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    Harald Ulrik Sverdrup

    Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies

    001      |      Vol_XV-0801                                                                                                                  


            Expert on Arctic exploration and conditions, particularly oceanography,

    meteorology, terrestrial magnetism and aurora borealis . , was Chief scientist on

    MAUD and NAUTILUS Expeditions . and is (1949) Director of the Norwegian Polar Institute



            Biographical Outline - Herald U. Sverdrup was born in Sogndal, Norway on

    15 November 1888, the son of Johan Edvard and Maria (Vollan) Sverdrup. He

    was educated at home until he was 14 and then was sent to school in Stavanger.

    After a year at the University of Oslo, during which he passed his preliminary

    college examinations, he spent 1907-08 as a cadet at the Academy of War

    specializing in physics and mathematics. He graduated from the University

    of Oslo in 1911. At that time he was appointed as an Assistant to Professor

    V. Bjerknes to work on the application of hydrodynamics to oceanography and

    meteorology. Sverdrup had planned to major in astronomy but the inspiring

    teaching of Bjerknes switched his interest to the earth sciences. In 1914

    he received his M.A. degree , having submitted a thesis in meteorology. In

    the fall of 1912, Prof. Bjerknes accepted a Professorship and the Director–

    ship of the Geophysical Institute at the University of Leipzig. Sverdrup

    spent the period 1913-17 with him at Leipzig and there continued his meteoro–

    logical work. His thesis on the trade wind system of the North Atlantic

    Ocean (1) was published in 1917 and won him the Ph.D. degree from the Univer–

    sity of Oslo the same year.

            In 1928 he married Gudrun Bronn and adopted his step-daughter Anna

    Margrethe Bronn.

    002      |      Vol_XV-0802                                                                                                                  

            During World War II, while in the United States, he applied for citizen–

    ship that was granted in 1944.

            Employment - During the period 1911-17 Sverdrup was employed as an Assistant

    to Prof. Bjerknes. On his return to Norway in 1917 he was offered the post

    of Chief Scientist for the MAUD Expedition, then being organized by Roald

    Amundsen. To this Sverdrup agreed enth o usiastically , as he felt that he had

    spent enough time on theoretical studies and that he needed close contact

    with events in nature and an understanding of the means for studying them.

    The expedition left Norway on 18 July 1918 and the next three years were spent

    in making the Northeast Passage. While repairs were being made to the MAUD

    in Seattle, Washington, during the winter of 1921-22, Sverdrup worked at

    the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity of the Carnegie

    Institution of Washington. There he analysed his recently-collected obser–

    vations. After three more years on the MAUD in the Arctic, he returned to

    Norway on 22 December 1925 and was appointed Research Professor of Dynamical

    Meteorology at the Geophysical Institute at Bergen. In 1926, and during the

    period 1928 to 1940, Sverdrup was a Research Associate of the Carnegie Insti–

    tution. Under this arrangement, he visited Washington in 1926 to work on

    MAUD material and , in 1930, to analyze and prepare a discussion of oceanogra–

    phic material collected by the non-magnetic vessel CARNEGIE upon her last

    cruise (1928-29). In 1931 Sverdrup was appointed Research Professor of

    Geophysics at the newly-established C hr. Michelsen Institute (Bergen). After

    completing the discussion of the MAUD data , he was free to turn to new problems.

    In the summer of 1931 he accompanied the Wilkins-Ellsworth North Polar Sub-

    003      |      Vol_XV-0803                                                                                                                  

    marine Expedition on the NAUTILUS as Chief Scientist. The summer of 1934 was

    spent on the high altitude snow fields of Spit z s bergen. In the spring of 1936

    Sverdrup was invited to become Director of the Scripps Institution of Oceano–

    graphy (La Jolla, California) and Professor of Oceanography in the University

    of California. He accepted this position and assumed his new duties on

    1 September 1936. Sverdrup was on leave from the Chr. Michelsen Institute in–

    tending to return to Norway after only a few years. However, the outbreak of

    World War II made this impossible and he stayed in California until February

    29, 1948 when he returned to Norway to assume the Directorship of the Norwegian

    Polar Institute (Oslo).

            Character of his work . Sverdrup's work is characterized by its tremendous

    variety. He has written some 165 papers covering virtually every phase of

    the earth's sciences. His work is hard to characterize because he is virtually

    unique among Arctic investigators. He has actively participated in instrument

    development, field measurement and Arctic investigations by ship, sledge and

    submarine. His analyses have always been characterized by a keen imagination

    and a fine respect for phenomena as they exist in nature. Even his valuable

    theoretical researches in oceanography and meteorology are a m i rror of nature

    and reflect his deep-rooted respect for the "system" of nature. The MAUD

    expedition, failing as it did in its original purpose of drifting with the

    pack ice across the Polar Basin , has never received popular acclaim as a

    geographical or exploring expedition, yet, due to Sverdrup's contributions,

    this expedition set unequaled standards for the scientific study of the earth

    sciences in the Arctic. Writing in several languages, and always interestingly,

    004      |      Vol_XV-0804                                                                                                                  

    he aroused international enthusiasm and respect. As far as the development

    of our understanding of the Arctic is concerned, it is unfortunate that cir–

    cumstances took him in the mid-1930's into other fields and that he was

    unable to train others in this field of endeavor. His return to Norway in

    1948 placed him in a position where he once more exercised an international

    influence upon the scientific study of the high latitudes. Although small

    and wiry, his excellent physical stamina is well-known to those who have

    tried to keep pace with him. No less arduous is the pace he set in his work.

    Probably in no small part due to the mental discipline he evolved during his

    years on the MAUD, Sverdrup is capable of a prodigious amount of work. His

    lengthy list of scientific publications, however, represent only a part of

    his activities. His administrative responsibilities, his teaching, his numer–

    ous friends, and his many social and civic activities have all found a full

    place in his life. His association with Bjerknes, Nansen, Amundsen and Helland–

    Hansen has been reflected in his life and wide interests. Sverdrup has always

    shown a great sense of social responsibility and hope for international goodwill

    and understanding.

            Honors - For his contributions to the earth sciences, Sverdrup has received

    many awards: Knight of the first order of St. Olav, Vega Medal in Gold

    (Swedish Geographical Society), Bruce Memorial Medal, Carl Ritter Medal in

    Silver (Geographical Society of Berlin), Meteor Medal and Agassiz Medal. In

    1947 he received an Ll.D. from the University of California. He is a Member

    of the Academy of Science, Oslo, Norway, and of the National Academy of

    Sciences, Washington. He holds honorary memberships in the Royal Meteorologi cal

    005      |      Vol_XV-0805                                                                                                                  

    Society, the Deutsche Meteorologische Gesellsch af t, Geographical Societies

    of Oslo, Hamburg, Leipzig and in the New York Academy of Science. He is a

    corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, the State Russian

    Geographical Society (Leningrad), Geographical Societies of Copenhagen and

    Stockholm and the California Academy of Sciences. Sverdrup is also a Fellow

    or Member of the following organizations: American Geophysical Union (Presi–

    dent of the Section on Oceanography, 1944-47 and vice-president of the Union,

    1947- --); American Meteorological Society; American Association for the

    Advancement of Science (President, Pacific Division, 1940-41); San Diego

    Society of Natural History (President of Fellows, 1938-39); Oceanographic

    Society of the Pacific (President 1939-40); International Association of

    Oceanography (President 1946- --); International Meteorological Organization

    (President of the International Commission on Polar Meteorology, 1947 - --);

    Deutsche Geophysische Gesellschaft; Norway Geophysical Association.



            Maud Expedition - First Phase, 1917-1921 .

            The fact that the MAUD was fitted out during World War I made it very

    difficult to procure adequate scientific equipment. Furthermore, with the

    exception of Amundsen who made most of the magnetic observations, Sverdrup

    carried the entire burden of the scientific program. As the journey to the

    north of Russia and Siberia was essentially just a step towards the real

    objective of the expedition, the drift across the Polar Basin, the emphasis

    on the scientific program was not very great. The first winter (1918-19)

    006      |      Vol_XV-0806                                                                                                                  

    was spent off the northern coast of Cape Chelyuskin. Besides systematic ob–

    servations of upper air conditions, tides and magnetic conditions, Sverdrup,

    among others of the party, made several sledge trips to explore the Taimy r

    and Peninsula which is the most northerly of continental land masses. On

    these and later sledge journeys systematic astronomical observations were

    made, as well as magnetic and meteorological records.

            In August the MAUD was freed from the ice but not until 12 September was

    she able to proceed eastward. She ran into heavy ice on 23 September 1919

    on the western side of Ayon Island and there was forced to spend a second

    winter. During this winter Sverdrup had a unique experience. At Amundsen's

    suggestion, he joined a tribe of nomad Chuckchi that had spent the summer on

    the coast with their reindeer herds. These little-known natives depend upon

    reindeer for their entire economy. Except for occasional contacts with

    traders from whom they procured certain luxuries such as matches, tobacco

    and tea they were, at that time at least, virtually unaffected by outside

    cultures. Sverdrup spent seven and one half months with this group, accom–

    panying them on their winter wanderings into the forest lands as they slowly

    worked their herds to the south and finally westward to the tributaries of

    the Kolima River. During this period Sverdrup, without dictionary or any

    language guide, learned their tongue and recorded material for a unique ethnolo–

    gical study that has not, however, ever been printed in its entirety in

    English (2) (9), and (31). As usual, very complete geophysical records were

    made throughout the winter. Sverdrup was deeply impressed by the essential

    happiness of these primative people and the experience of his stay with them

    must have played no small part in developing his deep-seated optimism

    007      |      Vol_XV-0807                                                                                                                  

    and imperturbable nature.

            On 6 July 1920, the MAUD was free of the ice once more and proceeded to

    Nome, Alaska, for a brief stay. Several of the party left the expedition that

    was now to enter upon the principle phase of the voyage. Only Amundsen and

    four Norwegians were left aboard and they sailed for Cape Serdze Kamen to

    recruit a crew of natives. Heavy ice delayed the MAUD and when she reached

    the Cape on 1 September the ice closed in and winter quarters had to be estab–

    lished. This was a great disappointment to the party and it was doubly so as

    in her last struggles with the ice the propeller had been broken and the shaft

    damaged. It was realized that the following summer she must return to Alaska.

    The winter of 1920-21 was a severe one and this, coupled with the small size

    of the crew, further restricted the scientific program. However, during the

    winter, Sverdrup and Wisting made a sledge journey along the coast of the

    Chukotsk Peninsula to Holy Cross Bay to obtain further ethnological data and

    to make magnetic observations. Later a short trip was made to Pitlekai to

    obtain measurements at the location where the VEGA had wintered in 1878-79.

    On 1 July the MAUD was freed and sailed to Seattle, Washington, where she

    arrived on 31 August after a "very trying and strenuous" journey. Without

    power and with her small crew, supplemented by a few natives, it was no small

    task to sail through the stormy North Pacific.

            Because of the interest of Amundsen in magnetic work, this phase of the

    program had been stressed during the first three years. In addition, some

    auroral observations were made but attempts to make atmospheric electricity

    studies failed because of lack of proper insulating materials. Routine

    008      |      Vol_XV-0808                                                                                                                  

    surface meteorological data and valuable upper air observations, using kites

    and balloons, were procured. A few oceanographic observations were made,

    including tides, and biological and geological collections assembled from

    the Taimyr Peninsula and Ayon Island.

            MAUD Expedition - Second Phase, 1922-1925 .

            For the various reasons given above the program had been rather limited

    and the enforced visit to the United States in 1921-22 was, scientifically

    speaking, a blessing in disguise. During this period, Sverdrup spent five

    months at the Carnegie Institution working up the magnetic records. This

    chance to examine and discuss the field data made it obvious that the scanty

    equipment of the MAUD must be supplemented. Additional equipment for magnetic,

    atmospheric electricity, solar radiation and meteorological observations were

    procured. Even more important, among those who joined the expedition for

    the second phase were two men who contributed very greatly to the later

    scientific program. The s e were Finn Malmgren , and a young Swedish meteorolo–

    gist who joined as assistant scientist, an d Odd Dahl, who was to pilot the

    small plane Amundsen had procured for the MAUD. Dahl's genius in devising and

    building scientific equipment from the limited resources to be found on the

    MAUD, coupled with Sverdrup's keen imagination,produced many unique devices.

    The presence of Malmgren relieved Sverdrup of much of the routine and during

    the three years spent on the North Siberian Shelf the greatly expanded scienti–

    fic program must in part be attributed to these two new men.

            On 3 June 1922 MAUD left Seattle for East Cape to return some of the

    natives and then headed for Pt. Barrow where Amundsen and Omdahl were to be

    009      |      Vol_XV-0809                                                                                                                  

    landed with their plane with which they intended to attempt to fly across the

    Polar Basin. Ice conditions kept the MAUD in Kotzebue Sound for three weeks

    and then Amundsen, Omdahl and their equipment were transferred to another

    ship. Finally, on 28 July, the MAUD left Pt. Hope to undertake the primary

    objective of the expedition. Although the pack was heavy the MAUD was able

    to proceed as far as Herald Island before she was beset. For one year follow–

    ing, the MAUD drifted with the ice towards the westnorthwest following a zig–

    zag course dependent largely upon the wind. In September 1923, the MAUD

    was to the east of the De Long 's Islands and hopes were high that she would follow

    a course towards Spit z s bergen that would be to the north of the track of the

    FRAM. However, strong northerly winds set in that drove them about 100 miles

    to the south and the winter of 1923-24 was spent drifting back and forth in

    latitude 75° to the south of the De Long 's Islands. In February 1944, word was

    received from Amundsen that the MAUD should attempt to free herself from the

    ice and return via Bering Strait to the United States. However, during the

    spring and summer of 1924 the ice carried the MAUD between the De Long 's Islands

    and the New Siberian Islands but by 9 August she was free. An attempt was

    made to pass to the east of the New Siberian Islands but the ice was too

    heavy and finally she proceeded to the west of them and on 20 August transited

    Laptew v Strait. Ice again stopped the MAUD and she was forced to winter off

    the mouth of the Kolima River just to the east of Four Pillar Island. Late

    in July the ice broke up and the MAUD proceeded to Seattle via Nome, arriving

    on 5 October 1925.

            The MAUD "had failed in drifting across the Polar Sea and in studying

    the oceanography of this sea, but had accumulated a great number of scientific

    010      |      Vol_XV-0810                                                                                                                  

    observations from other fields of geophysics". The general scope of the pro–

    gram had remained the same but the wealth of data obtained during the second

    phase of the expedition was amaxing. Sverdrup, Malmgen and Dahl had devised

    many new recording instruments to meet the needs of Arctic operations. Among

    them were a recording device for atmospheric potential, a recording "wet

    bulb", and an automatic means for recording hoar frost. A special current

    meter was designed and built and the routine measurements were made in virtu–

    ally all phases of the geophysical sciences. Experience brought a more sophis–

    ticated approach to many problems. The program [was ?] integrated and great

    strides were made in explaining and evaluating the processes controlling the

    conditions in the atmosphere, snow, ice and water. A few of the notable

    scientific contributions are outlined below.

            In Sverdrup's own estimation his most important contribution arising

    from the MAUD Expedition was his study of "Dynamics of Tides on the North–

    Siberian Shelf". (6) in which the effects of the rotation of the earth and

    friction on tidal currents and the dissipation of tidal energy were fully

    discussed for the first time. This discovery arose from the careful measure–

    ments made from the MAUD that for the first time made it possible to delineate

    the form of the tide wave and its change in amplitude with distance from the

    coast, and the observations with the Sverdrup-Dahl current meter that revealed

    the change in direction and speed with depth of the tidal currents on the

    shelf. Other discoveries of importance were in the general field of heat

    energy budgets and the transfer of heat between the atmosphere, ice and water.

    Sverdrup and Malmgren were able to show, on the basis of their observations,

    that surface air temperatures over the ice in winter reached a general minimum

    011      |      Vol_XV-0811                                                                                                                  

    of –40°C. , T t his representing the balance established between the back radia–

    tion to space and the conduction of heat through the ice from the water. As

    in all his work, this analysis represents a fine blend of observation, imagina–

    tion and theory. These two workers also established the heat budget for

    the ice, showing that approximately 120 cm. of polar pack are melted each

    summer and that under equilibrium conditions when the ice remains of uniform

    thickness, the same amount must form each winter. This process throws doubt

    on the idea of "paleocrystic" ice of many years age. As the ice is renewed

    from the bottom and melted away from the surface, this process accounts for

    the sedimentary debris sometimes found on or near the ice surface in summer.

    Unfortunately, the MAUD never operated in deep water so that Sverdrup was

    unable to add anything to the material collected by the FRAM. However, his

    analysis of the oceanographic data from the North Siberian Shelf is a masterly

    undertaking going far beyond the routine presentation of data. The effects

    of summer runoff, formation, movement and melting of the ice, and mixing due

    to the tidal currents are all carefully integrated. The wide scope of his

    scientific training, as well as Sverdrup's own abilities, are revealed in the

    scientific reports of the expedition through the frequent cross references

    and the use of data and theories from a variety of sciences to help develop

    a dynamic picture of Arctic conditions. It is indeed for tunate that Sverdrup

    was able to act as editor for all of the MAUD reports to which he contributed

    such a large share. (7 [ ?] , 10, 11, 12, 13, 20, 21, 22).

            New Fields to Conquer - 1930 - 1936 .

            By 1930 the MAUD reports were virtually completed and Sverdrup turned

    012      |      Vol_XV-0812                                                                                                                  

    his attention to other matters. For about six months he visited Washington,

    D. C. to work at the Carnegie Institution on the physical oceanographic data

    collected by the non-magnetic vessel CARNEGIE on her last cruise (1928-29).

    (15, 36). This was his first opportunity to deal with deep water problems.

    He was able to show for the first time a logical explanation for the origin

    of the deep water of the Pacific Ocean, namely, that it was a mixture of

    Atlantic and Indian Ocean waters formed in the Antarctic. This lead led to an

    interest in the Antarctic which made it logical for him to analyze and des [ ?] ribe

    certain oceanographic results of the Discovery Committee (24) and the BANZ

    Antarctic Research Expedition (32). In 1931, Sverdrup participated in the

    discussion of the observations of the ill-fated Andrèe expedition (16) and

    during the same year he acted as chief scientist for the Wilkins-Ellsworth

    North Polar Submarine Expedition on the NAUTILUS (18, 23). Once more, despite

    the failure to accomplish the primary mission of crossing the Polar Basin,

    Sverdrup was able to make notable contributions to the bathymetry and oceano–

    graphy of the waters to the north of Spit z s bergen. This operation, besides

    being the first time a submarine had been employed in the Arctic, was also

    unique for establishing a record of reaching 82° North before being stopped

    by the ice and also bec ua au se it was the first time that oceanography had been

    carried on under water. A special diving chamber had been installed on the on

    NAUTILUS that could be closed off and the internal pressure increased so that

    when a hatch in the bottom of the submarine was opened no water entered the

    compartment. Through the hatch, instruments could be lowered on wire from a

    winch in the compartment. Sverdrup often commented on the convenience and

    comfort of this arrangement where "one could work in a closed room, protected

    013      |      Vol_XV-0813                                                                                                                  

    against wind and weather", instead of on the open pack or wind-swept deck of

    the MAUD.

            During the MAUD cruise and his subsequent work, Sverdrup had developed

    an increasing interest in the processes of heat, water and energy exchange

    between the atmosphere and the water and the actual mechanism s of mixing that

    occur in the two media. This le a d to his participation, with his friend

    Ahlman, in an expedition to the high-lying snowfields of Spit z s bergen during

    the summer of 1934 (25, 26, 28, 29). Careful measurements were made at

    fixed levels over the snow and within the snow itself to determine the flux

    of heat and water. These studies le a d ultimately to a general theory for

    turbulence in the atmosphere and means for calculating evaporation from

    measurements of wind speed and humidity (34).

            To warmer climes - 1936-1948 .

            In 1936 Sverdrup was appointed Director of the Scripps Institution of

    Oceanography (La Jolla, California). This removed him both physically and

    professionally from high latitudes and he agreed to take the position for only

    three years. However, it became obvious that little could be accomplished

    in such a short period and he asked for an extension of his leave from the

    Chr. Michelsen Inst. Before this period was over, Norway was invaded and

    Sverdrup felt that he could best serve by remaining at his post in the United

    States. He threw himself into various phases of applied research with even

    more than his usual vigor and made notable contributions to programs concerned

    with underwater sound and other projects of immediate concern to the military

    services. For several years Sverdrup had been engaged with two collaborators

    in writing "The Oceans: Their Physics, Chemistry and General Biology" (35).

    This volume appeared late in 1942 and in it Sverdrup synthesised for the first

    014      |      Vol_XV-0814                                                                                                                  

    time the previously unrelated information about the distribution of properties

    and currents in the ocean. Throughout the volume there is evidence of Sverd–

    rup's basic philosophy of the importance of studying natural phenomena and of

    the coherence of all the manifold aspects of the oceans. This volume served

    as a starting point for much of his research and training of personnel during

    the years of World War II. The need for methods for forecasting sea and swell

    conditions in the open sea and for surf on exposed beaches le a d Sverdrup into

    a complete re-analysis of this field of knowledge. Even under the pressure

    for immediate results he never swerved from a sound scientific approach.

    Later, when his work could be published , it required but minor revisions to

    meet his exacting standards for a scientific publication (37). The research

    and instruction of military personnel during the period 1942-1945 produced

    a great revival of interest in oceanography in the United States. This, in one

    aspect, was shown by the much greater number of graduate students under his

    instruction during the years immediately following World War II. Despite his

    ever-increasing administrative and teaching responsibilities, Sverdrup con–

    tinued to produce original research, including a general theory concerning

    the interaction of the winds and ocean in maintaining the Equatorial Current

    System (38). In the summer of 1946 Sverdrup visited Norway and was offered

    the directorship of the proposed Norsk e Polarinstit tu ut t. This he accepted

    only after stipulating that he be allowed to remain in California long enough

    to complete his committments to the University of California. He has said

    "one of the reasons for accepting this job is that I shall return to Arctic

    work, in which I have spent so many years of my life, at a time when interna-

    015      |      Vol_XV-0815                                                                                                                  

    tional work in the Polar regions is more important than ever".

            The twelve years in the United States were Oceanography's gain for he

    wrote relatively little about the Arctic during this period. But from the

    quotation given above, and from his love of speaking about his experiences

    on the MAUD and other expeditions, it was obvious that the Arctic was never

    far from Sverdrup's his thoughts. The broadened experience, his international friend–

    ships and recognition made his return to Arctic problems an important milestone

    in the development of our understanding of the high latitudes.


    Prepared by Dr. Richard H. Fleming

    Chief. Division of Oceanography

    U. S. Navy Hydrographic Office

    Washington 25, D. C.


    1 July 1948

    001      |      Vol_XV-0816                                                                                                                  


    1. Der nordatlantische Passat. Geophys. Inst., Leipzig, Veröff., Ser. 2,

    v. 2, no. 1, 94 pp., 19 tables, 1917.

    2. Customs of the Chukchi natives of northeastern Siberia. Wash. Acad. Sci.,

    Jour., v. 12, pp. 208-212, 1922.

    3. Scientific work of the MAUD Expedition, 1922-1925. Scientific Monthly,

    v. 22, pp. 400-410, 1926.

    4. The tides on the North Siberian shelf: Their bearing on the existence of

    land in the Arctic Sea, and their dynamics. Wash. Acad. Sci., Jour.,

    v. 16, pp. 529-540, 1926.

    5. Tre ar i isen med "Maud". Gyldendal, Oslo, 285 pp., 1926.

    6. Dynamics of tides on the North-Siberian Shelf. Geofysiske Publikasjoner,

    v. 4, no. 5. 75 pp., 1927.

    7. Magnetic, atmospheric-electric, and auroral results, MAUD expedition,

    1928-1925. Carnegie Inst. Washington, Pubn. no. 175. pp. 309-524, 1927.

    (Also in MAUD, Scientific Results, v. lb.)

    8. Die Eistrift im Weddelmeer. Annalen d. Hydrogr. u. Marit. Meteorologie,

    pp. 265-274, 1928.

    9. Die Renntier-Tachuktschen. Geograph. Gesellschaft in Hamburg, Mitteil.,

    Bd. 39, pp.87-135, 1928.

    10. Results of astronomical observations. Norwegian North Polar Exped. with

    the "Maud" 1918-2 5, Scientific Results, v. 1, no. 3, 24 pp., 1928.

    Hereafter referred to as MAUD, Scientific Results .

    11. The wind-drift of the ice on the North-Siberian Shelf. MAUD, Scientific

    Results, v. 4, no. 1, 46 pp., 1928.

    12. The waters on the North-Siberian Shelf. MAUD, Scientific Results, v. 4,

    no. 2, 131 [ ?] 75 pp., 1929.

    13. Meteorology, part 2, Tables. MAUD, Scientific Results, v. 3, 527 pp., 1930.

    14. Diurnal variation of temperature at polar stations in the spring. Gerlands

    Beiträ ge zur Geophysik, v. 32, pp. 1-14, (Köppen-Band I), 1931.

    15. The origin of the deep-water of the Pacific Ocean as indicated by the

    oceanographic work of the CARNEGIE. Gerlands Beiträge zur Geophysik, v. 29,

    pp. 95-105,1931.

    16. Scientific resultsof the Andree-Expedition. I. Drift-ice and ice-drift.

    Geografiska Annaler, H. 2/3, pp. 121-140, 1931.

    002      |      Vol_XV-0817                                                                                                                  
    17. Das Tier-und Vogelleben im Treibeis. Petermanns Geographischen Mitteilungen,

    Heft 1/2, pp. 13-16, 1931.

    18. Hvorledes og hvorfor med "Nautilus". Gylendal, Oslo. 183 pp., 1931.

    19. Wärmeaushalt und Austauschgrösse auf Grund der Beobachtungen der "Maud"–

    Expedition. Beiträge z. Physik d. freien Atmosphäre. (Bjerknes-Festschrift),

    v. 19. pp. 276-290, 1932.

    20. General report of the expedition. MAUD, Scientific Results, v. 1, no. 1,

    22 pp., 1933.

    21. Pendulum observations near Cape Chelyuskin. MAUD, Scientific Results, v. la.

    no. 8. 9 pp., 1933.

    22. Meteorology, part 1, Discussion. MAUD, Scientific Results, v. 2, 331 pp.


    23. Narrative and oceanography of the Nautilus expedition, 1931. Papers in

    Physical Oceanogr. and Meteorology (Mass. Inst. Tech. and Woods Hole Oceanogr.

    Inst.), v. 2, no. 1, 63 pp., 1933.

    24. On vertical circulation in the ocean due to the action of the wind with

    application to conditions within the Antarctic circumpolar current.

    Discovery Reports, v. 7, pp. 139-170, 1933.

    25. The temperature of the firn o n Isachsen's Plateau, and general conclu–

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