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    Henry Bascom Collins, Jr.

    Encyclopedia Arctica 15: Biographies

    001      |      Vol_XV-0181                                                                                                                  

    (Margaret Lantis)


            Henry B(ascom) Collins, Jr., (1899 - ), the leading United States

    prehistorian of the Arctic, was born in Geneva, Alabama, April 9, 1899.

    He received the Bachelor of Arts degree from Millsaps College in 1922 and

    immediately undertook archaeological work, as an assistant of the Pueblo

    Bonito Expedition, 1922-24, sponsored by the National Geographic Society.

    In 1923, he became an assistant in the Mississippi Department of Archives

    and History, and in 1924 joined the Division of Ethnology, U.S. National

    Museum, Washington, D.C. Between that year and 1939, when he left the

    Museum, he advanced from Aide to Assistant Curator of Ethnology then to Associate Curator.

    Meanwhile, in 1925, he received the Master of Arts degree at George Washington

    University, Washington, D.C. In 1940, he was given an honorary Doctorate of

    Science by Millsaps College.

            Collins' first publications were in Physical Anthropology although

    very early he indicated his special interest in the excavation of cultural

    as well as skeletal remains. He has continued to make measurements and

    observations of living people in field work wherever possible, but studies

    of artifacts, geological and faunal remains, and any other evidence that can

    help reconstruct history have characterized his work throughout his career.

    His clear conception of objective and his close adherence to it have made

    possible his large contribution to current understanding of Eskimo history.

    002      |      Vol_XV-0182                                                                                                                  
    EA-Biog. Lantis: Henry B. Collins, Jr.

            Collins' early field work for the Smithsonian Institution, parent

    organization of the National Museum, was done in Louisiana and Mississippi

    (1925, 1926) but in 1927 he turned to Alaska. At the suggestion of Ale s š

    Hrdli c č ka of the Smithsonian Institution, who had made an anthropological

    exploratory trip through central and northwest Alaska, Dale Stewart, physical

    anthropologist, and Henry Collins went to Alaska. They visited Kanakanak,

    Kulukak, Togiak, and Mumtrak in the Bristol Bay and Goodnews Bay areas;

    Tununak on Nelson Island; Nash Harbor and several other village sites on

    Nunivak Island; Hooper Bay, and St. Michael (summer, 1927). Their physical

    anthropological data, principal contribution of the expedition, were included

    in Dr. Hrdli c č ka's publication on Alaska in the 46th Annual Report of the

    Bureau of American Ethnology. (See Ale s š Hrdli c č ka biography.)

            Field work on Punuk Island and at Bering Strait in the summer of 1928,

    in which Collins was assisted by H. E. Manca, was much more fruitful archaeo–

    logically. Diamond Jenness, during studies at Bering Strait in 1926, had

    been given by the Eskimos some very old ivory specimens that he recognized

    as of a distinctive early-Eskimo culture — a "Bering Sea culture" — and

    had excavated what proved to be Punuk and Thule as well as modern Eskimo

    cultural remains. Dr. Hrdli c č ka, on the basis of these discoveries and of

    reports regarding St. Lawrence Island, designated Punuk Island, at the eastern

    end of St. Lawrence, as a promising prehistoric site. Collins, after his

    archaeological work there in 1928, was able to characterize the "Punuk"

    as a separate prehistoric Eskimo culture; moreover, he could state the

    stratigraphy (i.e., cultural development) within the Punuk Period and some–

    thing of its relationships to other periods in Eskimo history. Exploratory

    excavations were made at Cape Kialegak on the St. Lawrence mainland near

    Punuk and on the Alaska mainland in the region of Cape Prince of Wales.

    003      |      Vol_XV-0183                                                                                                                  
    EA-Biog. Lantis: Henry B. Collins, Jr.

    As the former showed old remains but the latter did not, he planned further

    excavation at Kialegak.

            In his first monograph, "Prehistoric Art of the Alaskan Eskimo" (1929),

    Collins stated clearly — using the evidence of art styles and harpoon heads —

    the view of Eskimo prehistory that he has never had to abandon. It has only

    been made more exact and expanded in geographic and time range. Although at

    that time there was still some confusion of Birnirk culture and what has since

    been named Old Bering Sea culture (i.e., confusion as to just what was the

    oldest Eskimo culture), an Asiatic origin was stated definitely, nevertheless:

    "The enormous and practically unknown stretch of coast from Indian Point

    northward to East Cape and thence westward to the Kolyma seems the most

    likely region in which to search for the beginning of the ancient Bering

    Sea culture, ...." (p. 47). He also stated for the first time the hypothesis

    that there had been a return movement into north Alaska from Canada of people

    with a Thule culture, after it had spread from Alaska far eastward (p. 43).

            In 1929, assisted by G. Herman Brandt, Collins excavated sites at

    Cape Kialegak, St. Lawrence Island. Still no stratum of pure Old Bering

    Sea culture was found although isolated specimens of it were excavated in

    Punuk material. After a reconnaissance of Gambell, northwest tip of the

    island, he proceeded to Nome, Point Hope, Kivalina, Lütke Harbor (Siberia),

    Little Diomede Island, inland on Seward Peninsula to the upper Kougaruk

    River, to Kowieruk and Akivinuk in the Teller region, finally to Koyuk and

    Cape Denbigh. Perforated weight-stones of undetermined age were examined at

    the Kougaruk location. At Point Hope he excavated partially a cemetery

    not previously known to present-day Eskimos (without encountering Ipiutak

    specimens, however) and at Denbigh excavated the oldest cultural remains

    thus far found around Norton Sound. At several places he bought typical

    decorated ivory objects of the Old Bering Sea culture, showing graceful

    004      |      Vol_XV-0184                                                                                                                  
    EA-Biog. Lantis: Henry B. Collins, Jr.

    curvilinear designs, and knew that a site of adequate antiquity to belong

    to that culture period would be found.

            The next year he found it at the Hillside site near Gambell. Of the

    four known village sites and the one previously unknown, excavated by him

    and James A. Ford, three provided the chronology needed: the Hillside site

    was pure Old Bering Sea, built and abandoned within this culture period;

    Miyowagh contained Old Bering Sea overlaid by Punuk remains; the Ievoghiyoq

    site was purely Punuk. Besides the usual collecting and measuring en route

    to and from St. Lawrence Island, Collins made also foot and hand prints of

    60 St. Lawrence Islanders. But the season's big accomplishment was the

    stratigraphic evidence regarding Eskimo history and geological evidence of

    the Tertiary flora on St. Lawrence, including sequoia.

            Collins was not engaged exclusively in Alaska studies. He directed

    Smithsonian Institution expeditions to Florida, Mississippi, and Louisiana

    for a season of each year, 1926-1929 inclusive, and his work in the National

    Museum was carried on also. In the latter work, which required meeting the

    public to answer questions regarding cultural objects from all parts of the

    world and all periods, to accept gifts for the Museum and arrange exhibits,

    Dr. Collins showed his customary tact.

            He did not return to Alaska in 1931 but at his suggestion Moreau B.

    Chambers continued the archaeological work at Gambell, while James A. Ford

    went to Point Barrow, remaining abouta year. In 1931 Henry Collins married

    Miss Carolyn Walker of Fitchburg, Mass., and in 1938 a daughter, Judith Ann,

    was born.

            After his 1930 work, several questions regarding Eskimo prehistoric

    relationships could be answered authoritatively. For example, T. Mathiassen

    in 1929 had classified certain Old Bering Sea specimens as belonging to the

    005      |      Vol_XV-0185                                                                                                                  
    EA-Biog. Lantis: Henry B. Collins, Jr.

    Thule culture, an error that could be corrected when the full cultural

    complex known as "Old Bering Sea" was seen in Collins' work. (He first

    used this exact title in the 1930 annual report of field work by the

    Smithsonian Institution.) The preparation of his largest work, "Archeology

    of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska" (1937), was started in 1931 and completed

    in 1935. In 1936, he received for it the gold medal of the Royal Academy of

    Sciences and Letters of Denmark and a prize of 1,000 crowns, in an interna–

    tional competition of papers submitted in answer to the question, "What are

    the origins of the oldest Eskimo culture?"

            This monograph presented ( 1 ) a characterization of each culture period

    of the Bering Strait area, as a distinctive cultural complex, ( 2 ) develop–

    mental changes of specific implements, ( 3 ) cultural relations from locality

    to locality, and ( 4 ) an outline of the cultural history of the entire area

    of north Bering Sea and Alaskan arctic coast, with some suggestions regard–

    ing that of the Aleutians, northeast Siberia, and other [ ?] areas.

            Interesting hypotheses, some of which had been presented previously,

    were included in the monograph. For example, in an article in the Geographical

    , 1932 ("Prehistoric Eskimo Culture on St. Lawrence Island"), Collins

    had suggested that "the Punuk art with its deeply and evenly incised lines

    and mechanically perfect circles could have been produced by none other than

    metal tools" but that this art should be dated many years before the 1600's

    and 1700's when Russian metal tools were received via the Chukchi of north–

    east Siberia. He cited quotations from the Chinese by Berthold Laufer to

    show that at least some of the people in eastern Siberia used iron early in

    the Christian era.

            As early as 1928 he had called attention to the ancient check-stamp–

    decorated pottery found on Nunivak and St. Lawrence islands and at Norton

    006      |      Vol_XV-0186                                                                                                                  
    EA-Biog. Lantis: Henry B. Collins, Jr.

    Sound. In the monograph, other examples of check-stamp technique from

    Japan, southeast China, and even farther south were cited, as well as one

    from Kola Bay in northern Russia (pp. 349-350).

            In considering the implied question regarding diffusion of separate

    elements of culture, apart from the migrations of peoples bearing distinctive

    cultures, Collins sensibly considered each on its own merits instead of trying

    to fit it into a hypothetical system of culture stages ( kulturkreise ). This

    freedom in accepting implications of relationship, given by the geographic

    distribution of artifacts, led him to suggest that there had been contacts

    between Aleuts and Kamchadal before the Russian conquest. Moreover, not all

    the cultural impetus had come from the supposedly higher cultural development

    on the west side of the Pacific. He suggested that the Kamchadal use of stone

    lamps was an imitation of Aleut practice in using stone lamps in stead of pottery

    ones (p. 348). This was presented in more specific and organized form in an

    article in the American Anthropologist in 1937. Robert Heizer, in a more

    recent study of use of aconite poison by North Pacific peoples, had given

    further evidence of cultural connections via the Aleutians. At a time when

    anthropologists generally doubted such relationships, assuming Bering Strait

    to be the only avenue of contact between Asia and America, Collins' assumption

    was courageous.

            The ethnological technique of tracing single elements of culture over

    wide areas, in order to reconstruct prehistoric cultural relationships, must

    be used with caution. Recently there has been a reaction against comparison

    from region to region of implements, ornaments, structures, etc., separately,

    on the basis of form alone without reference to ecological, economic, functional

    context. Collins rightly has doubted the validity of theories based on

    similarity of form when function is unknown or when similarities are too simple

    007      |      Vol_XV-0187                                                                                                                  
    EA-Biog. Lantis: Henry B. Collins, Jr.

    and generalized or too widespread to demonstrate specific relationship.

    This is shown in his most recent paper, on "The Origin and Angiquity of

    the Eskimo," Not yet published (1948). (In physiological studies also,

    he has not neglected the importance of total function, i.e., environment,

    as against heredity and form, for example, in "Caries and Crowding in the

    Teeth of the Living Alaskan Eskimo.") On the other hand, he demonstrated

    that the type of material used in an object does not necessarily determine

    its form, for example, in wooden houses, which may be either circular or

    rectangular to suit local styles ("Archeology of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska,"

    pp. 284-285). If any adverse criticism is to be made - it is most applicable

    to Collins' earlier work - it is that, even though materials and functions

    were not neglected, there was still perhaps too great emphasis on cultural

    forms alone. Yet the hundred pages of careful comparative (distributional)

    analysis of culture traits contain very few instances of too easy assumption

    of past cultural relationships based on present structural details, as in the

    case of roof and draft-hole of the Eskimo kashim and of the southwestern

    United States kiva (p. 257).

            These are small points in a work that is, as one reviewer has said,

    "a model of scholarly exactness and illuminating interpretation" (F. deLaguna,

    in American Anthropologist , 40:no. 2, pp. 302-304, 1938). The discussion of

    house types is an especially good illustration of these qualities. Although

    not all items are thus fully treated, there is similar comparative study

    of harpoon heads, women's knives, needlecases, lamps, and cooking pots, armor,

    bows, and other artifacts. Hence, for the student, the monograph is a valuable

    reference book on the material culture of the Eskimos far beyond St. Lawrence


    008      |      Vol_XV-0188                                                                                                                  
    EA-Biog. Lantis: Henry B. Collins, Jr.

            As an honest scholar, Collins has changed his opinion on a few points

    since writing that volume, to conform to more recent evidence. He no longer

    believes, for example, that the Dorset culture of the eastern American Arctic

    was originally an Indian culture, later Eskimoized. Also, after ceramic

    laboratory demonstration independently by Donald Horton and F. R. Matson,

    he recognizes that the black color of west Alaskan pottery is due to poor

    firing, to coating of the vessels with oil, or other factors rather than due

    to a black clay. This is a technical point not very important to the problem

    on which Collins has kept his attention unwaveringly for 20 years: the origin

    and antiquity of the Eskimos.

            To get further evidence on it, in 1936 Collins went to the most likely

    location, Bering Strait. He was accompanied by James A. Ford and Harrison

    Prindle, the expedition being sponsored by the National Geographic Society

    and Smithsonian Institution. After a short stay at Wales, Ford went on to

    Kotzebue Sound, Wainwright, and Barrow. Collins discovered near Wales a pure

    late Birnirk site, the first known site outside the Barrow region of this

    culture preceding Thule culture. At Wales itself, he excavated the Thule

    site identified by Jenness in 1926 and at the bottom, 9 feet deep, found

    remains of Birnirk occupation. Birnirk specimens were first found at Barrow

    in 1912 by V. Stefansson (reported on by Clark Wissler) and later found also

    by Van Valin. In 1929, T. Mathiassen named the culture "Birnirk" and classed

    it as late Thule. J. Alden Mason wrote up the Van Valin collection at the

    Pennsylvania University Museum to the same effect. Meanwhile, Collins in

    "Prehistoric Art of the Alaskan Eskimo" (1929) designated Birnirk as older

    than Thule (pp. 40-42) and further discussed the question in "Eskimo Archaeology

    and Somatology" (1934). The 1936 excavations thus provided the first exact

    stratigraphy validating hypotheses formulated several years previously.

    009      |      Vol_XV-0189                                                                                                                  
    EA-Biog. Lantis: Henry B. Collins, Jr.

            The Diomede and Wales discoveries were not included in the large 1937

    monograph, completed earlier, but in "Outline of Eskimo Prehistory" (1940).

    In 1937-39, Collins completed the study, begun in the St. Lawrence book, of

    relationships of all the Eskimo cultures considered as complete complexes rather

    than by their separate elements. In this, he considered especially Eskimo

    relationship to Asiatic cultures. In 1940 paper accomplished, to most readers'

    satisfaction, two things: ( 1 ) it refuted the theory of American origin of

    Eskimo culture and ( 2 ) explained how the latter could have [ ?] from Asia.

    Collins has presented the problem as follows: "....if we postulate an origin

    for Eskimo culture anywhere in America we are faced immediately with the

    difficulty that the basic features of the oldest known Eskimo cultures are

    much more Asiatic, or Eurasiatic, than American."

            He had early joined the "Asiatic origin" group. The older American

    anthropologists and some later ones accepted, on the other hand, the theory

    of American origin: Boas, Murdoch, Wissler, Stefansson, Shapiro, and others;

    the leading Europeans in this group were Rink, Steensby, and Birket-Smith.

    Believing in an Asiatic origin were the anatomists and physical anthropologists:

    Fürst, Hansen, Hrdli c č ka, and Hooton. Sapir and other linguistic scholars

    thought the Alaskan dialects were more archaic than those to the east and sought

    language relationships in Asia instead of Canada. And several ethnologists,

    Thalbitzer, Hatt, Bogoras, Kroeber, Mathiassen, Jenness, and Zolotarev,

    believed that the distinguishing basic features of Eskimo culture, as well

    as the Eskimo people themselves, had come from northeast Asia. None, however,

    had particularized a possible locale of origin, as Collins now did, viz.,

    Lake Baikal area and the rivers flowing from it to the Arctic Sea. Whereas

    he talked in terms of the Kolyma early in his career, now the area of origin

    was pushed west to the Yenisei River, possibly to the Ob (p. 587).

    010      |      Vol_XV-0190                                                                                                                  
    EA-Biog. Lantis: Henry B. Collins, Jr.

            Within Eskimo prehistory in America, the Dorset culture was the most

    puzzling. In 1934, Collins first had predicted that Dorset would be found

    to be the basic culture in Greenland, and in 1940, in the "Outline of Eskimo

    Prehistory," stated this more definitely. (He agreed with Jenness that

    Dorset was not a phase of Thule and thus disagreed with Mathiassen who had

    suggested that it was (pp. 568-569.) He suggested that Solberg's Stone

    Age Culture in Greenland was a mixture of Dorset and Later Thule. In 1936,

    Holtved found Dorset remains in the Polar Eskimo area, northwest Greenland,

    underlying a Thule stratum (published in 1944).

            By 1942, when his "Eskimo Archaeology and Its Bearing on the Problem

    of Man's Antiquity in America" was published, Collins had had time to study

    more carefully A. P. Okladnikov's 1938 paper on the prehistory of the Lake

    Baikal region. This substantiated Collins' theory stated tentatively in

    1940, since the oldest and second oldest periods (Neolithic) in the Baikal

    area are most like the ancient Eskimo as seen in Ipiutak and Old Bering Sea

    cultures. While later cultural development in the Baikal area proceeded in

    a new direction, the early culture or early bearers of it moved down the

    rivers to the coast and then eastward, developing sea-mammal hunting as they


            Meanwhile, in 1939 Collins left the National Museum to become Senior

    Ethnologist in the Bureau of American Ethnology, of the Smithsonian Institution.

    From 1940 onward, he wrote alone or in collaboration with others various

    pamphlets for the general public and the Armed Services, dealing chiefly

    with the Bering Sea area. In 1943-44, he was Assistant Director and in

    1944-46, Director of the Ethnogeographic Board, a wartime agency sponsored

    jointly by the American Council of Learned Societies, Social Science Council,

    National Research Council, and Smithsonian Institution. Collins' principal

    duty was to supervise preparation of more than 50 booklets on foreign areas,

    for the Armed Services.

    011      |      Vol_XV-0191                                                                                                                  
    EA-Biog. Lantis: Henry B. Collins, Jr.

            He is one of the founders and ardent workers of the Arctic Institute

    of North America and has been on its Board of Governors since its beginning

    in 1944. In 1947 he was Vice-chairman and in 1948 Chairman of the Board.

    He has been chairman of the Institute's Bibliography and Roster Projects

    since their inception in 1947. He is a member of the National Research

    Council's Committee on International Cooperation in Anthropology (1948):

    of the American Polar Society and various professional societies in Anthro–

    pology and Geography; and is included in American Men of Science.

            Collins has been generous and helpful to younger workers. Desiring

    to concentrate on archaeology and physical anthropology, he has offered

    his ethnological material to others writing about St. Lawrence Island,

    Nunivak Island, or other localities. He has also generously acknowledged

    his own indebtedness to Diamond Jenness. While Collins has felt that he

    had to disagree occasionally, on scientific points, with his colleague

    Ale s š Hrdli c č ka and with Rainey, Birket-Smith, and others, he has done it

    without rancor and with tact. For the whole field of Eskimo antiquity,

    he has set a high standard of meticulous research and of sound judgment in

    drawing conclusions from it.

    012      |      Vol_XV-0192                                                                                                                  
    EA-Biog. Lantis: Henry B. Collins, Jr.



            "The Eskimo of Western Alaska," Explor. and Field Work of the Smith. Inst.

    in 1927, pp. 149-156.

            "Check-stamped Pottery from Alaska," Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., Vol. 18, No. 9,

    pp.254-256, 1928.

            "The Ancient Eskimo Culture of Northwestern Alaska," Explor. and Field-Work

    of Smith. Inst. in 1928, pp. 141-150.

            "Prehistoric Art of the Alaskan Eskimo," Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections,

    Vol. 81, No. 14, pp. 1-52, 1929.

            "Prehistoric Eskimo Culture in Alaska," Explor. and Field-Work of Smith Inst.

    in 1929, pp. 147-156.

            "Ancient Culture of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska," Explor. and Field-Work of

    Smith. Inst. in 1930, pp. 135-144.

            "Archaeological Investigations in Northern Alaska," Explor. and Field-Work of

    the Smith. Inst. in 1931, pp. 103-112.


            "Caries and Crowding in the Teeth of the Living Alaskan Eskimo," Amer. Journ.

    Phys. Anthro., Vol.16, No. 4, pp. 451-462, 1932.

            "Prehistoric Eskimo Culture on St. Lawrence Island," The Geographical Review,

    Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 107-119, 1932.

            "Archeological Investigations at Point Barrow, Alaska," Explor. and Field-Work

    Smith. Inst. in 1932, pp. 45-48.

            "An Ancient Eskimo 'Golden Age' Revealed," Illustrated London News, Vol. 182,

    No. 4910, pp. 760-761, May 27, 1935.

            "Eskimo Archeology and Somatology," American Anthropologist, Vol. 36, No. 2,

    pp. 309-313, April-June, 1934.

            "Archeology of the Bering Sea Region," Proceedings of the Fifth Pacific

    Science Congress, Vol. 4, pp. 2825-2839, 1934.

            "Archeology of the Bering Sea Region" (a revision of the above paper), Smith–

    sonian Annual Report for 1933, pp. 453-468, 1935.

            "Archeological Excavations at Bering Strait," Explor. and Field-Work of the

    Smith. Inst. in 1936, pp. 63-68.

            "Culture Migrations and Contacts in the Bering Sea Region," Amer. Anthro.,

    Vol. 39, No. 3 (Pt. I), pp. 375-384, 1937.

            "Archeology of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska," Smith.Misc.Coll., Vol.96, No.1,


    013      |      Vol_XV-0193                                                                                                                  
    EA-Biog. Lantis: Henry B. Collins, Jr.

            "Exploring Frozen Fragments of American History," National Geographic

    Magazine, Vol. 75, No. 5, pp. 633-656, May 1939.

            "Bering in the Far North," The World is Yours, Vol.1, No.39, pp. 3-9, July 1,


            "Outline of Eskimo Prehistory," Smith. Misc. Coll., Vol. 100, pp. 533-592,


            "Prehistoric Eskimo Harpoon Heads from Bering Strait," Jour. Wash. Acad.Sci.,

    Vol. 31, No. 7, pp. 318-324, 1941.

            (With George H. Griffiths) "The Eskimos," Teachers's Handbook, Erpi Classroom

    Films, Inc., pp. 12-18, 1942.

            "Eskimo Archeology and Its Bearing on the Problem of Man's Antiquity in

    America," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 86,

    No. 2, pp. 220-235, 1943.

            "The Arctic," in: Survival on Land and Sea, Publications Branch, Office of

    Naval Intelligence, pp. 132-168, 1943.

            (With Austin H. Clark and E. G. Walker) "The Aleutian Islands" Their People

    and Natural History," Smithsonian Institution War Background Studies

    No. 21, 1945.

            "Anthropology During the War. Scandinavia." Amer. Anthro., Vol.48, No.1,

    pp. 141-144, [ ?] 1946.

            "Problems of Arctic Anthropology," The Arctic Institute of North America, Bull.

    No. 1, pp. 48-57, 1946.

            "Wilderness Exploration and Alaska's Purchase," The Living Wilderness, Vol.11,

    No. 19, pp. 17-18, 1946.

            "The Origin and Antiquity of the Eskimos" (to be included in a book on the

    Arctic), The Arctic Institute of North America.


    Reviews and Other Items

            "Inugsuk, a Mediaeval Eskimo Settlement in West Greenland" and "Ancient

    Eskimo Settlements in the Kangamiut Area," by Therkel Mathiassen,

    Meddel. om Gronland, Vol. 77, 1930, and Bd. 91, 1931, in Ameri.

    Anthro., Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 118-124, 1934.

            "The Anthropometry of the Western and Copper Eskimos, based on Data of

    Vilhjalmur Stefansson," by Carl C. Seltzer, Human Biology, Sept. 1933,

    in Amer. Jour. Phys. Anthro., Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 488-490, 1934.

    014      |      Vol_XV-0194                                                                                                                  
    EA-Biog. Lantis: Henry B. Collins, Jr.

            "The Archeology of Cook Inlet, Alaska," by Frederica de Laguna, The

    University Museum, Univ.of Penn. Press, 1934, in Amer. Anthro.,

    Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 341-342, 1935.

            (Abstract) "On the Origin and Relationships of the Old Bering Sea Culture,"

    Congress International des Sciences Anthropolgie et Ethnologie,

    Copenhagen, Compte Rendu, pp. 297-298, 1939.

            "Archeological Excavations at Kukulik, St. Lawrence Island, Alaska," by

    Otto William Geist and Froelich G. Rainey, Misc. Fubls. Univer. of

    Alaska, Vol. 2, 1936 (1937), in Amer. Anthro., Vol. 41, No.3,

    pp. 479-481, 1939.

            (Obituary) "Ale s š Hrdli c č ka," in Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., Vol. 34, No.2, 1944.

            "The Anthropology of Kodiak Island" and "The Aleutian and Commander Islands

    and their Inhabitants," by Ale s š Hrdli c č ka, Wistar Inst. of Anat. and Biol.

    1944, 1945, in Amer. Jour. Phys. Anthro., Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 355-361,


            "The Aleutian and Commander Islands and their Inhabitants," by Ale s š Hrdli c č ka,

    in U.S. Quart. Book List, Vol. 1, No.3, p. 20, Sept. 1945.

            "An Artist Sees Alaska," by Henry Varnum Poor, in U.S. Quart. Book List, Vol. 2,

    No. 2, pp. 98-99, June 1946.

            "The Flying North," by Jean Potter, in U.S. Quart. Book List, Vol. 3, No. 4,

    Dec. 1947.

            "Bridge to Russia, Those Amazing Aleutians," by Morgan Murray, in U.S. Quart.

    Book List, Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec. 1947.


    Margaret Lantis

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