boston merchants who supported Moor’s Indian Charity School (including Moses Peck, William Hyslop, and Nathaniel Eells), Smith traded with Wheelock and kept him up to date on political developments in Boston, especially as they concerned attitudes towards Moor’s Indian Charity School. However, Smith was better educated (and likely more affluent) than the other merchants that Wheelock worked with, and, correspondingly, played a more important role than his brethren in Wheelock’s efforts. Smith publicized the school independently (his letter to an unnamed friend, catalogued as 764318.2, is one of the most cited letters on the organization of Moor’s) and assisted Wheelock in publishing the Narratives. John Smith’s greatest contribution to Wheelock’s design was his support during Samson Occom and Nathaniel Whitaker’s fundraising tour of Great Britain (1765-1768). Smith set out for Britain in July 1765 to improve his health, and while there, acted as a vanguard for Occom and Whitaker. He managed their correspondence, suggested destinations, and served on an ad hoc advisory council that included George Whitefield, Samuel Savage, Robert Keen, and several other influential men. The pace of the journey caught up with John Smith, however, and he died in 1768 while in Britain.

Hastings, Selina (née Shirley)

Selina Hastings, better known as the Countess of Huntington or Lady Huntington, was an evangelical English aristocrat and one of the many George Whitefield devotees to meet with Nathaniel Whitaker and Samson Occom during their fundraising tour of Great Britain (1765-1768). Moor’s Indian Charity School was, for a brief time, among the objects of Lady Huntington’s charity. Lady Huntington first discovered evangelism in 1739, when she converted to Methodism. By 1744, she had embraced Calvinism instead and become a devotee of George Whitefield—such a prominent one, in fact, that he bequeathed his Bethesda orphanage to her (she did not prove to be a successful steward: the deputy she appointed was so disliked that the locals burned Bethesda down, and the property was confiscated after the Revolution). Lady Huntington was known for promoting evangelism among the aristocracy, providing dissenters with opportunities for ministerial education, establishing chapels, and mollifying the Church of England’s attitude towards dissenters. When Lady Huntington finally seceded from the Church of England in 1782, she opened Lady Huntington’s Connexion, an organization that ordained evangelical ministers and sent them out as itinerant preachers. However, her controversial efforts caught up with her. She became increasingly paranoid during the last decades of her life (the 1770s and 1780s), and died in debt.

Stennett, Samuel
Brewer, Samuel

Samuel Brewer was a minister who served for 50 years at the Broad Street Church, also called the Stepney Meeting, the largest of the dissenting congregations (Congregational or Presbyterian) of London. Starting in the late 17th century, many dissenters, separatists, and independents congregated in Stepney, now a working-class and immigrant neigborhood in London's east end, but originally a village developed around the Church of St. Dunstan's on the outskirts of the city. Brewer took over the ministry at Stepney in 1746, when the congregation had dwindled, and increased attendance over the years, leaving a very successful church at his death in 1796. Though an independent, he was friendly with clergy from the Church of England, and was part of the group of eminent clergymen clustered around the evangelical preacher George Whitefield, his particular friend, who welcomed Occom and Whitaker when they arrived in London in 1765. Occom calls Brewer "a warm Servant of Jesus Christ," and records preaching at Mr. Brewer's meeting several times to crowded audiences who made generous collections for the Indian Charity School. Robert Keen mentioned Brewer as part of a group that met weekly to advise Occom and Nathaniel Whitaker on their activities and send letters of introduction and recommendation to the leading men of surrounding churches. Whitaker urged Wheelock to write to Brewer, among other energetic supporters, but there is no evidence that he did so.

Secker, Thomas
Drummond, Robert Hay
Hotham, Charles
Thornton, John

John Thornton was born in Yorkshire on April 1, 1720. As a young man, Thornton inherited money from his father Robert Thornton, who was the Director of the Bank of England, which he used to begin his career as a merchant. In 1753, Thornton married Lucy Watson, with whom he had four children. Watson had a Christianizing influence on Thornton, which ultimately led to his 1754 conversion to evangelical Anglicanism under Henry Venn, the curate of Clapham. Thornton's and Venn’s sons would continue their fathers’ religious traditions, going on to form the “Clapham sect,” an influential group of evangelical Christians who championed social reforms. As a result of his conversion, Thornton pursued charity just as much as trade, a major part of which involved managing the English Trust that oversaw the funds Occom and Whitaker collected for Wheelock’s Indian Charity School. Thornton met and hosted Occom several times during his stay in England, and eventually became the Treasurer of the Trust. After Wheelock moved the School to Hanover, however, he focused on the establishment of Dartmouth College to educate Anglo-American men as missionaries, and was accused of using the Trust's funds to this end. This shift in focus contributed to the rift that developed between Occom and Wheelock upon Occom’s return to America –- a rift Thornton tried to repair. Thornton thought of Occom as an equal and, in his role as Treasurer of the Trust, often reminded Wheelock of Occom's vital role in securing the funds that made the School possible. Thornton financed Occom's further missionary activities and insured that Wheelock did not forget Occom's hard work and Christian morals. In addition, Wheelock –- who knew that Occom respected Thornton –- often called upon the merchant when he himself could not convince Occom to undertake further missionary activity. The exchanges between Wheelock and Thornton ended once Wheelock had used up the funds that Occom had raised in England, yet Occom and Thornton kept in touch up through the Revolutionary War, with Thornton remaining one of Occom's most prominent supporters. He died on November 7th, 1790 as one of the wealthiest men in England, despite giving away nearly half his salary each year. In 1828, Thornton's role in the establishment of Dartmouth was memorialized in the College's naming of Thornton Hall.

Newton, Samuel
Wesley, John
Richadson
Wilberforce, Hannah
Jay, James
Penn, Thomas
Thomas, W.
Wellshare
Meller, Matt
Pearse, Sarah
Pollard, Mary
Occom, Mary (née Fowler)

Mary Occom (née Fowler) was a Montaukett woman who married Samson Occom. Although information about her is limited and often comes from male, Anglo-American sources, it offers a tantalizing glimpse of her strength, as well as an alternative to the Eleazar Wheelock-centered narrative of Occom’s life that often dominates the latter’s biography. Mary was born into the influential Fowler family at Montauk, Long Island. She met Samson during his missionary service there (1749-1761). Mary studied at Samson’s school along with her brothers David and Jacob, and was almost certainly literate. She and Samson married in 1751. Wheelock and several other Anglo-American powers opposed their union because they worried it might distract Occom from being a missionary (as, indeed, family life did), and thus many scholars have read in Samson and Mary’s marriage an act of resistance against Samson’s domineering former teacher. Little information about the minutiae of Mary’s life survives, but existing sources speak volumes about her character and priorities. In front of Anglo-American missionaries visiting the Occoms' English-style house at Mohegan, Mary would insist on wearing Montaukett garb and, when Samson spoke to her in English, she would only reply in Montaukett, despite the fact that she was fluent in English. Mary Occom was, in many ways, Wheelock’s worst fear: that his carefully groomed male students would marry un-Anglicized Indian women. It is not a stretch to imagine that Mary provided much of the incentive for Wheelock to begin taking Indian girls into his school, lest his other protégés replicate Samson’s choice. Much of our information about Mary comes from between 1765 and 1768, when Samson was fundraising in Great Britain. Despite promising to care for Samson’s wife and family (at the time they had seven children), Wheelock, by every objective measure, failed to do so, and Mary’s complaints are well documented. Hilary Wyss reads in Wheelock’s neglect (and in letters from the time) a more sinister story, and concludes that on some level Wheelock was holding Samson’s family hostage, in return for Occom curtailing his political beliefs on the Mason Case. Wyss also notes Mary’s remarkable survivance in this situation. Mary drew on various modes of contact, from letters to verbal communication with influential women (including Sarah Whitaker, the wife of Samson’s traveling companion, and Wheelock’s own daughters), to shame Wheelock into action and demand what she needed. One of the major struggles in Mary’s life, and in Samson’s, was with their sons. Both Aaron and Benoni failed to live up to their parents’ expectations. Aaron attended, and left, Moor’s Indian Charity School three times, and both Aaron and Benoni struggled with alcohol and refused to settle down. The Occom daughters did not cause similar problems. Given the nature of existing sources, little is known about Mary after Samson and Wheelock lessened their communication in 1771. Joanna Brooks has conjectured that Mary was likely influential in Samson’s Mohegan community involvement later in life, for instance, in his continued ministry to Mohegan and, perhaps, his increasingly vehement rejection of Anglo-American colonial practices.

Buell, Samuel

Buell was a popular Presbyterian minister during the second half of the 18th century in Long Island, as well as a close friend of Samson Occom. He was ordained in November 1743, and was a popular itinerant minister before settling at Easthampton. He preached at Occom's ordination, published the sermon in 1761 to raise funds for Occom (he also wrote the letter addressed to Bostwick prefacing his publication), and stayed in close contact with Occom even after Occom's public break from Wheelock. Occom's diary is full of references to visiting Buell and to their close friendship. During the Revolution, Buell was the only minister on Long Island for 40 miles, and was very active in assisting the American cause. He also founded Clinton Academy on Long Island in 1785, which was the first private school chartered by the New York Board of Regents. This academy was also remarkable in that it admitted women. Multiple historical sources have misconstrued Samuel Buell as Sol or Solomon Buell, likely because Buell sometimes signed his name Sa.l, a creative abbreviation of Samuel. However, there was no Reverend Solomon Buell in Easthampton, or, it seems, Long Island, in the second half of the 18th century: Samuel had no brothers, and were there to be two Reverend S. Buell's within 10 miles of one another during the same period, related or not, doubtlessly someone would have commented on it. In addition, the handwriting in letters ascribed to "Sol" and those assigned to Samuel is identical. Lastly, the only source besides collection manuscript 765530.3 describing a "Solomon Buell" is an anthology of letters from the Revolution, which contain letters from a Rev. Sol. Buell, or S. Buell, about aiding the American cause. These letters correspond well with descriptions of Samuel's life in an 1809 biography of his life, and, as he was the only Reverend but one for 40 miles during the Revolution, it is likely that these letters belong to him.

Wheatley, Susanna

Susanna Wheatley was the mistress of Phillis Wheatley, a slave who became famous as the as poet and the first African-American woman to be published. In 1741, Wheatley married John Wheatley, a prosperous tailor, merchant, moneylender and constable of Boston. In 1761 John purchased a young African girl who had been kidnapped from West Africa to be Susanna's servant. They named her Phillis, after the ship that transported her. As active Congregationalists, they felt it their duty to teach the girl to read the Bible. Phillis showed uncommon aptitude and was soon reading Greek and Latin as well as English. Susanna Wheatley was engaged in missionary work through correspondence (her correspondence with Occom dates from 1765), financial donations, and entertaining guests, including Presbyterian and Anglican Methodist missionaries who stayed in the Wheatley house in Boston. Phillis was allowed to mix freely with political, religious, and socially prominent guests. When she began writing poetry, often dedicated to Susanna's extended family and influential acquaintances, Susanna encouraged and promoted her through a series of drawing room performances. Not able to find a publisher in Boston, Susanna sent Phillis to England with the Wheatley son Nathaniel, where, through her connections to the evangelical George Whitefield, Phillis met Selina, Countess of Huntingdon, who became her patron, and helped publish her collection of verse in 1773. When Susanna Wheatley died in 1774 after a long illness, Phillis wrote to John Thornton, the English philanthropist and treasurer of the Trust for Wheelock's Indian School, "By the great loss I have sustain'd of my best friend, I feel like One forsaken by her parent in a desolate Wilderness." Although critics debate Phillis' status in the Wheatley home, in a letter to her friend Obour Tanner, Phillis thanked Susanna Wheatley for adopting her and treating her "more like her child than her servant."

Shaw, Nathaniel

Captain Nathaniel Shaw was one of the wealthiest merchants in New London during the mid-18th century. In the early 1730s, after building a fortune through sea trade with Ireland, he settled in New London to oversee his business. Captain Shaw was sympathetic to the Company for Propagation of the Gospel in New England and the Parts Adjacent in America (often called the New England Company), and assisted them by transmitting money to Samson Occom in the 1750s, when the New England Company was providing him with financial support. Captain Shaw also had a private trade relationship with Occom, and sold him many household supplies and much of the equipment for his house at Mohegan. However, while Occom was in England (late 1765-mid 1768), Shaw refused to supply Mary Occom with goods, which put her in severe straits. Eleazar Wheelock hypothesized that Shaw was lashing out at Mary over Samson’s stance in the Mason Case, which, along with other circumstances, had turned the New England Company vehemently against Wheelock and Occom. However, it is perhaps more likely that Shaw refused to supply Mary because Wheelock had shown no indication that he planned to pay Occom’s debts (see 768114). During the Revolution, Captain Shaw and his son Nathaniel Shaw Jr., who took over much of the business around 1763, were noted patriots. They opened their mansion to wounded sailors, as well as to George Washington himself, helped to organize New London’s participation in the war, and turned their merchant ships into a privateering fleet.

DeBerdt, Dennys

Dennys DeBerdt was a London merchant of Dutch descent, a dissenter who took an avid interest in American affairs and politics. Although he was not especially prominent in British eyes, many Americans, including Wheelock, venerated him as a valuable ally. DeBerdt tried to help Wheelock secure a charter for Moor's, but his efforts failed because the Connecticut Assembly was opposed. Otherwise, DeBerdt helped Wheelock in much the same way as other supporters did: he collected and forwarded donations and circulated information. He also hosted Occom, Whitaker, and J. Smith on their fundraising tour. In 1765, the Massachusetts Assembly elected DeBerdt as their agent in London, a post he held until his death in 1770. He also served as an agent for the Assemblies of Connecticut and Delaware. He frequently advocated for American interests in London, and was instrumental in the repeal of the Stamp Act. DeBerdt invested heavily in American trade, with poor results for his estate. Perhaps because he was a Dissenter and enjoyed limited opportunities in England, he thought American religious freedom was well worth defending. Virtually all correspondence between DeBerdt and Wheelock dates from between 1757 and 1763. DeBerdt's last letter to Wheelock was written in 1763, and Wheelock wrote to DeBerdt only sporadically after that (his last two letters are dated October 1765 and February 1767). It is not clear why the two men stopped corresponding.

Uppucquiyantup, Joseph
Tallmadge
Hedges, Ben
Routledge
Wentworth, John

Sir John Wentworth was the last of the Royal Governors of the Province of New Hampshire. He served as governor from 1767-1775, succeeding his uncle Benning Wentworth. He also shares a name with his grandfather, John Wentworth (1671-1730), who served as Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of New Hampshire from 1717-1730. During his tenure, Wentworth worked to develop the interior of New Hampshire through the creation of the five original counties, the granting of tracts of land and the building of roads between the seacoast and the Connecticut River. He also secured the land and signed the charter for Dartmouth College in 1769. Wentworth remained loyal to the crown throughout his time in office. The increasing tensions created by his loyalist sentiments in the years leading up to the American Revolution eventually ended his reign as governor in 1775. Wentworth was later appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia.

Fundraising Tour of Great Britain
After many months of planning and shifting personnel, Occom, accompanied by the minister Nathaniel Whitaker, sets sail in December 1765 for a two-and-a-half year tour of England and Scotland in order to solicit contributions to Wheelock’s Indian Charity School and missionary efforts. Introduced to aristocrats and prominent clergy by the minister George Whitefield, Occom preaches many sermons, travels widely, and collects a large sum of money.
Occom’s inoculation
On March 11, 1766, during their tour of London, Nathaniel Whitaker inoculates Occom against smallpox, a controversial practice that involves inserting scabs into an incision, causing a mild case of the disease, which produces immunity to it.
HomeSamson Occom, journal, 1765 November 21
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