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    Encyclopedia Arctica 13: Canada, Geography and General

    001      |      Vol_XIII-0732                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General

    (C. Cecil Lingard)


            Canada's Northland — the 1,516,758 square miles of territory lying

    north of the 60th parallel of north latitude — embraces approximately 41 per

    cent of the country's area and includes both the Yukon Territory and the

    Northwest Territories. The Yukon Territory, compresing the extreme northwest

    portion of the Canadian mainland, extends northward from the Province of British

    Columbia to the Arctic Sea and eastward from Alaska to the Mackenzie District

    of the Northwest Territories. The Northwest Territories, which have diminish–

    ed in area time and again during the past 75 years, in 1948 embraced the vast

    mainland portion of Canada lying north of the 16th parallel of latitude and

    extending eastward from the Yukon Territory to Hudson Bay, together with the

    islands in Hudson and James bays and in the Arctic Archipelago.

            Administration of the Northwest Territories to 1905

            The history of Canadian administration of this northland had its beginnings

    in the passage on June 22, 1869, of an Act by the Dominion Parliament for the

    "temporary government of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory when

    united with Canada." The British Government transferred both these territories

    to Canada, by Order-in-Council dated June 23, 1870, and in 1880 transferred like–

    wise all British-claimed islands in the North American Arctic. Administered until

    1869 by the Hudson's Bay Company, the "North-West Territories" in that year com–

    prised "Rupert's Land" — the area of the Hudson Bay watershed claimed by the

    002      |      Vol_XIII-0733                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General/ Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    Company under its Charter of 1670, and the "North-Western Territory" — the

    western Indian country held by the Company under license of 1821 and renewed

    for 21 years in 1838.

            This vast empire, herein referred to as the Northwest Territories, did

    not long remain intact. The formation of the Province of Manitoba in 1870 was

    merely the first of a series of provincial establishments and expansions that

    were ultimately to reduce the Northwest Territories to its present area. While

    the Lieutenant-General of Manitoba and his North-West Council for a few years

    ruled over the remainder of the Territories under the direction of the Minister

    of the Interior in Ottawa, the Canadian Parliament provided for their separate

    administration in 1875 through the passage of the Northwest Territories Act.

    The Act of 1875 made provision for a resident Lieutenant-General and an appoint–

    ed North-West Council invested with both executive and legislative powers. Al–

    though the year 1888 saw the North-West Council replaced by an elected Legisla–

    tive Assembly, which met annually in Regina, the then Northwest Territories —

    divided for postal and administrative purposes into the provisional Districts

    of Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Athabaska in 1882, and of Yukon, Mack–

    enzie, Franklin and Ungava in 1895 — remained intact until 1898. In that year,

    largely as a result of the Klondike gold strike, the Canadian Parliament created

    the Yukon District a separate Territory for administrative purposes by the pas–

    sage of the Yukon Territory Act.

            The Northwest Territories suffered their third loss of territory in 1905

    as a result of the unprecedented flood of immigration into the Canadian prairies.

    In September of that year the two provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were

    created, embracing the first four above-mentioned provisional districts and ex–

    tending from Manitoba on the east to British Columbia on the west. Their southern

    003      |      Vol_XIII-0734                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    and northern boundaries were fixed at the 49th and 60th parallels of north

    latitude respectively.

            The fourth and final loss of territory took place in 1912 when the older

    provinces of Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba were extended northward. Quebec re–

    ceived the District of Ungava — that is, all of Rupert's Land lying south of

    Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay and east of Hudson and James bays. Ontario and Man–

    itoba, on the other hand, received the remainder of Rupert's Land lying south

    and west of James and Hudson bays as far north as the 60th parallel of latitude.

            Thus, by the year 1912,the original area of the Northwest Territories had

    been reduced to that of the present day, as defined in the opening paragraph

    of this article.


    Government of Yukon Territory, 1898-1945

            The provisional District of Yukon, created in the Northwest Territories

    in 1895, mushroomed into world prominence with the Klondike gold strike of 1896

    on Bonanza Creek (a tributary of the Klondike River). While Inspector Constan–

    tine and a detachment of North West Mounted Police were at this time in the re–

    gion to report on the need for law and order and to represent various departments

    of the federal government, the in-rush of fortune-seekers during the succeeding

    two years necessitated the appointment of a customs officer and a gold commis–

    sioner and the removal of the recording office from Fortymile to the fast-grow–

    ing town of Dawson. Although a member of the Executive Council of the Northwest

    Territories spent several months in the District enforcing local government regu–

    lations respecting the importation and sale of intoxicating liquor while his col–

    leagues in Regina (N.W.T.) memorialized Ottawa to leave the then Northwest Terri–

    tories intact, the arrival of tens of thousands of people in the Klondike region

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    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    during the gold rush of 1897-8 led the federal authorities to pass the Yukon

    Territory Act in June 1898, transforming the Yukon District into a separate


            Intended merely as a temporary measure to [ ?] rovide for the administration

    of the new mining community and the maintenance of law and order, the Yukon

    Territory Act followed in general the principles of the old Northwest Territories

    Act of 1875. Provision was made for the appointment of a Commissioner as the

    chief executive officer to administer the government of the Territory under in–

    structions given him from time to time by the Governor-in-Council or the federal

    Minister of the Interior. To aid the Commissioner, a Council of not more than

    six persons (including the judges of the Territorial Court) was to be appointed,

    possessing the same legislative powers to make ordinances for the government of

    the Yukon Territory as were exercised at that time (1898) by the Lieutenant–

    Governor of the Northwest Territories acting with the advice and consent of the

    Legislative Assembly thereof. Moreover, while the federal Governor-in-Council

    was given power to make ordinances for the peace, order, and good government of

    the Territory as well as to exercise residuary jurisdiction beyond that possessed

    by the Commissioner-in-Council, the latter was restricted in its authority to

    impose taxes or duties, alter punishment for offence, and appropriate public money,

    lands, or property without rhe authority of Parliament. Provision was also made

    for the allowance of ordinances by the Governor-in-Co [ x ?] uncil within two years after

    their passage and for the continuance in force in the Yukon of the existing North–

    west Territorial laws relating to civil and criminal matters until amended or

    repealed by competent authority.

            The Act of 1898 did not provide for popular representation in the Yukon

    Council because of the uncertainty on the part of the federal government respect-

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    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    ing the nationality and political experience of the inhabitants of the pioneer

    community. The members of the appointed Yukon Council during the year 1898–

    1900 were government employees in the Territory and included the Superintendent

    of the North West Mounted Police, the Judge of the Territorial Court, the regis–

    trar of lands, the legal adviser, and the gold commissioner. In 1899, however,

    an amendment to the Yukon Act was passed giving male British subjects in the

    Territory the right to elect two representatives to the Council for a term of

    two years and requiring its sessions to be open to the public. Furthermore, the

    Commissioner and his Yukon Council were empowered to make regulations respect–

    ing shops, taverns, public health, and local improvements, to impose license

    fees and other charges connected therewith following the seating of the two el–

    ected representatives, and to bestow upon any elected municipal corporation the

    authority to levy taxes upon the inhabitants for local purposes.

            Even before the sections of the Act of 1899 respecting the two elected

    local Council representatives went into effect under a federal order-in-council

    of July 13, 1900, the inhabitants of the mining community began agitating for

    parliamentary representation in the House of Commons. On March 23, 1900, a mass

    meeting of citizens in the Yukon ratified a petition to the Canadian government

    requesting the right to elect two members to the federal parliament so that (in

    the words of the petitioners) "important and pressing questions relating to the

    Yukon Territory may be properly brought before the House of Commons by members...

    acquainted with the conditions" of the mining country.

            Although the question of granting parliamentary representation was debated

    in the House of Commons in June 1900, legislation was not enacted until 1902.

    While the leaders of the Conservative opposition urged immediate provision for

    Yukon representation, the Prime Minister, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, favored delay

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    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    until the census of 1901 would determine the actual condition of the population

    and the Territory. Moreover, the request for two members was, in the Govern–

    ment's judgment, not in accord with Canada's unit of representation, which at

    the time was one representative for every 22,000 electors. However, the Yukon

    Territory Representation Act of 1902 constituted the Territory a federal elec–

    toral district with the right to return a single member to the House of Commons.

    Every male British subject (exclusive of Indians and Eskimos) of 21 years of age

    with 12 months' residence in the Territory received the franchise. Mr. James H.

    Ross, who resigned the office of Commissioner to contest the seat, was elected

    the first Member of Parliament for the Yukon in December 1902.

            In response to local agitation for increased popular representation on the

    Yukon Council, the Canadian Parliament also passed an amending Yukon Act in 1902,

    increasing the elected representatives to five members, thereby making the Ter–

    ritorial Council of ten (exclusive of the Commissioner) half elected and half

    appointed. Other provisions of the Act gave the Yukon Commissioner-in Council

    the same powers to make ordinances for the government of the territory as were

    at that time possessed by the Lieutenant-Governor of the Northwest Territories,

    acting by and with the consent of the Legislative Assembly in Regina. In addi–

    tion, the Act defined the powers of the Governor-in-Council (in Ottawa) to make

    ordinances for the peace, order, and good government of the Yukon, and provided

    that in case of conflict between the ordinances of the Commissioner-in-Council

    and of the Government-in-Council those of the latter should prevail. While the

    federal government possessed the veto power with respect to the ordinances of the

    Yukon Commissioner-in-Council, it should also be noted that the ordinances of

    the Governor-in-Council required approval by resolution of both Houses prior to

    the close of the next ensuing session of Parliament.

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            Although the five elected representatives — Dr. Alfred Thomson, Rev.

    John Pringle, and Messrs. J. A. Clark, Max Laudreville, and Robert Low —

    joined the federal government officials on the Yukon Council in January 1903,

    the citizens were not content and continued during the next few years their

    agitation for a fully elected Council. A resolution from the residents of

    Yukon, tabled in the House of Commons in 1906, reiterated this "oft-repeated

    request ...for a wholly elective council" and urged its "speedy granting" as

    "absolutely necessary to endure the good government and continued prosperity

    of the business and mining industries" of the Territory. As the member for

    Yukon stated in the House, his Territory was not asking for provincial status

    but merely for a popularly elected legislative body in charge of local affairs.

    Heretofore, all attempts on the part of the elective members of the Yukon Coun–

    cil to memorialize Parliament respecting greater self-government were "opposed,

    or their purport and imperative urgency minimized, solely by the actions and

    votes of the appointed members of the Council."

            Despite the eloquent pleading of the Yukon member and the support of the

    Conservative Party leader, Mr. R. L. Borden, the Government held that conditions

    in the Yukon in 1906 — especially the decline in population from 27,000 in

    1901 to an estimated 8,000 to 12,000 — were hardly those which ordinarily jus–

    tify a change. Two years later, however, an Act to amend the Yukon Act was

    passed to meet the wishes of the people for a fuller measure of self-government.

            Going into force on May 1, 1909, this Act of 1908 provided for a wholly

    elective Council of ten members with full legislative powers within certain

    defined limits. The Council was required to meet separately from the Commission–

    er in short annual sessions for a three-year term, although the latter might order

    a dissolution and a new election at any time. While all money bills for the

    008      |      Vol_XIII-0739                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    appropriation of any part of the Territorial revenue or for the imposition

    of any tax must originate in the Council, no such bill, vote, or resolution

    might be adopted unless it had been first recommended to Council by message

    of the Commissioner. Provision was also made for a sessional indemnity of

    $600 and actual traveling expenses of each member of the Council; the audit–

    ing by the Auditor-General of Canada of all receipts and expenditures of Terri–

    torial funds and of appropriations of Parliament for the Territory as authorized

    by the Commissioner to be expended with the advice and consent of the Yukon

    Council; the appointment by the Governor-in-Council of an Administrator to ex–

    ecute the functions of the Commissioner during his absence or inability; and the

    like appointment of a Public Administrator as official guardian in and for the


            While the elected representatives of the people possessed legislative

    powers, the Yukon lacked responsible government. The Commissioner was respons–

    ible to the federal government alone in respect to his wide executive and admin–

    istrative functions. In other words, the people's representatives might initate

    and pass legislation on a wide variety of subjects (outlined briefly below) for

    the Commissioner's approval, disapproval, or reservation for the assent of the

    Governor-in-Council, but they possessed no local control over its execution.

    Clearly, the success of the system depended largely upon the wisdom, good sense,

    and executive ability of the resident Commissioner on whom the federal authori–

    ties and especially the Department of the Interior depended for efficient and

    intelligent administration of the Territory.

            In 1918-19, the federal government took steps to reorganize and reduce the

    administrative machinery of the Territory in the interests of economy. Justify–

    ing its policy by reference to the decline in mining population, the government

    009      |      Vol_XIII-0740                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    abolished the office of Commissioner — whose duties were transferred to the

    Gold Commissioner and later to the Controller — reduced the number of mining

    officials, and contemplated the replacement of the existing Yukon Council by

    an appointed council of two or more members. However, after conferring with

    the Yukon member of Parliament and the Commissioner, the government decided

    to maintain the elective feature of the Yukon Council while reducing its member–

    ship. Consequently, Parliament passed another Yukon amendment Act in 1919,

    which provided for an elective Council of three, the reduction of the sessional

    indemnity to $400, and the extension of the local franchise to women.

            The governmental machinery of the Yukon Territory as of 1947, still bore

    the stamp of the policies of 1918-19. The Territorial government was composed

    of the Controller of Yukon Territory and an elective Legislative Council of

    three members having a three-year term of office. From its seat of local gov–

    ernment at Dawson, the Controller administered the government of the Territory

    under instructions given him from time to time by the Governor-in-Council or

    the Minister of Mines and Resources at Ottawa.

            The Controller-in-Council, subject to any Act of Parliament or any ordinance

    of the Governor-in-Council applying to the Territory, had power to make ordin–

    ances dealing with the imposition of local taxes, the sale of intoxicating liquor,

    the preservation of game, the establishment of territorial offices, the mainten–

    ance of prisons and municipal institutions, the issuing of licenses for taverns,

    shops, saloons, auctioneers, etc., the incorporation of companies, the solemniza–

    tion of marriage, property and civil rights, the administration of justice, and

    generally all matters of a merely local nature in the Territory.

            The principal fields of local administration in the hands of the Yukon Coun–

    cil during the first decade [ ?] r two of this frontier mining community, as illus-

    010      |      Vol_XIII-0741                                                                                                                  
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    trated by its ordinances, embraced such matters as the protection of miners,

    employers' liability, pollution of streams, ferries, the construction and re–

    pair of local roads and bridges, hotels and road houses, forest fire preven–

    tion, licenses, succession duties, fur export, and the poll tax. Subsequent

    legislation in the early 1940's had to do with the changed economic conditions

    brought about by the aeroplane, the Alaska Highway and associated projects, which

    called for ordinances respecting highway traffic, the imposition and collection

    of taxes on income, gasoline and fuel oil, the work of scientists and explorers,

    the prevention of venereal diseases, and the maintenance of the children of un–

    married parents.

            Apart from mining which was the special concern of federal government of–

    ficials, the local Yukon Council devoted most of its attention and revenues dur–

    ing these years to roads, public welfare, and education. A considerable portion

    of the annual territorial expenditures went for the building of roads and bridges

    connecting new mining camps with Dawson, Whitehorse, May Landing, and other

    centers of the industry, while the local Council frequently memorialized the

    Ottawa government for special grants in aid of the more vital trunk roads. Like–

    wise, the Council dipped into its local revenues for public health and the main–

    tenance of hospitals at the above-mentioned centers and passed ordinances deal–

    ing with the duties of health officers and prevention of disease. While the

    welfare needs of the white population were fairly adequately provided for, the

    paucity of official reports respecting the health of the Indians in the outlying

    parts of the Territory led one to assume that it was not unlike that described

    below as prevailing in the far-flung portions of the Northwest Territories.

            Under the Yukon Act the Yukon Council possessed authority to make ordinances

    respecting education, including the right of a majority of the ratepayers of any

    011      |      Vol_XIII-0742                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    portion of the Territory to establish such schools as they desired and to fix

    the necessary rates; and the equal right of a minority of the ratepayers in

    any district or portion of the Territory to erect Protestant or Roman Catholic

    separate schools, with the accompanying liability of paying only such rates as

    they imposed upon themselves. The School Ordinance, administered by the Con–

    troller, had since 1902 provided for a Council of Public Instruction with powers

    to prescribe textbooks, courses of study, and standards of instruction, and a

    Superintendent of Schools to regulate and inspect the schools and perform such

    other duties as were assigned to him by the above authorities. Financed by

    funds of the Territorial administration and a grant from the Indian Affairs

    Branch of the federal government, the eight state-supported schools included

    in 1945 high, public, and separate schools at Dawson, public and high schools

    at Whitehorse, a public and an Indian residential school at Carcross, and a

    public school at Mayo. Apart from the Indian residential school and the mission

    schools operated by the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church at a

    number of Indian settlements, educational facilities in the Yukon were thus

    largely adapted to the needs of the white and half-breed children. The kind of

    education available for Indian children at the hands of the churches was most

    inadequate and not unlike that which prevailed in the Northwest Territories (see


            As might be expected in a frontier mining community lacking responsible

    government and provincial institutions, the federal government retained a large

    share in the administration of Yukon affairs. Prior to December 1,1936, the

    Department of the Interior had charge of the general administration of the Yukon.

    On that date, the Department of Mines and Resources came into being, and its

    Lands, Parks and Forests Branch, with its Bureau of northwest Territories and

    Yukon Affairs, has since then been responsible for business arising from the

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    general administration of the Territory under the Yukon Act and the ordinances

    passed by the Territorial Council; for the disposal of lands and timber under

    the Dominion Lands Act; for the administration of the Yukon Placer and Quartz

    Mining Acts; and for the collection of revenue in the Territory. However, the

    Department of Mines and Resources, represented at Dawson by the Controller of

    Yukon Territory, was not the only federal department with interests in the North.

    The Departments of Transport, National Defense, Public Works, National Revenue,

    Post Office, Justice, Fisheries, and Agriculture co-operated in the appropriate

    fields of government and frequently the Controller and head of the territorial

    administration served also as their representative in the Yukon.

            As the name of the department most concerned with the Yukon suggests, min–

    ing was the most important field of federal jurisdiction in the Territory. In

    the days of the Klondike gold strike the federal government regulated mining

    operations by order-in-council. But, as these orders-in-council were subject

    to frequent changes, thereby creating much uncertainty in the industry, it was

    not unnatural for the Yukon Council to urge upon the federal government the need

    for stable and permanent mining laws and the curtailment of hydraulic concessions.

    With these objectives in mind a special committee of the Yukon Council in 1905

    fashioned a draft bill which served as a guide when parliament kpassed the Placer

    Mining Act of 1906. That this Act and the Yukon Quartz Act of 1924 met the sit–

    uation so well was doubtless in large measure the result of the federal authori–

    ties wisely fashioning their clauses upon the views of the Yukon Council and of

    the mining interests and employees expressed in meetings throughout the Territory.

            While the history of transportation and communication is outside the scope

    of this article on administration, it perhaps should at least be observed that

    various departments of the federal government played a significant role in the

    013      |      Vol_XIII-0744                                                                                                                  
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    evolution from dog-team and cance to highway, steamboat, railroad, and aircraft

    transport — of the utmost importance in the development of a frontier mining

    country. From the earliest years, the Ottawa government voted annual, though

    perhaps inadequate, grants to the Yukon Council for the construction and main–

    tenance of mining roads in the Territory, while its yearly appropriations for

    postal and telegraph services frequently exceeded $150,000 and $275,000, respec–

    tively. The federal government's telegraphy system, inaugurated in 1899, con–

    nected Tagish, Whitehorse, and Dawson with points in British Columbia, while

    the Yukon and Northwest Territories radio system, operated by the Royal Canadian

    Corps of Signals, Department of National Defence, provided communication between

    Whitehorse, May9, Dawson, and Edmonton. During the early 1940's a telegraph line

    was constructed along the route of the Alaska Highway (of which an account is

    given below). The government provided air-mail services daily except Sunday be–

    tween Vancouver and Whitehorse, and between Edmonton and Whitehorse, as well as

    less frequent ordinary mail services by steamer, rail, etc., to Skagway, White–

    horse, Dawson, and other centers.

            From the earliest days of the gold strike, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police

    and the judicial system established in the Y [ ?] n rendered life and property as

    safe as in the older law-abiding communities in the nation. With the establish–

    ment of the Yukon as a separate Territory in 1898 provision was made for the con–

    tinued application of the laws and ordinances relating to civil and criminal mat–

    ters in force in the old Northwest Territories until repealed or altered. The

    year 1898 witnessed the establishment of a Territorial Court of three judges (re–

    duced to one in 1912) barred from holding other office except that of membership

    in the then appointed Yukon Council. In 1899 the British Columbia Court of Appeal

    was constituted the Court of Appeal for Yukon Territory, and three years later an

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    amendment permitted appeals to the Supreme Court of Canada in mining cases

    amounting to $2,000 or over. The Yukon Act laid down court procedure, pro–

    vided for places of confinement, and gave to the Yukon Commissioner (or Control–

    ler), each member of the Council, and each commissioned officer of the R.C. M.P.

    the powers of a Justice of the Peace in the Territory. Provision existed for

    summary trial by a judge without the intervention of a jury in offences of

    theft, wounding, indecent assault, and resisting a public officer. In case of

    tr ai ia l by jury six jurors only were required. A significant safeguard against

    hasty execution of the death penalty by a judge or stipendiary magistrate ex–

    isted in the requirement that he forward full notes of the evidence to the Sec–

    retary of State and await the pleasure of the Governor-General.

            While frequent changes in the keeping of the federal government records

    render it impossible to give an adequate picture of administrative revenues

    and expenditures for the Yukon, it is interesting to note that in the years

    immediately preceding World War II the annual revenues and expenditures of all

    federal government departments in the Yukon ranged around $580,000 and $350,000,

    respectively; that the local revenues of the Yukon Council amounted to about

    $150,000; and that salaries and expenses of administration of the Department of

    Mines and Resources for Yukon purposes dropped from a high of $320,000 in 1918

    to $50,000 twenty years later. Certainly financial string ne en cy of the inter-war

    years was a principal reason for the lack of more progressive and far-reaching

    administrative programs in the Yukon. It was to take World War II and its crit–

    ical aftermath to bring the spotlight of Canadian government attention to bear

    upon its strategically located arctic and subarctic territories of which the

    Yukon was the most advanced although a minor portion.

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    Government of the Northwest Territories, 1905-1945

            The creation of the Provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta in September

    1905 necessitated the passage of an act of the federal parliament providing

    for the delimitation of the remaining Northwest Territories and for their ad–

    ministration. This act, known as the Northwest Territories Amendment Act,

    1905," defined the Northwest Territories as comprising thereafter "the terri–

    tories formerly known as Rupert's Land and the Northwestern Territory, except

    such portions thereof as form the Province of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Al–

    berta, the District of Keewatin (created in 1876) and the Yukon Territory, to–

    gether with all British territories and possessions in North America and all

    islands adjacent to such territories or possessions except the colony of New–

    foundland and its dependencies." The exclusion of the District of Keewatin

    from the newly defined Northwest Territories, with a view to adding its con–

    tiguous portions at an opportune time to Manitoba and Ontario, was however of

    a very temporary nature. On July 24, 1905, the federal authorities changed

    their mind and placed Keewatin (slightly enlarged by those eastern portions

    of the districts of Saskatchewan and Athabaska not to be included in the Prov–

    ince of Saskatchewan) within the jurisdiction of the reorganized Northwest Ter–


            Thus the Northwest Territories embraced the three administrative districts

    of Mackenzie, Keewatin, and Franklin whose boundaries were delimited as now ex–

    isting by an order-in-council of March 16, 1918, effective on January 1, 1920.

    Mackenzie District, the portion enjoying the greatest development to date, em–

    braced that part of the Canadian mainland lying between the Yukon Territory and

    the 102nd meridian of longitude. Keewatin District included that paet of the

    mainland, with the exception of Boothia and Melville peninsulas, lying between

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    Mackenzie District and Hudson Bay, together with all islands in Hudson and

    James bays. Franklin District included Boothia and Melville peninsulas and

    the islands in Hudson Strait and in the Arctic Archipelago, except those ad–

    jacent to the coast of the Yukon Territory.

            The Northwest Territories Amendment Act of 1905 provided for the appoint–

    ment by the federal government of a chief executive officer, styled Commission–

    er of the Northwest Territories, and a Council of not more than four members to

    assist him with the administration. While an amendment of 1921 made provision

    for a Council of six and for the appointment of a Deputy Commissioner to exer–

    cise the functions of the appointment of the Commissioner during his absence,

    the specific powers of the Commissioner-in-Council have remained largely as de–

    fined by the Act of 1905 and the revised statute of the following year.

            Although the Commissioner-in-Council received the same powers to make

    ordinances as were on August 31, 1905, vested in the legislative Assembly of the

    old Northwest Territories, these specifically included the following classes of

    subjects as were from time to time designated by the Governor-in-Council or in

    instructions from the Minister of Mines and Resources: direct taxation within

    the Territories to raise revenue for territorial or local purposes, establish–

    ment and tenure of territorial offices, appointment and payment of officers,

    establishment and maintenance of prisons, municipal institutions, road allow–

    ances and new highways, local licenses for shops, taverns, auctioneers, etc.,

    incorporation of companies with territorial objectives excepting railway, steam–

    boat, canal, telegraph, and irrigation companies, solemnization of marriage,

    property and civil rights, administration of justice, expenditure of territorial

    funds and certain moneys appropriated by Parliament for the Territories, and

    generally all matters of a local or private nature in the Territories, Copies

    017      |      Vol_XIII-0748                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    of all ordinances, of course, were required to be laid before Parliament, where

    they were subject to disallowance at any time within two years by the Governor–


            Despite the statutory provisions of 1905, outlined above, the Northwest

    Territories were practically administered for the ensuing fifteen years by the

    Royal North West Mounted Police under Lieutenant Colonel Fred White as Commission–


    Not until 1921, when certain oilddevelopments brought the Territories to

    the attention of the federal authorities, was the first Northwest Territories

    Council of four members (increased to six in June of the same year), appointed

    to assist the Commissioner. At the same time a branch of the Department of

    Interior was organized to carry out the active work of administration, its

    Deputy Minister, Mr. W. W. Cory, having succeeded Lieutenant-Colonel White as

    Commissioner of the Northwest Territories in 1920.

            Although Mr. D. F. Kellner, M.P. for Edmonton East (Alberta), presented

    in 1923 a petition to the House of Commons signed by a number of residents of

    the Territories, requesting parliamentary representation, the nature of the pop–

    ulation was hardly such as to justify such a step. Even in 1941 the population

    of the Northwest Territories embraced only 2,284 whites, 4,334 Indiands, and

    5,404 Eskimos, scattered over a vast area of 1,309,682 square miles. Hence,

    throughout the period under review the Territories lacked representation in

    Parliament and the Northwest Territories Council, comprised of federal depart–

    ment officials, functioned in Ottawa both as a legislative body and in an ad–

    visory capacity to the Minister of Mines and Resources on matters pertaining to

    the administration of the Territories.

            An examination of the Territorial ordinances passed by the Northwest Terri–

    tories Council during its first decade (1921-31) reveals few significant enactments.

    017      |      Vol_XIII-0749                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    Apart from an ordinance of 1926 requiring scientists and explorers to obtain

    a license from the Commissioner to enter the Territories for the purposes of

    practising their professions and to present the federal authorities with a

    statement of their scientific discoveries resulting therefrom, and another

    ordinance of 1930 protecting Eskimo ruins through the regulation of excavation

    and of the collection of articles of archaeological and ethnological importance,

    early legislation dealt with administration of justice, mortgages and sale of

    personal property, the conduct of billiard rooms, the care and control of digs,

    the export of furs, the registration of births, marriages, and deaths. Of course,

    the geneaal ordiances of the old Northwest Territories (in force September 1,

    1905) remained in force in the present Territories unless repealed or amended

    by the Territorial Council.

            A sampling of the ordinances of the following decade indicated a growing

    Concern on the part of the Territorial Council for social and economic matters

    in the far Northwest. A medical profession ordinance (1936) provided for the

    licensing of duly qualified medical practitioners, while another guaranteed com–

    petent chemists and druggists (1938). Other ordinances provided for the recovery

    of small debts, the licensing of such businesses, trades, and occupations as

    physicians, dentists, merchants, bankers, hotel keepers, freighters, contractors,

    blacksmiths, etc., the regulation of the sale of liquor with fitting protection

    of Indians and Eskimos, the conservation of game, the provision of workmen's

    compensation, and protection against the spread of venereal diseases. Especially

    significant was the Sanitary Control Ordiance (1940) which safeguarded the health

    of the residents of mining, timber, petroleum, and construction camps by govern–

    ing the selection of camp sites, guarding against pollution of lakes and streams

    and the contamination of food, regulating camp drainage and living conditions in

    018      |      Vol_XIII-0750                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    bunk and cook houses, and by making employers responsible for first-aid and

    emergency hospital equipment. In camps employing over 50 men the employer was

    required "to contract with a legally qualified practitioner for medical aid"

    to his employees.

            In addition to its legislative functions, the Northwest Territories Council

    acted in an advisory capacity to the Minister of Mines and Resources on such

    matters of administration as the improvement of the Mackenzie River-Great Bear

    Lake transportation route, the provision of aircraft landing facilities, the

    Protection of workers engaged in the mining and milling of pitchblende, the

    regulation of mining especially in the Yellowknife area, the administration of

    law and order, the regulation of trapping and of the sale of liquor, the con–

    sideration of application for permits to carry on exploratory and scientific

    investigations, the establishment of meteorological stations in the Arctic, the

    provision of radio servies, the organization of the annual Eastern Arctic Patrol,

    the conduction of inspection tours into the Territories, the formation of agri–

    cultural and nutritional surveys, and the extension of educational, hospital,

    and medical services.

            The over-all responsibility for the administration of various acts, ordin–

    ances, and regulations pertaining to the vast Canadian Northland rested with

    the Director of the Lands, Parks and Forests Branch of the Department of Mines

    and Resources, who held also the post of Deputy Commissioner of the Northwest

    Territories. A Superintendent for the Mackenzie District and another for the

    Eastern Arctic facilitated department administration at Ottawa, while a number

    of outside departmental agents served in numerous capacities. For example, as

    the result of financial stringency on the part of the federal government and the

    lack of a progressive program for the North, the years 1939-1944 witnessed the

    019      |      Vol_XIII-0751                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    Mackenzie public administrator at Fort Smith endeavoring also to perform the

    duties of agent of Dominion lands, superintendent of Wood Buffalo National Park,

    crown timber agent, mining recorder, stipendiary magistrate, and marriage com–

    missioner. At Port Radium a member of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police assumed

    the additional duties of Dominion land agent, timber agent, and mining recorder.

    Even the department medical officers at eight or more scattered territorial

    points frequently were called upon to perform a variety of administrative duties

    which doubtless interfered with the proper discharge of their initial assignment.

            The judicial machinery, as provided under the Northwest Territories Act of

    1905 and its amendments, was adapted to the requirements of a small and scatter–

    ed population. Enforcement of law and order in accordance with the common law

    of England, the statutes of the Canadian Parliament in so far as they were ap–

    plicable to the Territories, and the local ordinances of the Territorial Co [ ?] ncil

    was in the hands of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the stipendiary magistrates,

    and justices of the peace. In the absence after 1905 of a supreme court of the

    Northwest Territories, five stipendiary magistrates exercised the powers and

    functions of the judge of such a court, while the superior courts of the provinces

    adjoining the Territories exercised therein the same jurisdiction in civil mat–

    ters respecting persons, property, suite, and proceedings as they possessed

    within their own territorial limits. The stipendiary magistrates tried in a

    summary manner such charges as minor theft, unlawful wounding, and certain types

    of assault, with the intervention of a jury unless the accused elected otherwise.

    The justices of the peace, appointed by the Gpvernor-in-Council, possessed in

    large measure the jurisdiction and powers of a magistrate. All commissioned

    officers of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police served at strategic points as

    justices of the peace, and during their winter and summer patrols to distant

    020      |      Vol_XIII-0752                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    and widely scattered posts enforced law and order and performed various other

    administrative functions.

            With the fur trade the major industry in the Territories until it was sur–

    passed in production value by mining in 1939, the federal authorities establish–

    ed such game preserves as Wood Buffalo Park and Thelon and Twin Island Game sanc–

    tuaries in aid of the basic livelihood of the native population. Trapping with–

    in these preserves was confined to Indians, Eskimos, half-breeds living the life

    of natives, and such white trappers as were operating in the areas prior to their

    reservation. In addition to natives and half-breeds born in the Territories who

    did not require licenses, hunting and trapping were restricted to British sub–

    jects possessing licenses on May 3, 1938, and to the children of British parents

    residing in the Territories for the previous four yea rs who were eligible for

    licenses. An amendment of the Northwest Territories Act effective January 1,

    1929, levied an export tax on furs shipped or carried from the Territories to

    any other part of Canada or to any other country.

            The Department of Mines and Resources, including its Bureau of Geology and

    Topography, contributed greatly to the development of mining in the Northwest

    Territories, whose mineral production (exclusive of pitchblende products) to

    the close of 1943 was valued at over $20,000,000. The development of resources

    of oil at Norman Wells (since 1920), of pitchblende at Labine Point on the east

    side of Great Bear Lake (since 1930), of gold and silver in the vicinity of

    Yellowknife on the north shore of Great Slave Lake (since 1935), and the inves–

    tigation of other mineral deposits, led to increased appointments of mining and

    other administrative officials to meet the needs of new mining settlements and

    enlarged mineral production. The recording of mining claims, the issuing of

    miners' licenses, and the enforcement of mining regulations comprised the major

    021      |      Vol_XIII-0753                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada" General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    duties of the outside administrative staff of the Department.

            The Department of Mines and Resources administered also the lands of the

    Northwest Territories under the Dominion Lands Act. During the period under

    review, the familiar free homestead system was never applied to the North, al–

    though provision was made for the purchase of surveyed land for agricultural

    purposes. Aside from mineral-bearing lands, practically all the land disposed

    of were lots acquired in the various settlements for residential, trading, mis–

    sionary, and transportation purposes. In addition, temporary use of certain

    lands was made available under license of occupation and other vacant crow

    could be leased under the hay and grazing regulations. Moreover, certain

    educational, religious, and charitable institutions were empowered to cut fuel–

    wood under permits, although timber regulations required other parties to pay

    annual dues.

            The general health and welfare of the 12,000 Indians, Eskimos, and indigent

    white and half-breed populations of the Northwest Territories was until late in

    1945 among the numerous and varied responsibilities of the Department of Mines

    and Resources. Its Indian Affairs Branch stationed a number of full-time medi–

    cal officers at Fort Resolution, Fort Simpson, and Fort Norman, while the Council

    of the Northwest Territories provided medical officers at Fort Smith and Aklavik.

    The medical services which these men were able to render were seriously curtailed

    not only by inadequate facilities but also by additional duties of an administra–

    tive character. In the Eastern Arctic, the Territorial Administration stationed

    medical officers at Chesterfield on the west coast of Hudson Bay and at Pangnir–

    tung on Baffin Land, and arranged for one or two medical officers to accompany

    the annual Eastern Arctic patrol. The latter work of examining the Eskimos at

    all ports of call was, however, usually cut short by the need of the Nascopie

    022      |      Vol_XIII-0754                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    to complete its tour within a single season. In addition to the medical health

    officers of the Department of Mines and Resources, the mining and petroleum com–

    panies employed medical men during recent years at such points in the Mackenzie

    Valley as Norman Wells, Port Radium, and Yellowknife.

            At the latter two centers, well equipped hospitals were owned and operated

    by the Eldorado Company and the consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, respec–

    tively. While the government prior to 1944 did not own or operate any hospitals

    in the Northwest Territories, it assisted in the construction of some, and in

    the maintenance of all of the ten mission hospitals operated by the Roman Cath–

    olic Church and the Anglican Church. In addition to the payment of $2,30 per

    diem for each patient receiving treatment, the government paid an annual grant

    of $200 for the maintenance of aged and infirm destitute persons, maintained the

    medical officers, and furnished medical supplies to the mission hospitals. The

    Department of Mines and Resources contributed also to general welfare through

    the provision of supplies and equipment when game and fur-bearing animals were

    scare, relief rations for the aged and incapacitated natives, game preserves for

    the exclusive use of Indians and Eskimos, and the development of a reindeer in–

    dustry near the Mackenzie River delta. Established in 1935, the reindeer herd

    provided meat for mission hospitals and residential schools or for relief, led

    to the development of small herds under native management, and became the means

    of training young Eskimo herders with the view ultimately of transforming the in–

    dustry largely into a native one.

            Nonetheless, the health and welfare program of the government was most in–

    adequate. The government was singularly negligent in failing to assume full re–

    sponsibility for the location, construction, equipment, and services of the north–

    ern hospitals, and in failing to provide adequate funds and skilled medical atten-

    023      |      Vol_XIII-0755                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    tion to combat epidemics of contagious diseases and especially tuberculosis

    among the northern natives whose susceptibility to many diseases was attribut–

    able to their high degree of malnutrition resulting from the encroachment of

    the white man's civilization. However, following a health survey of the Mack–

    enzie Valley in 1944 by Dr. C. J. Wherrett, of the Canadian Tuberculosis Assoc–

    iation, the federal government transferred native health from the Department of

    Mines and Resources to the newly created Department of National Health and Wel–

    fare on November 1, 1945, and plans were soon taking shape for reorganizing and

    vastly improving the health services in the North.

            Closely linked with health and welfare, the education of the white, native,

    and half-breed children was the responsibility of the Department of Mines and

    Resources, through its Indian Affairs Branch and its Northwest Council. Never–

    theless, this Council in Ottawa failed to enact a single educational ordinance

    during the years 1905 to 1945. While the school ordinance and regulations of

    the old Northwest Territories of pre-1905 were presumably legally applicable to

    the North, it was clear that few of their provisions were in active operation.

    The truth was that, apart from two public schools opened at Yellowknife and Fort

    Smith in 1939 and 1940 largely for the benefit of white children, grants made in

    support of education by the Department, and arrangements for secondary education

    through correspondence courses offered by the provincial authorities of Alberta

    and Ontario, the actual provision of educational facilities in the Territories

    rested with the Roman Catholic and Anglican Church missions which operated day

    and residential schools, largely for native children at such centers as Aklavik,

    Fort Resolution, Fort Providence, Fort Smith, Fort Simpson, and Hay River. De–

    spite the conscientious efforts of the missionaries, native education, left large–

    ly to the rival churches whose chief purpose was the conversion of souls to Chris-

    024      |      Vol_XIII-0756                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    tianity, was not a success owing to the limited financial grants, the lack of

    government policy or supervision, and the inadequate curriculum that made very

    little provision for the sort of educational facilities or courses likely to

    equip the native children for successful living and leadership in their northern


            Exploratory and scientific investigations of the Survey Bureau of the De–

    partment of Mines and Resources, carried on in cooperation with other departments

    of the federal government, constituted another significant aspect of administra–

    tive policy. Commencing as early as 1884 and increasing in frequency after World

    War I, Canadian government expeditions into the Eastern Arctic have taken place

    yearly since 1922. The earlier ones were devoted to the extension of geographi–

    cal knowledge and the establishment of Canada's claim to sovereignty over the

    arctic islands adjoining the mainland; in more recent years they comprised topo–

    graphical, meteorological, geological, mineralogical, biological, botanical,

    medical, social, and economic investigations, which have added greatly to know–

    ledge of the arctic and subarctic lands.

            The annual Eastern Arctic Patrol shared with numerous field forces the im–

    portant work of scientific research in the North. The R.M.S. Nascopie , a 2,500–

    ton vessel specially constructed for arctic service and operated by the Hudson's

    Bay Company, sailed annually from some Canadian Atlantic port on its mission of

    inspection, scientific investigation, and administration. Used by the Canadian

    government for its annual patrol of R.C.M.P. posts, post offices, radio and met–

    eorological stations, trading posts, and missions, the Nasco [ ?] ie carried govern–

    ment officials, scientists, doctors, police, other personnale, mail and suplies

    to ports of call in northern Quebec, the Canadian Eastern Arctic mainland, and

    the islands in Hudson Strait and Bay and in the Arctic Archipelago. The patrol

    025      |      Vol_XIII-0757                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    gave the appropriate officials opportunity to observe living conditions among

    the natives and to minister to their needs.

            Transportation and communication — the provieion of truck and winter

    tractor roads, airports, landing fields, passenger, mail, and express services

    by land, water, and air, and radio communications at and between pioneer settle–

    ments and strategic points in the Canadian Northland — were the responsibility

    of the Departments of Mines and Resources, Transport, Post Office, and National

    Defense working in close cooperation.

            Largely owing to the lack of concentrated settlement in the reorganized

    Northwest Territories, it was not until October 1, 1939, that the Commissioner–

    in-Council of the Territories established the first local self-governing body in

    the said Territories. Set up under authority of the local Administrative Dis–

    trict Ordinance, the Yellowknife Administrative District embraced an area of

    slightly more than 38 square miles around the mining community of Yellowknife

    on the north arm of Great Slave Lake. The local governing body, known as the

    Trustee Board of the Yellowknife Administrative District, commenced to function

    on January 1, 1940. Its membership of five was in 1945 increased to seven, three

    of whom were elected by the citizens and four, including the chairman, appointed

    by the Commissioner. The Trustee Board was empowered to pas by-laws governing

    the raising of local revenues by taxation on real and personal property, by poll

    tax, and by licensing occupations, the prevention of cruelty to animals, relief

    of the poor, the appointment of health officers and the protection of public

    health, the appointment of local officials, the establishment of a fire depart–

    ment, the construction and maintenance of roads, streets, sidewalks, sewers, the

    regulation of traffic, and the support of schools. The elected school board of

    three members administered the local school district and employed a teacher to

    026      |      Vol_XIII-0758                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    carry on the educational program in accord with the Alberta curriculum.

            Although the frequent changes made in compiling statistical information,

    the destruction of many old records, and the difficulty in making an equitable

    division of the expenditures of federal government departments between the Ter–

    ritories and the rest of Camada renders a discussion of administrative costs in

    the Northwest Territories during the years 1905-45 wholly inadequate, a sampling

    of certain items for a typical year or two might prove of value. Administrative

    expenditures and revenues of the Department of Mines and Resources in the North–

    west Territories for the year 1939-40 totalled $292,028.88 and $150,479.40, re–

    spectively. The annual Eastern Arctic patrol of the Nasco [ ?] ie usually cost from

    $23,000 to $27,000, while the cost of maintenance and operation of the radio ser–

    vices of the Territories ranged annually from $199,425 to $318,900. The vote

    for arctic exploration and administration occasionally amounted to $190,000. In

    addition, a considerable portion of the annual votes of Parliament for postal

    services, Indian affairs, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and topographical and

    and geological surveys were expended in the Northwest Territories.


    The War and Post-War Development of the Canadian Northland

            The revolutionary development of aerial transport facilities, the strategic

    position of the Arctic with respect to the world's populated land masses, and the

    history of World War II and its aftermath combined to bring the polar regions of

    Canada into world prominence. Urgent military necessity to stem the Japanese

    aggressive advance in the Pacific and to provide material aid to hard-pressed

    European allies, during 1939-45, led to the co-operative marshalling by Canada

    and the United States of the necessary pioneering spirit, engineering skill, and

    financial resources for the wartime construction of such enormous undertakings

    027      |      Vol_XIII-0759                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    as the Northwest Staging Route of airports, the Alaska Military Highway, the

    Canol oil pipeline, the Catel telephone system, and numberous other arctic air–

    ways projects, all of which placed Canada in a vital position with respect to

    the shorter transpolar air routes between the North American continent and the

    principal centers of Europe and Asia. Of special importance in developing aerial

    transport facilities with Alaska, the Soviet Union, and Britain was the construc–

    tion of large landing fields in the Mackenzie District at Fort Smith, Fort Reso–

    lution, Hay River, Yellowknife, Fort Providence, Fort Simpson, Wrigley, and Nor–

    man Wells and under joint defense auspices along the so-called "Crimson" air

    route from southern Alberta to the shores of Davis Strait.

            Most famous of the wartime northern projects was the Alaska Highway which

    follows the orthwest Staging Route from Dawson Creek, British Columbia, via

    Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, to Fairbanks, Alaska. Pioneered before the war

    by a string of airports built by the Canadian Department of Transport, the high–

    way was constructed in 1942-43 following an exchange of notes between the govern–

    ments of Canada and the United States. Under the terms of agreement, the United

    States assumed the cost of construction and maintenance until the termination of

    the war and for six months thereafter, while the Canadian government provided

    free rights of way, timber and gravel, waived import duties, sales taxes and

    license fees, and facilitated the free admission of labor and supplies from the

    United States. On April 1, 1946, the road became a part of the Canadian system

    of highways, and was placed under the supervision of the Canadian Army. Building

    equipment used by the United States engineers on the Highway was a part of the

    materials and installations which the United States agreed to turn over to Canada

    for $12,000,000 in an exchange of notes tabled by the Canadian Prime Minister in

    the House on April 8, 1946.

    028      |      Vol_XIII-0760                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

            Hardly less spectacular but of slight military value was the United States

    construction of the "Canol" project. Under an exchange of notes in 1942-43,

    the United States assumed the coasts of construction which involved drilling

    for oil in the vicinity of Norman Wells for the purpose of increasing supply

    for the use of the use of the armed forces in Canada and Alaska and along the Alaska High–

    way; the construction of a pipeline from Norman Wells to Whitehorse; the erec–

    tion of an oil refinery at Whitehorse; and the erection of oil storage facilities

    at Prince Rupert and the construction of a gasoline pipeline from Skagway, Alaska,

    to Whitehorse. While the title of the right of way remained with Canada, the

    United States held the ownership of the pipeline and refinery until the close of

    the war, when Canada was to have the first option of purchase. An exchange of

    notes between Canada and the United States, made public January 15, 1947, dis–

    closed that the former agreed for the United States, which financed the huge

    enterprise, either to sell the refinery, pipeline, and other facilities to pri–

    vate buyers or scrap it entirely. In April 1948, Imperial Oil Limited was dis–

    mantling and transporting the Whitehorse oil refinery, which it had purchased

    from the United States Government, to the rich new oil field of Leduc near Edmon–

    ton, Alberta.

            As a natural consequence of the publicity given these wartime projects and

    the growing realization by the Canadian people of the strategic position and

    potential wealth of the North, the federal authorities in the early post-war years

    commenced to institute more progressive and energetic administrative programs.

    An indication of an awakening to the realization of the significance of the Yukon

    and Northwest Territories was the dispatch in 1944 of numerous survey parties

    into the North by the Department of Mines and Resources to investigate wild life

    soil, forests, geology, education, health and welfare, etc. With the appointment

    029      |      Vol_XIII-0761                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    of Dr. H. L. Keenleyside as Deputy Minister of the Department of Mines and

    Resources and as Commissioner of the Northwest Territories Council, early in

    1947, came greatly increased financial appropriations, scientific investigations,

    improved services, and the beginning of important administrative changes.

            At time of writing (April 1948), the Northwest Territories were still

    governed by a Territorial Council in Ottawa composed of a Commissioner, a Deputy

    Commissioner (R.A. Gibson), five Couneillors (R.A. Hoey, J.G. McNiven, L.C.

    Audette, Air Commodore H. B. Godwin, Commissioner S.T. Wood of the R.C.M.P.),

    appointed by the Governor-General-in-Council; and the Secretary, J.G. Wright.

    The Council's meetings were composed of two sections: one, advisory to the Min–

    ister of Mines and Resources on matters pertaining to administration of the

    Territories; the other functioning as a legislative body and open to representa–

    tives of the press. The various acts, ordinances, and regulations concerning

    the Territories were administered by the Northwest Territories and Yukon Services

    (of which there were three Divisions — Arctic, Mackenzie, and Yukon), under

    the supervision of R.A. Gibson, the Director of the Lands and Development Ser–

    vice Branch of the Department.

            A portion of the Northwest Territories was given representation in Parlia–

    ment in 1947, when the electoral district of Yukon (represented by the Hon.

    George Black, K.C., M.P.) was enlarged by the addition of that part of the Dis–

    trict of Mackenzie lying to the west of the 109th meridian of west longitude,

    and was renamed the electoral district of Yukon-Mackenzie River. Also the Trus–

    tee Board of the Yellowknife Administrative District was increased by the addi–

    tion of two more elected members, so that the Board in 1948 consisted of nine

    members, five of whom were elected and four nominated.

            In 1947 and 1948 increased attention was being given Canada's northern

    030      |      Vol_XIII-0762                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    regions by various departments of the Federal Government. The welfare of the

    Indian, Eskimo, and indigent white and half-breed population of the Northwest

    Territories remained the responsibility of the Department of Mines and Resources,

    while medical care and hospitalization were transferred to the Indian Health

    Services of the Department of National Health and Welfare on November 1, 1945.

    Indians and Eskimos in the Territories were receiving family allowances in kind

    under the administrative control of the Department of Mines and Resources follow–

    ing their registration for this purpose by the R.C.M.P. While granted to the

    Eskimos chiefly to provide nutritive food, provision was made whereby family

    allowances could be used to improve their living standards through the purchase of

    such items as rifles, fish nets, and boats. Also a new 40-bed Red Cross hospital

    was put in operation at Yellowknife.

            Following the loss of the R.M.S. Nascopie after striking a reef at Cape

    Dorset, Baffin Island, in July 1947, the Canadian government authorized the con–

    struction of a new vessel at a cost of $2,000 000, to have a range of 10,000

    miles, freight capacity of 1,000 tons, and accommodation for officers of the

    Eastern Arctic Patrol and other officials having cause to go into the Arctic.

            The Northwest Territories continued to be servec chiefly by water and aerial

    transportation facilities. Nonetheless, truck and tractor roads suitable for

    motor traffic existed in the vicinity of settlements and mining communities,

    and between strategic points to facilitate the freighting of supplies, while an

    important new road was reaching completion, connecting the railhead at Grimshaw,

    Alberta, with the Lower Hay River Post at Great Slave Lake. Post-war aerial

    transport improvements included the development of a number of all-weather air–

    fields, the construction of landing strips to facilitate mining operations, and

    the modernization of Yellowknife airport to accommodate large passenger land freight

    031      |      Vol_XIII-0763                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North


            In the field of education the first beginning of a major reform program

    was under way. Several steps were taken to improve educational standards, such

    as the appointment of an Inspector of Schools, the provision of scholarships

    for university and special training, the distribution throughout the Eastern

    Arctic of pamphlets in Eskimo syllabics and dealing with health instruction and

    native economics, and the construction of new schools. The modern 8-room school

    built at Yellowknife with a grant of $200,000 from the Northwest Territories

    Administration deserves special mention; it is known as the School of Opportunity

    for the Northwest Territories.

            Considerable post-war progress was also in evidence in forest protection

    and wilflife management in the Territories. The Department of Mines and Re–

    sources established early in 1946 a Forest and Wild Life Service. Headed by a

    Superintendent of Forest and Wildlife Management resident at Fort Smith, the

    organization included two mammalogists, a forest engineer, and around 20 wardens.

    During 1947, experienced fire-fighting crews with modern equipment patrolled the

    Mackenzie, Liard, and Slave river systems and the Great Slave Lake area, while

    the Superintendent had aircraft at his disposal for patrol purposes. In 1947,

    the Chief Botanist of the National Museum (A. E. Porsild) accompanied by H. J.

    Hargrove of the Dominion Experimental Station at Swift Current, Saskatchewan,

    inspected the reindeer herd, which totalled 6,200 head, during the annual round–

    up at Richards Island and near Anderson River. In December of 1947 a superintend–

    ent of the reindeer range station was appointed to watch over the development

    of the reindeer industry. In the Eastern Arctic the Department of Fisheries,

    through Dr. Max Dunbar, investigated the resources of sea mammals and fish avail–

    able for the Eskimos and their sled dogs.

    032      |      Vol_XIII-0764                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

            The Department of Mines and Resources carried out a broad program of

    scientific investigations during the summer of 1948 in Canada's northland

    regions. A. W. Banfield of the Federal Wild Life Service headed a caribou

    survey to determine the number and condition of these animals which mean so

    much to the welfare of the Eskimos. A group of scientists of the Dominion

    Observatory conducted additional explorations of the megnetic pole region pre–

    liminary to the establishment of more magnetic bases and the drawing of magnetic

    meridians so essential to the drafting of air and sea navigational charts. The

    National Museum sent archaeological, biological, and ethnological research par–

    ties to Cornwallis Island and Eureka Sound on Ellesmere Island, to examine Eskimo

    sites. The extensive programs of 1948 included also the investigation of radio–

    active minerals, iron ore occurrences and regions favorable for oil, gas and

    coal. A scientific research station was established at Baker Lake and in 1948

    plans were under way to build two new northern weather stations to supplement

    those opened at Eureka Sound and Resolution Bay during 1947. While these weather

    stations were being operated jointly by Canadian and United States personnel with

    Canadian officers in command, the two countries cooperated in their construction,

    Canada assuming the cost of buildings and permanent installations and the United

    States supplying the transportation.

            Although it appeared desirable in the immedi [ ?] post-war years that Canada

    and the United States should cooperate, as above, in the development of scientific

    interprises in the Canadian Arctic and neighboring Alaska as a natural corollary

    of the cooperative defense enterprises which the two nations carried out under

    Permanent Joint Board of Defense arrangements during World War II, the strategic

    position of the Canadian North and the critical state of United States-Soviet

    Union relations in the summer of 1948 gave Canadian people cause for considerable

    concern. While Canada and the United States engaged in joint arctic research

    033      |      Vol_XIII-0765                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North

    and cooperated in the establishment of arctic weather stations, and while Can–

    adian personnel accompanied United States polar flights and American military

    personnel participated in the Canadian Army's "Operation Muskox" and its exer–

    cises in the vicinity of Churchill, the Soviet Union's Igvestia charged that

    the United State was "covering the North American segment of the Arctic, plus

    Greenland and Iceland, with a network of military bases and airfields." There

    was growing suspicion in Canada that is government was being pressed unduly by

    United States air-minded military leaders to concede military bases in Canada's

    northland and thereby make it the "front line and military proving ground" for

    possible war with the U.S.S.R. Nevertheless, there existed a staunch hope that

    the Canadian Government would display great wisdom, tact, and determination to

    prevent its strategic "undefended roof of North America" becoming a cause for

    war and that an energetic development program of peaceful enterprises in the

    Canadian Northland would eventually serve to reconcile divergent interests,

    dissolve mutual suspicions, and develop understanding and respect among all the

    races and nations that share the roof of the world.

    034      |      Vol_XIII-0766                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Lingard: Administration of Canadian North


    Canada Debates of the House of Commons . Ottawa, annually.

    Dawaon, C. A. (Ed.) The New North-West . Toronto, 1947.

    Department of

    the Interior The North West Territories . Ottawa, 1930.

    Department of

    Mines and Re–

    sources An Outline of the Canadian Eastern Arctic. Ottawa, 1944.

    ----. The Northwest Territories . Ottawa, 1944.

    The Globe and Mail. Toronto.

    Hopkins, J. Castell The Canadian Annual Review of Public Affairs . Toronto.

    Lingard, C. C. Territorial Government of Canada . Toronto, 1946.

    Lloyd, Trevor "Canada's Strategic North." International Journal. April 1947.

    The New York Times

    Ordinances of the Yukon Territory. Ottawa.

    Canada Report of the Department of Mines and Resources . Ottawa,

    annually since 1937.

    Statutes of Canada . Ottawa.

    Weigert, Hans W.

    & Stefansson, V. Compass of the World . New York, 1947.

    The Yukon Territory . Ottawa, 1944 & 1947.


    C. Cecil Lingard

    001      |      Vol_XIII-0767                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General

    (C. G. Sheps)


            That part of Saskatchewan which is known as the "far north" is really

    a subarctic area. It has a population of ten thousand people widely scattered

    in very small settlements over an area of roughly 100,000 square miles, in

    which communication facilities as usually understood are largely unknown. The

    problems involved in providing adequate modern health services for these people

    present the same essential features found in providing health services to any

    rural population, except, of course, that they exist in this situation in a most

    aggravated form. The availability of medical and other technical personnel and

    also medical facilities is determined basically by the density (or sparsity)

    of population in the area, the economic status of this population, and, to a

    lesser degree, by its educational, social, and cultural level.

            It is immediately obvious that the "far north" of Saskatchewan fares poor–

    ly indeed in each of these respects. The small population, of which half is

    Treaty Indian, slightly more than one-third Metis, and the balance white, is

    not only poor and very sparsely settled, but has a tendency to be somewhat

    itinerant. The problem of health services for this area is further complicated

    by the fact that half its population, the Treaty Indians, are the responsibility

    of the Dominion Government through a division of its Department of National

    Health and Welfare. This makes planning for the area and its people as a whole


            The health services available in the "far north" are a reflection of the

    002      |      Vol_XIII-0768                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Sheps: Health Services in Northern Saskatchewan

    health program of the province as a whole. With respect to the distribution

    and accessibility of health facilities and technical personnel, the people of

    Saskatchewan have for many years been making steady progress in the collective

    provision of medical and hospital services. Much progress has been made since

    1944, with the election of a new government formed by the Cooperative Common–

    wealth Federation. This is a Canadian farmer-labor party patterned after the

    Labor Party in Britain. One of the basic planks in its platform is the expan–

    sion of health and welfare services. There has been a movement forward, as

    rapidly as possible, toward a provincial system of health services, by which

    it is intended that every resident, regardless of income and location, will have

    the benefit of scientific medicine and health services when he needs them.

            Previously the services and facilities available in the "far north" were:

    • (1) Payment of the costs of medical, dental, hospital care, and

      transportation for the destitute people. With the exception

      described in (2), these services were not made available in

      an organized fashion. Payment was simply made when and if

      the services had been rendered.
    • (2) Three outpost hospitals were in operation in settlements in

      cooperation with the Canadian Red Cross. One of these had

      a resident physician employed by the provincial health de–

    • (3) Emergency service, primarily for epidemics, from the above–

      mentioned physician or from the staff of the provincial de–

      partment of public health.

            In the past few years, several measures were carried out, either for the

    province as a whole or especially designed for this area, which have signifi–

    cantly improved health conditions in the "far north." These are:

    003      |      Vol_XIII-0769                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Sheps: Health Services in Northern Saskatchewan

    • (1) The establishment, in 1947, of a special division in the De–

      partment of Public Health, known as the Far North Division,

      and headed by a medical officer. This division takes the re–

      sponsibility of carrying on an organized public health program

      for this area, much as a local health department does in any

      local area. In addition to its preventive responsibilities,

      it is developing a program of providing diagnostic and curative

      medical services for this population.
    • (2) In 1947-48, three new "outpost hospitals" or nursing stations

      were built and placed in operation at strategic locations, such

      as Stoney Rapids in the Lake Athabaska area. These institu–

      tions have been specially designed to meet the needs and spec–

      ial problems of the area. A public health nurse is stationed

      at each of them at all times. She provides care for maternity

      cases and provides a basis of general care to the local residents,

      in addition to a preventive program. The hospitals are also

      outfitted for minor surgery to enable "traveling" doctors to

      perform operations of a minor nature when they make regular

      visits to the settlements. It is intended to operate the total

      of six such hospital outposts now available in a unified and

      coordinated fashion.
    • (3) In 1946, a regular Air Ambulance Service was organized by the

      Provincial Department of Public Health for the entire Province.

      Thus each medical emergency requiring aerial transportation

      from an isolated area to an adequate hospital no longer invol v es

      the working out of special arrangements. This service is available

      004      |      Vol_XIII-0770                                                                                                                  
      EA-Canada: General. Sheps: Health Services in Northern Saskatchewan

      whenever needed and is provided by a special force of ambul–

      ance planes operated by the health department. In the Far

      North, air ambulance service is available through the force

      of planes of the Department of Natural Resources regularly

      operating in this area. An important feature of this service

      is the fact that the cost need not be a deterrent in any in–

      stance. A nominal charge of $25.00 is made for a flight, re–

      gardless of distance traveled, and this fee is readily waived

      when it cannot be paid. Thus in 1947, such transportation

      was utilized by over 100 patients of the Far North.
    • (4) In 1947, hospitalization was provided to over 500 persons,

      slightly more then 10% of the total white and Metis population.
    • (5) On January 1, 1948, residents of the "far north" became eligible

      to participate in the Saskatchewan Hospital Services Plan on

      a voluntary basis, and many of them are reported to be taking

      advantage of the Service. This scheme was put into general

      effect the previous year and is compulsory for the rest of the

      province. By the payment of an annual fee of $5.00 per person,

      with a family maximum of $30.00, the scheme, which is operated and

      heavily subsiddzed by the Provincial Health Department, entitles

      the residents to a very broad range of hospital services without

      any charge. Thus the cost of hospital services is equalized,

      and no one need any longer fear a financially crippling hospital


            These are the basic improvements which have recently been made. Medical

    services, both preventive and curative, have been made more easily available,

    005      |      Vol_XIII-0771                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Sheps: Health Services in Northern Saskatchewan

    and the burden of their cost has been lightened by the use of subsidies from

    general tax funds and the use of the insurance principle. The further develop–

    ment of health services in this area is hampered by the fact that the Provincial

    Government is responsible for only one-half of the population, the whites and

    the metis, while the Dominion Government is respons bi ib le for the other half, the

    Treaty Indians.

            As mentioned above, the development of health services for the north is

    but a reflection of the developing health program for the province as a whole,

    with special features to deal with the special characteristics of this area.

    Furthermore, salutary effects on the health of these people are to be expected

    from the progressive developments in education and social welfare, as the pro–

    vincial program in these fields has broadened.


    C. G. Sheps, M.D.

    001      |      Vol_XIII-0772                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General

    (Department of Nat'l. Health & Welfare - G.F. Davidson, Minister)




            In the year 1919 an act was passed establishing the Department of

    National Health for the promotion of the health of the Canadian people.

    Prior to this time federal health activities were under the administration

    of several different departments. In 1927 the Department of Soldiers'

    Civil Re-establishment, which was responsible for the hospitalization

    and care of veterans in the World War I, was amalgamated with the Depart–

    ment of National Health to form the Department of Pensions and National

    Health. The Department of Pensions and National Health was dissolved

    in 1944 and separate Departments of National Health and Welfare, and

    Veterans' Affairs were established.

            In addition to its general public health activities, the National

    Health Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare assumes direct

    responsibility for the administration of health services to the natives

    of the Yukon and the Northwest Territories. The National Welfare branch

    administers the family allowance program, the National Physical Fitness

    Act, and carries out the federal responsibilities under the Dominion–

    provincial old age pension plan.

            The Honourable Brooke Claxton was appointed first Minister of the

    new Department. Major-General Brock Chisholm, was appointed Dep [ ?] ty Minister

    002      |      Vol_XIII-0773                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: The Department of National Health and Welfare

    of Health, and Dr. George F. Davidson, Deputy Minister of Welfare. In 1946

    Mr. Claxton assumed the portfol i o of National Defence and the Honourable

    Paul Martin became Minister of National Health and Welfare. On the appoint–

    ment of Dr. Chisholm as Executive Secretary of the Interim Commission of the

    World Health Organization, Dr. G.D.W. Cameron became Deputy Minister of




            The Department of Health and Welfare is divided into three branches

    for administrative purposes. The divisions and functions of each branch

    are outlined briefly below.

            1. Health Branch. The Blindness Control Division is responsible for the

    medical supervision of pensions for the civilian blind.

            The Child and Maternal Health Division collects, tabulates, and

    distributes information pertaining to child and maternal welfare and

    conducts research in the field of child and maternal health.

            The Civil Service Health Division provides clinical services and

    emergency medical and dental care to federal employees, together with

    disease prevention and control programs.

            The Dental Health Division is concerned with the improvement of

    dental health conditions and standards in Canada. Its functions include

    collection and distribution of professional information.

            The Epidemiology Division supplies epidemiological material to the

    department together with consultation and advice on epidemiology.

            Food and Drugs Directorate: (1) The Food and Drugs Division maintains

    five laboratories to test the quality and purity of domestic and imported

    goods, and to prevent adulteration and misbranding. (2) The Proprietary

    003      |      Vol_XIII-0774                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: The Department of National Health and Welfare

    and Patent Medicines Division reviews applications for registration and

    licensing of all secret formula non-pharmacopoeial medicines. (3) The

    Advertising and Labels Division determines policy in regard to the control

    of advertising in various media and labelling of food, drugs, and proprie–

    tary medicines.

            The Health Insurance Studies Division carries on research activities

    in health insurance and public medical care programs, and in problems con–

    nected with hospital facilities, and the medical, dental, and nursing services

    of Canada.

            The Hospital Design Division collects, tabulates, and makes available

    to the provinces all the latest information on hospital design, studies

    problems of construction in the provinces, advises them on the planning of

    buildings, and develops minimum standards as a guide for different types

    of public institutions.

            Indian Health Services are responsible for the complete health care

    of the Indian and Eskimo. This involves all phases of public health,

    including the provision of medical and surgical and nursing services,

    and the operation of departmental hospitals. Acute infectious diseases,

    tuberculosis, malnutrition, and venereal disease constitute the major health

    programs. Tubeculosis prevention and control programs together with

    venereal disease control campaigns are carried out on as wide a scale as

    possible. A study of eye infection problems in the north was carried out

    in 1947 and is reported on in a separate monograph.

            The Industrial Health Division makes a particular study of disease and

    health hazards in industry and the means of combatting them, and provides

    industry with the results of advances made in medical and related sciences.

    004      |      Vol_XIII-0775                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: The Department of National Health and Welfare

            The Industrial Health Laboratories provide scientific advice to

    industry through laboratory investigation of specific problems in the

    field of industrial health.

            The Mental Health Division is concerned with the improvement of mental

    health conditions and standards of care in Canada.

            The Narcotic Division supervises the legal trade in narcotics in an

    effort to keep in check the illegal traffic. The division also carries out

    Canada's commitments to the United Nations Narcotic Commission for the

    international control of the drug trade.

            The Nutrition Division is concerned with the improvement of the nutri–

    tional value of the people of Canada and carries on educational work in

    promoting the wiser use of foods. Research studies, including dietary

    and nutritional surveys and tabulations are also made. The division has

    conducted several courses for cooks and assistant cooks in Indian residen–

    tial schools. Food supply lists for three Indian hospitals have also

    been prepared by the division.

            A monograph on nutrition surveys conducted in the Arctic will be found


            The Public Health Engineering Division is responsible for the super–

    vision of drinking water, ice supplies, and milk used on railways, steam–

    ships, and other common conveyors, for sanitation at all federal construction

    projects, and for sanitary activities in the Northwest Territories.

            The Public Health Laboratories inspect and control the manufacture of

    all chemical products used for injection into humans; test the potency of

    all biological products for the same use and investigate [ ?] diseases peculiar

    to Canadians. The laboratorieshave also improved and standardized public

    005      |      Vol_XIII-0776                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: The Department of National Health and Welfare

    health techniques and introduced special diagnostic measures.

            The Quarantine, Immigration and Sick Mariners Services are responsible

    for the medical inspection of immigrants to Canada, for the enforcement

    of quarantine regulations to prevent the penetration into Canada of con–

    tagious diseases from abroad, and for giving medical care to mariners of

    all nationalities who may fall ill while their vessels are in a Canadian


            The Venereal Disease Control Division provides Leadership in the re–

    duction of venereal infection. Substantial financial grants are made to

    the provinces to assist control programs, for the purchase of drugs and

    educational materials used in combatting disease. An active interest is

    maintained in work among the native races.

            2. Welfare Branch . The Family Allowances Division is responsible for

    the administration of the Family Allowances Act which stipulates that

    mothers of children under sixteen years of age receive monthly cash grants

    to aid in the maintenance, care, training, education, and advancement of

    these children.

            Administration is carried out by each of the regional directors in

    the nine provincial capitals and, in addition, there is a director for the

    administration of allowances for the Yukon and Northwest Territories.

            The rates range from $5.00 to $8.00 a month depending on the age of

    the child. The program cost $364,000,000 in the fiscal year 1946.

            The Old Age Pensions Division administers the Dominion responsibilities

    in regard to the Old Age Pensions Act, and regulations concerning old age

    pensions and pensions for blind persons. Pensions are administered by the

    provinces on a means test basis. The Dominion pays 75 per cent of the

    006      |      Vol_XIII-0777                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: The Department of National Health and Welfare

    pension cost, while the provinces contribute the other 25 per cent, together

    with provincial administration costs.

            The Physical Fitness Division acts as a clearing house for information

    concerning physical fitness, recreation, community centers, and allied acti–

    vities. The division acts in a consultative capacity to the Indian Affairs

    Branch of the Department of Mines and Resources with regard to physical fit–

    ness programs in Indian residential schools.

            3. Administration Branch. The administration branch is responsible

    for carrying out administrative functions for both Health and Welfare

    Branches. Activities of the Branch include research, personnel management,

    legal advice, information services, purchase of supplies and equipment,

    preparation of budget and estimates, passing accounts for payment, and

    routine administrative duties.


    Department of National Health and Welfare, Canada

    G. F. Davidson, Minister

    001      |      Vol_XIII-0778                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General

    (Department of National Health and Welfare)


            An intensive survey of the economic, social, educational, and health

    conditions of the northern Indian in Canada was carried on during 1947-48.

    Purpose of the study was to examine the whole texture of Indian life and to

    obtain a sound basis on which plans for their assistance could be built.

            The survey, which was carried out in the James Bay area, was sponsored

    by a committee from the Canadian unoversities, headed by Dr. R. P. Vivian,

    professor of health and social medicine at McGill University, and financed

    by a grant of $12,000 from the Canadian Life Insurance officers association,

    with the balance being shared by the Indian Affairs Branch of the Department

    of Mines and Resources and the Indian Health Services Division of the Depart–

    ment of National Health and Welfare. A number of the investigation staff

    donated their services.

            Field surveys were carried out by specialists in agriculture, fur con–

    servation, fisheries, education, nutrition, economics, sociology, and various

    aspects of public health and welfare.

            More than 700 Indians in the James Bay area were given complete physical

    examinations during the course of the survey and about 500 were x-rayed for


            Heading the medical group of the research party was Dr. F. F. Tisdall,

    professor of pediatrics at the University of Toronto. Special scientific

    studies were done by Dr. W. H. Sebrell of the United States Public Health Service;

    002      |      Vol_XIII-0779                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Dept. Nat. Health & Welfare: Indian and Eskimo Health Surveys

    Dr. William C. McIntosh of the Royal College of Dental Surgeons, Toronto; Dr.

    P. E. Moore, Director of Indian Health Services, Department of National Health

    and Welfare; Dr. Elizabeth Chant Robertson of the Hospital for Sick Children,

    Toronto; Dr. Charles Macmillan of the Department of Health and Social Medicine,

    McGill University; Gordon Stockley, Toronto, X-ray technician loaned by the Ontar–

    io Health Department; Dr. Gordon Brown, Profesor of anthropology at the Univer–

    sity of Toronto, and Michel Sym, scientific photographer of Winnipeg.

            A similar study of the health and diet of the Eskimos was carried out on

    Southampton Island at the northern end of Hudson Bay, in 1947 by a group from

    Queen's University. The expedition was headed jointly by two Queen's University

    professors, Dr. Malcolm Brown, associate professor of medicine, and Dr. R. G.

    Sinclair, professor of biochemistry, who were accompanied by Dr. L. B. Cronk,

    Queen's medical graduate, and G. C. Clark.

            The expedition studied various aspects of the Eskimos' environment, par–

    ticularly with regard to food, and conducted a complete survey of their health.

            Between August 1 and September 12 these men traveled about the isolated

    island (approximately 150 miles long and 150 miles wide), visiting Eskimos at

    their camps, sampling their food, checking their health, and obtaining informa–

    tion. The whole native population of 140 Eskimos were examined. The method

    used in these surveys was novel; for the first time, instead of the Eskimos

    coming to a central ship or station, the doctors went to the Eskimos.

            The expedition was wholly under Queen's University control, but several

    government bodies, including The National Research Council, and Departments of

    National Health and Welfare, National Defense, and Transport, have taken an in–

    terest in the trip and donated funds or services. The survey reports are not yet

    (1948) available.


    Department of National Health and Welfare, Canada

    001      |      Vol_XIII-0780                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General

    (Department of National Health & Welfare - G.F. Davidson, Minister)


            The history of medical practice among the Eskimos of the Canadian

    Arctic is scattered throughout the writings of explorers, scientists,

    missionaries, police and other government authorities, Hudson's Bay

    Company records, and the publications of various scientific journals and

    books. These recordings cover the period from the time of the earliest

    contracts of our western civilization with these nomadic natives, and

    especially since the history-making explorations of Parry and Ross in

    the early part of the 19th century.

            Most of our earliest information regarding the health habits and

    practices of these interesting people is derived from the more or less

    casual remarks of lay observers interwoven with the stories of the day-to–

    day life of these primitive people and accounts of their religious super–

    stitions and beliefs. Until comparatively recent years the practice of

    scientific healing and preventive medicine has been unknown to them.

            The conception of and treatment of diseases by the Eskimos was, and

    still is to a large degree, similar to that of the Indian aborigines of

    the North American continent, and closely parallels that of Europe in the

    pre-Reformation [ ?] . It is on a par with other human groups in a similar

    cultural state. Wounds and disorders, the causes of which were evident,

    were regarded quite rationally and were so treated. Because of the climatic

    limitations of vegetation they lacked any knowledge of the art of concoctions

    002      |      Vol_XIII-0781                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: Medicine in the Canadian Arctic

    made from various animal tissues — bones, bone marrow, teeth, liver,

    heart, etc. They had no knowledge of the usual extracts, tinctures, wines,

    cathartics, antifebriles, and tonics. Narcotics and sedatives did not

    enter into the Eskimo pharmacopoeia.

            Whenever the cause of the complaint was obscure or when the condition

    appeared to be serious, and all ordinary help seemed to fail — particularly

    if the patient were a useful adult — the efforts were directed toward the

    supernatural. The condition was considered as an affliction caused by an

    offended malevolent spirit or deity. It was the spiteful visitation of a

    secret enemy or the magic of a sorcerer. The propitiation of a deity or

    spirit could only be accomplished by accomplished by a supernaturally endowed individual,

    the shaman, generally a man, known to the white man as the "medicine man."

    Most of these specialists became imbued with their high function and power

    and developed into what is best described as "priest-healer." They exer–

    cised a great, and at times a beneficial, influ c ence in the community apart

    from the healing art. If, as often happened, the shaman's powers did not

    avail, the repeated failures were accepted as a sign that he had lost his

    occult gift and had turned sorcerer. This meant his downfall as a true

    healer and counselor.

            There was no established systematic surgery; nevertheless medicine

    men and special healers were more or less adept in treating wounds, in

    bone setting, and in the reduction of dislocations. They had a knowledge

    of the use of sutures made from sinew for closing gaping wounds and con–

    trolling haemmorrhage. Haemostasis by cautery was not unknown. Maggots

    were considered beneficial in the treatment of chronic ulcers and bone

    disease. Blood-letting was a common practice. The healing art of the

    003      |      Vol_XIII-0782                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: Medicine in the Canadian Arctic

    Eskimos could be summed up as a combination of primitive art, empirical

    practice, and psychiatric treatment.

            Obstetrical practice was confined to the older woman of the community.

    The attendance of young, unmarried women was frowned upon. Mechanical

    means of interference during labor, other than abdominal pressure by

    various methods to assist the bearing-down process, were unknown.

            The position assumed by the expectant mother was that of kneeling in

    a semi-knee-chest posture. Postpartum infections were rare occurrences

    and maternal mortality through accidents of childbirth not common. Cases

    of brachial plexus palsies as the probable result of difficult labor have

    been noted by medical observers. By and large Eskimo childbearing was,

    and still is, regarded as a normal physiological procedure. Various

    explorers have remarked on the minimum interference with the nomadic

    routine caused by the process of childbearing. Rest for the new mother

    was not considered essential except in rare instances.

            From what can be gleaned from reliable recordings it is correct to

    state that epidemic diseases much as whooping cough, measles, scarlet fever,

    diphtheria, smallpox, and venereal diseases were unknown in the Canadian

    Eskimo Arctic prior to their introduction by white visitors. With the

    intrusion of the commercial fur trade, however, many communities were

    ravaged by epidemics, and, lacking a natural resistance or knowledge of

    treatment, the results were serious. In both eastern and western Arctic

    typhoid fever became endemic and was controlled only by the wholesale

    inoculation of the districts involved. With the opening up of Yukon

    Territory toward the close of the 19th century, by the discovery of gold

    in paying quantities, there came a migration of prospectors and miners

    and what had been an almost unknown arctic region became a swarming hive

    004      |      Vol_XIII-0783                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: Genera. Davidson: Medicine in the Canadian Arctic

    of gold-seeking whites. The public health problem became acute and was

    met by health officers attached to the Royal Northwest Mounted Police.

    These doctors rendered notable service to the natives, as well as to the

    invaders, by the enforcement of public health measures.

            Early records of medical officers who became famous explorers are

    replete with information regarding the customs and habits of the Canadian

    Eskimos. They provide, however, very little actual information concerning

    health and disease. All stress the near starvation level of both Indian

    and Eskimo.

            Sir John Richardson, surgeon and naturalist with the first and second

    Franklin Expeditions, in 1819-22 and 1825-27, and later in 1847, in charge

    of a Franklin search party in the Queen Maud Gulf area, made many notable

    contributions to the general knowledge of the Arctic. In the field of

    medicine he confined his duties to the care of his immediate companions.

            Richard King, R. N. S., who accompanied Captain George Back in 1833-35

    on an expedition of exploration from Fort Resolution to Adelaide Peninsula

    and along the arctic coast, was very critical of the treatment of the

    Indians and Eskimos by the white man and roundly condemned the supplying of

    alcoholic liquor to them. He thought that alcohol and malnutrition would

    soon cause the natives to die off.

            Sir John Rae, F. R. C. S. in his expeditions in 1846-47 up the west coast

    of Hudson Bay and into the Committee Bay region remarked on the robust

    health of the natives and on their peaceful cooperation. He received a

    report from a wandering Eskimo from the Igloolik area of an epidemic disease

    that had caused the deaths of 29 adults. Children were not seriously affected.

    He concluded that the condition must have been influenza. The same native

    005      |      Vol_XIII-0784                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: Medicine in the Canadian Arctic

    had wooden and metal pieces from the wreck of the Fury , of the Parry expe–

    dition. The infection may have been introduced by British sailors, but,

    if so, Presumably by more recent visitors than those of the Fury .

            Ever since the earliest voyages of British whalers to Baffin Island

    and Lancaster Sound, in the mid-eighteenth century, silors have remarked

    on an epidemic form of the common cold that invariably followed a few days

    after a ship's arrival at a settlement. Danish reports from Greenland

    dwell on the same theme, and more recent reports from the Eastern Arctic

    patrol of the R. M. S. Nascopie have come to accept ship-time colds as the

    annual inevitable result of this contact. The infection usually wears

    itself out in three or four weeks and is seldom serious in its sequel.

    There is no evidence of an acquired protective immunity.

            In 1926, Peter Heinbecker and other medical scientists under the

    auspices of the American Museum of Natural History visited Greenland's

    west coast and Baffin Island and carried out a series of bacteriological

    and haemotological investigations among the Eskimos. He repeated the

    voyages to the Canadian Eastern Arctic islands in 1931, working with

    Canadian government officials. The findings of these researches have

    been recorded in several technical medical publications. In blood grouping

    tests he reported that Eskimos of pure racial stock all fell into Group I

    and those of mixed blood are Group II. Any variations were too rare to

    warrant notice.

            Heinbecker carried out a thorough survey on both expeditions of

    oral bacilli from Eskimo throats. In no instance did he find evidence

    of sore throats, past or present. The buccal flora he reported as similar

    to that of the average American community. He remarked on one case of

    006      |      Vol_XIII-0785                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: Medicine in the Canadian Arctic

    dental caries in a young Eskimo girl at Dundas Harbour, Devon Island.

    This child was the daughter of an Eskimo family employed at the R. C. M. P.

    post and had been living largely on police rations.

            From throat cultures he identified corynebacterium in a large per–

    centage of young people and found positive Schick tests in a majority of

    the children up to 12 years of age. The same test was negative for all

    adults. In the area surveyed he could get no history of epidemic sore

    throats. The Canadian Survey covered 329 Eskimos of all age groups, both


            For several years a dental clinic has been a valuable part of the East–

    ern Arctic Patrol. This service has been profitable by demonstrating that

    the Eskimo livingly his native foods of seal meat, caribou, walrus meat,

    whale, and fish does not suffer from dental caries and destructive gum

    infections to the same extent as do the white population of Canada. Dental

    decay is rare in the older age groups. This conditions is reversed when the

    natives are employed for a considerable time by government or other white-man

    agencies. The Eskimo women's way of rendering skins pliable for making

    clothing and footwear by chewing, has caused marked flattening of the teeth

    by erosion without causing infection and decay. This is the constant dis–

    closure of dentists and doctors who have had opportunity to investigate.

            On the Eastern Arctic patrols of 1946-47 the Canadian Institute for

    the Prevention of Blindness directed the services of ophthalmologists and

    optometrists. These specialists rendered treatment where indicated and

    supplied glasses where required. The over-all visual findings discloses

    that serious ophthalmic disabilities are rare, apart from occasional injuries

    due to accidents. The most useful service was that of supplying well-fitted

    007      |      Vol_XIII-0786                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: Medicine in the Canadian Arctic

    glasses to the elderly people to assist in sewing and reading. When it is

    considered that for a considerable portion of the year the natural light is

    dim at the best and that the lighting of the native igloo or tent is wretched,

    it is remarkable that there is little evidence that the Eskimo way of life

    has caused deterioration of visual acumen. Transient disability due to

    snowblindness does not appear to cause permanent ophthalmic damage.

            Accounts in lay literature concerning the incidence of tuberculosis

    among Canadian Eskimos indicate that it followed closely after the earliest

    contacts with civilization. Medical literature and governmental reports

    tell that this disease has long been endemic among these people. Clinical,

    bacteriological, and x-ray findings all go to prove that tubercular

    infection is not of recent introduction in the Arctic, as shown by the

    number of arrested and apprently healed cases of lung and bone disease.

    During the 1946 Eastern Arctic Patrol, a clinical and x-ray survey was made

    of a large number of the inhabitants of Hudson Bay and Straits and the

    Eastern Arctic islands. An excellent cross-section of the population was

    obtained. A brief summary of this research is as follows:

    Number of Eskimos X-rays and examined 1,347
    Cross-section survey per cent of population 36%
    Number of active cases 5.9%
    Number of arrested cases 4.7%

            The conclusion drawn is that there is evidence of widespread tubercu–

    larization of the Eastern Arctic Eskimos, and a high resistance to the

    disease as shown by the high percentage of calcified lesions in apparently

    healthy robust people. None of the cases in the survey had received

    hospital care up to the time of survey.

            An analysis of birth statistics for the Arctic shows that fertility

    is highest in the late spring, as disclosed by the higher birth rate in

    December, January, February, and March. These are the cold, stormy, dark

    008      |      Vol_XIII-0787                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: Medicine in the Canadian Arctic

    months when basic native foods are hard to come by and when traveling is

    most difficult. Infant deaths also run highest during these severe months.

    The over-all death rate for Eskimo children under five years old is about

    fifty percent of all deaths. The chief cause assessed is malnutrition.

    The expectant mother is ill-nourished and is the one to suffer most in the

    near starvation period. The newborn child is weak and undernourished because

    of the depleted nutrition of the mother. The child of a year or more

    suffers from malnutrition during the critical periods of weaning and first

    dentition when proper auxiliary foods are not available because of isolation.

            The proper collection of vital statistics for these nomadic people is

    most difficult and the submission incomplete. Most births and deaths odour

    without contact with white people, not to mention doctor or nurse, till long

    after the events. With the present cultural development, conditions cannot

    be otherwise. As a result 45% of all deaths are registered as "cause unknown."

    There is no record of incompleted pregnancies. What proportion of early

    infant deaths are due to early tubercular infections cannot be accurately

    known, but it can be conjectured that with the widespread prevalence of the

    disease this may be a prime factor in the high mortali e ty rate for infants.

    Malnutrition and tuberculosis are compatible partners. The population

    theory of Malthus is well exemplified in the Canadian Arctic, i.e.,

    "population invariably increases where the means of subsistance increases

    unless prevented by very powerful checks."

            Organized medical service in the Canadian Arctic, Yukon Territory

    excepted, was inaugurated in 1926 with the establishment of denominational

    hospitals at Aklavik, in the Mackenzie River Delta, by the Anglican and

    Roman Catholic churches. Both these institutions were subsidized by the

    Canadian government and medical and nursing personnel paid from the same

    009      |      Vol_XIII-0788                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: Medicine in the Canadian Arctic

    source through the Department of the Interior, the administrative body at

    that time. In the Eastern Arctic the same pattern was followed, the

    religious bodies taking the initiative. A hospital was established at

    Pangnirtung, Cumberland Sound, Baffin Island, in 1928 by the Anglican

    Church. In 1931 the Oblate Fathers of the Roman Catholic Church erected

    a hospital at Chesterfield Inlet. Both these institutions maintain homes

    for the aged and infirm. The Canadian government assumed financial support

    as in the cases of the Aklavik arrangements.

            There was little extention of these health services up to and during

    the period of World War II. In November 1945 all health affairs were taken

    over by the Department of National Health and Welfare. At this time all

    Indian and Eskimo health was transferred from the Department of Mines and

    Resources to the newly formed Department. Previous to this the old Depart–

    ment of Pensions and National Health had acted in an advisory capacity only.

            Before and since the introduction of hospitals into the Arctic, medical

    doctors have accompanied the annual Eastern Arctic patrol of the Hudson's

    Bay Company's ice-breaker, R. M. S. Nascop i e into Hudson Strait and Bay and

    the eastern arctic islands. This patrol gave opportunity to contact about

    one-third of the Eskimo population The immediate function of these doctors

    was to provide skilled aid to presenting cases. Their most valuable con–

    tribution has been the collection of reliable information about the health

    and cultural conditions of these nomadic people with the view of eventually

    formulating an adequate medical service.

            Any summary of arctic medicine would be inadequate and incomplete without

    Proper acknowledgment of the unselfish and wholehearted contribution of the

    scattered white population of these remote regions of Canada. Missionaries,

    010      |      Vol_XIII-0789                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: Medicine in the Canadian Arctic

    traders, trappers, explorers, scientists, R. C. M. Police, and government

    officials of the several departments, have since the earliest history of

    the North, been keenly interested in the health and welfare of the Eskimos.

    A great deal of the accumulated knowledge of the needs of these primitive

    people toward improved health and economic and cultural development has

    been provided by the day-to-day service rendered and the intimate association

    of our arctic pioneers with the receptive natives. Any anticipated extension

    of medical aid and preventive health will still depend to a large degree on

    the active cooperation of laymen and women domiciled at arctic outposts.

            Radio communications have proved a real boon to both the Eskimos and

    all those trying to serve them. Facilities for intercommunication by this

    means have been established at almost all remote posts by the Canadian Corps

    of Signals, by the Department of Transport, Radio Division, and by the

    Hudson's Bay Company. Laymen as an everyday procedure consult with doctors

    at the established hospital centers or direct with National Health headquarters.

    Diagnosis is attempted from case histories and treatment prescribed as a

    matter of daily routine. This modern auxiliary service is constantly proving

    of real worth.

            With the establishment of strategically placed signal stations and the

    remarkable development of successful weather forecasting, aviation in

    Arctic Canada has become the accepted mode of travel. With the recognition

    of the importance of the Arctic to military continental defense there has

    been a rapid development of arctic aviation. This has resulted in the

    possibility of allowing the medical services to extend prompt aid both in

    the [ ?] transportation of skilled medical personnel and the transfer of patients

    from remote areas to places where modern facilities for the treatment of

    011      |      Vol_XIII-0790                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: Medicine in the Canadian Arctic

    diseases and injuries are available. A new vista for the extension of

    arctic medical service has been opened by the inventive genius and courage

    of manking. We are on the threshold of a vastly improved opportunity to

    take modern science to these primitive deserving people.


    Department of National Health and Welfare, Canada

    G. F. Davidson, Minister

    (Prepared by H. W. Lewis, M.D.)

    001      |      Vol_XIII-0791                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General

    Canada: Dept. of National Health & Welfare (G.F. Davidson, Minister)


            The Canadian Family Allowances program performs an interesting and

    important function in the far north of Canada, where considerable success

    has attended the adaptation of this national welfare scheme to nomadic and

    seminomadic aboriginal peoples living in sparsely settled areas where

    extreme climate and great distances render normal communication difficult.

            The Family Allowances Act, 1944, under which the program is adminis–

    tered, was introduced for the purpose of equalizing opportunity for all the

    children of Canada and provides for allowances to families in respect of

    virtually all children under sixteen years of age who qualify under the

    provisions of the Act governing maintenance, residence, and school attendance.

    The allowances are paid out of the consolidated revenue fund of the Dominion,

    are noncontributory, and involve no means test. The rates range from $5.00

    a month for children under six years of age to $8.00 for those thirteen to

    fifteen, with reduction of $1.00 for the fifth child, $2.00 for the sixth

    and seventh, and $3.00 for each additional child. Payment is normally made

    to the mother, though any person substantially maintaining the child is

    eligible to receive the allowances on its behalf and, if parental misuse

    is proved, the Director of Family Allowances may order that payment made

    on behalf of the child to another person or agency.

            Although 75 per cent of Canada's Indian population receive payment of

    the allowances by cheque, in the same manner as the white population, a

    002      |      Vol_XIII-0792                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: Family Allowances

    payment in kind system has been adopted for the northern Indians and

    Eskimos because of their nomadic life and the limited trading and banking

    facilities available to them, and because of the benefits that can be

    obtained by guiding the purchases of persons still unfamiliar with many

    of the foods and other commodities that would be most useful to them.

            There are several reasons why Family Allowances meet a special and

    acute need in northern Canada.

            The dependence of most of the native population on hunting, trapping,

    and fishing, and, despite occasional high incomes during good times es–

    pecially among the western Eskimos, the nearness to the subsistence level

    at which they live, means that children are quickly and seriously affected

    when game becomes scarce in any area, or during low periods in the fox

    cycle when large areas of the north are affected. The situation of the

    child in the far north is, in addition, rendered more precarious than in

    other regions through the restriction imposed on a man's earning capacity

    by conditions in the area in which he lives, which of course affect most

    adversely the head of a family where the children are not yet of working

    age. Climatic conditions and the difficulty of establishing any compre–

    hensive welfare system comparable to what is available in the south add

    to these difficulties so that any program which offers specific aid to

    children is of major importance.

            Another important consideration has been the increasing deterioration

    in the diet of the native peoples. With the advance of the white man into

    the north there has been a tendency for the Indian and Eskimo to adopt

    the diet of trappers and traders more interested in easily portable foods

    than in balanced nutritive values. Tea a [ ?] d bannock had come to be used to

    such an extent as seriously to unbalance the native diet. Milk was generally

    003      |      Vol_XIII-0793                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: Family Allowances

    used only as a flavor for tea, and powdered milk had never been used to any

    great extent. Because of lack of opportunity to acquire a taste for such

    nutritive foods as powdered milk and fruit juices, there had been no demand

    for them and consequently they were not stocked by traders.

            A primary object of the program has consequently been the direction of

    additional purchasing power provided by the allowances to foods which are

    most suitable to complement existing diets, and to articles specially adapted

    to the welfare of the child.

            Due to the different conditions under which the Indians and Eskimos

    live, the method of administering Family Allowances to them has differed

    and the different procedures are dealth with separately here.


    Administration of Allowances to the Indian

            The 793 Indian families and 2,052 Indian children in the Yukon and

    Northwest Territories are scattered throughout the north, the largest con–

    centrations being at Whitehorse and Carcross in the Yukon, and at Fort

    Resolution, Fort Norman, Fort Simpson, Aklavik, Fort McPherson and Fort

    Smith in the Northwest Territories.

            Each Indian agent is responsible for the registration of eligible

    Indian children in his area and payment of the allowances is the responei–

    bility of the Regional Director for the area. The Indian mother indicates

    the trader she wishes to patronize and the agent makes the necessary arrange–

    ments with him. Traders are supplied with a list of articles (see Appendix A)

    which may be purchased through the allowances, and their credit vouchers are

    inspected by officials of the Indian Affairs Branch before being approved

    for payment, so that a control is maintained over expenditure of allowance


    004      |      Vol_XIII-0794                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: Family Allowances

            The educational aspects of the program have been particularly important

    in the administration of the allowances to the Indian, who because of his

    relative nearness to civilization, as compared to the Eskimo, has not only

    been more adversely affected by unselective adoption of the white man's

    diet, but can be more readily instructed in the adoption of its best features.

    The combined list of food and clothing authorized for issue through Family

    Allowances to the Indians, shown in Appendix A, is specially drawn up to

    accomplish this purpose.

            Through it the purchase of milk, fruit juices, pablum, Canada-approved

    vitamin B flour, and other hitherto little used foods is encouraged. Intended

    to combat deficiencies common to Indian children in the trapping and hunting

    areas, as well among those living close to the trading post, the list of

    foodstuffs was compiled on the advice of the Indian Health Services in

    consultation with experts in the nutrition field. In the same way the

    purchase of layettes, woollens, toothpaste and brushes, and other necessary

    articles is encourages. Special provision is also made, through an emergency

    list, for articles indirectly necessary to children, such as stoves, axes,

    and cooking utensils, the purchase of which is approved only when essential

    to the well-being of the family. However as Family Allowancess are intended

    primarily for [ ?] se of the child, ordinary staples of diet such as lard and

    baking powder are not considered a proper charge against them and are

    omitted from the list.

            This system has had a profound and far-reaching influence by providing

    encouragement for traders to stock these items formerly considered a poor

    risk and by educating the Indian people, both young and old, in the use of

    these foods and their proper preparation. The first results are already

    005      |      Vol_XIII-0795                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: Family Allowances

    evident in the greatly increased use of approved food and clothing and

    through the cooperation which is being extended to this scheme by traders.

    While it is still very early to evaluate the effect on the health of the

    Indian children, an improvement has been noted by medical observers which

    may be attributed at least in part to Family Allowances.

            As the welfare of the child is inseparably tied to the prosperity

    of the breadwinner, expenditure may also be made for the purchase of items

    of hunting and trapping equipment wherever, in the Agent's discretion,

    large accumulations of credit can be applied to furthering [ ?]

    the welfare of the family unit as a whole and therefore indirectly benefiting

    the child. However, as regular an issue of the Family Allowances as circum–

    stances permit has generally been encouraged and the accumulation of large

    credits discouraged.

            In contradiction to the Eskimo, the Indian does not constitute a

    homogeneous unit and, while largely engaged in hunting and trapping, also

    makes his living in many other ways. This variation in mode of life has

    made necessary a flexible policy to accommodate the great variety of

    conditions encountered. Particular difficulties have arisen through the

    inevitable maladjustments resulting from application to individual cases

    of a system adapted to the needs of the whole native population in the few

    communities where whites, Indians, Eskimos, and breeds intermingle and are

    engaged in a variety of occupations. An attempt is made to handle in a

    manner as satisfactory to the individual as possible the rather difficult

    problems that arise in such places, so long as the efficiency of the whole

    scheme is not affected. The method of administration is not rigid nor

    fial in form. As circumstances change and in the light of experience

    gained procedures are modified or altered.

    006      |      Vol_XIII-0796                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: Family Allowances


    Administration of Allowances to the Eskimo

            Three major considerations govern payment of Family Allowances to

    the Eskimos. The first is the difficulty of transportation to and between

    extremely remote posts and settlements, which in some cases have contact

    with the outside world only once or twice a year. The second is the inad–

    visability of allowing the Eskimo to become dependent to any great extent

    on white man's food, which he can obtain only at irregular intervals. The

    third is the close relationship between prosperity of the Eskimo and the

    variations of the fox cycle on which it depends.

            As these factors make it impossible for credit to be extended by

    cheque, or for a payment-in-kind system identical with that adopted for

    the northerin Indian, a flexible scheme for administering the allowances

    in kind has been evolved, which is designed to assist parents to provide

    a livelihood for their children under natural conditions, to supplement

    the native diet by nutritive food essential to children, and to ensure

    that credits are available when they are most needed.

            The large majority of the 8,000 Eskimos in Canada, 1,207 of the 1,569

    families and 3,009 of the 3,902 children registered for allowances, live

    in the Eastern Arctic, including northern Quebec. The climate and the great

    distances that must be covered often result in a lapse of many months before

    payment commences or is received for a child, with the result that large

    accumulations of credit are built up, which when an opportunity arises for

    payment, must be expended in such a way as to last for long periods.

            As the Eskimo is essentially a hunter and fisherman, and as the well–

    being of his children depends almost entirely on his ability to find a

    living within the limits of his own environment, the allowances may be

    007      |      Vol_XIII-0797                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: Family Allowances

    used in any way which helps him to carry on his work. Whaling boats and

    hunting and fishing supplies are thus among the many articles which may be

    purchased from Family Allowance credits. Study has indicated, however,

    that small Eskimo children would benefit substanti c ally from the addition

    to the normal native diet of the high nutritive values contained in

    powdered milk and pablum. Special arrangements have therefore been made

    for these foods (which have the great advantage of being easily and safely

    stored under arctic conditions, by both the trader and by the native, when

    more perishable articles such as b [ ?] tter are liable to deterioration) to be

    supplied so that they can be constantly used.

            Credits can be made available only at irregular internals and are

    generally extended as they are required. During high periods of the fox

    cycle they may be allowed to accumulate for bad times, when they constitute

    a special form of benefit for children over and above the assistance which

    has been available in the past through the grubstake of the trader or

    direct government relief.

            Family Allowances to the Eskimos are administered through the agency

    of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, who exercise control over the amount

    and variety of goods which may be received by any one family. In the far

    north and particularly in the Eastern Arctic, these officers undertake

    many administrative tasks as registration of vital statistics and completion

    of Family Allowances application forms, in addition to law enforcement.

    Their special knowledge of family circumstances and of the conditions in

    any area enables them to give expert advice on expenditure of the allowances.


    Evaluation of Family Allowances Program in Northern Canada

            While the method of payment of Family Allowances to the Indian and

    Eskimo has thus diverged from practice in other parts of Canada, it is felt

    008      |      Vol_XIII-0798                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: Family Allowances

    that a comprehensive basic welfare scheme has been adapted with consider–

    able success to isolated and nomadic peoples, and that the major difficul–

    ties encountered have been successfully overcome.

            While apprehension was originally felt in some quarters as to the

    effects of Family Allowances on the working habit of the Indian and Eskimo,

    surveys have revealed that, except in isolated cases, there has been no

    neglect of traplines or other work as a consequence of this additional

    source of income. The contrary has rather been the rule. Correction of

    diet deficiencies has on the whole increased the level of efficiency and

    usefulness of the native family, as well as giving the children a fuller

    and happier life.

            Some idea of the value of the service which has bean performed may

    be obtained by consideration of the amounts of credit extended from the

    inception of the Family Allowance program to the end of 1947. In 1947

    payment of allowances was made in respect of 7,081 children in the Yukon

    and Northwest Territories, 2,052 of whom were Indian, 3,023 Eskimo, and

    2,006 white. Since the Allowance began $332,366 has been paid on behalf

    of Indian, $550,781 on behalf of Eskimo, and $244,763 on behalf of white

    children. (Apparent larger sums paid to Indian and Eskimo families, as

    compared to their actual numbers, are due to the policy of commencing

    payment in respect of white children only after birth has been reported,

    whereas payment is made in full retroactively for native children irres–

    pective of date of registration.) Although a number of Eskimo families

    in isolated regions had not yet been contacted, registration of all Indian

    and white children was considered complete by 1947, and only new births

    were being reported by that time.

    009      |      Vol_XIII-0799                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: Genera. Davidson: Family Allowances

            While methods are constantly being studied to improve administration

    of the allowances to both Indians and Eskimos, it is felt that a flexible

    and efficient scheme has been evolved which, as far as is possible, appears

    to offer to the Indian and Eskimo children of the far north advantages

    comparable to those enjoyed by other Canadian children under the Family

    Allowances Program.

    010      |      Vol_XIII-0800                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Davidson: Family Allowances




    Combined List of Food and Clothing Authorized for Issue under Family

    Allowances to Indians of the Yukon and Northwest Territories .



            (Specially selected to augment and supplement the Indian diet with foods

    that will give Indian children proper nutrition).

            Milk, fresh, evaporated, or dried

    Canned tomatoes or tomato juice

    Grapefruit juice

    Rolled oats

    Pablum - for children up to 8 years of age

    Pork luncheon meat (Spork, Klick, Prem, etc.)

    Dried prunes and apricots


    Butter, fresh or canned

    Eggs, fresh

    Eggs, Grade "A" dried in powdered form (Canadian products)

    Green vegetables

    Dehydrated vegetables

    Flour, Canada-approved Vitamin B


    Peas and beans

    Sugar, corn syrup, or molasses

    Marmalade or jam

    Fresh meat


    Tinned soups


    Clothing (for Indian children)

    Layettes Flannelette and woolen material
    Gum rubbers Woollen underwear (Fleece-lined must
    Yarn not be supplied)
    Thread Shirts
    Needles Mitts
    Boots and moccasins Soaps, laundry and toilet
    Dress material Toothbrushes
    Caps Toothpaste and tooth powder

    Special List (An emergency list which is to be issued only on authorization of the Indian Agent to cover special circumstances)
    Rifles or shotguns Canvas Saws
    Canoes Camp stoves Traps and snare wire
    Ammunition Axes Cooking utensils
    Nets Files


    Department of Health and National Welfare,


    001      |      Vol_XIII-0801                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General

    (C. H. D. Clarke)



    Native Game Preserves

            Most of the area of Arctic Canada forms part of what is known as a Native

    Game Preserve. To understand this term, which falls a little short of being

    self-explanatory, it is necessary to understand the history of wildlife manage–

    ment in the Northwest Territories, of which this preserve is a development.

            The extermination of the bison on the prairies made a profound impression

    on the public mind. The "Act for the preservation of game in the unorganized

    portions of the North-west Territories of Canada," 1894, applying to the Atha–

    baska, Mackenzie, and Keewatin areas, starts off by prohibiting the molestation

    of bison — there were actually still bison to protect. It also takes notice

    of the far northern species, and was adequate for all purposes until the North–

    west Game Act was passed in 1917. During this time the century-old Hudson's

    Bay Company management of the interior was broken by the Klondike gold rush,

    Which resulted in the settling of white trappers (actually stranded prospectors)

    in the North, and, of course, the separation of the Yukon Territory. The whal–

    ing industry on both eastern and western arctic coasts also developed into organ–

    ized fur trading, affecting such species of game as musk ox and caribou.

            Information on the destruction of game that was accompanying the opening

    of the North was responsible for the passing by the Canadian Parliament of the

    Northwest Game Act of 1917. To a considerable extent it was the work of Dr. C.

    002      |      Vol_XIII-0802                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Clarke: Wildlife Preserves and Sanctuaries in Arctic Canada

    Gordon Hewitt, author of The Conservation of the Wild Life of Canada and made

    provision for full-scale wildlife management, as understood at that time, with

    close season and licenses but containing no provision for sanctuaries.

            The passage of the Act, which took a couple of years to become effective,

    was well timed. Fur prices were rising and white trappers had reached remotest

    areas. Coronation Gulf, where caribou migrated across the frozen straits into

    the Canadian Arctic Islands, became open to competitive trading. Finally the

    Norman oil rush and the Waterways boom took newcomers, all of whom were potential

    trappers and traders, into the North. The oil rush led to the establishment, in

    1922, of a Territorial Administration which took over the administration of the

    Northwest Game Act, which had, for lack of a better authority, been vested orig–

    inally in the Commissioner of Dominion Parks. Under his guidance the Act had

    been amended in 1920 to provide for the creation of preserves. This was probably

    originally meant to pave the way for the establishment of the Wood Buffalo Park.

            The bearings and report of the Royal Commission on Reindeer and Musk ox

    called forth a number of first-hand accounts of the depletion of game. It became

    evident that the Coronation Gulf caribou herd was being destroyed. That there

    were many separate herds of caribou or that early accounts of their numbers were

    often exaggerated was not fully realized and there was some fear that the Barren

    Ground species was menaced.

            The depletion of musk oxen, some herds of caribou, beaver, marten, and lynx

    recalls the fact familiar to readers of Mason's Bourgeois de la Compagnie du

    Nord-Ouest , that beaver were depleted along the Mackenzie in the early years of

    the last century. The biological resources of any arctic or suberctic area can

    be exploited to the full only when there is an adequate fund of scientific infor–

    mation. The increment of plants and animals is slow. Where knowledge is deficient

    003      |      Vol_XIII-0803                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Clarke: Wildlife Preserves and Sanctuaries in Arctic Canada

    and there is a threat of depletion, the only way to maintain the resource is

    to play safe. The responsible Canadian authorities were keenly conscious that

    the natives of the territories were dependent upon game. They were also motivat–

    ed by Canadian and outside interest in native welfare, and in the preservation

    of wildlife. Under pressure, therefore, from missions, police, administrators,

    and even traders who were protagonists of native welfare, in 1923 the "sanctuary"

    proviso of the Northwest Game Act was used to establish by Order-in-Council,

    241,800 square miles of preserves where only native Indians, Eskimos, and half–

    breeds were allowed to hunt.

            Despite hostile criticism, these preserves, which have become known as

    native game preserves, must be considered a successful administrative expedient.

    More area was added in 1926, 1938, 1942, and 1945.

            Native game preserves do not exclude hunting by explorers and prospectors,

    and the privilege [ ?] of hunting for food and recreation, and trapping for

    recreation, up to $100 worth of fur per annum, may be extended to residents,

    but these privileges have been jealously guarded. Trapping by white trappers

    is excluded except in more recently established preserves where it is allowed

    to those already established.

            The 241,800 square miles set aside in 1923 were made up of the following:

    Back River Preserve 65,500 square miles
    Victoria Island Preserve 74,400 square miles
    Banks Island Preserve 26,400 square miles
    Peel River Preserve 3,300 square miles
    Slave River Preserve 2,200 square miles
    Yellowknife Preserve 70,000 square miles

            The settlement of Resolution has since been excluded from the Slave River

    004      |      Vol_XIII-0804                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Clarke: Wilflife Preserves and Senctuaries in Arctic Canada

    Preserve. The Peel River Preserve has been brought up to 7,300 square miles

    by the inclusion of an area in Yukon. In 1926, the Banks, Victoria, and Back

    River preserves were merged with a much larger area to form the Arctic Islands

    Preserve, including all the watershed of the arctic mainland, Melville and Boothia

    peninsulas, the northwestern part of Baffin Island, and all the islands lying

    to the north and west. This was enlarged again, in 1942, to include the islands:

    Southampton, Coats, Nottingham, Salisbury, Resolution, Loks Land, and Bylot, and

    the remainder of Baffin Island. In 1945, the mainland south to Chesterfield In–

    let was included.

            In 1938, another area, the Mackenzie Mountains, was added. The principal

    fur animal here, the marten, had become depleted except in the most remote places

    and these were threatened by trappers using aircraft. It should be noted that

    in the years 1936-40, the use of aircraft to reach remote trapping grounds be–

    came universal and was adopted even by some Indians.

            The first series of preserves clearly had in mind the protection of caribou

    and the preservation of particularly good trapping areas for the use of natives.

    The Order of 1926, establishing the Arctic Islands Preserve and including within

    the "native preserve" area the large uninhabited islands north of Lancaster and

    Melville sounds may be said to have had, at least in part, a political motive.

    To make an area a game preserve is an act of sovereignty and at the same time

    an excuse for its being uninhabited. That it should be a native game preserve

    might be interpreted as an expression of policy destining the biological re–

    sources of these islands for the ultimate use of Eskimos, but it is open to

    doubt that any policy of this nature was actually formulated at the time.

            There are a number of trading posts in these preserves. The declared policy

    of the administration has been to license posts inside preserves only where the

    005      |      Vol_XIII-0805                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Clarke: Wilflife Preserves and Sanctuaries in Arctic Canada

    welfare of the natives is advanced thereby.

            Native game preserves have no wardens and are protected in part by the

    readiness of natives to report intruders and by the fear on the part of the

    white trappers of losing trapping privileges. The following are preserves as

    they now stand (1947):

    • 1. Yellowknife . Established September 22nd, 1923, 70,000 square miles.

      This is one of the original preserves and has been the subject of some contro–

      versy. Since its establishment it has become the seat of nearly all the pros–

      pecting and mining activity in the Territories, and the one and only large town

      in the Northwest Territories is in the preserve. White trappers have cast en–

      vious eyes at these conveniently located grounds and have complained bitterly

      that Indians were not staying on the preserve. There has, however, been no

      effort to force an adjustment of Indian hunting ground to white settlement and

      development. If an adjustment does take place on natural lines, there would

      presumably be no difficulty in making the preserve conform.
    • The Yellowknife preserve is not rich in fur animals. It is largely sparse

      boreal forest, verging on tundra, and the balance is open tundra. The northern

      fringe is good white fox ground, but woodland species, marten, beaver, lynx,

      mink, and muskrat are not as abundant as they are farther away from the tundra.

      The east and west ends have substantial caribou migrations, but the center, where

      mining operations are concentrated, seems never to have had many caribou. Moose

      and black bear are generally distributed but scarce. There are a few Barren

      Ground bears.
    • 2. Slave River . Established September 22nd, 1923, 2,152 square miles (as

      altered by the exclusion of the Resolution area); includes nearly all the good

      muskrat area along the Slave River. It also has potentialities as a beaver and

      marten area, but as yet they have not been realized. It contains moose, but in

      006      |      Vol_XIII-0806                                                                                                                  
      EA-Canada: General. Clarke: Wildlife Preserves and Sanctuaries in Arctic Canada

      numbers no greater than the surrounding country.
    • 3. Peel River . Established September 22nd, 1923, 7,300 square miles;

      is good ground for beaver and marten, with a normal quota of lynx, fox, mink,

      and muskrat. It is also a good area for moose.
    • 4. Mackenzie Mountains . Established May 3rd, 1938, 69,440 square miles,

      is excellent marten and beaver country, well supplied with lynx, fox, muskrat,

      and mink. It also contains the finest variety of big game in the Northwest

      Territories, being well stocked with moose, Dall sheep, goat, caribou, and

      grizzly bear.
    • 5. Arctic Islands . Established July 19, 1926, 772,302 square miles, is

      entirely tundra, with white fox as a basic fur species, and containing among

      "land" game species the polar bear, musk ox, caribou, and Barren Ground bear,

      in various portions. Parenthetically, it should be noted that marine mammals

      in Canada are controlled by the Department of Fisheries and not by the Northwest

      Territories Administration, and their exploitation is unaffected by preserves

      established by the latter authority.

            The extermination of the bands of caribou which used to migrate to Victoria

    and King William islands was already accomplished when the preserve was establish–

    ed and there is as yet no sign of the restoration of this migration. Musk oxen

    have perhaps fared better in some areas outside preserves, as the west side of

    Bathurst Inlet and the region north of Great Bear Lake, than they have in isolated

    inhabited portions of the Arctic Islands Preserve, such as Boothia Peninsula and

    Somerset and Prince of Wales islands. They are supposed to be equally protected

    in all places, but thrive best either completely isolated from habitation as on

    Melville Island, or close enough to it to be protected. As already stated, the

    biological resources of much of the Arctic Islands Preserve are still untouched.

    007      |      Vol_XIII-0807                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Clarke: Wildlife Preserves and Sanctuaries in Arctic Canada

            The future of the preserves is unpredictable. As wildlife management

    based on biological investigations and sound knowledge becomes intensified, the

    preserves may be molded to a new form. It has been argued for them that the

    present generation of hunters is capable of reaping the entire wildlife crop

    while gaining no more than a fair living thereby. Further, the natural increase

    of the present hunting population should be capable of using the resources of

    areas still unexploited and the increased production under management of those

    presently exploited. This is obviously true but it requires little reflection

    to see that it is just as true of the area outside the preserves as it is of the

    preserves themselves. The present severe restriction on new hunting and trapping

    licenses in the Northwest Territories recognizes this fact. Newcomers to the

    new North should find new ways of making a living. The expression of this in

    a management policy is by no means simple.

            Some of the lands now included in the game preserves are of high tourist

    interest and as accessibility increases their use for recreation may add a new

    aspect to wildlife management. Some areas may be expected to develop as sanc–

    tuaries, and others as tourist hunting grounds, both, of course, with due re–

    gard to the welfare of the natives.

            Beaver Preserves . Several islands in James Bay and the Mackenzie Delta

    have been established as beaver preserves. This is simply an expedient whereby

    beaver in depleted areas are given special protection until such time as they

    are sufficiently numerous to be trapped again. In the case of the islands in

    James Bay restocking has also been done by the Hudson's Bay Company.

            Such preserves are of quite a different order from the native game preserves

    and should not be confused with them.

    008      |      Vol_XIII-0808                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Clarke: Wildlife Preserves and Sanctuaries in Arctic Canada


    Game Sanctuaries in Canada

            The first animal to reap the benefit of public solicitude for nature pre–

    servation in Canada was the bison. The bison was probably in mind when pro–

    vision for the creation of sanctuaries was made in the Northwest Game Act. The

    ultimate result was the Wood Buffalo Park. This area is neither arctic nor

    subarctic and lies largely in the Province of Alberta, so that we are concerned

    with it here only as an antecedent for other preserves.

            The most important of these, the Thelon Game Sanctuary (established June

    5th, 1927, 15,000 square miles), lies in the heart of the tundra west of Hudson

    Bay, and was created primarily for the benefit of the musk ox. It is one of

    the most inaccessible areas in Canada, except by air, and large portions of it

    were originally not permanently inhabited either by Indians or Eskimos.

            The musk ox lived comparatively unmolested in its tundra fastnesses until

    the commercial extinction of the bison on the western plains, about 1880. It

    was then found that musk ox robes could be marketed in large quantities at the

    top prices brought by bison skins during the years when the public knew that

    they would soon be unavailable. Musk ox robes immediately became the prime ob–

    jects of trade of the Hudson's Bay Company and of the Hudson Bay and Western

    Arctic whalers. The principal posts were Churchill, Brochet, Resolution, Rae,

    Good Hope, and McPherson for the Hudson's Bay Company, and Herschel and Marble

    islands for the whalers. A whole generation of Indians on Great Slave Lake took

    other furs only as incidentals. This continued until 1916, after which it was

    stopped by law — a little too late, for this time there was only a remnant of

    musk oxen left on the mainland and the more southern islands. At one stage,

    during the first 10 years after protection, it became doubtful if there were

    any left at all. Then, in 1925, John Hornby and Captain J. C. Critchell-Bullock

    009      |      Vol_XIII-0809                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Clarke: Wildlife Preserves and Sanctuaries in Arctic Canada

    crossed the tundra from Great Slave Lake to Hudson Bay by the Thelon route,

    unused since the ill-fated Radford and Street expedition, and found that the

    musk ox was still holding out in this isolated spot. This information was

    conveyed at once to the Canadian authorities. The ease with which the Thelon

    area could be protected, the fact that the exclusion of hunting did not affect

    the natives, and the general suitability of the region for the preservation

    of the tundra fauna led to its establishment, in 1927, as the Thelon Game Sanc–

    tuary. The regulations which forbid all hunting,entry, and even flying over

    the preserve without special authority make it one of the few places in the

    world that will qualify for what ecologists call a "strict wilderness preserve."

            Subsequent investigations have confirmed the usefulness of the area as a

    musk ox preserve, and also demonstrated other advantages. It has no gaps in

    the tundra fauna except possibly for a migratory bird, the Eskimo curlew. Al–

    most as interesting as the musk oxen are the Barren Ground grizzlies. The cari–

    bou are absent in winter from the central portion. The discovery of this fact

    without previous warning cost Hornby and two companions their lives when they

    attempted to winter on the Thelon River in 1926-27. The musk oxen are concen–

    trated along the river in summer, but are widely dispersed in winter. There is

    no doubt but that the Thelon puts on an unexcelled wildlife show in summer. The

    permanence of this show is threatened by the menace of forest fire to the winter

    range of the largest herd of caribou, which leaves the Thelon in late summer

    and goes as far as Lake Athabaska. The rolling tundra country is especially

    charming to the eye, and lakes and rivers are well stocked with fish.

            One of the peculiarities of the Thelon is the occurrence of clumps of trees

    in its valley, remote from all other tree growth. As a vegetational element

    the area they cover is insignificant but they have been of great importance to

    010      |      Vol_XIII-0810                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Clarke: Wildlife Preserves and Sanctuaries in Arctic Canada

    native and white travelers. Eskimos from Bathurst Inlet used to visit the river

    to get wood and on its lower reaches met the inland natives from the Keewatin

    area who cold trade goods from Churchill. The trees grow in sheltered loca–

    tions on sandy soil produced from the level strata of Athabaska sandstone lining

    the banks of the main river. This unusual geological formation also means that

    the sanctuary is of no interest to prospectors.

            The number of musk oxen was estimated at 250 in 1930 and 300 in 1937. Their

    increase and movements are poorly known. It may well be that the increase of the

    herds finds its way to vacant range near the periphery of the sanctuary, where

    an increase in musk oxen is known to have occurred. In midsummer the animals

    are often in dense willow thickets where they escape observation both from the

    air and the ground.

            The Thelon Sanctuary is well established as a preserve. It may be doubted,

    however, if permanent exclusion of the public can be maintained. There would

    seem to be more reason for expecting it to develop along the lines of a national


            There remains only one other sanctuary, namely, Twin Islands in James Bay

    (55 square /miles, established May 2nd, 1939). It may be an anticlimax to include this

    area in the same category as the magnificent Thelon Sanctuary but it is not with–

    out its attractions. It was established to protect the polar bears that haul

    out there in summer, and present evidence indicates that it has filled this need

    very well.


    C. H. D. Clarke

    001      |      Vol_XIII-0811                                                                                                                  
    EA:Canada, General. Finnie, Aerial Photography


            The development of aerial cartographical photography in northern

    Canada was largely the work of the Royal Canadian Air Force, which was

    formed in 1924. It was in 1927-28 that the R.C.A.F. gained its first

    subarctic experience, when, with Fokker monoplanes on skis and pontoons,

    it cooperated with the Department of Marine and Fisheries in an expedition

    to secure data on ice movements in Hudson Strait. During that expedition

    no mapping photographs were made, although a civilian photographer went

    aloft repeatedly with the R.C.A.F. pilots to make still and motion [ ?]

    pictures to illustrate ice conditions. It was in 1930 that R.C.A.F. planes flew

    beyond the 60th parallel of latitude for the first time for the express

    purpose of mapping. During ensuing years, besides covering most of southern

    Canada, the R.C.A.F. carried its mapping operations from the Yukon to

    Labrador. Its long-range program was well launched of systematically

    mapping the whole of Canada, and, working in concert with civilian agencies

    of the Government, it had set a standard of accuracy unsurpassed anywhere

    else in the world.

            The pioneer aerial mapping expedition in northern Canada was headed

    by F. J. Mawdesley, with Harry winny second in command. They flow an open

    cockpit Vickers Vedette and a Fairchild cabin monoplane, each equipped

    with a Fairchild camera. In those days flight altitudes were commonly two

    to five thousand feet, and to cover as much ground at a time as possible

    oblique photography was used. At best, it was only moderately accurate.

    002      |      Vol_XIII-0812                                                                                                                  
    EA:Canada, General

    Finnie, Aerial Photography

    Accompanied by Colin MacDonald, a Dominion Land Surveyor, Mawdesley and

    Winny flew down the Slave River, across Great Slave Lake to the North Arm,

    and thence to Great Bear Lake, the Coppermine River and Coronation Gulf.

    They also flew via the Great Bear River to the Mackenzie and as far as

    Aklavik, at the Delta. In all, they traversed 12,000 miles through the

    Mackenzie District.

            That fall the first mapping photographs north of the Canadian main–

    land were taken, though not by the R.C.A.F. An aerial expedition led by

    L. T. Burwash, of which the writer was a member, was dispatched by the

    Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch of the Department of the Interior

    to seek traces of the Sir John Franklin expedition. The itinerary was from

    Coppermine, Coronation Gulf, via Bernard Harbor and the south coast of

    Victoria Island, to Gjoa Haven on the south coast of King William Island,

    thence to Cape Adelaide, Boothia Peninsula (the then approximate location

    of the North Magnetic Pole), across James Ross Strait to Cape Felix — the

    northernmost tip of King William Island — and along the western and southern

    coast line back to Gjoa Haven.

            With a Fairchild camera, Burwash made a continuous series of

    oblique photographs of the coast lines followed on this series of flights.

    The plane was a single-engine Fokker monoplane on floats. The pilot was

    Walter E. Gilbert, and the mechanic — who assisted with the mapping camera —

    was Stanley Knight. A motion-picture record of the expedition was made by

    the writer, shooting from the air as well as on the ground.

            Because mainland areas had higher priority, the Arctic Islands were

    not visited by R.C.A.F. planes for mapping purposes up to 1947. From 1930

    onward until the outbreak of World War II, the R.C.A.F. concentrated its

    003      |      Vol_XIII-0813                                                                                                                  
    EA: Canada, General

    Finnie, Aerial Photography

    northerly photographic flights mainly in the Mackenzie District, where

    detailed maps were needed to aid prospectors in locating mineral deposits.

            In 1933 the importance of aerial cartographic surveys was recognized

    with the formation of an Interdepartmental Committee on Air Surveys, to

    receive and coordinate requests for air photography from Federal Government

    departments and branches, including the Geological Survey, Lands and Forests,

    Public works, and the Hydrographic Survey. Air photographs were required

    for: (1) preparation of air navigation charts for planning, pilotage, and

    plotting; (2) preparation of maps of a military character for defense purposes;

    (3) preparation of hydrographic charts of coastal and inland waters; (4) pre–

    paration of topographic maps, essential for natural-resources surveys; (5)

    preparation of geological maps, needed for mineral prospecting and develop–

    ment; (6) preparation of forest inventories, aiding in the management and

    conservation of timbered areas; (7) surveys for [ ?] watershed protection,

    development of river systems, irrigation, and flood prevention; (8) the

    classification of land and vegetation, marshland reclamation, and soil–

    erosion control; (9) wildlife surveys, fur conservation, and preservation

    of reindeer and buffalo herds; (1) regional, town, and community planning

    surveys; (11) the location of airports and roads; (12) surveys to locate

    forests, lakes, and streams, trails and portages, and sites for camps and

    lodges for tourist use.

            The R.C.A.F. suspended its photographic operations in the North upon

    the outbreak of World War II. Coincident with the U. S. War Department's

    construction of the Alaska Highway and other projects, the U. S. Army Air

    Forces entered northern Canada and quickly mapped many areas in which ground

    operations were being carried on. Though adequate for the purposes for which

    004      |      Vol_XIII-0814                                                                                                                  
    EA: Canada, General

    Finnie, Aerial Photography

    it was intended, the coverage of the U.S.A.A.F. lacked the precision

    required to meet the standards of the Canadian Department of Mines and

    Resources, Topographical Survey Branch, for map-making. Some of this photo–

    graphy was of the Alaska Highway route, some of it was of oil-bearing areas

    of the Mackenzie Basin. There was one curious gap. Because of the shortage

    of aircraft in the summer of 1942, the location engineers of the Canol Project

    were obliged to determine much of the 600-mile road and pipeline route from

    Norman Wells to Whitehorse by means of ground traverses and flights in small

    planes. One of the key passes in the Canol route was picked out by reference

    to photographs made by the writer with a ministure camera on the first of the

    reconnaissance flights. Eventually a complete photographic strip map was

    made of the entire route, but not until after the road and pipeline had been


            In the summer of 1944 the R.C.A.F. reentered the North, and in one

    day's flying photographed 125,000 square miles of the Mackenzie Delta. This

    was made possible by the vast improvements in aircraft and aerial cameras

    brought about during the war years. Long since obsolete, except for very

    limited use, were the oblique cameras of the pioneer days; now vertical

    and tri-camera photography was carried on in long-range aircraft such as

    Mitchells and Lancasters flying at elevations of around 20,000 feet,

    covering 3,200 to 3,500 square miles an hour, and with cameras carrying

    500 exposures at a loading as against the former 200.

            The increased speed as well as accuracy with which modern equipment

    enables air crews to photograph enormous areas is a special asset in the Far

    North, where operations are usually limited to two months, from the beginning

    of July to the end of August, because of light and weather conditions. In

    bush areas photography is often delayed by smoke from [ ?] muskeg fires.

    005      |      Vol_XIII-0815                                                                                                                  
    EA: Canada, General

    Finnie, Aerial Photography

            During the summer of 1947 no less than 22 R.C.A.F. planes were

    making hundreds of routine daily flights, largely in the Subarctic, taking

    photographs for mapping purposes in the largest program of its kind ever

    undertaken in Canada.

            The entire mainland of Canada is to be photographed, and ultimately

    all the Arctic Islands as well. The R.C.A.F. expects to undertake annually

    300,000 square miles of tri-camera and 250,000 square miles of vertical

    photography, varying with the personnel and equipment available and, of

    course, the weather. In the summer of 1947, fourteen geodesists of the

    Geodetic Survey began establishing control points at 50-mile intervals along

    the Arctic coast between Aklavik and Cambridge Bay, and it was anticipated

    that another summer's work there would complete all necessary control points

    on the Canadian mainland.

            The cameras carried for tri-camera operations are calibrated by

    the National Research Council to a high degree of accuracy, and once fixed

    in the nose of an airplane they are not moved again without being re-calibrated.

    Concurrently they make exposures of left oblique, center vertical, and right

    oblique. They are used in the production of air navigation charts on a

    scale of either 8 or 16 miles to the inch. Shoran, an electronic device,

    is under development for geodetic control, with beacon stations placed at

    approximately 200-mile intervals across the areas to be photographed. A

    16-mm. motion-picture camera, synchronized with the three mapping cameras,

    exposes one frame at a time of the shoran dial with each set of mapping

    pictures, thus recording the precise position.

            The R.C.A.F. has pioneered in Canada in the use of the Fairchild

    solar navigator, a clockwork instrument which sights on the sun and keeps

    006      |      Vol_XIII-0816                                                                                                                  
    EA: Canada, General

    Finnie, Aerial Photography

    the aircraft on an absolutely straight course by a pilot indicator on the

    instrument panel for distances up to 300 miles. First used by the R.C.A.F.

    in 1944, this was installed in all R.C.A.F. Dakotas for vertical photography

    by 1947. A new altimeter adopted by the R.C.A.F. is accurate to within 25

    feet. Cameras used at high altitudes are heated automatically to proper

    temperatures, thus preventing film from becoming brittle.

            Not all of the aerial photography in the North is done by the R.C.A.F.

    Some has been done by Canadian Pacific Airlines and its predecessor, Canadian

    Airways Limited, and smaller operators. The photography undertaken by such

    commercial concerns has been for the most part oblique (in former years) and

    vertical. The latter is valuable for large-scale maps of mining or industrial

    areas, from elevations of between ten and twelve thousand feet. Such photo–

    graphy was used for a railway survey in Labrador.

            Tri-camera photography is carried on by the R.C.A.F. in converted

    Mitchell bombers. A Mitchell detachment includes the pilot, co-pilot, navi–

    gator, camera operator, wireless operator, wireless mechanic, electrical

    mechanic, instrument mechanic, aero-engine mechanics, air-frame mechanics,

    chef, and general-duties airmen — about thirty men in all. In remote areas

    where communication facilities are poor, the R.C.A.F. puts in portable wire–

    less stations to receive forecasts [ ?] twice daily from a meteorological fore–

    casting center. There are three main centers: at Edmonton, Winnipeg, and

    Rockcliffe (Ottawa), each providing forecasts for areas where photographic

    operations are being carried on.

    Gasoline and oil are shipped by rail and water to points nearest

    operational bases, then flown the balance of the way. For aircraft operating

    between Edmonton and Whitehorse, ta [ o ?] n k-truck service over the Alaska Highway

    is used.

    007      |      Vol_XIII-0817                                                                                                                  
    EA: Canada, General

    Finnie, Aerial Photography

            Film for northern photography is stored in refrigerated vaults at

    the Rockcliffe base near Ottawa and expressed as required by rail and air.

    Deterioration is thereby avoided. As soon as it has been exposed the film

    is immediately returned to the Rockcliffe laboratory, where it is processed

    by a thermostatically controlled machine which originated in England but was

    perfected in Canada. The quality of all negatives is studied, and any varia–

    tion is referred to the manufacturer so that improvements may be made.

            By January 1941, after chart coverage of the Gulf of St. Lawrence

    and the eastern seaboard had been made — besides more southerly areas

    across Canada — the R.C.A.F. and the Legal Survey and Map Service of the

    Department of Mines and Resources went to work on the Pacific coast and the

    Northwest Staging Route. After Pearl Harbor, the U. S. War Department sought

    to develop airways in northern Canada for the servicing of engineering pro–

    jects, for aircraft [ ?] ferrying and defense purposes. With the erection of

    additional meteorological stations and loran-radar stations in northern areas,

    it was decided that the whole of Canada, including the Arctic Islands, should

    be covered by the Canadian Air Navigation Series.

            All the available and relevant mapping data of Canada have been

    gathered into the eight-mile-to-one-inch sheets of the National Topographic

    [ ?] Series. Its primary function is for air navigation and in the study

    and development of new air routes, but it also forms a base on which to plan

    and add future detailed mapping; an index base on which to tabulate, study,

    and plan the development of natural resources; a base on which to plan large

    engineering and development projects. It has great elasticity in that it is

    a systematic series of map sheets, each sheet fitting into its neighbor on

    all sides, with all sheets drawn to the same scale and [ ?] specifications.

    008      |      Vol_XIII-0818                                                                                                                  
    EA: Canada, General

    Finnie, Aerial Photography

    A vast amount of work remains to be done, however, for over large areas of

    northern Canada there is still a great lack of basic mapping material, in

    consequence of which some of the charts cannot be classified as even reason–

    ably adequate for air pilotage. The first step is to fill in the topography

    in the blank spaces in enough detail to provide suitable air pilotage charts

    at the eight-mile-to-one-inch scale, and the next step will be to establish

    elevations above sea level over the whole area in sufficient density and

    accuracy to provide the information necessary for safe flying.

            The R.C.A.F. and the Department of Mines and Resources are cooperating

    to accomplish both objectives. The R.C.A.F. is securing the planimetry

    required by trimetrogen air photography, while the Legal Surveys and Map

    Service is conducting experiments in the measur e ing of terrain elevations

    by one of the new instruments developed during the war.

            Of equal importance is the production of pilotage charts over a

    large portion of Canada at a scale of 16 miles to one inch, within the

    National Topographic Series, to meet the needs of long-range, high-speed


            Base maps, essential for geological development, are prepared by

    the Topographical Survey Division, Department of Mines and Resources. With

    the horizontal and vertical control that can be applied to aerial photographs,

    more accurate maps can be rapidly reproduced; and whereas the early geologists

    were largely confined in their investigations to the water routes, those of

    the present day have unlimited scope, thanks to aircraft. Nearly 89 per cent

    of Canada still remains to be adequately mapped geologically — a task which

    would take 200 years by former methods. But with base maps on a scale of four

    or eight inches to a mile, made available by serial photography, sixty

    009      |      Vol_XIII-0819                                                                                                                  
    EA: Canada, General

    Finnie, Aerial Photography

    geologists would be able to fill in the gaps within 25 years.

            Besides its role in mapping, the aerial camera has become invaluable

    for making inventories of forests in the North as elsewhere. Unproductive

    areas can be readily eliminated through examination of air photographs. To

    gauge the size of timber as shown in oblique photographs, a tree-height grid

    was devised by the Dominion Forest Service; and for vertical photographs, a

    time-shadow curve is plotted from calculation of the sun's elevation at any

    given hour, revealing the average height of a stand of timber. Aerial photo–

    graphy aids also in the classification of land, so that potential agricultural

    or stock-raising lands in the North may be made available for use. The photo–

    graphs show the extent of arable lands, topography, soil textures, etc.

            Still another important use of aerial photographs has been in supply–

    ing information on water-power sites in the Northwest Territories. The fall

    and drainage areas of some of the principal rivers have thus been determined,

    and photographs will show where diversions can be made to produce maximum

    heads of water. In 1937 an aerial photographic survey was made of the

    Yellowknife River, following which a dam was built at a location twenty miles

    north of the settlement, and early in 1941 hydroelectric power was being

    delivered to the local gold mines.

            The high degree of efficiency achieved in aerial photography, as well

    as in aviation itself, has immeasurably hastened the opening up of all northern

    Canada to economic development; it has benefitted the trapper, the reindeer

    herdsman, the farmer, the aviator, the prospector, and the minor; it will

    assist in the building of new settlements, and in the operation of new inter–

    national transpolar airways.


    Richard Finnie

    001      |      Vol_XIII-0820                                                                                                                  
    EA- Canada: General

    (Richard Finnie)


            Though photography was coming into common use as early as the Civil War,

    the equipment it entailed was ponderous, complicated, and uncertain, and not

    until the 1880's did explorers begin to include cameras with their scientific

    instruments. Hitherto the visual records of expeditions had been supplied by

    artists, both amateur and professional; British and American arctic expeditions

    of the 19th century were well covered with drawings, paintings, and engravings,

    which conveyed an almost uniformly somber and melancholy impression of the country.

            Probably the first explorers to carry cameras into the Canadian Subarctic

    were Dr. Robert Bell, of the Geological Survey at Ottawa, and W. W. Fox, of

    Toronto. Both were members of a Government expedition to Hudson Bay on board

    the steamer Neptune in 1884. Fox volunteered as official photographer, and dur–

    ing the voyage he and Bell took large numbers of pictures of the coastal scenery.

    William Ogilvie, the surveyor, made photographic records in the Yukon Territory

    and the Mackenzie District on his earliest exploratory journey in 1887. In 1897

    the first photographs of Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay to appear in a Government

    report were made by members of the Diana expedition. With the start of the Klon–

    dike gold rush that same year, photographers entered the Yukon in fair numbers;

    and beginning with the famous views of the unbroken line of adventurers packing

    their belongings over the Chilkoot Pass, the whole story of the trek to Dawson

    and the search for gold was recorded in detail.

            The first commercial photographer to venture north of the Arctic Circle in

    002      |      Vol_XIII-0821                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Finnie: Northern Photography

    Canada was C. W. Mathers, Edmonton, who in 1902 published an album of Mackenzie

    River pictures, some of which showed Eskimos of the Delta in their kayaks. Prob–

    ably the first official photographer to accompany a Canadian Government arctic

    expedition was G. F. Caldwell, a member of the scientific staff aboard the Nep-

    tune , sailing to Hudson Bay, Baffin and Ellesmere islands, and as far westward

    as Beechey Island, in 1903-04. Caldwell made many excellent studies of Eskimos,

    action shots of the crew's activities, as well as land-and-seascapes, which were

    reproduced in The Cruise of the Neptune , the report of A. P. Low, the commander.

            From then onward, expeditions large and small were equipped with cameras;

    and the published results varied with the skill of the photographers and of the

    engravers. The photographs illustrating Bernier's Cruise of the Arctic , the

    report of the Government expedition wintering at Melville Island, 1908-09, were

    poor, and by way of contrast the photographs illustrating George M. Douglas'

    Lands Forlorn , the account of his expedition to the Coppermine River in 1911-12,

    were superb.

            The pioneer motion-picture photographers of the Canadian Arctic were G.H.

    (later Sir Hubert) Wilkins and Robert J. Flaherty. In a sense, Wilkins had the

    edge because his pioneering was done north of the Arctic Circle, while Flaherty's

    was done south of it — in Southern Baffin Island and Hudson Bay — but under

    conditions equally arctic.

            Wilkins joined Stefansson's Canadian Arctic Expedition of 1913-18 as an

    employee of the Gaumont Company of Great Britain, to become the official photo–

    grapher. However, the loss of three motion-picture cameras with the ill-fated

    Karluk curtailed the cinematography he was able to do. The only available sub–

    stitute camera was an old one obtained from a ship that had been wrecked along

    the Alaskan coast. The camera was an inferior one and the film supply was limited

    003      |      Vol_XIII-0822                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Finnie: Northern Photography

    and of poor quality. This handicap notwithstanding, Wilkins exposed his film

    to best possible advantage on ethnological subjects in Dolphin and Union Strait.

    He carried on with a still camera, and many of his photographs, along with those

    taken by Stefansson and other members of the expedition, appear in The Friendly

    Arctic . In 1916 he left the North to join the Australian forces as a war photo–


            Flaherty had setbacks too, but he was eventually able to complete his epic,

    :Nanook of the North." He had first gone north in 1910-11 and 1911-12 to pros–

    pect for iron deposits along the east coast of Hudson Bay and across the Ungava

    Peninsula. On his third expedition, in 1913, he set fail from Newfoundland in

    the schooner Laddie with all the necessary apparatus for making a motion-picture

    film of the Eskimos. The season was late, so instead of proceeding into Hudson

    Bay to spend the winter as he had planned, he established his headquarters at

    Amadjusk Bay on the south coast of Baffin Island, and sent his vessel home. He

    selected a site near a stream so as to have fresh water for developing film all

    through the winter. (This is noteworthy, for few modern cameramen would attempt

    to process motion-picture film — except short test strips — away from a city

    laboratory; and Flaherty may well be the only one to have done so in the North.)

            Until February he exposed no film, for there were long sledge trips he

    wanted to make east and west along the coast. Then he began his shooting schedule.

    The Eskimo women vied with one another to be starred. Igloo building, conjuring

    fances, sledging and seal hunting were run off as the sunlit days of February and

    March wore on. Only occasionally was he troubled by temperamental outbursts from

    members of his cast. One young mother walked away from a scene because she thought

    Flaherty had been giving more candy to her rival's baby than to hers. On the 11th

    of June he set out by dog team with an Eskimo on a trip to the interior in hope

    004      |      Vol_XIII-0823                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Finnie: Northern Photography

    of filming caribou. Coming upon a grazing herd he set up his camera and tripod

    on his sledge while his Eskimo drove the dogs forward. The desired shots were

    obtained, but on the way back to the base the sledge broke through the rotten

    ice of a stream and they were ruined. Flaherty returned with the results of

    his winter's work to southern Canada, where the film was edited. He was dis–

    satisfied with it, however, and decided to attempt a better one the following


            His next location was the Belcher Islands in Hudson Bay, which he explored,

    and during the winter of 1914-15 he worked at remaking and building up the Baffin

    Island film. In June came a rare opportunity to photograph the harpooning of

    a walrus by an Eskimo; it was successfully done and promised to be a highlight

    in the story. That winter, hack in civilization, while Flaherty was editing

    his film he dropped a cigarette into it and the last inch of it went up in smoke.

            In his book My Eskimo Friends (Doubleday, Page & Company, New York, 1924),

    Flaherty relates how he could not forget the film; he decided to go north again,

    this time wholly for the purpose of picturing Eskimo life (hitherto exploration

    and prospecting had been his chief interests). With the financial backing of

    John Revillon and Captain Thierry Mallet of Revillon Fre [ ?] res he selected one of

    their fur-trading posts as his headquarters. This was at Cape Dufferin, about

    midway up the east coast of Hudson Bay, where he arrived in August 1920.

            He selected a dozen local Eskimos to comprise his cast, headed by a hunter

    named Nanook. The first scenes Flaherty shot were of a walrus hunt. Three days

    later he screened them for his actors and their friends, whose excitement was

    intense. During the winter Nanook constructed a snowhouse 25 feet in diameter —

    twice the normal size — and cut away part of the dome to afford sufficient light

    for the filming of interior scenes.

    005      |      Vol_XIII-0824                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Finnie: Northern Photography

            Flaherty used Akeley motion-picture cameras and a Graflex still camera.

    In cold weather, when brought indoors, they were taken apart and dried after

    the frost had come out of the metal parts. He had no difficulty with the movie

    cameras, which were simply constructed, but his Fraflex was so complicated that

    once he had dismantled it he couldn't get it together again. One of the Eskimos

    came to his rescue, soon succeeding where he had failed. Flaherty found that

    his film became so brittle at a temperature of −37° F. that it broke in the cam–

    era. When traveling he overcame this handicap by keeping his film magazines

    buried in caribou skins until he was ready to use them.

            "Nanook of the North," released in 1922, was an instantaneous success and

    shown throughout the world. Possessing great artistic merit, it became a mile–

    stone in cinema history, the first of the so-called "documentaries."

            In the summer of 1920 the Northwest Territories' first travelogue, called

    "Down North," was being made. J. Booth Scott, an enterprising young photographer,

    sailed down the Mackenzie River and took movies as far north as Fort McPherson.

    Two summers later a professional newsreel cameraman, George H. Valiquette, ac–

    companied the first of the annual Eastern Arctic expeditions of the Canadian

    Government, on board the C. G. S. Arctic. He again sailed on the Arctic in 1923

    and in 1925. In 1927-28 he was the official photographer of the Hudson Strait

    Expedition of the Department of Marine and Fisheries.

            In the summer of 1923 Knud Rasmussen, in the midst of his famous journey

    across Arctic America, was joined at Coronation Gulf by Leo Hansen, who had

    been summoned from Denmark to make a film record of the third and final winter

    of the Fifth Thule Expedition. (About 13 years later, shortly before his death,

    Rasmussen wrote, directed, and produced for theatrical release a film of Eskimo

    life called "The Wedding of Palo," enacted at Angmagssalik, East Greenland.)

    006      |      Vol_XIII-0825                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Finnie: Northern Photography

            In 1924 motion-picture equipment was taken into the Thelon Game Sanctuary

    east of Great Slave Lake, by James C. Critchell-Bullock and John Hornby, who

    followed the Hanbury and Thelon rivers to Baker Lake, spending a year on the

    way. Neither was a skilled photographer and the chief interest of the film

    they brought back lay in close-ups it included of Hornby, who was fated to die

    of starvation in 1927 in the same setting.

            The Putnam Baffin Island Expedition, which in the summer of 1927 explored

    Foxe Basin, was filmed by Maurice Kellerman. Among the highlights was the rop–

    ing of a swimming polar bear.

            It was in 1928 that I gained my first practical experience as a motion–

    picture photographer and producer, at the same time introducing a technique

    new to the North in recording unposed events. Hitherto movie cameras in pro–

    fessional use were heavy and bulky and had to be mounted on massive tripods so

    that they would remain steady while being hand-cranked. Their mobility was so

    restricted that only by sheer good luck could the operator ever catch any un–

    anticipated, sudden happening. I was provided with an Eyemo 35 mm. camera,

    which was compact and driven by a clockwork motor. It could be placed on a

    light tripod for scenic and telephoto work or it could be hand-held for quick

    action. The professionals of the day were suspicious of it, reluctant to be–

    lieve that anything so simple could be efficient. As a novice I was grateful

    for its ease of operation, and it enabled me to gratify an urge to film actual–

    ities, avoiding as much as possible staged scenes. (I continued to use the Eyemo

    in future years, and this type of camera became standard for expeditions.)

            It was as historian of the Canadian Government's Eastern Arctic Expeditions

    of 1928 and 1929 that I made the official motion-picture records of the voyages

    of the chartered sealer Beothic , in those years, when R. C. M. P. outposts were

    007      |      Vol_XIII-0826                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Finnie: Northern Photography

    reprovisioned, the welfare of the Eskimos was attended to, and scientific sur–

    veys were made. The mobility of my equipment enabled me to secure many shots

    of natives and of animals, including some of the first close-ups ever taken of

    musk oxen in the wild state. This was at Cape Sparbo, Devon Island, which the

    Beothic visited on both voyages.

            In the summer of 1930 I sailed down the Mackenzie River on the first leg

    of a journey eastward along the arctic coast, where I was to spend the ensuing

    year as a special investigator for the Department of the Interior. That fall

    I filmed the first flight ever made to the area of the North Magnetic Pole,

    then proceeded to Coronation Gulf for the winter. Based at the settlement of

    Copperaine, I filmed the winter activities of the Copper Eskimos, including their


            This was was the first time that spring-driven portable cameras had been

    used in the Arctic in winter. The springs, packed in graphite, were not affected

    by the cold, but the other moving parts lubricated with oil became sluggish. I

    discovered that kerosene instead of the usual oil ensured successful operation

    at the lowest temperature experienced that season, which was −55° F. I made a

    practice of keeping my cameras out of doors, bringing them in only for checkups

    and cleanings. By letting them warm up gradually in their cases I was usually

    able to avoid excessive sweating of the metal and the fogging of lenses. (Such

    wrinkles were to be "discovered" again and again by photographers in years to

    come.) When it was necessary to change film out of doors, I would try to find

    a sheltered place, then work barehanded regardless of temperature — not only

    because my caribou mitts were too bulky to be worn during the operation but also

    because hair would drop from them into the camera and clog it. My finger tips

    were often frostbitten from contact with the chilled metal. Silk gloves for

    008      |      Vol_XIII-0827                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Finnie: Northern Photography

    film-changing would have avoided some of the discomfort, but I had none.

            Although the history of serial photography in northern Canada is beyond

    the scope of this article, it can be mentioned that in the summer of 1930 the

    Royal Canadian Air Force sent aircraft into the Mackenzie District to take map–

    ping photographs, thus initiating a long-range program for the Northwest Terri–

    tories and Yukon. That fall, on our Magnetic Pole flight in a chartered airplane,

    we made the first aerial oblique photographs north of the Canadian mainland,

    charting hundreds of miles of the coast lines of Victoria and King William


            During the 1930's photography flourished in the Canadian Arctic and Subarctic.

    Pictures were made there by explorers, traders, trappers, Mounties, missionaries,

    mining men, tourists, and Eskimos. Fred Wolki, a half-breed Eskimo, returned

    to Aklavik in 1939 after a year's trip to California. He brought back with him

    movies he had taken on his southern travels to show to his companions. He had

    movies also of polar bear, seal, and caribou hunts on Banks Island. In general,

    however, amateur efforts in the North as elsewhere were not of professional quality.

            Lorene Squire, specializing in bird pictures, visited both the Eastern and

    Western Arctic. Equipped with telephoto lenses she made a series of action still

    pictures of various kinds of ducks and geese. Another woman photographer, Mar–

    garet Bourke-White, went down the Mackenzie to the Delta in 1938 on a paddlewheel

    steamer, then flew back, making side trips to Coronation Gulf and Victoria Island.

            In 1934 I returned to the Mackenzie District to film the mining development

    at Great Bear Lake and the transportation chain by water and air, which was bring–

    ing supplies to the Eldorado Mine and car ying silver and pitchblende concentrates

    to railhead. After another interlude in the Eastern Arctic in 1937, when I record–

    ed the first commercial tying-in of the Northwest Passage, I went back to the

    009      |      Vol_XIII-0828                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Finnie: Northern Photography

    Mackenzie District in 1939 to make another film on exploration and mining de–

    velopment, with discoveries of oil, pitchblende, and gold, and the spectacular

    rise of the town of Yellowknife. On this expedition I spent a fortnight at

    Fort Rae, on the North Arm of Great Slave Lake, filming events attending the

    annual paying of treaty money to the Dogrib Indians, which included their camp

    life, church-going and treaty ceremony, tea dances, and drum games.

            In 1934 and 1935 Harry Snyder, a Montreal mining executive and sportsman,

    chartered aircraft and flew up the Nahanni River among the Mackenzie Mountains,

    and eastward from Fort Reliance over the Barren Lands, making pictures of his

    travels. Two years later he resolved to film a caribou hunt. He had a sled

    lashed to the undercarriage of his airplane, loaded a dog team into the cabin,

    and with a native guide flew to the Barren Lands east of Great Slave Lake. The

    pilot scouted around until he spotted a herd of caribou. He dived close to the

    herd, which stampeded, while pictures were taken. Then he landed. The dogs

    were hitched to the sled (this was in the early spring while snow was still on

    the ground), and the guide, accompanied by a cameraman, caught up with the herd,

    killed and skinned a deer and carried the carcass back to the plane.

            Photoelectric-cell light meters became available for still and motion-pic–

    ture photography in the mid-thirties, and these, together with the increasing

    sensitivity and stabilization of film emulsions, were a boon in the Far North

    even more than in the Temperate Zone. Close to and beyond the Arctic Circle,

    where pictures could be taken the clock around in summer, it had always been

    difficult to gauge exposures correctly, for actinic values were deceptive; and

    this applied also to winter photography when the sun lay close to the horizon.

    The new light meters, and types of film for all conditions, at once assured uni–

    formly satisfactory results to expert photographers. An additional asset was

    010      |      Vol_XIII-0829                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Finnie: Northern Photography

    16 mm. Kodachrome film; put on the market in 1935 and steadily improved, it

    made possible for the first time the recording of the actual colors of the

    North, revealing to outsiders hitherto unbelievable tones in cloud formations,

    the midnight sun, water, ice and snow, and the variegated landscape.

            In 1941 came the first military activity of World War II in the Canadian

    Arctic and Subarctic; airfields were being staked out and pioneered in Hudson

    Bay and Baffin Island; freight was moved to key airports being built between

    Dawson Creek and Whitehorse. Motion-picture cameras recorded the latter opera–

    tion, thanks to the Canadian Government's newly formed National Film Board.

            In March 1942 pioneering of the Alaska Highway was begun by the Corps of

    Engineers, U. S. Army, who in May launched the Canol Project as well. Although

    U. S. Army Signal Corps cameramen covered many other military construction opera–

    tions during the war, the Alaska Highway and Canol were strangely overlooked.

    Some still photographs were taken of the Alaska Highway in its early stages as

    well as later, but no provision was made for full, official motion-picture cover–

    age of either undertaking. As northern adviser and historian to the Corps of

    Engineers, first on the construction of the Canol Project, later on the Alaska

    Highway as well, I was given an opportunity to help repair this omission. In

    view of my experience in photography I suggested to the commanding officer that

    I bepermitted to film the Canol Project in addition to fulfilling my other duties.

    He agreed to this, and eventually I covered the Alaska Highway also. This film–

    ing of these two integrated projects, particularly Canol — which I recorded in

    considerable detail so as to furnish top military and civilian executives with

    month-to-month cinematic progress reports — was done under all conceivable con–

    ditions of light and weather, through all seasons for two years, in northern

    Alberta, the Mackenzie District, northern British Columbia, the Yukon Territory,

    011      |      Vol_XIII-0830                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Finnie: Northern Photography

    and Alaska. The pictures, all in 16 mm. color, finally totalled some 45 reels.

    In the spring and summer of 1944 I used this material to produce for the U. S.

    War Department two sound films entitled "Alaska Highway" (3 reels) and "Canol"

    (4 reels).

            From 1943 onward, when security restrictions were relaxed, Alaska Highway

    and Northwest Staging Route activities were superficially covered by newsreel

    and National Film Board cameramen, the latter securing some Canol scenes as well.

    Postwar activities in the Yukon Territory and the Mackenzie District, particularly

    in the Yellowknife gold-mining area, were filmed by the National Film Board.

            A special Film Board assignment was that of Exercise Musk Ox, the Canadian

    Army's 3,000-mile snowmobile trek from Churchill via Baker Lake, Coronation Gulf,

    Great Bear Lake, and the Mackenzie Valley to the Alaska Highway at Fort Nelson

    in the late winter and spring of 1946. The cameraman was Roger Racine, who had

    photographed two earlier Army exercises; Eskimo, a snowmobile tryout in the Prince

    Albert, Saskatchewan, area; and Lemming, a snowmobile run from Churchill to Eskimo

    Point. Having recourse to transportation by aircraft supplying the snowmobiles

    en route, Racine sometimes went aloft, sometimes accompanied the trek on land,

    thus achieving well-rounded continuity. He used Eyemo cameras — which he learned

    to lubricate with kerosene in cold weather — and carried floodlights attachable

    to automobile storage batteries for interior scenes, and chemical flares for

    night shots out of doors. By dint of practice he acquired the knack of changing

    film without removing his leather mitts (almost as difficult as playing the piano

    so handicapped), thus avoiding the unpleasantness of stiffened and frostbitten

    fingers when working at low temperatures.

            Hereunder are listed the most important films shot in the Canadian Arctic

    or Subarctic since 1921, giving the names of cameramen, directors and sponsoring

    012      |      Vol_XIII-0831                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Finnie: Northern Photography


            Canadian Arctic Expedition of 1913-1918 . Photographed by Sir Hubert Wilkins

    for the British Gaumont Company and the Canadian Government.

            Down North (1920) . Photographed by J. Booth Scott and acquired by the

    Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau.

            Nanook of the North (1920-21) . Photographed and directed by Robert J.

    Flaherty, sponsored by Revillon Freres. First released in 1922, re-released

    with music and commentary in 1947 by United Artists.

            Canadian Eastern Arctic Expeditions of 1922 and 1923 . Photographed by

    George H. Valiquette for the Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch, Department

    of the Interior.

            Canadian Eastern Arctic Expedition of 1924 . Photographed by Roy Tash for

    the Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch, Department of the Interior.

            Canadian Eastern Arctic Expedition of 1925 . Photographed by George H.

    Valiquette for the Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch, Department of the


            Putnam Baffin Island Expedition. 1927 . Photographed by Maurice Kellerman

    for George Palmer Putnam.

            Hudson Strait Expedition, 1927-28 . Photographed by George H. Valiquette

    for the Department of Marine and Fisheries.

            In the Shadow of the Pole . Canadian Eastern Arctic Expedition of 1928.

    Photographed and edited by Richard Finnie for the Northwest Territories and

    Yukon Branch, Department of the Interior.

            The Arctic Patrol. Canadian Eastern Arctic Expedition of 1929. Photo–

    graphed and edited by Richard Finnie for the Northwest Territories and Yukon

    Branch, Department of the Interior.

    013      |      Vol_XIII-0832                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Finnie: Northern Photography

            Down the Mackenzie River (1930) . Photographed and edited by Richard Finnie

    for the Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch, Department of the Interior.

            Cruising Among Arctic Islands (1930) . Scenes along the Arctic Coast from

    Herschel Island eastward to Victoria Island and King William Island. Photographed

    and edited by Richard Finnie for the Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch,

    Department of the Interior.

            Over the North Magnetic Pole (1930) . The first flight to King William

    Island and Boothia Peninsula, and search for relics of the Franklin expedition.

    Photographed and edited by Richard Finnie for the Northwest Territories and

    Yukon Branch, Department of the Interior.

            Winter In An Arctic Village (1930-31) . Activities of whites and natives

    at Coppermine, Coronation Gulf. Photographed and edited by Richard Finnie for

    the Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch, Department of the Interior.

            Among the Igloo Dwellers (1930-31) . Folkways of the Copper Eskimos, Cor–

    onation Gulf, including dancing and snowhouse building. Photographed and edited

    by Richard Finnie for the Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch, Department of

    the Interior.

            The Last Frontier (1934) . Transportation and mining development in the

    Mackenzie District. Photographed and produced (privately) by Richard Finnie.

            Northwest Passage Patrol (1937) . The annual Eastern Arctic voyage of the

    R. M. S. Nascopie , highlighted by the meeting at Bellot Strait of the schooner

    Aklavik from the Western Arctic. Photographed and edited by Richard Finnie for

    the Northwest Territories Administration, Department of Mines and Resources.

            Canada Moves North (1939) . A history of exploration, settlement, trans–

    portation, and mining development in the Mackenzie District, with sidelights on

    014      |      Vol_XIII-0833                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Finnie: Northern Photography

    the changing status of the Indians and Eskimos. Photographed and produced

    (privately) by Richard Finnie.

            Alaska Highway (1942-44) . The construction and operation of the Alaska

    Highway and its appurtenances. Photographed and produced by Richard Finnie

    for the U. S. War Department.

            Canol (1942-44) . The construction of the Canol Project. Photographed

    and produced by Richard Finnie for the U. S. War Department.

            It was in September 1939 that the National Film Board came into being.

    The new agency consolidated virtually all Canadian Government film-making

    activities, expanded them enormously, and found international theatrical and

    non-theatrical outlets for large numbers of educational and propaganda films

    in both 35 mm. and 16 mm. versions, all with sound tracks and some in color.

    Many films designed to stimulate interest in the North were made, including:

            Fur Country (1942) . An Indian trapper of James Bay makes his rounds and

    brings his skins to the trading post. Directed and produced by Douglas Sinclair

    and Edonard Buchman.

            Northwest Frontier (1943) . An adaptation of Richard Finnie's 1939 Mack–

    enzie District film, purchased by the National Film Board and prepared for re–

    lease by James Beveridge.

            Eskimo Arts and Crafts (1943) . Folkways of Southern Baffin Island Eskimos,

    with sound recordings of drumming and singing. Photographed by Grant McLean,

    directed by Laura Bolton.

            Eskimo Summer (1943) . Hunting forays and camp life among Eskimos of Hudson

    Strait, Southampton Island, Chesterfield Inlet, and Baker Lake, with sound re–

    cordings of native songs. Photographed by Grant McLean, directed by Laura Bolton.

    015      |      Vol_XIII-0834                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Finnie: Northern Photography

            Look to the North (1944) . An impressionistic treatment of wartime de–

    velopments in Northwestern Canada and Alaska, with peacetime implications.

    Photographed by Donald Fraser, directed by James Beveridge.

            Northwest by Air (1944) . The evolution of the Northwest Staging Route.

    Photographed by Donald Fraser, directed by James Beveridge.

            Land Fur Pioneers (1944) . A swift review of the exploration and develop–

    ment of Northwestern Canada. Photographed by Donald Fraser and Joe Gibson,

    directed by James Beveridge. (Introductory and closing speeches by Dr. Charles

    Camsell are appended.)

            Highways Norht (1944) . The Alaska Highway and its appurtenances are

    shown in relation to wartime strategy and peacetime development. Photographed

    by Donald Fraser and Sam Orleans, directed by James Beveridge.

            Photo Canada (1946) . An account of northern mapping operations by the

    Royal Canadian Air Force. Photographed by Stan Berbe, produced by Donald Mul–


            Exercise Musk Ok (1946) . The Canadian Army's snowmobile expedition from

    Churchill to Edmonton, via Baker Lake, Coronation Gulf, Great Bear Lake, the

    Mackenzie Valley, and the Alaska Highway. Photographed by Roger Racine, dir–

    ected and produced by Douglas Wilkinson and Robert Anderson.

            New North (1946) . Incorporating scenes taken for earlier films by Donald

    Fraser, with new material furnished by Hamilton Wright, this is a one-reel in–

    spection of areas of Northwestern Canada opened up by the Alaska Highway, with

    emphasis on tourism.

            Besides these film subjects, the National Film Board has a large collection

    of still photographs comprising about a dozen individual phot-stories on northern

    places and activities. Some of these were made separately, others in conjunction

    with motion pictures. The topics include: "Alaska Highway" (Spring 1942), by

    016      |      Vol_XIII-0835                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Finnie: Northern Photography

    Harry Rowed; "Alaska Highway" (Summer 1942), by Nicholas Morant; "Truck Convoy"

    and "Alaska Highway" (1942), by Ronnie Jacques; "Canol Oil Project" (1943), by

    Harry Rowed; "Northwest Staging Route" (1944), by Milton Meade; "Tractor Train

    to Yellowknife" (1945), by Ronnie Duke; "Mining, Yellowknife" (1945), by John

    Mailer; "Eldorado Mine" (1945), by Jack Long; "Exercise Polar Bear" (1945), by

    Army photographers; "Exercise Lemming" (1945), by Roger Racine; "Exercise Musk

    Ox" (1946), by George Hunter; "Alaska Highway — Postwar" (1946), by Jack Long;

    "Fur Trapping" and "R.C.M.P. in Arctic" (1946), by Bud Glunz; "Baker Lake" (1946),

    by George Hunter; "Churchill" and "Nascopie, Supply Ship" (1946), by George


            These pictures, all taken by professional photographers, have the double

    advantage of high quality and accessibility. However, thousands of other still

    photographs of the natural resources, of life and progress in northern Canada

    from the 1880's until after World War II are to be found in the files of the

    Geological Survey of Canada and the Northwest Territories Administration at

    Ottawa. Taken by investigators and scientists on innumerable expeditions, winter

    and summer, many of these photographs are good, some are not, but most have con–

    siderable archival value. The Hudson's Bay Company, through its house organ,

    The Beaver , Winnipeg, has assembled a large collection of photographs, some made

    on assignment like those of Richard Hourde, most by fur traders, chronicling

    activities in connection with the Company's operations across northern Canada.


    Richard Finnie

    001      |      Vol_XIII-0836                                                                                                                  

    cludes changes and itions by [15?] - 3/10/48 RELIGIOUS MISSIONS IN NORTHERN CANADA

            Missionary activity in northern Canada began with the third

    voyage of Martin Frobisher in 1578, when landing parties erected stone

    crosses on the shores of Baffin Island, and the chaplain, Master Wolfall,

    vowed willingness "to stay there the whole year if occasion had served,"

    his only care being to save souls and "to reform those infidels [Eskimos]."

    The next recorded effort on behalf of the spiritual welfare of Canadian

    Eskimos was that of the Rev. John West, of the Church of England, who visited

    York Factory in Hudson Bay in 1822 and met Sir John Franklin's guide and

    interpreter, Augustus. The latter, an Eskimo, invited West to come to Fort

    Churchill to meet some of his countrymen, which he did before returning

    to England. He found these natives well-fed and contented, but told them

    he hoped to have the knowledge of Christianity brought to them so that

    they could live and die happily.

            Missionaries commonly refer to native North American spiritual

    concepts as "degraded," while the usual lay explorer or anthropologist

    consider s that both the northern [ ?] forest Indians and the Eskimos had

    religious beliefs and ethics which suited their primitive requirements

    very well before the coming of the white man. Some of the many taboos

    wi c t h which they surrounded themselves were foolish, some were downright

    harmful, but others were based on sound common sense. Some of their

    folkways that were outrageous according to civilized standards did nevertheless

    serve useful purposes. Take, for instance, the often discussed practices

    of polygamy, polyandry, and wife trading among the Eskimos. Split up

    into small family groups, they

    002      |      Vol_XIII-0837                                                                                                                  
    did not always have an even balance of men and women. A good hunter

    might be able to support more than one wife, and sometimes did , where

    there was a preponderance of women; and where women were in the

    minority one woman might take more than one husband. If an unmarried

    man or widower were about to set out on a prolonged hunting trip a

    friend's wife might go along, for a woman would be needed to take

    care of the hunter's clothing and prepare the skins of the animals

    he would kill. Infanticide, which has been especially deplored, was

    often inevitable. If a woman gave birth to a child during a winter

    trek when food was scarce, she might be obliged to abandon it to

    avoid endangering not only her own life but the lives of her entire

    family, because to keep it would slow down the search for game.

            On the whole, the Eskimos and to a lesser extent the northern

    Indians already practised the rudiments of what we call Christianity

    before the missionaries ever went among them. They were normally

    hospitable and generous, honest, and kind to one another. They were

    among the most consistent practicers of the Golden Rule.

            Many explorers, traders, trappers, prospectors, and officers

    and constables of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police who have been

    in close contact with them have been of the opinion that the pagans

    were more dependable and trustworthy, more self-reliant and more

    self-respecting than the Christianized Eskimos. A common view of

    these observers is that the enticements of imported luxuries and

    privileges which rival missionaries bestow on prospective converts

    tend to engender hypocrisy and mendicancy.

    003      |      Vol_XIII-0838                                                                                                                  

            On the other hand, it has been argued that since civilization

    is bound to come to the northern natives the missionaries should go

    wherever the trappers and traders and other white men go, for they

    are better equipped than any others to cushion the shock. In a book

    called Dwellers in Arctic Night (London, 1928), Biship A.L. Fleming,

    of the Church of England in Canada, poses and answers the question,

    "Why send missionaries among these people who have so many good and

    lovable qualities"? The "degraded" phases of his pagan religion,

    he says, cause the Eskimos to be weak in many things; and missionaries

    can be guides, counsellors, philosophers and friends, bringing them

    spiritual strength.

            It has been difficult for the northern natives to understand

    and adapt Christian dogma. Fundamentally, the Eskimos consider

    themselves superior to whites. They concede that we introduced

    Christianity, but sometimes they feel that their own interpretations

    of it are just as valid as ours. Many of them continue to believe

    in all the spirits and taboos of the old faith, superimposing on

    these the new Christian teachings. The familiar spirits are still

    present, and angry with their former patrons who have repudiated


            Father P. Duchaussois, O.M.I., in Mid Snow and Ice (London,

    1923), contends that murder was rife among primitive Eskimos. This

    is counter to the findings of ethnologists, who explain that when a

    killing occurred it was almost invariably motivated by insanity or

    self-protection, except for an occasional crime passionel .

    004      |      Vol_XIII-0839                                                                                                                  

            Ironically, several murders among Canadian Eskimos in recent

    years were inspired by mistaken notions of Christianity. In the an–

    nual report of the RCMP for 1924, an account is given of a series of

    killings at Home Bay, on the east coast of Baffin Island, when a

    native headman, having become insane, partly through brooding on

    religion, had two of his fellows put to death, and finally was shot

    when about to attack a woman with a hammer. He had sought to impress

    upon the community the idea [ ?] that he was God or Jesus Christ incar–


            On one of the Belcher Islands, Hudson Bay, in 1941 an Eskimo

    proclaimed himself Jesus and held revival meetings after studying a

    translation of the New Testament. Three doubters of his divinity

    were killed. At last, all his followers were told that the world

    was about to end; they must remove their clothing and walk out over

    the sea ice to meet God. It was midwinter and six children died of


            Primitive Eskimo interpretations of Christian teachings have

    been known to result in hardships and disasters other than actual

    killings. The late Inspector A. H. Joy, RCMP, told of a group of

    Baffin Island Eskimos who, short of food, saw a school of narwhal

    swimming close to shore. Just as the hunters were about to go after

    them, someone remembered that the day was Sunday. Weapons were put

    away, and the group starved. But missionaries cold not be blamed

    for this any more than they could be blamed for the murders cited,

    for no missionaries were present.

    005      |      Vol_XIII-0840                                                                                                                  

            That this is fully in character when Eskimos are being Chris- e

    tianized, is supported by an almost identical story, except that the

    missionary was present, which comes from the Presbyterian Mission at

    Point Barrow, Alaska. The Reverend H( ? ) R.(?) Marsh had there taken

    the place of the Reverend __________ Griggs who had been a stickler

    for sabbath observance. In a time of scarcity, bowhead whales began

    running in head just before Saturday midnight. These Eskimos had

    been insturcted by Mr. Griggs to cease whaling early enough Saturday

    to be sure to reach land before midnight. Mr. Marsh, who knew the

    whales were running, saw the hunters coming toward shore over the

    ice, went out to meet them and tried to get them to return to the

    hunt. They not merely refused to do this but also petitioned the

    Presbyterian Board of Missions in New York the following summer to

    recall Mr. Marsh and to send them in his place a missionary who be–

    lieved in obeying the Lords commandments.

            Throughout the Northwest Territories and the Y ukon there are

    but two religious denominations at work among the natives: the Roman

    Catholic Church and the Church of England in Canada (Anglican). The

    majority of the Eskimos are professed Anglicans, while the majority

    of the forest Indians are professed Roman Catholica, although "apostasy"

    is not uncommon among them.

            The first Catholic Roman priest to approach the Mackenzie Basin was

    Abb e é Jean Baptiste Thibault, who in 1845 began converting Indians at

    Methye Portage. Some had come south from Lake Athabaska with the

    fur brigade, and the priest was worried lest his work be undone by

    006      |      Vol_XIII-0841                                                                                                                  
    a Methodist minister reported to be on his way north.

            The minister was James Evans, employed by the English Wesleyan

    Society. In By Canoe and Dog Train (London, 1890), Egerton [ R ?] . Young

    tells how word reached Evans that priests were pushing into the

    Athabask a and Mackenzie River country, among some Indians that he had

    already visited. He forthwith set out by canoe to try to forestall

    the prists. His journey was halted when he accidentally shot and

    killed his Indian guide. Shaken by the tragedy, he never completed

    his errand, and the Mackenzie Basin, as well as the rest of the

    northland, was left clear for his r e i vals. No Methodist mission has

    ever been established in the Nor [ ?] hwest Territories.

            However, James Evans was destined indirectly to exert an in–

    fluence on many northern Indians and Eskimos. None of these abori–

    gines ever had a written language, and Roman letters did not lend

    themselves to the conveying of vague, un-English sounds. Evans in–

    vented a syllabic system of writing, using geometric characters re–

    sembling those of shorthand, primarily intended for Cree. In 1878

    an Anglican missionary, the Reverend E. J. Peck, adapted the Evans

    syllabics to Eskimo. Soon the system was borrowed by Moravian ?

    missionaries in Labrador, and today it is known throughout the North–

    ? west Territories, adopted by the Roman as well as Anglican mission–

    aries, though its use is more general in the Eastern Arctic. New

    Testament, prayer and hymn books have all been rendered in syllabics,

    which the natives have learned to read and write.

            As early as [ in ?] 1847 — two years after Evans' trip was cut short —

    the first priest, Father Tach e é , reached Fort Chipewyan on Lake

    007      |      Vol_XIII-0842                                                                                                                  
    Athabaska, and in 1849 a mission was founded there by Father Henry

    Joseph Faraud, who became the first Vicar Apostolic of Athabaska–

    Mackenzie. He and Father Grandin were the first missionaries to

    venture beyond the 60th parallel of latitude, the present southern

    border of the Northwest Territories, when they went as far as the

    shores of Great Slave Lake in 1852. They did not stay, but six

    years later, on July 22, Father Peter Henry Grollier arrived at

    Fort Resolution, just weat of the Slave River delta, and founded

    a mission.

            Within three weeks Anglican Archdeacon Hunter appeared. He

    was en route to Fort Simpson on the Mackenzie River. Although

    Hudson's Bay Company officials tried to discourage him, it was said,

    Father Grollier boarded the boat on which the Archdeacon was trav–

    eling and remained his unwelcome fellow passenger. Hunter took up

    residence at Fort Simpson, but, according to Father Duchaussois,

    historian of the Oblates, Chief Factor Ross would not allow Father

    Grollier either to stay there or proceed farther north, forcing him

    instead to return to Fort Resolution inside of a week. Duchaussois

    also states that the traders petitioned Sir George Simpson, then

    Governor-in Chief of the Company's territories, to keep priests out

    of the Mackenzie; but instead of doing so he gave them a passe-partout .

            Father Grollier was an energetic man. All in 1859, he founded

    a mission at Fort Rae, on the North Arm of Great Slave Lake, and then,

    heading down the Mackenzie, he founded mission [ ?] at Fort Providence,

    Fort Simpson, Fort Norman, and Fort Good Hope. Archdeacon Hunter

    had already called at the latter post in the spring, [ ?] thus setting

    008      |      Vol_XIII-0843                                                                                                                  
    a record for a missionary's farthe [ ?] t north. But Grollier settled

    down there and built a church and house. The following summer he

    beat the Archdeacon's record by starting the fisrt Arctic mission,

    at Fort McPherson, and by being the first missionary to meet Eski–

    mos in the Western Canadian Arctic. On September 14, 1860, he

    brought some Indians and Eskimos together and induced the leaders

    of the two groups to join hands in his at the foot of the Cross, and

    several converts were made. No permanent mission was set up at

    [ ?] Fort McPherson, however, and Grollier went back to Good Hope.

    He died in 1864 at the age of 38.

            Grollier's successor, Father S e é guin, had some disagreements

    with Archdeacon Hunter's assistant, the Reverend W. W. Kirkby, Get his biography through David Paine who

    started a mission at Arctic Red River and then went on to Fort Mc–

    Pherson, where he was accused of slandering the priests. Duchaussois

    contends that the priests were handicapped by poverty while the

    Anglican missionary had plenty of money with which to bribe the

    Indians "If you do not give me tea and tobacco and clothes," he

    quotes the Indians as saying to the prieets, "I must go to the

    Protestant minister for them; he gives me all I want."

            Bitterness as well as rivalry between the two Christian de–

    nominations in the North, which was rife in those early days, has

    never waned, often to the bewilderment of the natives.

            In 1884 a Missionary See of the Mackenzie River was created

    by the Church of England, and the Right Reverend William Carpenter

    Bompas was its first bishop. Residing at Fort Simpson he directed the

    affairs of the various Anglican missions in the district. His men

    009      |      Vol_XIII-0844                                                                                                                  
    swept the field in some places, gained a foothold in others, al–

    though [ ?] in general the Roman Catholics acquired a supremacy over the

    forest Indians which they were never to lose. Even at Fort Simpson,

    the Anglican headquarters, where no priests had been tolerated ex–

    cept for brief visits between 1858 and 1876, there was now a per–

    manent mission of the Oblates.

            The Grey Nuns, too, were coming into the country, the first

    having been installed at Fort Providence [ ?] in 1867. But at Hay

    River, 75 miles west of Fort Resolution, where a Roman mission had

    been established in 1869, the Slave Indians asked for a Protestant

    minister in 1893, and the Reverend T. J. Mar s h settled among them.

    The next year Catholic Bishop Grouard called at Hay River, intending

    to preach, but the Indians refused to receive him. Their hostility

    apparently subsided, for in 1900 the Oblates reestablished their


            In conjunction with the mission, Marsh conducted the first

    Protestant school in the Mackenzie District. Meanwhile, however,

    the Catholic missionaries were giving classroom instruction to native

    children at most of the ten missions that were by 1907 included in

    the diocese. In 1902 Mgr. Gabriel Breynat was made Vicar Apostolic

    of the Mackenzie District and has since held that office, with head–

    quarters at Fort Smith.

            Marsh appears to have been one of the first northern mission–

    aries to become seriously impressed with the physical harm that was

    being suffered by the converts to Christianity through their parallel

    conversion to white men's ways in housing, clothing and food. He did [ ?]

    010      |      Vol_XIII-0845                                                                                                                  
    his best, for instance, to induce the Hay River people to abandon

    their use of log cabins and return to the tepee as an anti-tuber–

    culosis measure.

            Among the Indians of the Mackenzie District in whom Cathol–

    icism took early root were the Dogribs of Fort Rae. When Frank

    Russell, the naturalist, went musk-ox hunting with them in 1894 he

    found that their devotions were performed as consistently on the

    banks of the Coppermine River as in the local church, although in

    his Explorations in the Far North (University of Iowa, 1898), he

    characterizes a typical service as being marked by a seriousness

    which "resulted more from a superstitious desire to propitiate the

    wrath of a savage storm god than from a feeling of reverence toward

    a beneficent Creator."

            Several priests (including Emile Petitot, whose books are

    valued by geographers, ethnologists and historians) penetrated to

    the Arctic Coast around the Mackenzie Delta, from Herschel Island to

    Liverpool Bay, at intervals between the 1860s and 1890s, but they

    made no real headway among the Eskimos.

            In 1911, Father Jean Baptiste Rouvier traveled from Fort

    Norman up the Great Bear River and across Great Bear Lake, wintering

    on the Dease River, where he met and baptized some Copper Eskimos.

    Encouraged by his modest success, he picked up a fellow priest at

    Fort Norman, Father Guillaume Le Roux, and spent another winter along

    the Dease. In the autumn of 1913 the two men sledged to Coronation

    Gulf. There they found Eskimos who were still unaccustomed to white–

    men's ways, and particularly those of missionaries.

    011      |      Vol_XIII-0846                                                                                                                  

            The priests were angered when their rifle was purloined or

    borrowed by one of the Eskimos. Ill-feeling ensued, which may have

    been inflamed by a jealous medicine man. The priests were advised

    to leave. They headed up the Coppermine River. Three days later

    they were overtaken by two Eskimos, Sinissiak and Uluksuk, to whom

    they offered some fox traps if they would help them as far as the

    wooded country toward [ ?] Great Bear Lake. The Eskimos agreed, and

    that night built a snowhouse for the priests. The next day little

    progress was made, there was still no timber in sight, and the

    priests became impatient. The Eskimos were frightened at this, and

    Sinissiak said, "We ought to kill these white men before they kill

    us." U [ ?] kluksuk was unwilling to take such drastic action, but his

    companion ' s will prevailed and the priests were killed.

            A variant explanation for the killing is that the Eskimos

    thought the priests were trying to entice them into the clutches of

    their ancient enemies, the forest Indians of Great Bear Lake. When

    Stefansson spent the summer of 1910 with the Eskimos in this region,

    he found among the two a reciprocal fear — the Eskimos considered

    the forest people treacherous and murderous; the Slaves and Dogribs

    had the same feeling about the Eskimos. This information, which

    both peoples gave Stefansson at that time, is corroborated by pre–

    vious narratives and experience. For instance, the Hudson Bay

    Indians, whom Samuel Hearne accompanied to the Coppermine in 1771,

    fell upon a village of sleeping Eskimos and butchered them. This

    seems to have been typical conduct of the forest Indians. Both the

    Copper Eskimos and the Great Bear Lake Indians agree that the Eski–

    mos occas s ionally retaliated So, according to one of the theo [ ?] ies,

    012      |      Vol_XIII-0847                                                                                                                  
    it was the persistence of this attitude among the Copper Eskimos

    which induced them to kill not merely the priests here in question

    but also the travelers Radford and Street (q.v.).

            Up to this time the Oblates had sent many priests into the

    Mackenzie District, all of whom had worked hard and endured discom–

    forts, but none had come to any harm at the hands of natives.

    Rouvier and Le Roux were the first and only clerical Arctic martyrs. Sigur in Alaska

    Relics of the unfortunate priests, including chalice, breviary,

    blood-stained altar cloth and soutanes, were subsequently exhibited

    to youthful Oblate scholastics at Edmonton.

            The Roman Catholic missionaries discovered at an early date

    that in the Mackenzie Valley it was possible to cultivate the land

    as well as souls; and they are generally regarded as the pioneer

    agriculturists of the region. For three-quarters of a century every

    Catholic mission there has had its garden or farm. Coming from

    France and Belgium as well as from the Province of Quebec, many of

    the priests and nuns had rural upbringing and it did not take them

    long to plant crops and acquire cattle. The first Anglican mission–

    aries and the traders, too, did some gardening, but they were usually

    shorthanded and may have lacked the skill or perseverence of the

    Oblate fathers, lay brothers, and the Grey nuns to go in for agri–

    culture ona comparatively large scale.

            An Oblate priest stationed at Reindeer Lake interested himself

    in the Eskimos os the western shores of Hudson Bay as far back as

    1868. Thirty-two years later he was given a helper, Father Ars è ne

    Turquetil, who soon made a trip into Eskimo country; and he laid

    013      |      Vol_XIII-0848                                                                                                                  
    plans which resulted in his founding a mission at Chesterfield In [ ?] et

    in 1912. Twenty years later Turq u [ ?] ue til became a bishop and the Vicar

    Apostolic of Hudson Bay and the Arctic, just as Bishop Breynat was

    Vicar Apostolic of the Mackenzie District.

            Mgr. Turquetil retired about 1942 and was succeeded by

    Bishop M. Lacroix, whose territory takes in the west coast of Hudson

    Bay and the Eastern Arctic Islands, while another Vicariate controls

    Catholic missions in Labrador and Northern Quebec under Mgr. [ ?] Lionel


            Church of England missionary activity in the Hudson Bay area,

    begun by the Reverend John West in 1822, was not resumed until 1862.

    That year the Reverend (later Bishop) John Horden, an Anglican minis–

    ter stationed at Moose Factory, journeyed as far as Whale River, where

    he met and preached to a group of Eskimos.

            In 1878 the Reverend E. J. Pack (who, as said, adapted the

    Evans syllabics to Eskimo) went to Whale River, stayed there six

    years, then proceeded by canoe to Fort Chimo — making the second

    recorded traverse of Ungava Peninsula by a white man — to pay a

            brief visit to a small band of Eskimos. In 1894 he opened the first

    permanent Baffin Island mission, at Blacklead Island (eventually moved to

    Pangnirtung), Cumberland Sound, which remained his headquarters for a decade.

    (A moravian Missionary named Warmow had visited Cumberland Sound as early as

    1858 but left after one winter.) in 1900 Peck was joined by the Rev. E.W.T.

    Greenshield. In 1909 the Rev. Archibald L. Fleming founded a mission at Lake

    Harbor, did much traveling among the Eskimos until 1915, and long afterward

    became the Anglican Bishop of the Arctic.

            It was not until 1930 that the Oblat [ ?] fathers reached Baffin

    Island, where their first mission was placed at Pond Inlet settlement.

    014      |      Vol_XIII-0849                                                                                                                  

            The first missionary actually to live on the Western Arctic

    coast of Canada was the Reverend Isaac O. Stringer, who became Bishop

    of the Yukon in 1905. From 1892 to 1902 he made his headquarters at

    Herschel Island, northwest of the Mackenzie Delta.

            In 1915 H. Girling, another Anglican missionary, traveled east–

    ward along the coast from the Mackenzie Delta to Dolphin and Union Strait,

    setting up a station at Bernard Harbor. Since then the Eskimos between

    Herschel Island and King William Island have been steadily under the

    influence of the Church of England. However, the Oblates moved into

    Coronation Gulf from the West in 1929; and from Chesterfield they later

    pushed inland as far as Baker Lake, and northeastward to Repulse Bay

    at Rae Isthmus, and Pelly Bay in the Gulf of Boothia.

            Note on office copy: This account needs insert on the work of Fry and


    015a      |      Vol_XIII-0850                                                                                                                  

            The pioneer missionaries of the Yukon were Anglican and Roman Catholic.

    However, during the gold-rush years religious activity reached a peak, when

    Presbyterian and Methodist as well as Anglican and Roman Catholic churches

    were built, and the Salvation Army sent in a vanguard of officers headed by

    Eva ngeline Booth. A little later a Christian Science Society was formed. But these

    other denominations were primarily concenned with the Yukon's whites; only

    the Anglican and Roman Catholic missionaries paid special attention to the

    natives, and they remained in the field after the dwindling of the white

    population prompted the withdrawal of the others.

            The work of the Anglicans in the Yukon began in 1861, when the Rev.

    W.W.Kirkby made a trip from the Mackenzie River over the Divide to Lapierre

    House on the Bell River. The following year the Rev. Robert McDonald, taking

    the same route, continued down the Porcupine to Fort Yukon, Alaska, where he

    studied the local Indian dialect and translated the Scriptures. Originally

    the Anglican efforts in the Yukon were adjunct to those of the Mackenzie

    and Athabaska districts but in 1891 the diocese of Selkirk was formed, with

    the Right Reverend W.C. Bompas as first bishop. In 1907 the diocese name was

    changed to Yukon, its boundaries being the same as the Territory's.

            The first Roman Catholic missionary to venture into the Yukon was Father

    Seguin, who spent part of the summer of 1862 at La Pierre House. That autumn

    he traveled down the Porcupine River as far as Fort Yukon, Alaska, where

    [ ?] he spent the winter. His efforts among the Indians were unrewarded, however,

    and he returned to the Mackenzie. In the summer of 1870 Father Petitot went

    briefly to Fort Yukon, and was followed in 1872-73 by Bishop Clut and Father

    Lecorre, who were no more successful at conversion than Father Seguin had

    015b      |      Vol_XIII-0851                                                                                                                  
    been, according to Duchaussois.

            It was not until 1897 that the Roman Catholic Church became permanently

    fixed in the Yukon, when a church and hospital were erected . at Dawson

    under the direction of Father Judge. Other priests who came the next year

    were Father Desmarais, Father Lefebvre and Father Gendreau. Under the

    latter's administration missions and churches were soon established at

    various settlements.

            Today there are Anglican or Roman (occasionally both) missions at all

    of the principal centers in the Northwest Territories, while in the Yukon

    the missions have long since achieved church status.

            Missions in the Northwest Territories were in 1947 distributed

    as follows:

            Roman Catholic : Aklavik, Arctic Bay, Arctic Red River, Baker Lake,

    Bathurst Inlet, Cape Dorset, Chesterfield, Churchill (Manitoba), Coppermine,

    Coral Harbor, Eskimo Point, Fort Good Hope, Eort Liard, Fort Norman, Fort

    Providence, Fort Resolution, Fort Simpson, Fort Smith, Bay River, Holman Island,

    Igloolik, Ivugivik (Quebec), Paulatuk, Pelly Bay, Pond Inlet, Port Brabant,

    Fort Rae, Repulse Bay, Stanton, Tavani, Wakeham Bay, Yellowknife.

    016      |      Vol_XIII-0852                                                                                                                  

            Anglican : Aklavik, Baker Lale, Cambridge Bay, Churchill

    (Manitoba), Coppermine, Coral Harbor, Eskimo Point, Fort Chimo

    (Quebec), Fort McPherson, Fort Ross, Fort Simpson, Fort Smith,

    >— Great Whale River, Hay River, Lake Harbor, Moffet Inlet, Pangnir–

    tung, Pond Inlet, Port Brabant, Port Harrison (Quebec), Yellowknife.

            In the Yukon there are Roman Catholic churches at Carcross, >—

    Dawson, Fort Selkirk, Mayo Landing, Teslin, Watson Lake and White–

    horse; and Anglican Catholic churches at Carcross, Dawson, Fort

    Selkirk, Mayo Landing, Old Crow, Teslin and Whitehorse.

            Besides converting the natives and providing churches for

    them, the northern missionaries assumed responsibility for their

    schooling and hospitalization. Once the missionaries had become

    entrenched along the Mackenzie River, and especially after the ar–

    rival of the Grey Nuns, they opened boarding schools where native

    children were taught to speak, read and write English or French.

    016a      |      Vol_XIII-0853                                                                                                                  
    no pgf.(Many of the mission-trained Mackenzie District Indians and a few of the

    Eskimos have become trilingual, speaking French and English more or less

    fluently as well as their native tongue. In the Anglican schools they learn

    — — only English, while in the Roman Catholic schools they learn both English

    and French, usually with emphasis on French because most of the teachers

    are French-speaking. The acquisition of French by these Indians and

    Eskimos is something of a curiosity, for there are few French-speaking

    whites in the region besides the nuns and priests.)

            no ¶ — Although the Grey Nuns, upon their arrival at Fort Providence in

    1867, founded the "Hospital of the Sacred Heart", the hospital was

    primarily a convent, with scant facilities and no doctor. As late

    as 1906 a Government official, after making a trip down the Mackenzie,

    appealed for the establishment of hospitals, saying that apart from

    the meagre efforts of the missionaries the only professional medical

    services rendered in the whole district were those of a single

    Government physician on an occasional visit.

            In those days both Anglican and Roman missionaries ministered

    to the sick in so far as their limited [ ?] equipment and knowledge of

    medicine permitted. In 1947 there were seven mission hospitals in

    017      |      Vol_XIII-0854                                                                                                                  
    the Mackenzie District, one in the Keewatin District (at Chesterfield),

    and one in [ ?] Baffin Island (at Pangnirtung). The Anglican hos–

    pitals are at Hay River (sick bay only), Aklavik, and Pangnirtung.

    The Roman Catholic hospitals are at Fort Smith, Fort Resolution,

    Fort Rae, Fort Simpson, Aklavik, and Chesterfield.

            These hospitals have accommodation varying from ten to fifty

    beds, with operating rooms and usually X-ray apparatus. [ ?] At most of

    them are resident doctors. Old people's homes are maintained in

    conjunction with the mission hospitals at Aklavik, Chesterfield and


            The Federal Government has contributed substantially toward

    the construction costs of some of these hospitals, also paying a

    daily sum for the care and maintenance of every patient. All of the

    doctors are full-time employees of the Department of National Health

    and Welfare, serving also as district health officers and, in some

    cases, as Indian agents also. The nurses are employed by the missions,

    and in the Roman Catholic hospitals they are nuns. All are supposed

    to be graduates of recognized institutions.

            Residential schools are operated by the Anglicans at Aklavik,

    and by the Romans at Fort Resolution, Fort Providence, and Aklavik.

    There are Roman day schools at Fort Smith and Fort Simpson. Some of

    the Western Arctic Eskimo children attend the Roman Catholic or Church

    of England residential school at Aklavik. There are no full-fledged

    schools in the Eastern Arctic, though some tuition is offered at the

    missions. All of the schools are operated by the missions, assisted

    018      |      Vol_XIII-0855                                                                                                                  
    by Government grants, with the exception of a new day school for

    Indian children at Fort McPherson maintained by the Indian Affairs

    Branch, and a non-denominational school at Fort Smith. The only

    public school in the Northwest Territories is that at Yellowknife,

    the mining center, primarily for white children.

            Unhappy features of the old school and hospital systems of

    the Northwest Territor i es included a rancorous spirit of competition

    between the two denominations, not infrequently resulting in dupli–

    cation of services; and proselytism underlying all medical and edu–

    cational efforts of the missionaries. Schooling was rudimentary,

    givin [ ?] g the natives small chance for self-improvement. Disinterested

    observers felt that the hospitals should be divorced from missionary

    control, made non-sectarian, and consolidated under a Government

    agency, with adequate numbers of competent doctors, nurses and teachers,

    a proportion of whom could eventually be recruited from native ranks

            [ tho ?] were they ? Comparable views were expressed by two specialists who made

    field studies in 1944 under the auspices of the Canadian Social

    Science Research Council, supported by the Rockefeller Foundation.

    An official Dr. G. J. Wherrett, of the Canadian Tuberculosis Association , surveyed health

    conditions and medical and hospital services, while Dr. Andrew Moore, [ ?] secondary

    school inspector of the Province of Manitoba , surveyed education in

    the Mackenzie District.

            The former was filled with admiration at the courage and de–

    votion of the missions, laboring for so many years to bring Christi–

    anity and health to the natives, and applauded the work of the Gov–

    ernment doctors who were attempting to give medical care to the

    019      |      Vol_XIII-0856                                                                                                                  
    small scattered population of an area comprising two-fifths of

    Canada. He found unsatisfactory conditions, particularly in regard

    to tuberculosis. He strongly recommended that the whole health

    service be reorganized with a full-time director in charge, and

    that hospitals [ ?] should be brought up to a uniform standard with

    adequate operating-room, laboratory and X-ray facilities.

            The latter's survey led him to the conclusion that schooling

    for natives should have two main objectives: (1) to provide them

    with as much of the white man's knowledge and behavior as would as–

    sist them to enjoy a more abundant and efficient life in their own

    environment, and (2) to equip them to cope with the impact of civi–

    lization, so that they might become self-respecting, self-supporting

    Canadian citizens no longer [ ?] under the tutelage of the Government.

    He emphasized the need for alert, fully-trained teachers, saying

    that the teaching staffs in most of the schools in the Mackenzie

    District were weak. There was no lack of devotion among them, but

    in nearly every case they were uncertificated and not abreast of

    modern methods and practice. He suggested that in addition to per–

    manent schools at central locations there be mobile units to follow

    the natives in their seasonal migrations, thus bringing suitable

    instruction to the children without upsetting their normal lives

    with their parents.

            He advocated the training of selected Indian [ ?] and Eskimo

    children in social-service work and various technical fields. With

    the establishment of airports, radio and meteorological stations

    through the North, he felt that natives should be given preparation

    020      |      Vol_XIII-0857                                                                                                                  
    to help maintain such facilities.

            He recommended the appointment of a resident director of

    education to control all education (native, mixed-blood and white)

    in the Northwest Territories, responsible to the Northwest Terri–

    tories Council; and to assist him, purely in advisory capacity,

    there should be an educational council of laymen and clerics dom–

    inated by no denominational or other interest.

            WHO? In 1946 an inspector of schools was appointed. He traveled

    through the Mackenzie District and as a result of his findings the

    administration of education in the Territories was to be reorganized.

    Besides the construction of a modern public school at Yellowknife,

    immediate plans called for the organization of day schools at places

    where none existed.

            In 1947 there was a further trend in the direction of Gov–

    ernment-operated schools. The Northwest Territories Council (the

    governing body) resolved to take a larger responsibility in northern

    education. The question of whether the Government should buy up all

    church school buildings in the Northwest Territories was to be con–

    sidered over a long period, but if there were to be any new schools

    they should be built by the Government. This statement of policy

    was brought out at a meeting of the Northwest Territories Council

    in Ottawa, when an application of the Church of England in Canada

    to erect a new mission school in the Mackenzie Delta was turned down.

            With an increasingly better understanding of the needs and

    potentialities of the natives, the Government will eventually estab–

    lish its own hospitals (one for tuberculous Indians and Eskimos has

    021      |      Vol_XIII-0858                                                                                                                  
    been opened in Edmonton), and its own schools for general education

    and technical training of natives in the Northwest Territories.

    The value of the Eskimos and Northern Indians as intelligent folk

    capable of assuming the responsibilities of citizenship, given

    proper training, is being realized; and there is no reason why

    they should not have opportunities to become teachers, doctors,

    nurses, geologists, meteorologists, mechanics, tractor operators,

    aviators, and so forth. Eventually, then, the missionaries may

    be relieved in large measure of their burden of supplying medical

    and educational services so that they may Concentrate on return to their primary

    spiritual tasks.

    001      |      Vol_XIII-0859                                                                                                                  
    D. M. LeBourdais

    Mineral Possibilities of Yukon Territory, Canada

            - Yukon Territory

    was first brought to world attention in the dying years of thenine–

    teenth century when the fabulous discoveries of the Klondike result–

    ed in one of the world's greatest gold rushes. As is usually the

    case, — since the Klondike was a placer camp, — the richest ground

    was soon worked out. Dawson, in its prime a city of more than 25,000

    people, dwindled rapidly after the first flush of gold had died down,

    and for the past 30 years has never had more than about 1,000 people.

            The existence of placer gold always pre-supposes the presence

    somewhere of a "mother lode" from which the gold originally came;

    and, as in other similar places, many prospectors diligently search–

    ed the hills and gullies in an attempt to find veins of ore studded

    with gold equivalent to that which was being washed from the Klondike

    gravel beds. Many gold-bearing veins were found in various places,

    but none so rich as those much have been which had been ground down

    by the glaciers to produce the placer diggings. Neither was any

    ledge or other occurrence found which was sufficiently rich and ex–

    tensive to justify operation by lode-mining processes.

            The first prospectors looked for gold because its presence in

    the placer creeks in such abundance seemed to suggest that when gold–

    bearing ores were found they would prove to be rich. Another reason

    was that gold-mining — if the deposits are sufficiently extensive

    and the ore capable of being milled at a margin over cost, — can be

    carried on without railway connection because the product is small

    in bulk and can be transported by air if necessary at a negligible


    002      |      Vol_XIII-0860                                                                                                                  

            When hope of finding rich gold ore faded somewhat, prospectors

    turned their attention to the possibility of finding other types of

    lode mines. The [ s ?] luice-boxes in the placer mines had produced vari–

    able amounts of silver, lead, zinc, copper, tin, tungsten, and a

    number of other metals. Perhaps some of these might be found in suf–

    ficient quality and of sufficient value to enable profitable product–

    ion, even at such a distance from railway transportation. Since White–

    horse had railway connection with the ocean port of Skagway, the

    region about Whitehorse was one of the earliest to be more or less

    thoroughly prospected. A number of promising copper occurrences were

    discovered in the area, and from time to time some of them have pro–

    vided ore of sufficient grade to justify shipment to smelters in the

    State of Washington or in southern British Columbia, but none has

    yet been discovered which would justify the building of a smelter

    in the Territory, without which no large-scale base metal industry

    could develop.

            Stewart River, flowing into the Yukon from the east a short

    distance below Dawson, had been one of the important placer streams,

    and consequently it and its many tributaries were intensively pros–

    pected with sufficient results to encourage the prospectors to con–

    tinue their efforts. While the placers were still active, a number

    of silver-lead occurrences were staked in the Mayo district, about

    180 miles up the Stewart River. These were principally on Keno and

    Galena hills, and nearby territory. The ore on some of these claims

    was sufficiently high-grade to enable the operators to pick the rich–

    est of it by hand into bags and ship it outside to the smelter. The

    first ore was shipped about 1913, from which date until mining op [ ?]

    ations were discontinued in 1941, shipments, although made spasmodically,

    did not entirely cease.

    003      |      Vol_XIII-0861                                                                                                                  

            The ore, after being packed in bags, was usually hauled to the

    Stewart river-bank by truck, then loaded on river boats for the IO–

    mile voyage down the Stewart and the 460-mile journey up the Yukon

    to Whitehorse, where it was transferred to railway cars for the [ ?] 111–

    mile haul to Skagway, where it was transferred to ocean-going ships,

    and eventually hauled again by rail to the smelter. Obviously, ore

    that would permit of such handling must be extremely rich to start

    with. Most of the values were in the silver because the price for

    lead which prevailed until comparatively recently did not permit of

    the shipping of lead concentrates. The o re usually carries from 100

    to 200 ounces of silver to the ton.

            Since 1913, ore to the value of about $30 million has been taken

    out of the sliver-lead mines in the Mayo district. Ore not rich enough

    to justify the costs of mining and shipping was by-passed, or else

    stockpiled against the day when either higher prices for silver or

    lead, or both, could be obtained, or better transportation facilit–

    ies were forthcoming. If and when a smelter is built in the Yukon

    Territory, this accumulation of lower-grade ore should prove of great


            Ownership of the various properties in the Mayo district changed

    frequently, as group after group became discouraged with the slow rate

    at which the hoped-for development of Yukon Territory was proceeding.

    Previous to 1941, the principal producing properties in the Mayo dis–

    Trict were owned by the Treadwell Yukon Corporation, which, in the

    latteryear, was in liquidation, and had discontinued mining operations

    on these properties, with the result that between 1941 and 1945 ship–

    ments of ore were suspended.

            In 1945, however, a group of Canadian mining men headed by Fred

    M. Connell, of Toronto, acquired control (Yukon Treadwell was an Am–

    erican company), and a new era began for the property. A new company,

    004      |      Vol_XIII-0862                                                                                                                  
    called United Keno Hill [ ?] ines Limited was organized and ample work–

    ing capital was provided. The new owners initiated an energetic pro–

    gram of development, with the result that in the interval the entire

    picture in the Mayo field has changed. Further development work has

    disclosed new veins as rich or even richer than those previously

    known, and evenything points to the possibility of establishing ex–

    tensive ore reserves. The Mayo camp now promises to become one of the

    most important base-metal mining capms in North America.

            Following the renewal of production in 1947 until the fall of

    1950, operating conditions remained essentially as they had been

    under the previous owners. Ore still had to be shipped by truck,

    boat and rail to smelters far to the south, and the only power was

    supplied by Diesel engines, with fuel at 40 vents a gallon at the

    mine. Despite these handicaps, and a fire which halted production

    for five months in 1949, gross output from April 1947 to the end of

    1950 was about $10.5 million, with net profits of about $3 million.

    In 1950 alone, gross production totalled $6.5 million, with ore

    reserves valued at about $20 million. Higher prices for silver and

    lead were responsible for some of this improved position, but the

    principal reason was a change due to [ ?] the viewpoint of the new owners.

            Even ater allowing for the assistance resulting from higher

    base metal prices [ ?] about one-fifth of gross output now comes from

    zinc, formerly not valuable enough to pay shipping costs), the new

    company's accomplishment with a "worked-out" property has been re–

    markable. But compared to what the future seems to hold, past pro–

    duction provides little basis for production in the days to come.

            Until the fall of 1950, production was rigidly limited by the fact

    that river transport facilities would permit of no more than about

    005      |      Vol_XIII-0863                                                                                                                  
    12,000 tons of freight each way in a season. This transportation

    bottleneck also increased costs by obliging mine operators to tie

    up large sums of money in stockpiles of ore and inventories of sup–

    plies during the eight-month period when river transport was clo [ ?] d.

    This situation seemed to impose insuperable obstacles to any idea of

    greatly increased production.

            On October 5, 1950, however, the Government of Canada, through

    its Department of Mines and Resources, announced the completion of

    a $5.5 million highway connecting Mayo with the Alaska Highway near

    Whitehorse, and a new era began for the mines of Mayo district. The

    new highway will not make possible any reduction in the costs of

    transportation, but it will result in more economical operationbe–

    cause mining operations can now be continued all year, resulting in

    greatly increased production. It will do away with the necessity for

    stockpi l ing of ore and the accumulation of inventories of supplies.

            Another announcement by the Government in the fall of 1950 was

    of great interest and importance to the base-metal miners in the

    Mayo District. The announcement concerned the decision to undertake

    a $3 million power project on the Mayo River, which promised to [ ?] cut

    several hundred thousand dollars from each year's mining and milling

    costs. The hydro development is at Mayo Canyon, about 30 miles from

    Mayo Landing, and is designed to produce 3,000 horsepower, but capable

    of expansion to 8,000 horsepower, if needed.

            With these improved power and transport facilities, it is expect–

    ed that production of United Keno Mines will show an increase of

    about 40 per cent in 1951 over the 1950 record of $9.2 million. In–

    crease in the mill-rate from 240 tons to 350 tons daily will also

    play a part in this new picture, which however will be improved fur–

    ther in 1952 when hydro power will enable a mill-rate of 600 tons

    a day.

    006      |      Vol_XIII-0864                                                                                                                  

            Therefore, if metal prices hold (about $80 a ton early in 1951),

    and grade of millfeed can be maintained, United Keno Mines production

    could easily reach $15 million by 1952, with excellent prospects of a

    progressive increase. But past expansion of from $2 million in 1948

    to $15 million in 1952, is only part of the story. So far, Untted

    Keno Hill Mines has drawn almost all its pay-ore from one occurrence,

    the Hector vein on Galena Hill. The company owns, however, an ar [ ?] of

    about 26 square miles, and in this area 18 important vein showings

    have been outlined along a favorable zone 12 miles in length. In

    addition to the Hector mine, five veins in the Galena Hill section

    were opened in 1951.

            The original mill was built to serve properties on Galena Hill,

    and another — of 250 tons — is being built to serve the properties

    at the further end of the company's territory — on Keno Hill, where

    prospects for major production appear to be just as good. One vein,

    on the Keno claim, has a surface showing averaging $164 a ton across

    ll feet for an exposed length of 450 feet. Another claim on what is

    called the Reserve claim shows values in silver ranging over $200

    a ton.

            While United Keno Hill Mines' 323 claims cover the greater pro–

    portion of the known showings, and that company's activities give

    a lead to the development of the district, possibility of develop–

    ment of property adjoining is extremely promising, and many other

    companies are holding well-located claims, several of which are either

    actively producing or preparing to do so. Mackenko Mines, for example,

    holding 900 acres near the Hector mine, is developing what is believ–

    ed to be an extension of the Hector vein, expects to begin shipping

    ore in 1951.

    007      |      Vol_XIII-0865                                                                                                                  

            A similar program was under way at the Bellekeno Mines property

    in the Keno Hill section; and another company, Akenko Mines, with 12

    claims near the Reserve claim of United KenoHill Mines, was awaiting

    nearby development for additional information about its own proper–

    ties. Further companies were being organized early in 1951 to develop

    claims in the Keno Hill section, and it was expected that a custom

    mill would be built in this area by mid-1951 to handle the output

    from these various properties.

            Although geologists agree that the ore bodies in the area are

    of primary, not secondary, origin, and thus may be expected to go

    to considerable depths, all work so far has been above the 500-foot

    level. In earlier days, ore with less than 100 ounces of silver to

    the ton was discarded, and it is said that some roads in the area

    were made from ore now worth $50 a ton!

            Some 400 men were employed in the Mayo camp in the fall of 1950,

    and by the summer of 1951 the population of Mayo District was expected

    to reach well over 1,000. This would make Mayo second only to White–

    horse in size among Yukon communities. If a projected development by

    United Keno Hill Mines which contemplates the building of a smelter

    to produce silver, lead and zinc at the mines, thus saving the cost

    of $40 or more a ton required to ship concentrates to an outside

    smelter, materializes, the Mayo District should at last assume the proportions of

    a major mining region, with important results for Yukon Territory

    as a whole. The Government of Canada, anxious to encourage the estab–

    lishment of permanent communities in the Northwest, is said to be

    giving every encouragement to the idea of a smelter. Such a develop–

    ment could easily result in a population of 5,000 in the Mayo District.

            This activity in the Mayo District is reflected in a number of

    008      |      Vol_XIII-0866                                                                                                                  
    other sections throughout the Territory, especially in the region

    about Whitehorse, where there has been more or less activity since

    the early days of the Klondike rush. The Whitehorse region contains

    a wide variety of mineral occurrences, including gold, silver, copper,

    zinc, lead, antimony, manganese, molybdenite, tungsten, and tin. In

    addition, there are extensive deposits of good bituminous coal. Under

    the stimulation of high prices for base metals, large mining companies

    such as Noranda Mines Limited and Hudson Bay Exploration and Develop–

    ment Company (subsidiary of Hudson Bay Mining and Smelting Company,

    of Flin Flon, Manitoba), have sent survey parties into the Territory.

    Over a period of three years the former company conducted in the vic–

    inity of Whitehorse magnetometer surveys as well as diamond drilling.

            The Wheaton district, to the south and west of Whitehorse, also

    contains a variety of prospects, including some of gold, silver-lead,

    copper, zinc, antimony, and fluorspar. Between 1908 and 1915, this

    district was quite extensively prospected, and while several promis–

    ing properties were discovered, none proved sufficie [ ?] tly so as to

    justify the investment of large capital. Consequently, as in other

    parts of Yukon, owners of claims are patiently awaiting the general

    development of the Territory, when, as they hope, their district

    will advance with the rest of the country.

            Antimony deposits in the Wheaton district, according to Dr. H. S.

    Bostock, of the Geological Survey of Canada, are of particular inter–

    est. They occur along a zone extending from Lake Bennett to the north–

    west side of Wheaton River, in which several persistent veins and

    many small showings have been found. Good mining widths of ore carry–

    ing as much as 30 per cent antimony have been exposed, but the sulph–

    ides of other metals are mixed with those of antimony, which places

    009      |      Vol_XIII-0867                                                                                                                  
    the Wheaton ores at a disadvantage in competition with ores free from

    undesirable metals. The deposits, however, are reasonably accessible,

    and undoubtedly will prove profitable as soon as transportation [ ?] d

    other facilities are provided.

            Yukon Territory contains a number of other areas which show prom–

    ising mineral possibilities. One of these, called by geologists the

    Dawson Range area, lies along the southwestern side of the Yukon

    River valley, from Carmacks to the mouth of White River. In 1931, a

    gold-bearing copper-magnetite deposit was discovered on Freegold Mount–

    ain in this area by a trapper; and prospects of gold, silver-lead,

    lead-zinc, copper, and antimony were found shortly afterward in the

    vicinity of the original discovery. One of these prospects, known

    as the Laforma property, has since been operated by a succession of

    companies, but development was discontinued in 1940, owing to a

    disagreement between the owners othe property and the operators.

            Another property in the area showing promise is the Brown-McDade

    mine, about 15 miles south of the Laforma. Considerable development

    work on this property in 1947 disclosed the presence of a large de–

    posit, but since an extensive program of development was conside [ ?]

    necessary before its value could be determined, no further work has

    been done. The Brown-McDade discovery, however, stimulated other

    prospecting, with the result that several gold, silver, and lead

    prospects were discovered in the district. This region would undoubt–

    edly be fully explored if it were in other parts of Canada where

    transportation is available, but, like many others in Yukon Territ–

    ory, it must await the general development of the country. Since he

    area is nearly all readily accessible from the Yukon River, it should

    be one of the first to benefit from any improvement in the general

    transportation picture.

    010      |      Vol_XIII-0868                                                                                                                  

            No estimate of the mineral possibilities of Yukon Territory

    would be complete without an account of its coal and oil possibil–

    ities. So far as coal is concerned, Yukon is one of the most poten–

    tially productive regions of Canada. Dr. Bostock lists thirteen dif–

    ferent areas underlain by either Mesozoic or Tertiary coal measures,

    some in relatively small pockets or basins, but others extending

    over wide areas. What he calls the St. Elias Belt consists of ten or

    more detached basins of Tertiary sediments containing lignite deposits

    whichfollow the valley-like Duke Depression parallel with and behind

    the main front ranges of the St. Elias Mountains. It is believed that

    in most of the basins seams of coal of workable thickness can be found.

            One of the most important fuel belts in Yukon Territory is the

    Lake Laberge Mesozoic area, consisting of the large geosyncline of

    Mesozoic strata extending northwestward from near the British Col–

    umbia border, in which coal of Lower Cretacious age and some of Jur–

    assic age is found. The Cretacious coal is of bituminous and semi–

    bituminous grade, and has been mined for local use since early Klon–

    dike days. Estimates of the coal available in such sections of this

    area as have so far been sufficiently examined amount to 231,160,000

    tons of possible and probable coal in seams more than three feet thick.

            The northwest 100 miles of Tintina Valley, a remarkable depr [ ?]

    ion stretching from Pelly River near Ross River Post northwesterly

    past Dawsoninto Alaska, is floored by Tertiary sedimentary rocks

    containing seams of lignite. According to Dr. Bostock, "this long,

    troughlike area of coal measures constitutes a great reserve of lig–

    nite in a relatively accessible part of Yukon."

            In the Liard Plain Area, Tertiary sediments with lignite seams

    are widely distributed, and Dr. Bostock thinks that "within the wide

    011      |      Vol_XIII-0869                                                                                                                  
    expanses of Liard Plain in Yukon Territory, 100 square miles or more"

    of these lignite-bearing beds might be considered probable.

            Northern Yukon is divided by Dr. Bostock into eight coal areas,

    three underlain by Mesozoic rocks and the other five by Tertiary form–

    ations. Not much exploration has yet been done in any of the three

    Mesozoic areas, which include the Peel Plateau area, the Porcupine

    River area, and the Arctic Coast area, but coal seams have been wide–

    ly observed in these areas, and from the evidence available Dr. Bos–

    tock is of the opinion that large reserves of coal may be expected


            The Bonnet Plume area, which consists of a basin of Tertiary

    sediments on the lower reaches of Bonnet Plume and Wind rivers, both

    of which are tributaries of Peel River, contains many seams of lignite,

    including one 40 feet and another eight feet thick. The area unde [ ?] ain

    by these strata is approximately 400 square miles, which indicates

    the possibility of large coal reserves.

            With respect to petroleum prospects in the Yukon, considerable

    area in the northwestern portion of the Territory are underlain by

    strata geologically favorable for the concemtration of petroleum,

    but very little exploration work has yet been done in any section of

    this great region. "The potentialities for oil in northern Yukon

    can only be appraised from meager information, but this indicates

    some possibilities of oil reservoirs. Eagle Plain, occupying an area

    of about 5,000 square miles, and Peel Plateau east of Richardson Mount–

    ains are regarded with most favor, but the border areas on the east,

    northeast, and south of Porcupine Plain as a whole also have possibilities.

            Enough has been shown to indicate that Yukon Territory is a region

    rich in potential mineral wealth. The principal obstacle to its develop-

    012      |      Vol_XIII-0870                                                                                                                  

            Enough has been shown to indicate that Yukon Territory is a

    region rich in potential mineral wealth. The principal obstacle to

    its development is lack of cheap transportation; and until a rail–

    way is built into the Territory its mineral production must be limited

    to that obtained from only the richest occurrences. Such a limitation

    would seriously handicap any mining region in the world. That Yukon

    Territory can, in the circumstances, produce any minerals other than

    placer gold is a tribute to the inherent wealth of her mineral res–


            It will thus be seen that the future of Yukon Territory hangs

    upon the possibility of a railway. What, then, are the prospects for

    a railway within a reasonably short time? Despite the obvious rich–

    ness of its mineral wealth, and the equally obvious need for arail–

    way inorder to develop that wealth, the prospects for a railway to

    the Yukon itself would not be very bright for the simple reason that

    Canada has many other undeveloped regions much more accessible whose

    claims would probably be given previous consideration. The people of

    Alaska, however, also with rich natural resources awaiting develop–

    ment, have for many years been agitating for a railway. With state–

    hold now a practical reality, railway connection with the rest of

    the United States becomes an imperative matter; and any railway that

    connects Alaska with the other States must be built through the Yukon.

            The question still to be considered concerns the probable route

    of such a railway when built. The choice seems to rest between two

    alternative routes. The British Columbia Government has recently ex–

    tended the Pacific Great Eastern Railway from its former northern term–

    inus at Quesnel to Prince George, 84 miles farther north. There is a

    possibility that this railway might be continued northwestward along

    the Rocky Mountain Trench to the point where the latter joins the

    013      |      Vol_XIII-0871                                                                                                                  
    Liard Valley, thence, in a general way, following the Alaska Highway

    to Fairbanks.

            The other possible route would begin at a point on the Northern

    Alberta Railways somewhere north of Peace River, thence northward to

    the Mackenzie Valley, down the latter to a point near Norman Wells,

    after which it would follow one of a number of passes through the

    Mackenzie Mountains to the Yukon Valley. Such a railway would follow

    the two great waterways of northwestern America — the Mackenxie and

    the Yukon, — and could provide a trunk line through its most potential–

    ly productive portions. It would also provide an important section of

    the "Highway to Asia" which must someday be undertaken.

            From the standpoint of the quick development of certain sections

    of Yukon Territory, perhaps the most feasible railway construction

    program would consist of an extension of the present White Pass and

    Yukon narrow-guage railway which connects Whitehorse with Skagway,

    Alaska. But what Yukon Territory needs for its final development as

    a community with a permanent, self-sustaining population, is integrat–

    ion with the rest of Canada; and this can best be brought about by

    the building of a railway along the Mackenzie-Yukon route, as suggest–

    ed above.

            As has been shown, northern Yukon has good possibilities asa

    producer of coal and oil, but the region through which a railway

    down the Mackenzie Valley would traverse also is rich in these very

    products, and these would most likely be developed first. Yukon's

    resources might be developed sooner, however, if there were a consider–

    able local population and local industries to justify their development.

            The wide extent over which copper, lead, zinc, and other base

    metals ate found in Yukon Territory, added to the nearby presence of

    coal, makes the possibility of an indigenous industrial region not so

    014      |      Vol_XIII-0872                                                                                                                  
    fantastic as might be supposed. What has already been shown concern–

    ing the mineral possibilities of Yukon Territory might easily support

    such a contention; but late in 1950 the report of huge deposits of

    hematite iron ore in northern Yukon rounds out a picture of mineral

    resources hard to equal.

            Until recently Canada's iron ore production was negligible. The

    greater part of it came from mines near Sault Ste Marie, Ontaio, and

    was not the sort of ore most in demand. Then, about 1945, a large

    lake near the western end of Lake Superior was drained disclosing

    the presence of large deposits of high-grade hematite ore. The Steep

    Rock mine at Atikokan, 140 miles west of Port Arthur, was at first

    expected to produce about 1,200,000 tons of ore a year; but in the in–

    terval new ore-bodies have been discovered and an eventual production

    of 10,000,000 tons is now expected. With the entry, in 1949, of New–

    foundland into the Canadian Confederation, a further production of

    1,750,000 tons a year was added to the Canadian iron ore total from

    the output of the Wabana Mines in Conception Bay, near St. John's.

    Meanwhile, iron ore deposits long known to exist in Labrador and New

    Quebec were being developed by a group of Canadian and United Staes

    interests, with an initial yearly production of 10,000,000 tons be–

    ginning about 1954.

            All these sources of iron, however, are in the eastern parts of

    Canada. Similarly, in the United States, deposits of iron ore of con–

    sequence are all in the eastern part of the country; and this is also

    characteristic of iron deposits in South America. Now the balance

    seems about to be righted by this discovery of iron ore in northern

    Yukon, of which Dr. Bostock writes:

            "Bedded hematite iron formation is associated with Late Pre–

    cambrian (?) strata in this general region from the 141st Meridian

    in the Ogilvie Mountains area, in the northwest, to South Nahanni

    015      |      Vol_XIII-0873                                                                                                                  
    River in the southeast, at intervals along a broad arc about 550 miles

    long. Where actually sampled in place on the 141st Meridian and near

    the Canol Road, the grade of the iron formation is low, but north–

    east of Mayo between Wind River and the head of Stewart River the iron

    formation is said to be of good ore grade . . .Some samples brought

    to Ottawa were examined by geologists or iron and steel companies,

    and pronounced to be similar in quality and grade to Lake Superior

    iron ores. Some of the specimens are of nearly pure hematite. No one

    has described this ore in place northeast of Mayo except the late

    Livingstone Wernecke of the Treadwell Yukon Corporation, who stated

    that the iron formation near the head of Bonnet Plume River was sev–

    eral hundred feet thick and could be traced from the air for 130

    miles southeasterly through the mountains."

            This, of course, does not establish the existence of iron ore

    deposits in sufficient quantity and of such grade as to justify

    development, but when the extent of the area underlain by iron form–

    ations, the thickness of the beds where examined, and the existence

    of nearly pure hematite in some places where sampled, are all taken

    into consideration, the picture is almost conclusive. The location

    of the iron deposits in northern Yukon is similar to that of the

    iron deposits in Labrador and New Quebec, where they follow a belt

    extending for about 500 miles, and where the full possibilities of

    the ranges were not disclosed until considerable exploration had

    been done.

            Itis not to be expected, of course, that sufficient iron ore

    could be used in Yukon Territory to justify the development of these

    beds, any more than iron ore could be used in Labrador. As in the

    latter place, the bulk of the ore would have to be exported, and the

    016      |      Vol_XIII-0874                                                                                                                  
    the question as to whether it could be profitably developed would

    depend almost entirely upon how easily it could be brought to tide–

    water, and on this point Dr. Bostock writes: "By following the best

    grades, a railway to this locality head of Bonnet Plume River from

    Skagway would be less than 500 miles long. On this route to the sea

    it would pass through the Laberge Mesozoic coal area as well as the

    Mayo area." Such a line would cross the Mackenzie-Yukon route sug–

    gested here and act as a feeder for it.

            It therefore seems more than likely that Yukon Territory, when

    fully developed, will become one of the most highly-productive parts

    of the world. There is nothing in its climate and nothing insuper–

    able in its position, geographically, to prevent it from becoming in

    time the home of many millions of people.


    - D. M. LeBourdais


    Bostock, H. S.: Potential Mineral Resources of Yukon Terriory ,

    Geological Survey of Canada; Paper 50-14; 1950.

    001      |      Vol_XIII-0875                                                                                                                  
    EA: Canada, General

    (P. D. Baird)


            This expedition was originally planned to last two years, but,

    owing to the accidental death of R. J. O. Bray in September 1938, and to

    the onset of the war, it lasted only one year.

            Plans called for the attainment by the fall of 1938 of the neigh–

    borhood of Pilling (west coast of Baffin Island) which was first reached by

    Bray and G. W. Rowley in March 1937. Winter quarters were to be established

    here with an Igloolik native family and the geographical exploration to the

    interior of Baffin Island as far as the east coast was planned for the two

    succeeding winter and spring seasons. Bray intended to do ornithological

    collecting near Piling in the summer of 1939 and P. D. Baird to investigate

    the icecap areas near the east coast, meeting the Nascopie at Clyde. The

    second summer was to be spent on the northeast Baffin Island coast, possibly

    at Bylot Island.

            The party with a whaleboat and equipment left Churchill on the

    Roman Catholic Mission vessel M. F. Therese for Igloolik on 12 August, 1938.

    After attaining Cape Wilson (lat. 67° N.) on 25 August the ship was pre–

    vented by ice from further northward progress and retreated to Winter Island.

    Here it was decided not to attempt any further passage, so the party was

    landed on 29 August and from then on made their own way north in the whale–

    boat, with considerable difficulty at first from ice. Cape Wilson was not

    passed again till 8 September, but after this the ice had cleared and the

    party reached Quarmang, the first native camp of the Igloolik group, on

    13 September.

    002      |      Vol_XIII-0876                                                                                                                  
    EA: Canada, General

    (P. D. Baird)

            The next day in an offshore wind Bray was blown out to sea in a

    folding boat and lost. Baird continued with natives from Quarmang to

    Igloolik and reached the R. C. Mission's summer quarters at Abadya on

    20 September.

            On 11 November, with Nutararia, Baird crossed Melville Peninsula

    to the head of Garry Bay, returning by 22 November. In early December, by

    which time the sea ice had made sufficiently, Baird started out to send

    the news of Bray's death from the nearest radio station. No Eskimo being

    prepared to undertake the trip to Arctic Bay, he left with Kanaitia for

    Repulse Bay, 300 miles to the south. This journey, undertaken in the

    middle of the darkest period without much preparation, took 18 days.

            After spending Christmas and New Year at Repulse Bay, Baird

    returned to Igloolik, the return taking 29 days, with several stops at

    Eskimo camps on route. On 12 February, a start was made for Piling with

    Nutararia and his son and this bay was reached on 9 March. Here was found

    a note from T. H. Manning, who had reached this point from the south on

    11 February. An astronomical fix which Manning had been unable to complete

    was obtained here and the party (two whole Eskimo families) pushed on in

    an attempt to cross Baffin Island to River Clyde. But the natives lost

    the way and dog feed and fuel were becoming short so it was decided to

    return to the Foxe Basin coast and travel to Pond Inlet instead of Clyde.

    The former post was reached on 16 April and preparations were then made

    By Baird to explore Bylot Island during the spring and summer, using a

    team of five dogs.

            A short journey was made up the east coast in early May and a

    003      |      Vol_XIII-0877                                                                                                                  
    EA: Canada, General

    (P. D. Baird)

    triangulation was initiated from the Hudson Bay post to extend across

    to points on Bylot Island

            At the end of May quarters were established in a former R.C.M.P.

    shack, made from an overturned boat, on the south coast of Bylot Island,

    20 miles northwest of the Pond Inlet post.

            From here during the first 17 days of June a sledge journey was

    made up the Aktinek glacier to a summer at 5,000 feet, 20 miles inland.

    From here a large northward-leading glacier was followed toward Lancaster

    Sound but, as its lower reaches were crevassed and deep with soft snow,

    it was left for a glacier flowing nearly to the east coast which was

    followed to the sea and a fix obtained at its termination. Traveling back

    again, Baird descended the Sermilik glacier to the south coast. At the

    summit a mountain of 6,100 feet was climbed, one of the highest on the

    Island (higher than Mount Thule, 5,895 feet, which is prominent from Pond

    Inlet post). The interior of the island is highland ice — not a complete

    or at all level icecap, but an eroded mountain system nearly swamped by ice.

            Subsequent to this journey the remainder of spring and much of the

    summer's work was curtailed owing to loss of some dogs by sickness and a

    severe hand injury which prevented canoe travel. Notes were made on the

    bird life and geology of the southwest corner of Bylot Island, which is

    composed mainly of Tertiary sediments.

            A motorboat called for Baird in late August, and the simultaneous

    arrival of the Nascopie and the outbreak of war brought the expedition to

    a close.


    P. D. Baird

    001      |      Vol_XIII-0878                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General

    (P. D. Baird)


            This small Canadian Army Exercise was carried out in March-April 1945

    as an arctic offshoot of the two much larger subarctic exercises (Eskimo and

    Polar Bear) conducted earlier during that winter. It represented the first

    attempt to operate oversnow vehicles (as opposed to heavier tractors) north

    of the tree line, and it was also the first time Canadian troops had operated

    in truly arctic areas in Canada. The moving force consisted of only 13 men,

    3 officers, 7 other ranks, and 3 observers from the Department of Mines and

    Resources, from the Department of Munitions and Supply, and from the United

    States Army.

            Vehicles used were two Canadian armored snowmobiles, two U.S. Army Weasels,

    and two U.S. M7S (half-tracks). All supplies were carried on the convoy, but

    extra gasoline obtained at Eskimo Point enabled the force to go farther than

    planned. All vehicles covered the complete route, but one of the M7s was towed

    the last 150 miles after breaking an axle.

            The route taken was from Churchill, Manitoba, coastwise to Eskimo Point,

    N.W.T., thence inland to Padlei, N.W.T., and return to Churchill in practically

    the same tracks — a total distance of 653 miles. On the coastwise portion the

    convoy traveled half the distance on the land half on the sea ice, at one time

    on ice of only 14 inches thickness. Supplies were towed in sleds, and the men

    camped in army five-man tents except when at the settlements en route.

            As the exercise took place in late winter, weather conditions were not

    002      |      Vol_XIII-0879                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Baird: Exercise Lemming

    severe; the minimum temperature was 24° below zero F. but the first few days

    saw near thawing conditions. The force was duly made aware, however, of the

    chilling conditions of wind in the Arctic, and in its report the question of

    "wind chill" was discussed for the first time in a military document.

            The route's two ends both lay at the edge of timber with flat bare country,

    mainly well snow-covered, in between, and took place at a time of year when

    arctic traveling conditions are becoming good. The surprising success of the

    exercise however in covering the distance in the good time of 10 traveling and

    16 elapsed days caused the immediate consideration by its organizers of a more

    ambitious scheme. Exercise Musk Ox, in fact, took initial shape on the Hudson

    Bay Railway train at the conclusion of Lemming, and most of the modifications

    and selection of equipment to be used on the larger exercise resulted from find–

    ings of the smaller.

            Personnel included:

            Major P. D. Baird, Commander

            Lieut. R. Inglis

            Capt. H. W. Hadden

            Sgt. R. Racine

            Cpl. F. L. Morton

            Cpl. H. A. Musselman

            L/Cpl. D. Lavoie

            Tpr. F. Rosin

            Tpr. W. A. Smith

            Tpr. O. L. Strid

            Lieut. (R.C.N.V.R.) T. H. Manning, Observer

            Mr. R. J. Kerr, Observer

            Lieut. H. C. Hansen, U.S.Army Observer


    P.D. Baird

    001      |      Vol_XIII-0880                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General

    (P. D. Baird)


            This most widely known of the Canadian Army winter exercises was

    carried out during the winter of 1945-46, approval being given by the

    Minister of National Defence soon after the close of the war with Japan.

    It was a climax of considerable winter training and experimentation the

    inspiration of which had been the projected Allied invasion of Norway,

    and, after that plan had been shelved, the principle that Canadian troops

    should be better acquainted with operational conditions in their own

    country in the long winter period. Immediately after the end of Exercise

    Lemming (q.v.) April 1945, the Director of Operational Research, impressed

    with the performances of snowmobiles on the Barren Grounds in winter, de–

    vised the rough plan of the exercise.

            The main features of this plan were to give vehicles a long-range

    test, starting in winter conditions on the Barren Grounds and continuing

    through the soft snow and thawing weather of the northwestern bush country

    in spring. Living and operating conditions for a small selected group of

    soldiers and observers, the bulk of whom would be unused to arctic conditions,

    were to be tried out. Cooperation of the Royal Canadian Airforce to supply

    the ground party was sought since it was felt that any military operation

    in these regions must necessarily rely on air supply, and there was much

    to learn in regard to navigation and operation of transport aircraft off

    002      |      Vol_XIII-0881                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Baird: Exercise Musk-ox

            improvised fields and in the varying difficulties of winter weather.Finally Musk-Os was unique in military exercises of its scale in the

    large proportion of expert scientific observers, each responsible for cer–

    tain research projects, included in the ground party, since it was realized

    that much of the ground to be traversed was scientifically unknown.

            Planning was based on the knowledge of machines and their cold weather

    operation, and of camping and personal equipment, gained from the larger

    scale Canadian Army exercised carried out the preceding winter; but, as

    approval to carry out the exercise was granted at a late date, much detailed

    administrative work was required to be done at short notice and the speed of

    delivery of equipment was hastened only when the public and general staff

    interest was aroused by the challenge from sceptical northerners.

            An important modification to the Canadian armored snowmobile was the

    necessity to fit an all-weather cab over the machine's open two-place cockpit

    capable of protecting a larger crew from the severe weather. This took only

    six weeks from drawing board to delivery, an excellent rush job which, how–

    ever, failed in one respect in that the cooling system suffered from an

    injudiciously designed airflow and exhaust system, and the anomalous situa–

    tion occurred of the vehicle's overheating in 40 below weather, until

    remedial steps had been taken.

    The troops taking part were divided into several units. First a base

    force under the command of Lieut. Colonel J. D. Cleghorn provided the

    communications and other functions of a base, starting operations at Churchill

    and moving to Norman Wells and Edmonton. But their chief task was the chain

    of supplies, fuel, replacement parts, and rations, which had first of all

    to come from ordnance and quartermaster depots, and then be packed and loaded

    003      |      Vol_XIII-0882                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Baird: Exercise Musk-Ox

    into aircraft by a special supply unit of the Royal Canadian Army Service

    Corps for dropping by parachute or [ ?] landing near or in advance of the

    moving force.

            A second unit under the command of Lieut. Colonel G. W. Rowley estab–

    lished an advance air force landing strip and meteorological station at

    Baker Lake, N.W.T., to enable the Dakota aircraft to operate safely over

    the very long hauls to the arctic coast. This unit (of 11 men) traveled

    by snowmobile and civilian-operated D6 tractors and, starting in January,

    encountered in their 24 days of overland travel even more wintry conditions

    than the main moving force experienced. Much was learnt by this force on

    the operation of the tractors which hauled four heavy freight sleds and a

    caboose for living comfort, in which the catskinners, often driving for

    twelve hours exposed to the arctic weather, were able to sleep and eat on

    the move.

            The third army unit was the main moving force under command of Lieut.

    Colonel P. D. Baird. The list of members of this group is given below.

            The Royal Canadian Air Force unit specially created for the exercise

    was named "No. 1 Air Supply Unit," commanded by Wing Commander J. Showler,

    with Squadron Leader J. Coombes as second in command and in charge of the

    three Norseman aircraft. Six Dakots aircraft formed the main supply air–

    craft and two gliders loaned by the United States Air Force were added in

    the latter stages of the exercise.

            Assembly and training of the various units began in November 1945 and

    took place at Shilo, Gimli, and Churchill, all in Manitoba. The drivers

    had to become familiar with the snowmobiles, air crews with the unusual type

    of navigation over the treeless Arctic, and the army air supply unit had to

    learn the complicated practices of loading and packing parachute equipment

    004      |      Vol_XIII-0883                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Baird: Exercise Musk-Ox

    and to work alongside their Royal Canadian Air Force comrades. Finally

    all hands, but particularly the moving force, had to practice living and

    camping techniques in subzero weather, and the moving force crews had to

    become knit together as teams and establish working practices on small

    preliminary exercises out from the base.

            As January advanced, all the units were assembled at Churchill and the

    training was well under way. On January 24th, 1946, the Baker Lake Force

    set out and, due to radio trouble after they had passed Eskimo Point, vanished

    into the Arctic. After traveling through the severest weather of the winter,

    they reached Baker Lake on February 17th, and immediately set about estab–

    lishing their airstrip on the ice and their meteorological station.

            Meanwhile the main moving force had started off on the first part of

    their 3,000-mile journey, leaving Churchill with due ceremony on February

    15th. Eleven Canadian snowmobiles and one U.S. "Weasel" made up the initial

    force traveling in three self-cont [ ?] ined divisions which were in radio communi–

    cation with each other but semi-independent so that breakdowns and other

    delays would hinder only one group and not the whole force.

            The first stage of the journey was in the main along the shore of Hudson

    Bay, following the tracks of the Baker Lake party which, with its heavier

    tractors, had kept to the overflow ice between the tide marks. At Eskimo

    Point the force first experienced the warm hospitality of the northern

    settlements; a little village with only twelve white inhabitants was able

    to billet four times that number of visitors without recourse to the force's


            From Eskimo Point some deviations were made from the route of the

    advance party in an attempt to avoid heavily boulderstrewn areas. The

    005      |      Vol_XIII-0884                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Baird: Exercise Musk-Ox

    attempt was not altogether successful and much trouble was encountered in

    threading a way through glacial rubble piles on which the crosslinks of the

    vehicle treads were often fractured, and even greater damage caused to the

    towed sleighs. A notable feature of this section was that the prevailing

    north-northwest wind, in which direction the force was traveling, caused

    drift accumulations in the lee of each stone facing the oncoming party and

    giving a false impression of smoothness which was soon destroyed by looking


            During all this journey from Churchill to Baker Lake wintry conditions

    were extreme. Several times violent drifts halted all movement and in these

    cases rear divisions often had to move at a walking pace with the commander

    on foot scanning the faint tracks ahead. Temperatures ranged from 48 below

    zero (Fahrenheit) to zero, averaging 27 below, with mean wind speed 16 miles

    per hour.

            The air supply in this shakedown period was functioning well, and regularly

    the planes came over and dropped the quantities of gasoline that the vehicles

    were using. Only once on the whole journey was a halt caused for lack of

    fuel, and this for a matter of a few hours only and for only a portion of

    the force at that.

            At Baker Lake a rather longer halt than had been planned occurred. The

    air force staff were concerned with the higher than estimated fuel consumption

    of the ground party, to keep which fully supplied was taxing the available

    aircraft to the full. It was decided accordingly to reduce the vehicles to

    ten, instead of adding one snowmobile to make twelve as planned. The weasel,

    in trouble on the large gard snowdrifts of this region, had been sent back

    shortly after leaving Churchill.

    006      |      Vol_XIII-0885                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Baird: Exercise Musk-Ox

            The next stage of the journey from Baker Lake to the arctic coast was

    over largely unknown country. Beyond the Thelon River ststem the only

    feature on the map of this two hundred-mile stretch was Back River, still

    recorded from the sketch map of Captain Back in 1834 and only once since

    traversed by a white party (1855). Rumors of high hills near the coast

    were prevalent but it was found that these were much exaggerated. Despite

    the usual areas of glacial boulders the force was able to keep a tolerably

    straight course checked by astral navigation and did not have to achieve

    more than six hundred feet in altitude. Temperature conditions were moder–

    ating for this section, averaging 15 below zero, but the hard going was

    causing increasing damage to the sleds and on several occasions fresh runners

    had to be called for and were duly delivered.

            This section saw the Air Force extended to its longest hauls from base.

    For the moving forces' convenience a supply drop, to collect and pack which

    took some time, was most convenient when halted for camp, but this was not

    easy for the Air Force who had navigational troubles to contend with. Usually,

    however, a pre-dawn take-off would enable star navigation to be used; the

    force, located at the end by a homing signal, would be dropped to at breakfast,

    and then the planes could return to the base, where radio range facilities

    were available, in daylight.

            The arctic coast was reached on March 12th in very foggy conditions

    and only the fortunate meeting with a sledge team of Eskimos avoided a delay

    searching in thick weather among the islands for the Parry River trading post.

    This was managed bya native trader, and prior to the force's arrival a large

    cache of supplies had been dropped by a sortie of five aircraft, the drop

    being organized on the ground by the Norseman 'plane piloted by Squadron–

    Leader Coombes with native assistance from the settlement.

    007      |      Vol_XIII-0886                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Baird: Exercise Musk-Ox

            The moving force were well behind schedule here but a rapid run over the

    smooth sea ice followed, to Cambridge Bay, reached in one and a half days.

    This post on Victoria Island was the most northerly point reached by the main

    body but while the base was moving from Churchill to Norman Wells a detach–

    ment of three vehicles crossed to Denmark Bay for the purpose of magnetic

    observations close to the position of the North Magnetic Pole. Meanwhile

    the main body was resting and refitting while the supply planes were able

    to land on the unprepared smooth ice of the bay. The R.C.M.P. vessel St. Roch

    of Northwest Passage fame, commanded by Inspector H.A. Larsen, was wintering

    in Cambridge Bay.

            On May 23rd the force started on its homeward way, spending five days on

    the ice of Coronation Gulf to Coppermine, past Point Turnagain, the eastern

    mark of Franklin's exploration one hundred and twenty-five years before.

    From Coppermine the route lay inland leaving the true Arctic and reaching

    the first trees seen since the first day out from Churchill. Soft snow

    and steep hills cut down the speed again, but after crossing the height of

    land at about two thousand feet, a long run down to and across the ice of

    Great Bear Lake followed and the mining settlement at Port Radium was reached

    on April 4th. Here occurred the only serious mishap on the exercise. One

    of the advance snowmobiles had fallen partially into a pressure crack

    just short of the mine, and in coming to its assistance a mine tractor broke

    through the ice and its driver was pinned underneath and drowned. The

    force's enjoyment of the comforts of the mining camp was shadowed by this

    sad accident.

            To overcome these open but dangerously concealed cracks on the great

    lake the force carried timbers for bridging on the next section and with

    008      |      Vol_XIII-0887                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Baird: Exercise Musk-Ox

    the help of these soon reached the lake's outlet and made a road to the

    St. Charles rapids of Bear River. Then came a slow section through the

    forest, fourteen miles on a newly bull-dozed trail taking nine hours to

    overcome. This brought the force to Fort Norman on the broad Mackenzie

    River and from here on a trail through the forest was to be followed to


            Now two days behind schedule, there was no time to be lost as an early

    spring break-up was forcast and rivers would be impassable soon. With the

    rising day temperatures night travel to gain better snow surfaces was ordered

    and trail-breaking vehicles, relieved of their sled loads, were sent ahead

    to break a track through the soft snow and to remove fallen trees and snags.

    The long miles hauled in low gear were telling on the engines and transmissions

    and several of the latter failed at this stage, a time when landing spares

    by Norseman was becoming increasingly difficult due to thaw conditions.

            The tractor trail pioneered by the Canol engineers in 1943 was followed

    to Fort Simpson where the airport at this date (20th April) was a sea of mud.

    The thousand yard Liard River was crossed with a week to spare before break-up

    on very rotten slush-covered ice. From here on the ice was always unsound

    and an advance group of four men under Lieut. J. M. Croal, R.C.N.V.R. had

    been sent ahead with a glider-borne Weasel to pioneer the route, strengthen

    weak ice, and make bridges where needed.

            The y had done their job well as the main body was able to follow fast

    down the almost snowless trail.

            The Petitot River was crossed on ice strengthened by corduroy and the

    pioneer party was overtaken just before the Fort Nelson River, the last and

    largest, was reached. Here break-up had just occurred and the ice was moving

    downstream. As the river was too deep to be waded, a raft had to be constructed.

    009      |      Vol_XIII-0888                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Baird: Exercise Musk-Ox

    This was made from logs and empty drums dropped by the Air Force on the sand

    flat and it floated the five-ten vehicles satisfactorily. Two days were

    employed in crossing and a short length of muddy road brought the force

    to Fort Nelson airport on the Alaska Highway.

            Six days were left to reach Edmonton and with a supporting truck con–

    voy the force expected a rapid easy run after the vast labors of twenty-five

    hundred miles of cross-country work. But a new trouble arose. The warm

    dry spring had reduced the gravel road's surface to dust, and inadequate

    air intake filters (the originals had been discarded when they became clogged

    with blown snow) caused this dust to penetrate the engines and bearing failure

    and oil leaks soon occurred. After struggling with these breakdowns as far

    as Grande Prairie in Alberta it was realized that no further lessons could

    be learnt and only further delays caused by the worn engines. The force

    accordingly transferred its vehicles to railway flat cars and the journey

    to Edmonton was completed thus, arrival there being, as planned, on the

    eighty-first day out from Churchill.

            The exercise had been completed and many lessons learnt by the Army

    and Air Force on arctic operations of small columns and aerial supplies.

    The Canadian services had demonstrated an interest in their own great back

    yard and the officers of allied countries traveling with the force and

    observing the supply and base operations were able to convey these lessons

    to their own superiors.

            From the operations civilian interests in transport are certain to

    develop. The Canadian snowmobile was proved satisfactory but by no means

    the ultimate answer to speedy mechanised travel in the north country and

    continued development and progress has been stimulated.

    010      |      Vol_XIII-0889                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Baird: Exercise Musk-Ox

            Perhaps the most important result of the venture was the wide publicity

    given to the exercise and the awakening in the Canadian public and in particu–

    lar in its youth of the existence of the enormous stretch of Canada's terri–

    tories and the conditions prevailing there.

            The observations of the scientific observers have helped to fill in

    great gaps of knowledge along the route but have also posed fresh questions

    to be answered in regard to magnetism, navigation and the physical character–

    istics of ice and snow. Exercise Musk-Ox showed that a group of men properly

    trained, equipped, and supplied according to twentieth-century knowledge

    could move in rather ridiculous luxury over the routes in which Hearne,

    Back, and Franklin toiled and suffered great hardship and casualties.

    011      |      Vol_XIII-0890                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Baird: Exercise Musk-Ox



    Distance Leg. in miles Distance Total Date
    Churchill, Man. - - Feb. 15.
    Eskimo Point, N.W.T. 206 206 arr. Feb. 20th
    dep. " 22nd
    Baker Lake, N.W.T. 265 471 arr. Mar. 1st
    dep. " 6 th
    Perry River, N.W.T. 372 843 arr. " 13 th
    dep. " 14th
    Cambridge Bay, N.W.T. 137 980 arr. " 15th
    dep. " 18th
    Denmark Bay, N.W.T. 123 1,103 arr. " 19th
    dep. " 20th
    Cambridge Bay, N.W.T. 117 1,220 arr. " 21st
    dep. " 23rd
    Coppermine, N.W.T. 306 1,526 arr. " 27th
    dep. " 31st
    Port Radium, N.W.T. 178 1,704 arr. Apr. 4th
    dep. " 8th
    Fort Norman, N.W.T. 263 1,967 arr. " 11th
    dep. " 14th
    Fort Simpson, N.W.T. 371 2,338 arr. " 20th
    dep. " 23rd
    Fort Nelson, B.C. 237 2,575 arr. " 29th
    dep. May 1st
    Grande Prairie, Alta. 394 2,969 arr. " 4th

    012      |      Vol_XIII-0891                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Baird: Exercise Musk-Ox


    Personnel of Moving Force

            Canadian Armed Forces

    Lieut. Colonel P. D. Baird Commander
    Major A. A. Wallace Second-in-Command
    Captain E. V. Stewart Intelligence and later Second-in-Command
    Captain R. F. Riddell Signals Officer
    Captain E. I. Young Vehicle Officer
    Captain W. H. Black Quartermaster
    Captain R. Inglis Training Officer
    Captain R. R. M. Croome Medical Officer
    Lieut. P. W. Nasmyth Radar Officer
    Lieut. R. W. Morton Photographic Officer
    (Attached Officers)
    Major A. G. Sangster Vehicle Observer
    Lieut. J. P. Croal Naval Observer
    Flying Officer H. P. Kent Royal Canadian Air Force Liaison Officer

    Private J. M. Allan
    Trooper J. P. Behrenz
    Signalman M. L. Bourdon
    Craftsman V. Breiddal
    Corporal E. J. Brownrigg
    Corporal E. J. Burkosky
    Private A. Disley
    Private J. D. Goforth
    Corporal K. J. Goodenough
    Corporal A. R. MacLean
    Lance Cpl. A. B. Maloney
    Craftsman J. C. Marazzo
    Gunner A. D. Morton
    Gunner E. B. Mowat
    Corporal J. A. McBride
    Signalman P. J. Nightingale
    Craftsman J. L. Plumley
    Craftsman W. J. Pashak
    Sergeant C. R. J. Racine
    Sergeant J. F. Sanderson
    Sergeant V. J. Snider
    Gunner V. L. Stoney
    Staff Sgt. F. J. Way
    Sergeant E. T. W. Williams
    Private W. E. Wilson

            British Army Observer

            Lieut. Colonel N. A. C. Croft, D.S.O.

    013      |      Vol_XIII-0892                                                                                                                  
    EA-Canada: General. Baird: Exercise Musk Ox

            United States Observers

            Colonel N. B. Edwards, A.U.S.

            Lieut. Colonel E. G. Forrest, A.U.S.

            Major A. Jackamn, A. [ ?] .S.

            Lieut. Commander M. C. Shelesnyak, U.S.N.R.

            Mr. S. P. House, O.Q.M.G.

            Canadian Civilian Observers

    Mr. M. J. S. Innes Magnetician
    Mr. G. A. McKay Meteorologist
    Mr. G. D. Watson Physicist

            Personnel taking part in some sections of the journey:

    Colonel J. T. Wilson Deputy Director of Exercise
    Major E. W. Cutbill, D.S.O. Air Liaison Officer
    Mr. T. H. Manning (Geodetic Survey)
    Lieut. Colonel W. A. Wood U.S.A.A.F.


    P. D. Baird

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