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Solomon Williams, letter, to Secretary Willard, 1751 July 24

ms-number: 751424

abstract: Williams writes to relate the circumstances regarding Occom's school at Montauk, and the uncertainty of his future there.

handwriting: Handwriting is is loose, informal and frequently difficult to decipher. There are several abbreviations, deletions, and additions.

paper: Single sheet in good-to-fair condition with moderate creasing, staining and wear.

ink: Ink is mostly brown-black, although a note is added to the bottom of one verso in darker ink.

noteworthy: The text added to the bottom of one verso appears to be meant as addition to the text of the letter; however, the difficulty of deciphering Williams's hand renders it uncertain as to where the text belongs.

signature: Initials only.

events: Occom leaves his studies

Honourd Sir
When I was At Boſton ye laſt Fall I informed Mr Oliver &
the Revd Dr Sewal of ye Circumſtances of Samſon
an Indian youth Educated principally at
the Charge of the Honbl Commiſsioners whom
they had been pleaſed to Deſire me to direct ſince
his Incapacity to purſue his ſtudies any farther
By Reaſon of the weakneſs of his Eies. [illegible] Accordingly I [illegible] directed to keep an Indn Scholol at Montauk. Dr Sewal
told me he Spuppoſed the Commiſsioners wd allow
him a Proper Sallery for teaching School He
was with Me Early in the Spring, & Informd
Me that he had not Recd anything, & that
Mr Maltbie by direction from the Revd Mr Burr had
wrote to him to Come to New York in order [illegible][guess: to his] going to Aſsiſt
in teaching. M r Brinerds Indians, & that Mr
had directed him ſo [illegible] by Encouragement from the Commiſsioners
that He ſhould be orderd there. Upon which I
wrote an act of the Matter & the State of the
Indians at Montauk, & ye Circumſtances of Samſon
but have Recd No Anſwer, & before I went down
to Commencement I head Samſon was gone to Mr
, & therefore Concluding the Commiſsioners
had diſchargd Me from any further Concern
abt him I Said nothing to any of the Genn
when I was at Boſton. but He is now Come o‐
ver again & is as much at aloſs as Ever he
was & deſires Me to Endr to [illegible]be Informd of wt the
Commiſsioners wt they wd have him do —
underſtang Honrd ſir that you are one of Them I take leave therefore to inform you Sir
that there are 31 Families of Indians at
Montauk on Long Iſland where ſamſon has
been keeping School a year & half & has Ne
ver Recd Any thing [illegible] but Abt 40 ſhil in york
Mony beſide wt the Indians Themſelves have
given him who have been & are ſo deſirous of
his teaching School among them they they have
to their Power [illegible] beyond their Power [illegible][illegible][guess: ]Contri‐
buted towardsfor his Support He has had about 30 Schollers
& More wd have come but their Parents were
ſo poor as not to be able to do any thing for the
Support of Schoolmaſters. the Indians He tells
Me they are ſtill Exceeding very deſirous of his Continiance
there but Complain they are ſo Poor they
dont know how to pay him, & think the
are not So Kind to them as to
other Indians. The young Man is willing to
Stay there Still if he cd have a Support He
has been very Serviceable among them in [illegible][guess: promotg Learng ] & Religion as I am In‐
formd by others as well as from the Act he gives
of [illegible] of his Schollers & ye [illegible] of ye Indians Particularly by a Lr from the Rvd
Mr Horton
their Miniſter which I left with
Mr Oliver the laſt [illegible][guess: year]Fall. Samſon Informs me
He is very much Sollicited by the [illegible]Naraganſet
to keep School There & that there is
great need of a School & is willing to be Entir‐
ly directed by the Commiſsioners. As he comes to
Me from time to time for direction & I have no
order to give him any, I thought it My duty
to let you know this [illegible][guess: ſhort] State of the Affair, &
doubtleſs the Honbl Comiſsioners may find ſome
more ſuitable Perſon to have the Care of direct
ing him. [illegible]I ſhall be glad to be Eaſed Me of The Fruitleſs trouble
of hearing ſo often of his Circumſtances & being
neither able to direct him nor do any thing for
him. wiſhg ye Div.n Bleſsing upon ye Pious & Noble

Deſign of Promotg Xtn Knowledge & Relign among ye
Indns I am Sr with great Reſpect your Moſt
obt Humbe Servt S W
Leb : July 24. 1751.
[bottom]aſkd by the Counsel in order [illegible] a Reſult
Agreeable to him. but wch have a Tendency to
Render Eccleſiastical Councils Ridiculous & the
Reſult, Contimptible & Mankind will be apt to
[illegible] yt if a [illegible] Sallery Stands in ye way or
c.d be found & his [illegible] [illegible] In Nomeni
is — Muſt be done.

[left]My Lr to Secretary [illegible][guess: Willard]
Relating to
Samſon Occom

Williams, Solomon

Solomon Williams was a Congregationalist pastor in Lebanon, CT from 1722 until his death in 1776. As pastor at Lebanon, Williams rose to prominence as a theologian and engaged in extensive correspondence and debate with some of the most eminent minds of the day. He was one of the rare truly moderate New Lights during the Great Awakening: he managed to maintain the respect of both Charles Chauncy, the rabid anti-revivalist, and George Whitefield, the famous evangelical. Williams also established a library in Lebanon and a very well-known grammar school, which became something of a feeder for Yale. Williams supported Eleazar Wheelock and Moor’s Indian Charity School through much of the 1750s and 1760s. He was something of a mentor to Samson Occom, and he became president of Wheelock’s Connecticut Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge (SSPCK). It is unclear why Williams is not named as a trustee of Moor’s in Wheelock’s 1768 will; perhaps Wheelock feared that Williams would not outlive him. Williams continued to run the Connecticut Board even after Wheelock relocated to New Hampshire in 1770. Despite the SSPCK’s disappointment in Wheelock, Williams and Wheelock seem to have remained on cordial terms. Their correspondence ceased in 1772, after Wheelock tried (and failed) to open a New Hampshire Board to replace the one in Connecticut (with, it might be added, the Connecticut Board’s blessing).

Oliver, Andrew

Andrew Oliver was an influential Boston merchant and politician, who was a member of several societies that funded Eleazar Wheelock, including the Boston Board of the New England Company (treasurer) and Massachusetts General Assembly (secretary). Oliver played an important political role in pre-Revolutionary Massachusetts and, as a firm advocate of Indian missions, attended multiple conferences with Indian tribes. He believed that Anglican and Dissenter missionaries and societies could cooperate, and after Oliver and Wheelock were introduced in 1756, Oliver helped Wheelock access funding from the New England Company, the Massachusetts Assembly, and the Boston Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Their relationship deteriorated, however, when the London Board of the New England Company turned against Wheelock late in 1765. Wheelock became aware of the London Board’s change of heart through the “Oliver letter,” a letter purportedly written by Oliver (actually written by Ebenezer Pemberton) that was “injurious” to the characters of Wheelock, Whitaker, and Occom. In 1765, Wheelock also lost his funding from the Massachusetts Assembly. It is unclear what role Oliver played in these events. On the one hand, the breach between Wheelock and the New England Company coincided with the collapse of Oliver’s political career over his attempts to enforce the Stamp Act. Oliver may have been too preoccupied to be involved in the London Board’s change of heart; after all, Boston mobs were burning him in effigy. On the other hand, if Oliver was not involved, it is more difficult to explain why his correspondence with Wheelock ended abruptly in 1767 or why Wheelock lost funding from the Assembly and the London Board at the same time. Oliver would be the obvious link; but of course, Wheelock had many detractors in Boston and another explanation is certainly possible.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Burr, Aaron Sr.

Aaron Burr, Sr. is known as the founder of Princeton University (formerly College of New Jersey). He is technically Princeton's second president, but his predecessor, Jonathan Dickinson, died during his first year in office so the responsibility of Princeton's organization fell to Burr. Prior to his presidency at Princeton, Burr was a Presbyterian minister in Newark, New Jersey. He became acquainted with Jonathan Dickinson and was the youngest clergyman of the original trustees of Princeton when Dickinson established it as a classical school. Burr took over the running of the college in October 1747, upon Dickinson's death. One year later Burr was formally elected as president of the college. Burr served as both the president and pastor of the college until 1755 when, at the request of the trustees, he ceased his duties as pastor in order to devote more time to the college. Burr established the first entrance requirements, the first course of study, the first set of rules and regulations, and supervised the erection of the first building, Nassau Hall. Burr also moved the college to its permanent home in Princeton, New Jersey. Burr died only ten years after the founding of Princeton, at the age of 41.

Brainerd, John

John Brainerd was an ardent missionary with an important role in Wheelock's design. He was the younger brother of the famous missionary David Brainerd, who died as a young man after being expelled from Yale and serving as a missionary to New Jersey tribes. John completed his Yale degree and was immediately commissioned to replace David. Even in his own time, he was seen as a man as pious as, but less talented than, his brother, though Brainerd missioned to Indians during a more volatile period, and saw his congregation forcibly removed from their lands in 1755 and relocated at Brothertown in 1758 (this Brothertown should not be confused with the one founded in New York after the Revolution by many Moor's alumni). Brainerd was extremely devoted to the Indian cause. He often had the opportunity to serve wealthy English congregations, but preferred to remain an Indian missionary. He invested signficant sums of his own money into his missions, for which he was never reimbursed. Brainerd was a very prominent Presbyterian figure, active in the Presbytery and Synod of New York, holding several elected positions, and in the Presbtery and Synod of New York and Philadelphia once the two reunified in 1758. He was a Trustee of the College of New Jersey from 1754 until his death, and a member of the New York Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Occom had planned to work with Brainerd in 1750, but political upheaval prevented it. Brainerd was one of several men nominated to accompany Occom to England, but the New York Board refused to let him go. While Brainerd and Wheelock were not close personal friends, the two had a similar interests and a long-lasting correspondence. John Brainerd sent Wheelock his first Indian boys, and also recruited female students in the 1760s. Throughout their lives, Brainerd and Wheelock updated one another on Indian missions, and Brainerd seems to have been one of Wheelock's "point people" in the Presbyterian Church.

Horton, Azariah

Azariah Horton was an Anglo-American missionary who conducted a 10-year mission (1741-1751) to the Montauketts and Shinnecocks of Long Island before being replaced by Samson Occom in 1750. After graduating from Yale in 1735 and briefly preaching in Turkey, NJ, Horton was ordained and commissioned by the New York (later New Jersey) Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge (SSPCK) to serve as a missionary on Long Island. His territory was extensive: in addition to the Montauketts and the Shinnecocks, Horton ministered to Indian tribes on the Wyoming and Delaware rivers where the Brainerd brothers were later quite successful. Horton kept a diary during the first three years of his mission (1741-1744) in which he records his extensive travels between sites. By the late 1740s, however, he was residing solely at Shinnecock and spending almost all of his time there. Perhaps his health had decayed and he was unable to travel, or perhaps he had simply given up on his mission (the sources are unclear). Whatever the cause, his neglect left the Montauketts ripe for Samson Occom’s missionary efforts. Horton encouraged Occom’s ministry, and the two stayed in contact (Occom visited him at least once, in 1760). However, when Horton retired, the SSPCK retired his mission with him. They believed that it was a fairly fruitless enterprise, which is likely at least part of the reason why they were disinclined to pay Occom for his efforts. After leaving Montauk, Horton became the pastor at Bottle Hill, NJ (sometimes described as South Hanover). He retired of his own volition in October 1776 and moved to live with his son in Chatham, NJ, where he died in 1777 after being exposed to smallpox while ministering to the dead and dying in George Washington’s army.

Occom leaves his studies
HomeSolomon Williams, letter, to Secretary Willard, 1751 July 24
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