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    Encyclopedia Arctica 10: Soviet North, Geography and General

    Unpaginated      |      Vol_X-0188                                                                                                                  


    001      |      Vol_X-0189                                                                                                                  

            SPHENE, a rare mineral exploited chiefly in the Khibiny (cf.) deposits

    on the Kola Peninsula of the Soviet European Arctic, is found also in

    the Shishim, Naziam and Ilmen Mts. of the Ural range, and near Sliudianka

    station on the Trans-Siberian [ ?] railroad in eastern Siberia. In

    its pure form, it is CaTiSiO 5 , but is usually admixed with Fe 2 O 3 , MnO,

    FeO, Al 2 O 3 and U 2 O 3 . It crystallizes in the [ ?] monoclinic system as flat,

    wedge-like, or, more rarely, columnar forms. It is usually, yellow, green

    or brown to black in color. It may be translucent or semi-opaque. Three

    types are 100 known: (1) sphene proper, translucent, chiefly greenish-yellow

    crystals; (2) titanite - sphene of a brown to black color; and (3)

    leukoxene, a pseu d omorphosis of titanite on titanitic hematite. It is of

    magmatic and contact origin. It is used as a source of titanium and for

    the preparation of titanic whites. It is not known whether its admix–

    tures with uranium are exploited as a source of atomic energy.


    William Mandel


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