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    Bering Sea and Arctic Coast Eskimos of Alaska

    Encyclopedia Arctica 8: Anthropology and Archeology

    Bering Sea and Arctic Coast Eskimos of Alaska

    Unpaginated      |      Vol_VIII-0018                                                                                                                  

    (Margaret Lantis)


    Territory and Tribal Divisions 1
    Language 3
    Ethnological Investigation 5
    History 7
    Population 8
    Influence of Habitat 11
    Culture 17
    Bibliography 28

    001      |      Vol_VIII-0019                                                                                                                  

    (Margaret Lantis)




    Territory and Tribal Divisions

            These Eskimos occupied a broad coastal area extending from Ugashik

    on the Alaska Peninsula (lat. 57°5′) to Point Barrow (lat. 72°4′) and

    Demarcation Point near the Arctic coast boundary between Alaska and Canada,

    a coastline over 2,500 miles long, not including the islands and inlets.

    With their relatives, the Aleuts, they encompassed the entire western and

    northern extensions of United States territory in the North Pacific and

    Arctic oceans. (While the Indians occasionally approached the coast to

    trade, they did not have settlements on this coast in any discernible pre–

    historic period.) The Eskimos, a coastal people fundamentally, followed

    the larger waterways inland, establishing villages approximately 100 miles

    inland in the Bristol Bay area, nearly 300 miles up the Kuskokwim River,

    200 miles up the Yukon River (only 150 miles overland from Bering Sea to

    Paimiut, across the great bend in the lower Yukon), and more than 300 miles

    inland in northwest Alaska: the area of the upper Noatak and upper Colville

    Rivers. Westward, Eskimos occupied the Diomede Islands, St. Lawrence, Sledge,

    King, and Nunivak islands, but not St. Matthew or the Pribilof Islands.

            Their neighbors on the southwest were the Aleuts, on the southeast the

    Kaniagmiut of the Pacific Eskimos ( q.v .), while from Cook Inlet to the Koyu–

    kuk the Eskimos faced the Tanaina and Tena Indians (cf. "Athabascan Indians").

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    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos

    Across Bering Strait were the Yuit, a Siberian branch of the Eskimo stock.

    East of the Alaskan Eskimos on the Arctic coast were the Mackenzie Eskimos.

            Regarding linguistic or other distinction between Eskimo groups within

    the above territory, there is not full agreement, as (1) the Eskimos were

    not organized into well-defined tribes with stated use-rights for any local–

    ity, (2) in most areas, dialects differed only slightly from one village to

    the next, (3) there was some confusion of group designations in the records

    of explorers and settlers. The following list gives name and location of the

    principal groups as accepted by most writers:

    Name Principal Location
    Aglegmiut Egegik-Naknek area: probably Ugashik to Point

    Etolin originally
    Nushagagmiut Nushagak River
    Togiagamiut Togiak River, Togiak Lake, and lake country east

    of it
    Kuskokwagmiut (or

    Goodnews Bay, Kuskokwim Bay, lower Kuskokwim River
    Kaialigamiut Coast of mainland from Cape Avinof to Cape Romanzof
    Nuniwagamiut (or

    Nunivak Island, Nelson Island (only west side?)
    Magemint South mouth of the Yukon and area southward toward

    Ikogmiut North mouth of the Yukon and both sides of the

    river to Paimiut
    Unaligmiut Around Norton Sound from Pastolik Bay to Shaktolik

    (pre-European time)
    Ungalardlermiut Norton Bay and lower Koyuk River (pre-European?)
    Kaviagmiut South side of Seward Peninsula from Golovin Bay

    to near Port Clarence, including Sledge Island
    Kinugumiut West end of Seward Peninsula from Port Clarence to

    Shismarof Inlet, including Wales, Diomede Islands,

    King Island

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    Name Principal Location
    Yuit St. Lawrence Island
    Malmiut Base of Seward Peninsula, coast around

    Kotzebue Sound and north to point Hope (Tigara)
    Noatagmiut Upper Selawik (Selawigmiut), Kobuk (Kowagmiut),

    and Noatak rivers
    Nunatagmiut Upper Noatak to upper Colville River
    Utkiavigmiut Coast from Cape Lisburne (Point Lay?) to

    Point Barrow
    Kapagmiut Inland from Icy Cape and Point Barrow, chiefly

    upper Meade River
    Kugmiut Coast southeast of Point Barrow
    Killirmiut and

    Lowee Colville River (teritory uncertain)

            In addition, smaller groups that perhaps were not distinct from any of

    the above have been recorded: Chingigmiut, between Togiak and Goodnews Bay;

    Sikmiut, on middle Kuskokwim; Quvjasamiut, on the north side of Seward Penin–

    sula in the Cape Espenberg-Deering area; Kuvugmiut, interior area south of the

    Colville River between the Noatagmiut and Killirmiut; Kangianirmiut and

    Oturkagmiut, north of the Colville River, with boundaries between them and

    the Kapagmiut not clear.



            All who have had experience with the Eskimo language in west Alaska

    agree that the dialects in the northwest part of the Territory show remarkably

    little variation but that the southwest dialects differ greatly from the former

    and also differ among themselves. No two people seem able to agree, however,

    regarding the exact boundary between north and south. It was placed at the

    Yukon Delta (the Ikogmiut) by Dall, in the Unalakleet-Shaktolik area of Norton

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    Sound by Nelson, at approximately the Yukon by Rasmussen, and at Norton Bay

    by Barnum.

            Linguistic observations in the great area between the Kuskokwim River

    and Kodiak Island being especially meager and not a single modern linguistic

    study having been made even of the better known Eskimos on the northwest

    coast of Alaska, only a surmise regarding linguistic relationships can be

    given at this time (1947), as follows:

            The dialect shifts from one village to the next nearest are small but

    across a radius of a hundred miles, or two hundred, the differences are cum–

    ulatively noticeable. Somewhat greater differences even between adjacent

    villages are apparent in at least three places: (1) on Nelson Island, with the

    Nunivak and Nelson Island people speaking a language apparently more like those

    to the south around Bristol Bay, while the language of the nearby mainland has

    relationships northward. With only small variations, the latter is spoken by

    people from the Kuskokwim to the Unaligmiut north of the Yukon. Even so,

    Nunivak people one converse with those at Hooper Bay (Kaialigamiut) without

    difficulty, with St. Michael people not quite so easily, and finally with

    Unalakleet and Shaktolik Eskimos (Unaligmiut). (2) Beyond the last mentioned

    people, there is a sharper break, the Kaviagmiut and Malemiut speaking dialects

    with clear relationships northward to Point Barrow and beyond that differing

    markedly from the Unaligmiut, Ikogmiut, and others south of Norton Sound. (3)

    There have been conflicting statements regarding linguistic differences between

    St. Lawrence Island and the American mainland. There is evidence that the Yuit

    (St. Lawrence) and the Kinugumiut of Bering Strait are more closely related to

    the Nuniwagamiut and Kaialigamiut (and possibly others in this area) than are

    the intervening Kaviagmiut and Malemiut. A southward shift of people from the

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    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos

    arctic coast to the north Bering Sea coast may have severed old connections

    around Bering Sea. Perhaps the Kaviagmiut were originally in the Bering Sea

    group but were overwhelmed and absorbed by Malemiut. (4) Considerable lin–

    guistic difference between Alaska Peninsula Eskimos, i.e., the Kaniagmiut

    and Aglegmiut, and those farther north, the Nushagagmiut and Togiagamiut,

    is probable but is undocumented.

            Despite these differences, the Eskimo language of Alaska was remarkably

    uniform, in comparison with the difference between Aleut dialects and parent

    Eskimo languages.


    Ethnological Investigation

            The following people have published ethnological information that they

    themselves secured in the course of teaching, missionary work, exploration,

    archaeological or other investigation. There have been few studies by trained

    anthropologists. For the larger ethnographic and for a few of the more specific

    reports, dates of field study are given.

            H.D. Anderson and W.C. Eells - Much of west Alaska north to Kotzebue

    area, 1930-31.

            C.L. Andrews - Kivalina, Wainwright, and Seward Peninsula.

            Francis Barnum, S.J. - Nelson Island (linguistics only).

            F.W. Beechey - Principally Kitzebue Sound.

            J.S. Cantwell - Kobuk River.

            H.B. Collins, Jr. - Reconnaissance from Bristol Bay to Point Hope, 1927,

    1928, 1929; Archaeology, St. Lawrence Island and Bering Strait,

    1928, 1929, 1930, 193 6

            E.S. Curtis - Nunivak and King islands, Bering Strait, Kotzebus-Noatak

    area, 1927.

            W.H. Dall - A large part of Alaska, 1865 - 1890.

            Frederica de Laguna - Yukon area, 1935.

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            W.F. Doty - St. Lawrence Island.

            C.M. Garber - Bering Strait.

            Otto M. Geist - Archaeology, St. Lawrence Island, 1926-35.

            Louis Giddings - Point Hope, 1939, 1947.

            G.B. Gordon - Kuskokwim River, chiefly.

            E.W. Hawkes - Norton Sound and Lower Yukon River.

            Hans Himmelheber - Kuskokwim River, Nunivak Island, and coast to

    Point Barrow, 1936-37.

            C.L. Hooper - Arctic coast.

            Ales Hrdlicka - Anthropological reconnaissance of Yukon and Kuskokwim

    rivers, Ristol Bay area, and coast from Norton Sound to Point

    Barrow, 1926, 1929, 1930, 1931.

            Sheldon Jackson - Most of the Eskimo area.

            J.A. Jacobson - North Bering Sea.

            Diamond Jenneas - Bering Strait, 1926.

            Margaret Lantis - Nunivak area, 1939040, 1946.

            Helge Larsen - Point Hope, 1939.

            R.D. Moore - St. Lawrence Island, 1912.

            John Murdoch - Point Barrow (prepared for publication the field material

    of Ray, Herendeen, Oldmixon, and himself), 1881-83.

            E.W. Nelson - Territory south from St. Michael to Kuskokwim River; north–

    west to Sledge Island; up Yukon River to head of Innoko River; St.

    Lawrence Island; Plover Bay to North Cape (Siberia); and Bering

    Strait to Point Barrow (writer of most complete report on Alaskan

    Eskimos), 1877-81.

            A.E. Nordenskiöld - Seward Peninsula.

            Ivan Petrof - Most of west Alaska.

            Froelich Rainey - Point Hope, 1939-40.

            Khud Rasmussen - Demarcation Point to Seward Peninsula, 1924.

            John Simpson - Point Barrow.

            Ivar Skarland - St. Lawrence Island, 1934; Bristol Bay area, 1947.

    007      |      Vol_VIII-0025                                                                                                                  
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            Vilhjalmur Stefansson - Colville River, 1908-09; Point Barrow, 1912:

    H.R. Thornton - Cape Prince of Wales.

            W.B. Van Valin - Wainwright and Point Barrow.

            E.M. Weyer - Alaska Peninsula and Bering Strait.

            F. Whymper - Norton Sound and Yukon River.

            H.D. W oolfe - Northwest Alaska.

            L.A. Zagoskin - Territory east and southeast of Norton Sound, including

    lower Yukon River and middle Kuskokwim, 1842-44.



            The pre-European history of cultural changes and shifts of people is

    shown better by archaeology than by meager and differing legends or by com–

    parison of current elements of culture.

            After the discovery of Alaska, the history of the Eskimos is the history

    of incoming Whites, the "Outsiders." (Regarding internal changes made in

    their way of life by the Eskimos as a result of their contact with new people.

    see "Acculturation, Eskimo-White and Eskimo-Indian.") The dates of signifi–

    cant white influence on the Bering Sea and Arctic Eskimos and the kinds of

    influences can be grouped into periods.

            1778-1848 Exploration , chiefly by Russians and English. First settlement,

    in fortress-like trading stations. Establishment of fur trade,

    principally for land furs. Whaling in Bering Sea. Introduction

    of a few standard trade articles: tobacco, beads, tea, knives.

    First widespread epidemic: smallpox, 1835-1840.

            1848-1890 Shift from Russian to American domination . Greatest expansion

    of Whaling and walrus-hunting in the Arctic, by sailing ships

    chiefly from New England and Scandinavia. Conflict between

    Eskimos and whalers. Cessation of fighting between Eskimos and

    Indians. First missionaries from the United States, American

    mission schools beginning to supplant Russian schools. Alaska

    Commercial Co. buys out Russian-American Co. Establishment of

    regular travel on the Yukon River.

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            1890-1910 Development of government and law enforcement . Establishment

    of permanent white towns during and after the Gold Rush. Estab–

    lishment of Federal Schools for the Eskimos. Importation of dom–

    estic reindeer and training of Eskimo reindeer herders, with

    system of apprenticeship. Whaling by steamship, and decline of

    whaling. Decline in number of most sea mammals. Measles Epidemic

    of 1900-1901.

            1910-1938 Gradual expansion and stabilization . Development of more normal

    white communities than those of the Gold Rush. Stabilization of

    mail routes and steamship travel, of mining, of the spheres of the

    large trading companies. Establishment of commercial fishing in

    Bristol Bay. Expansion of Federal services for Eskimos, especially

    health services. Gradual increase in number of sea mammals, after

    earlier depletion. Decline of close herding of reindeer and con–

    troversy over ownership of deer. Decrease in isolation of villages,

    with use of radio. Influenza epidemic of 1919.

            1938-1948 Rapid expansion of air travel , with marked decrease in village

    isolation. Expansion of industrial employment of Eskimos. Greater

    military influences: permanent military establishments, construc–

    tion of roads and airfields, system of weather reporting, founding

    of Alaska Territorial Guard (a home guard of natives). Purchase

    by Government from white owners of reindeer herds and establishment

    of new system of reindeer supervision. Development of native com–

    mercial enterprises and self-government. Development of freer com–

    petition in trade. Problems of Eskimo relations to white society

    approached: passage of anti-discrimination law by Legislature,

    more Eskimos receiving high school education, greater use of English

    language, consideration of policy regarding native use-rights.

    Expanded unified Territorial health program.



            Early American census figures can not be compared exactly with recent

    ones or with each other because of different application of the terms "Innuit"

    and "Eskimauan." In 1880, the total of "Innuit" in the Arctic, Yukon, and

    Kuskokwim Census Divisions of Alaska was 15,406. In 1890, the total of

    "Eskimauan Linguistic Stock" in those Divisions plus a new Nushegak Division

    was 11,375. It is unlikely that there was actually so great a decrease in

    the 1880-1890 decade.

            Accurate figures of total Eskimo population in Alaska and especially of

    009      |      Vol_VIII-0027                                                                                                                  
    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos

    population by groups and villages probably never have been secured. Earlier

    census figures have an under-count because inland villages of northwest Alaska

    were not enumerated. In more recent enumerations, it has been difficult to

    record an accurate distribution of population in permanent (winter) villages,

    due to Eskimo mobility from one fishing camp to another, from coast to inland

    herds, or to other sites for seasonal occupancy. Despite census-takers' lack

    of familiarity with factors of distribution, language barriers, and difficul–

    ties of travel, the 1939 Census included many more villages than that in 1929

    and is undoubtedly more accurate.

            Total enumerated Eskimo population in 1939 was 15,576 (8,034 males and

    7,542 females), almost all of whom were in the Bering Sea and Arctic regions

    covered by this article. Very few individuals in the Kodiak, Iliamna, and

    Kvichak districts now are counted as Eskimos, most descendants of Eskimos be–

    ing considered Indian, Aleut, or part-White. The total of 15,576 presents very

    little, if any, actual increase over the total in 1920 and 1919, better enumer–

    ation alone easily accounting for the difference between 13,698 (1919) and

    the above figure.

            That the Eskimo population has decreased greatly in the past 75 years

    is demonstrated from these examples: the death of an estimated 1,000 on St.

    Lawrence Island in 1879-1880 (Collins); death of probably as many as 1,000

    along the Kuskokwim River in 1900, with abandonment of about 20 villages

    (Gordon); death of more than 100, about one-third of the population, at Point

    Barrow in 1900-01 (Andrews) and of at least one-fourth of the people in other

    villages for which there are re ords (Stefansson).

            The Eskimos are fecund, especially those in the Bering Sea area where

    early marriage and abundant and varied food help to produce and maintain large

    010      |      Vol_VIII-0028                                                                                                                  
    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos

    families. Since Alaskan Eskimos can produce large families and since the

    infant mortality rate is being reduced, an increase in population can be pre–

    dicted as a result of the current program of earlier diagnosis and better

    treatment of tuberculosis and immunization for smallpox, diphtheria, and

    whooping cough.

            Although some villages in the Bristol Bay, Kuskokwim, and Yukon areas

    enumerated in 1939 cannot be designated today as either Eskimo or Indian and

    although some temporarily occupied seasonal villages were counted while others

    were not, census figures still show general characteristics of number and dis–

    tribution of villages. There were about 220 indenticiable Eskimo villages,

    of which 170 had fewer than 100 inhabitants each. The largest villages were on

    the arctic coast: Barrow, Wainwright, Noatak, and Kotzebue, each having over

    300 Eskimos. That area, however, has long stretches of uninhabited coast, un–

    like the lower Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers where small villages are strung like

    beads. Configuration of coast, frequent ice conditions, habits of the sea

    mammals, dependence of the Eskimos on trading post and school account for the

    concentration of population at a few favorable locations on the arctic coast.

    Villages containing 200 to 300 Eskimos (plus a white population varying great–

    ly from one village to another) were Cambell, Savoonga, Ukivok (King Island),

    Shismaref, Deering, Noorvik, Selawik, Tigara (Point Hope), Unalakleet, Ashinuk

    (Hooper Bay), Dillingham, Kwinhagak, Akiak, and Bethel. The remaining 30

    villages (approximately) had 100 to 200 inhabitants.

            Most of the villages have been small since the beginning of white contact.

    The largest of 21 villages in the Norton Sound-lower Yukon-Kuskokwim area

    visited by Zagoskin in 1842-44 had only 130 inhabitants and the average village

    population was 63. Of 175 villages in a much larger area enumerated by

    011      |      Vol_VIII-0029                                                                                                                  
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    Petrof in 1880, 123 had fewer than 100 inhabitants. The range in village

    population was 6 to 314.

            While this population is small in so vast a territory, it has greater

    density per square mile than the Canadian and Greenland Eskimos (Weyer). As

    the area from which food, furs, wood, and other necessities can be effective–

    ly obtained does not coincide with total land area, figures on density of

    population do not tell much about the inhabitants' level of living and the

    population pressure against resources. Also, the high mortality rate since

    the beginning of white contact prevents one from seeing what population the

    area may have supported at any one time or could support at present.


    Influence of Habitat

            The Eskimos of Alaska, like those of Greenland, have a way of life

    thoroughly integrated for sea-mammal hunting and for use of sea products,

    one of the best examples in the world of a culture effectively adapted to a

    particular habitat and functionally oriented to it even in ceremonial and

    other nonmaterial aspects of life. Although the Eskimos of the upper Col–

    ville and Noatak rivers and of the middle Kuskokwim River may never kill

    walrus or whale or even small hair seals, they still depend upon the oil and

    skins of these animals, obtaining them by trade with coast Eskimos. The skin–

    covered boats, blubber lamps, seal-hide boots and other clothing, and special–

    ized methods for sea-mammal hunting are generally known. (See below.)

            The sea mammals on which the Eskimos depend are distributed as follows:

            Sea-lion: a few as far north as Nunivak Island and (rarely) beyond.

            Small gray hair seal or ringed seal: Goodnews Bay (at least) to beyond

    Barrow, abundant and important for food.

            Spotted or harbor seal: North Pacific to Bering Strait, also around Point


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    Bearded seal: all parts of area although not so abundant as preceding two,

    important especially for its hide.

            Ribbon seal: principally just south of Bering Strait, occasionally in Arctic.

            Walrus: everywhere except southeast of Barrow, rare south of Kuskokwim Bay,

    important for ivory as well as hide and food.

            Right whale and bowhead: south and west Bering Sea to Arctic Sea.

            Humpbacked whale: Arctic Sea beyond Point Hope (?)

            Beluga (white whale): everywhere, except possibly Barrow.

            Polar bear: everywhere south to northern Bering Sea, rarely south of Yukon


            The relations of Eskimo culture to habitat not so well known are the


            Land products utilized : The sea-mammal diet is supplemented by fish

    everywhere. Since the arctic region does not have the salmon, herring, cod–

    fish, and halibut of Bering Sea, the people depend more upon river fish, of

    which large quantities are secured, especially in the Selawik area. The most

    nearly universal fish is the tomcod, obtained usually be appearing through the

    ice of river or inlet in winter. Bering Sea people, especially those of Bristol

    Bay, Nunivak, and the Unalakleet area, dry large quantities of salmon and

    other fish, although they store some fresh in pits (to become "stink-fish")

    or freeze the fish, depending upon the season. Smoke-drying was not an abor–

    iginal technique of the Eskimos but in some localities has been learned from

    Russians and Indians. In the Arctic, most fish is eaten frozen or boiled.

            Unaligmiut, Ikogmiut, Kuskwogmiut, Nuniwagamiut, and perhaps others in

    their area formerly wore waterproof fishskin mittens and carried fishskin bags

    for tools or trinkets, even made fishskin parkas.

            The islands of Bering Sea and Strait, notably Nunivak, Diomede, and King

    islands, have cliff rookeries on which thousands of sea birds nest: murre,

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    puffin, auklet, and pigeon guillemot. Geese, ducks, plovers, and other

    birds nest on the tundra of the far Arctic. Considerable quantities of eggs

    are eaten, and in some places are stored in seal pokes. Almost all other

    Eskimos also can obtain these birds for food on their great migration to and

    from the Arctic. On Nunivak, for example, 20 to 25 varieties of game fowl are

    eaten every year although not all these nest on the island. The skins of birds

    are sewed together to make very warm parkas by the people of Nunivak, King,

    St. Lawrence, and Diomede islands (although now a disappearing custom).

            Berries and greens are obtained in sufficient quantities for storage as

    well as for current use in most localities from Bristol Bay to Sewaed Penin–

    sula, but only the berries are thus available in the far

            While some caribou are found in most parts of the Eskimos habitat, the

    animals' migrations bring them into certain localities in greater numbers:

    middle Yukon toward Norton Sound and the Koyuk; from central Alaska toward

    the coast in northeast Alaska and in mainland Canada; and from the interior

    toward the coast within northwest Alaska. Caribou lean and fat, is a vital

    food; its sinews the threads of the Eskimo women. On some of the rivers of

    northwest Alaska the people formerly killed many hundreds in communal drives

    of the deer over cliffs, or into lakes and rivers where men in kayaks paddled

    after them and speared them.

            Moose, brown bear, and mountain sheep were hunted in the Brooks Range

    as well as in southern Alaska, contrary to general concepts of the Arctic.

    Other land animals have been important to the Eskimo in providing fur clothing

    and, since the coming of whites, as trade articles, the most important sources

    of money. Land animals are especially abundant in the Nushagak-Togiak area,

    with its mountains and trees in the interior: beaver, land otter, moose, muskrat,

    and others that become scarcer as one proceeds northward. Ground squirrels and

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    rabbits are found almost everywhere on the mainland. Otter, wolverine, and

    wolf are traded by inland Eskimos to coastal people around Bering Sea (from

    the Kuskokwim northward) or to commercial traders; marmot is much sought in

    the Kobuk area; some variety of fox is obtained locally everywhere, but Eskimos

    used to trade it to obtain desired colors of fur. Similarly domestic reindeer

    skins from the Chukchis in Siberia were traded up the arctic coast and far in–

    land despite the local presence of caribou. Finally, marton, lynx, and other

    valuable furs were traded from interior to coast in northwest Alaska.

            Conditions for hunting : Under aboriginal conditions when the game supply

    is not decreased by such activities as commercial whaling, by far the most im–

    portant natural factor to a sea-hunting people is wind: prevailing direction

    of wind, sudden shift of wind, duration and force of storms. Whether it is

    floating ice and occasional walrus for the Nunivak and Nelson islanders, the

    whole walrus herd ging through Bering Strait for the King and Diomede islanders,

    or the right whale coming north in the ice leads for the people at Icy Cape

    and Wainwright, the wind sets the conditions for scarcity, adequacy, or abund–

    ance of food. If the wind drives the ice onto the arctic shore in early summer

    when hunting in open leads near shore is counted on, one source of food may be

    eliminated. Even land hunting is affected: a prolonged warm wind may bring a

    spring flood and a shift of caribou migration route.

            There is less precipitation on the coast in any season of the year the

    farther north one goes. Bristol Bay, like the south coast of Alaska, has

    considerable rain; the Nunivak area has a period of autumn rains when fish–

    drying and other activities are affected, but the Arctic has little. Summer

    fog on Bering Sea occasionally is hazardous. However, neither fog, rain, nor

    snow has affected Eskimo life basically like winds and temperature - until the

    coming of the airplane. As the villages become more dependent on air contacts

    015      |      Vol_VIII-0033                                                                                                                  
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    with the outside world, fog and snowstorm will affect shipment of furs, re–

    ceipt of medical care, and other necessities of their new life.

            One important factor is sea depth. From Kuskokwim Bay to the Nome area

    there is no regular whale hunting because large true whales do not come into

    the very shallow water along the coast. Only the beluga, a dolphin, is

    secured regularly in places like Hooper, Scammon, and Pastolik bays and at

    Unalakleet. Without whale hunting, there was less use for the umiak, the

    baleen and whale bones were not available for implements or house construction

    as in the Arctic. In contrast, deep water around King and St. Lawrence islands

    has made them especially favorable locations for whale hunting.

            Conditions of travel are important conditions of hunting, particularly

    on land. In late winter when pack ice may move toward shore, forcing up high

    pressure ridges, in spring when the snow gets soft — "has no bottom" — and

    the broken ice mills in river, lagoon, and bay, in summer when the tundra is

    mushy wet, covered with hundreds of ponds and infested with mosquitoes, and

    in the fall when new ice is sharp-edged for a kayak and too thin to hold a sled,

    hunting and fishing must shift location or stop altogether no matter how many

    animals are in the area. A rugged land also makes hard travel. Although

    mountains and bluffs yield a few minerals (stone for tools and ornaments) and

    may be the habitat of some desirable land animals, the mainland Eskimos gen–

    erally prefer low rolling country near the coast. They also like a broken

    shore line providing bays and lagoons on which shellfish, water fowl, and

    fish may be secured with protection from the sea and on which both sled and

    kayak travel are easier and safer, for mobility is one of the fundamental re–

    quirements of Eskimo life.

            Probably villages formerly were on higher ground than at present in most

    localities because of the necessity of defense. In any case, they were placed

    016      |      Vol_VIII-0034                                                                                                                  
    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos

    without reference to available wood and running water. The Eskimo could

    manage with pond ice or old sea for drinking water and with a little

    driftwood, but he could not live without food. Today, with new needs for

    sanitation, he feels greater need for a good water supply.

            Moonlight and sunlight are factors of travel and hunting not appreciated

    by outsiders. Beyond the Arctic Circle where the sun shines almost all night

    in May, when some of the land and most of the sea still are covered with snow

    or ice, the glare on the ice from a sun approaching the summer solstice is

    dangerous. Wooden eyeshades, goggles, and large hats projecting in front

    (the latter among Bering Sea Eskimos only) were the Eskimos' protection against

    snow blindness. Lack of sunlight in winter was not felt so strongly by the

    Eskimos as by outsiders, as they had learned to live by the moonlight that

    shines half of every month in winter. Games, travel, fishing by moonlight,

    which may be very bright on the snow, were enjoyable; and sleeping and eating

    schedules - never strictly observed - were disregarded, to fit the light and

    the dominant activity of the season.

            Factors of Isolation : Their habitat has been a protection for the Eskimos

    from encroachment by other peoples. Except for the early fur trade and recent

    commercial fishing in Bristol Bay, some mining between it and the Kuskokwim,

    whaling in the Arctic, gold mining on the Seward Peninsula, and Gold Rush

    travel on the Yukon — all periodic and localized — outsiders have not sought

    to dominate the sources of Eskimo lifelihood. Lack of salmon in the Arctic,

    scarcity of fur animals on the islands and along mainland coast, the ice pack,

    storm and fog, the shallowness of east Bering Sea, and the bogginess of the

    tundra became a boon for the Eskimos after white settlement. The only thing

    in modern culture that can effectively overcome tundra, ice pack, or a two–

    fathom sea is the airplane, bound to do both harm and good, like any great in–


    017      |      Vol_VIII-0035                                                                                                                  
    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos



            Basically the culture of all Alaskan Eskimos wes almost uniform despite

    the great extent of its territory. Implements, beliefs, and habits char–

    acteristic of both Bering Sea and Arctic Sea may be summarized as follows.

            Dwellings . Winter house, a log structure (occasionally with whale

    bones as supplementary building material and anciently a stone foundation),

    semisubterranean and earth-covered, or built on top of ground, of sods and

    split logs, with gut window in the roof, small center fireplace, and storage

    passageway. The window is made by sewing together strips of opened and cleaned

    intestine. Variable summer dwellings, different from type of winter dwelling

    construction, except in south Bering Sea. Size, form, and materials of tents

    and other summer dwellings showed response to local conditions. No dome-shaped

    snow houses. Most Alaskan Eskimos built no snowhouses. A few built a hap–

    hazard angular shelter. A ceremonial house ( kashim , karrigi , kadgigi ) every–

    where except St. Lawrence Island; used also as a men's workroom and lounging

    place except at Wainwright, Point Barrow, and adjacent interior region. Al–

    though like the winter house in form and materials, it was larger, had narrower

    benches for sitting and sleeping — sometimes in tiers to accommodate many

    people — and usually had a large fireplace to provide heat for the men's

    sweat bath. Storehouse or open cache on high piling. In many places there

    were also windowless subterranean storehouses.

            Tools . Stone-bladed men's knives with small end of side blade, women's

    rocker-type knives with large blade, chisels and drill points, small thick

    adzes, and many others. Ivory-pointed meat hooks, ice grapples, ice chisels,

    and adzes, except in Bristol Bay where walrus were scarce and ice conditions

    very different from the Arctic. Bow drill, for fire-making and drilling holes.

    018      |      Vol_VIII-0036                                                                                                                  
    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos

            Hunting and Fishing Implements . Harpoons with the basic elements of shaft,

    socket piece, foreshaft, head, blade, and rawhide lines holding foreshaft and

    head to shaft. To the harpoon sometimes was attached a float, made of a small

    whole sealskin or, on lighter harpoons, a bladder. Blunt-headed bird arrow.

    Throwing board or atlatl . Both simple and sinew-backed bows. Heavy caribou

    arrows. Multipronged fish spears and bird spears. Both simple and composite

    fishhooks of the same construction. Nets for catching seals under the ice,

    made of rawhide or, anciently, baleen. Fish seines (gill nets) made of sinew

    cord. Conical fish traps, usually made of wood. In the absence of specific

    information about the Bristol Bay Eskimos, assumptions that they were similar

    to Eskimos immediately north of them must be made.

            Transportation . Kayak, umiak or whaleboat, uniform throughout area in

    frame construction, differing only in proportions. Double-blade paddle for

    the kayak, single-blade paddle for the umiak. Recently the single-blade,

    crutch-handled paddle has been used almost exclusively, also oars and oarlocks.

    Snowshoes, which varied greatly in shape and netting, however. Sleds: (1) small,

    flat, usually hand-drawn sled for transporting boats or meat, chiefly on the ice;

    (2) travel sled, with upcurved front, rails, and handle bar, drawn by dogs.

    The farther south one goes, the less evidence of the dog sled is found. There

    is good evidence that the dog sled complex as known today is not old in Eskimo


            Household Utensils and Techniques . Carved and joined wooden dishes and

    boxes. Crude pottery (Bristol Bay ?) today although anciently pottery of dif–

    ferent style was made. Basketry made by twining technique except in Barrow

    region where basketry was made by technique of coiling and stitching the strands.

    Cooking was done over a driftwood fire indoors or outdoors, or, from Bering Strait

    northward, sometimes over a lamp. Cooking in the open air as much as possible.

    019      |      Vol_VIII-0037                                                                                                                  
    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos

    Urine, a good detergent because of ammonia content, used in washing and tanning

    of skins. Sometimes ashes or sand rubbed on skin to facilitate scarping off

    of the hair.

            Clothing and Ornament . Fur boots and fur parkas with ruffed hood, re–

    markably uniform in out throughout area, e.g., men's parkas were straight

    around the bottom, the women's curved up the sides. Boot-trousers for children

    and women. Waterproof boots for both sexes. Wooden eyeshades. Tattooing by

    stitching rather than pricking. Labrets.

            Hunting Techniques . Those especially adapted to Arctic Sea hunting are

    described elsewhere in this volume. Except whale hunting and the caribou

    drives, nearly all hunting on land and sea was individualistic.

            In the nonmaterial aspects of their life, the following are the most

    noticeable or best documented similarities — but not the only ones — of both

    Bering Sea and Arctic Alaskans.

            Games . String figures (cat's cradles), skin-tossing, finger-pulling,

    ball games, stick-quoits, carved and dressed dolls, simple mechanical toys,

    racing and athletic contests. Skill and personal competition, rather than

    gambling, were dominant in most games and sports.

            Family Characteristics . A house normally was shared by more than one

    family of parents and children, with women and young children occupying it

    while the men and older boys spent most of their time in the ceremonial house,

    the kashim , even sleeping in it in the central Bering Sea area. Families shar–

    ing the women's house almost always were closely related and shared cooking

    and other duties intimately and amicably. (If they could not get along, house–

    hold members moved elsewhere in an attempt to get better adjustment.) As vil–

    lages were small and household s and kashims large, there were few households,

    and all villagers were closely related by both kinship and daily experience.

    020      |      Vol_VIII-0038                                                                                                                  
    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos

    Thus adoption of children was common, exchange of wives by recognized partners

    was permissible, and children were reared as much by grandparents, cousins,

    and neighbors as by their own parents. Marital separation was frequent, in–

    itiated by o ther husband or wife.

            None of these practices was promiscuous, however. Regulating social and

    economic relations were: (1) patrilineal kinship, with totemic relationships

    and tabus designating the lineages, (2) partnerships probably originally

    based on cross-cousin kinship, (3) tabus on direct speech and other behavior

    between in-laws, (4) matrilocal residence and some service by the bridegroom

    for the bride's family immediately preceding marriage or in the early years

    of marriage. Both polygamy and polyandry were permissible but neither was

    common. Almost always co-wives or co-husbands were related. Kin relation–

    ships were designated and regulated not only by the weakly organized totemism

    but also by a strong sense of the power and significance of names. Teknonymy

    (the naming of parents by their relationship to their children), substitution

    of nicknames for "real" names, and other devices were used, to avoid use of

    the real name so intimately connected with the individual.

            Government and Law . Strict or elaborate government is not necessary,

    in fact scarcely possible, for people in such a sparsely settled country,

    their activities contained by urgent necessity and difficulty of food getting,

    who are much of the time not in permanent villages but traveling in small

    groups and scattered to temporary camps. When large numbers of people came

    together to "cut in" a whale, the whaleboat owner who was credited with the

    kill took charge. At a large ceremonial, wealthy hunters, older heads of

    families, or shamans became masters of ceremonies, dependent on the nature of

    the occasion. Reindeer drives or roundups were conducted by agreement of the

    men with recognized ability as hunters. Personal relationships were regulated

    021      |      Vol_VIII-0039                                                                                                                  
    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos

    by the religiously and socially sanctioned tabu system, family revenge, and

    a more or less formalized system of ridicule.

            Around the lower part of Bristol Bay where life was physically more

    abundant and secure than in the Arctic and where influences from the Aleuts

    and the Indians of the south and southeast Alaska were felt, there was more

    formality, permanence, and social segmentation in community organization.

    There were clearer distinctions between rich and poor, and probably less shar–

    ing of goods. In the north Bering Sea and Arctic regions, class distinctions

    could not easily be maintained in a society with generally coordinate families

    and family law, absence of land-site or water-site ownership, a day-by-day

    giving and lending of food, tools, dogs, children, and occasionally wives,

    and a periodic redistribution of goods through large gift distribution in the

    festivals. Before white settlement, the shamans (medicine men) apparently had

    strong leadership and control, because of their supernatural power, often

    superior ability and knowledge, and wealth accumulated by "professional"


            Warfare . The Eskimos were, as a people, nonmilitaristic although the

    Kinugumiut of Bering Strait and Malemiut at the base of Seward Peninsula are

    said to have been aggressive. The Ikogmiut on the Yukon, Sikhmiut on the

    Kuskokwim, and the people of the Kvichak area of Bristol Bay were of necessity

    frequently at war because of their proximity to the Indians. In Eskimo warfare,

    raids might be organized by any wronged individual seeking revenge. Villages

    were taken by surprise, if possible, by attackers shooting into the houses

    through the skylight. Sometimes the houses were fired. Some women and chil–

    dren might be taken prisoner, but not the men. Bow and arrow, slat-armor,

    knives and other weapons for hand-to-hand fighting were used. Parts of the

    bodies of enemy warriors (not the scalp) were taken as trophies.

    022      |      Vol_VIII-0040                                                                                                                  
    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos

            Religion . Today almost all these Eskimos are Christians. In their old

    religion, encounters with dwarfs, animal spirits, and other supernatural beings

    were not limited to a very few people with unusually strong spiritual powers.

    Every large village had several shamans, considered to have varying effective–

    ness in controlling the supernatural beings, and most laymen at some time had

    experiences with the Supernatural, in strange lights, sounds, sensations, and

    occasionally true visions. Most spirits were visualized clearly by all and

    were not always avoided, as they were considered the givers of beneficial

    powers, especially hunting powers, represented by and contained in songs,

    stories, masks, amulets, designs on kayak cover, drum, and other articles.

    Amulets in the form of small carved figures, the most numerous and important

    bearers of supernatural power, were fastened to hunting gear and worn on body

    and clothing. Abnormal states in both shaman and audience were induced by

    drumming, chanting, dancing and contortion, concentration on the situation

    (driving out of illness, a contest with another shaman, a journey to the moon

    or under the sea to secure the deities' promise of good hunting, or the quiet–

    ing of a storm), and some trickery by the shaman: ventriloquism, sleight-of–

    hand, etc. Curing was attempted by sucking out the disease, blood-letting,

    or driving out of the disease by spiritual means.

            These practices and the tabu system, relating chiefly to treatment of

    the food animals, were based on belief in (1) a great world deity, a spirit of

    the air, quite remote from most human affairs, (2) keepers and protectors of

    the animals, (3) spirits of mountains, winds, the moon, and other natural

    phenomena, (4) races of dwarfs, giants, and beings half-human and half-animal,

    (5) men-worms, dragon-like creatures, and other monsters, and (6) spirits of

    the dead. Because animal spirits were thought to be interchangeably human and

    animal souls, the clarity and detail of this belief varied from locality to


    023      |      Vol_VIII-0041                                                                                                                  
    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos

            Although laymen regularly carved masks and amulets and composed songs

    referring to spirits, they seldom practiced witchcraft or divination, these

    being the special arts of shamans.

            Ceremonial demonstrates the helpful emotional value of many of the Alaskan

    Eskimo beliefs. Although little ritual accompanied marriage, birth, and even

    death, all important food-getting activities were initiated and terminated with

    supplication and small offerings to the spirits, by songs, purification, symbol–

    ic distribution of food and sometimes many other gifts, imitative white magic,

    and other acts that reassured the people of their power as strong skilled hunters,

    to whom the animals and natural forces would submit. The shamans sometime, by

    engenering fear, used their prestige and supposed power to dominate others and

    produced anxiety in the people, but the ceremonial on the whole was positive:

    strengthening the hunter and the community in preparation and rewarding him

    after any major hunting activity. The occasions for such recognition were the

    child's first killing of small birds and animals (by boys) or gathering of

    berries, eggs, etc. (by girls), the young man's first killing of each of the

    major game animals such as polar bear and bearded seal, the beginning and end

    of the whale hunt or any other definite hunting season, and a winter festival

    season when all game animals were honored. But fishing, despite its economic

    importance, was not ritualized.

            Occasions for major festivals combining religious, economic, and other

    elements were (1) honoring of deceased relatives (only Norton Sound-lower Yukon–

    Kuskokwim area, so far as known), (2) honor of whales and celebration of whaling

    (St. Lawrence Island, Bering Strait, and to lesser extent, Arctic coast), (3)

    exchange of gifts between men and women, with temporary exchange of spouses

    permitted (most of area), (4) trading between villages (especially Seward Pen–

    insula), (5) ceremony to return animals' souls to their natural habitat, to be

    024      |      Vol_VIII-0042                                                                                                                  
    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos

    reincarnated (Seward Peninsula to Nunivak Island and possibly farther south),

    (6) system of exchange of festivals between the outstanding hunters of different

    villages, a general hunting festival (entire area). Despite differences of

    avowed purpose of ceremony, the ritual acts and paraphernalia were similar

    throughout the area.

            Mythology . The most common themes are (1) creation and the nature of the

    universe, including the coming of people to a par[?] t icular locality, and the in–

    stitution of the first festivals; (2) a cycle of experiences of bird or other

    benefactor that kills evil people and supernatural beings; (3) unnatural chil–

    dren that can either kill or help; (4) beings that steal people and are outwitted

    by a strong or clever person; (5) experiences of acquiring good supernatural

    powers; (6) marriage of human beings to spirits. There are several humorous

    stories of animal trickery and contests, usually centering around Raven. Of

    human experience, there are a few war stories, tales of starvation and of ghosts,

    of a marriageable young person who spurns suitors, of the poor boy who becomes

    wealthy, and other human situations usually resolved by magic means. As in north

    European mythology, a few morbid motifs - besides the monster beings - appear,

    although rarely: cannibalism, physical abnormalities of people, vengeful ghosts

    (sometimes pictured as helpful), the flaying of animals alive and flaying of

    human corpses.

            Mythology, which is a means of projecting the teller's fears and other

    emotions into the characters of the stories, as well as of stating belief re–

    garding the world, educating and entertaining the young, shows several personal

    qualities and social values characteristic of Alaskan Eskimos: (1) the prestige

    of success in hunting, of having much fine food, (2) family affection, (3) great

    desire for children (stories of finding children, of magically created children),

    025      |      Vol_VIII-0043                                                                                                                  
    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos

    (4) the difficulties of living alone, of living in darkness, (5) value of

    happiness and joy, pleasure of giving, feasting, dancing, (6) power of thought:

    belief that thinking will bring a thing to pass, (7) individual power and not

    much communal action, (8) frequent marriage and separation, (9) disobedience

    of tabus, usually but not always followed by misfortune, (10) mobility: inland

    to coast, out onto ice, up into mountains, and stories of just wandering.

            Art . As a people, Alaskan Eskimos, like most other Eskimos, show great

    skill in several arts. Attitudes and standards of high craftsmanship were

    taught, and every individual was expected to practice adequatly the crafts of

    his sex although, as elsewhere, only a few individuals were, in addition, artists.

    Men's arts were the carving of ivory in full round, in deep and low relief, in–

    cising (etching) of ivory, some carving of wood, horn, and bone, and in the

    Bering Sea area much carving and painting of wood. There was no painting or

    beading of leather. Of stone, usually only plain practical objects like lamps

    and knife blades were made although occasionally one finds stone sculpture,

    usually of small animal figures. Women's arts were stitchery, basketry, and

    ceramics, all with simple geometric decoration in pre-European time but with

    occasional naturalistic designs on basketry and other variations in their arts

    since white settlement.

            Psycho-social Characteristics . H. D. Anderson and W. C. Eells have summar–

    ized observations by those who saw the Eskimos before their aboriginal life had

    been much influenced by newcomers to Alaska. Common traits of the Eskimos (as

    listed by Anderson and Eells, with additions from other sources):

            Hospitality; generosity and kindheartedness

            Honesty: keeping a promise, not stealing except from those considered

    enemies, and hoeesty of observation and report

            Joyousness and affection

    026      |      Vol_VIII-0044                                                                                                                  
    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos

    Politeness and good manners (self-restraint and consideration for others)

            Lack of quarrelsome behavior

            Mischievousness ("teasing, prankish")

            Strong curiosity about new things, little fear of new things unless

    Supernatural is involved

            Good mimicry

            Intelligence: attentive, observant, analytical, quick-witted, learn readily

            Use of joking ridicule as a device of control

            Stolid acceptance of what they think is inevitable

            Great patience in most situations

            Occasional depression, principally associated with semi-starvation

            Rare raging angers and loss of self-control

            Self-assurance amounting to overbearing behavior when they have assurance

    of large numbers of other superiority

            Deceit, grasping and begging behavior in trading (possibly trading tricks

    learned from whites)

            Lack of fear of natural dangers but fear of Indians, certain individuals

    in their own group, and spirits

            Willingness to forgive, usually, but in a few matters revengeful

            Aggression in hunting, to point of extravagance (will kill an animal even

    though cannot use all its food)

            Carelessness of tools, especially guns

            Sex morality not rigorous (practically unmoral rather than immoral)

            Social morality: the good of the community, especially the food sources

    and supply of the community, was the criterion of morality

            In summary, they are outgoing or extrovert, alert, observant, adaptive

    people, self-possessed, somewhat opportunistic, "brave in daily encounter with

    the various factors of their precarious life but fearful of the unknown," with

    of course the individual differences in degree and combination of traits found

    027      |      Vol_VIII-0045                                                                                                                  
    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos

    in any group. Unfortunately, sometimes the expectations, organization, and

    belief of the White man lie in that unknown of which the Eskimo may be fearful

    and feel the need to protect himself.

            Sub-areas of Culture . As with language, the remainder of the culture

    shows no clear break between Bering Sea and the Arctic coast or interior.

    The principal differences are stylistic: difference of physical proportions,

    frequency, or amount rather than absolute lack or fundamentally different

    techniques and forms. Some differences are due to difference in habitat,

    e.g., in east Bering Sea , no true whaling; little ice hunting with the special

    techniques of the Arctic anywhere in Bering Sea; relatively greater reliance

    on fish and eating of more dried food dipped in seal oil; seal hunted chiefly

    in fall and spring, not winter and summer; cairn burial or coffin burial;

    sweat-bathing (more wood available); much greater use of matting, grass socks,

    baskets; greater variety and use of wooden objects, especially dishes. In the

    Arctic on the other hand, there is whaling in the open leads of ice; hunting

    of seal through ice in winter, in open water in summer; formerly disposal of

    dead by simply placing corpse out on tundra; a shallower, trickier kayak, and

    probably not so well constructed umiak as that of King Islanders, St. Lawrence

    Islanders, and other unusually good open-sea travelers and hunters; better

    snowshoes (probably); use of caribou corral; more hunting of wolf and polar

    bear; less storage of large supplies of meat for winter although as much oil

    as possible is stored, i.e., greater dependence upon hunting day by day.

            Some elements indicate whole culture complexes with different history of

    cultural development in the two regions. Some of these diagnostic elements

    and a few important religious complexes are given as examples in the following


    028      |      Vol_VIII-0046                                                                                                                  
    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos

    Arctic Coastal Region, including

    Bering Strait and north side of

    Seward Peninsula
    Bering Sea Region
    Sleeping bench across back of

    Benches on sides of house
    Gabled roof supported by wall

    Domed or cribbed roof supported

    by four uprights
    Half-moon stone lamps Round pottery lamps
    Boot soles crimped into shape

    by chewing
    Soles crimped by knife
    Gut rain-parka sewed in

    vertical stips
    Same stitched in nea rly horizontal

    Open needlecase with cord run

    through it
    Stoppered needlecase
    No Bladder Festival Bladder Festival
    No Feast of the Dead Feast of the Dead (only Norton Sound

    to Kuskokwim?)
    No ritual intimidation of women

    and children
    Spirit impersonation intimidating

    women and children
    Belief in Sedna, woman keeper of

    animals under the sea
    Only small part of this belief

            Modern Culture . Regarding the changes that have occurred in western

    Eskimo life in the past two generations, see "Alaskan Eskimo Acculturation."


    Birket-Smith, Kaj " The Eskimos ," London, 1936

    Curtis, E.S. " The North American Indian," Vol. 20, 1930

    Dall, W.H. " Alaska and Its Resources ," Boston, 1897

    029      |      Vol_VIII-0047                                                                                                                  
    EA-Anthrop. Lantis: Bering Sea Eskimos

    Hawkes, E.W. "The 'Inviting-in' Feast of the Alaskan Eskimo,"

    Can. Geol. Surv. Mem. 45 , Anthro. Ser. No. 3; 1913.

    ---- "Dance Festivals of the Alaskan Eskimo," U. of Penn.

    Mus. Anthro. Publ ., 1914

    Himmelheber, Hans " Eskimokünstler ," Stuttgart, 1938

    Hrdlicka, Ales "Anthropological Survey in Alaska," Bur. of Amer. Ethnol .,

    46th Ann. Rept., Washington, 1930.

    Lantis, Margaret " Alaskan Eskimo Ceremonialism ," Amer. Ethnol. Soc. Pub.

    No. 11, 1947

    Murdoch, John "Ethnological Results of the Point Barrow Expedition,"

    Bur. of Amer. Ethnol., 9th Ann. Rept ., Washington, 1892.

    Nelson, E.W. "The Eskimo about Bering Strait," Bur. of Amer. Ethnol.,

    18th Ann. Rept
    ., Pt. 1, 1899

    Petrof, Ivan "Population and Resources of Alaska, 1880." reprinted

    in Compilation of Narratives of Explorations in Alaska ,

    Washington, 1900

    Porter, R.P. "Report on Population and Resources of Alaska," 11th

    Census, 1890, Vol. 8
    , Washington, 1893

    Rasmussen, Knud " Across Arctic America ," New York, 1927

    Stefansson, Vilhjalmur " My Life with the Eskimo ," New York, 1913

    ---- "The Stefansson-Anderson Arctic Expedition of the American

    Museum: Preliminary Ethnological Report," Amer. Mus. of

    Nat. Hist., Anthro. Papers , No. 14, Pt. 1, 1914

    Weyer, E.M. "The Eskimos," New Haven, 1932


    Margaret Lantis

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