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    Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)

    Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    Unpaginated      |      Vol_VI-0238                                                                                                                  
    (EA-PS. Tyge W. Böcher)




    Introduction 1
    The Flora 2
    List of Vascular Plants 3
    Climatically Conditioned Distributions 14
    Edaphically Conditioned Distributions 16
    Historically Conditioned Distributions 16
    Distribution of Western and Eastern Species 18
    Regions of Vegetation 19
    Plant Communities 20 -a
    Scrub and Wood 20 -a
    Dwarf Shrub 21
    Xerophilous Grasses and Grasslike Plants 23
    Xerophilous Pteridophytes and Herbaceous Dicotyledons 25
    Nondwarfish Hygrophytic and Mesophytic Herbs 26
    Dwarfish Herbs and Woody Plants 27
    Helophytes 30
    Cryophilous Algae 32
    Marine Algae 32
    Hydrophytes 31
    Bibliography 35

    001      |      Vol_VI-0239                                                                                                                  
    EA-Plant Sciences

    (Tyge W. Böcher)





            The investigations of the flora of Greenland started in the eighteenth

    century, but systematically planned collections, particularly of vascular

    plants, were only begun after the beginning of the nineteenth century. The

    most important collections in the past century were made between 1828 and

    1836 by Jens Vahl, the Danish botanist, who traveled the southern part of

    the east coast and the greater part of the west coast. His collections

    constituted the nucleus of the first comprehensive floral work, Johan Lange’s

    Conspectus florae Groenlandicae (17), which is still of great scientific

    interest. Later surveys of the flora have been written by Ostenfeld (20) on

    the whole of Greenland, Porsild (25) on the central part of West Greenland,

    Seidenfaden and Sorensen (32) on East Greenland, Polunin (22) on southwestern

    Greenland, and Böcher (1) on southern East Greenland.

            Investigations of the flora particularly from an ecological point of view

    (plant communities, structure and biology of arctic flowering plants) were

    started in the latter part of the nineteenth century. The pioneer in this line

    of investigation was E. Warming, whose book Om Grønlands Vegetation [ On the

    Vegetation of Greenland ] (38) was epoch-making. The most important descrip–

    tions of the vegetation published during the Warming epoch deal with southern

    Greenland (30), Scoresby Sound (10; 11), and the Angmagssalik region (15).

    002      |      Vol_VI-0240                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    From comparatively recent times we have, moreover, comprehensive descriptions

    of the vegetation of the coast south of Scoresby Sound (5), Godthaabs fjord

    (37), on account of the ecological conditions in the region of Søndre Strømfjord

    (2), and, in regard to northern East Greenland, a survey of the vegetation between

    latitude 74°30′ and 79° N.

            Cytogenetic investigations of the flora of Greenland were started in 1927

    with Hagerup’s investigations of Empetrum hermaphroditum . Since then, several

    papers have dealt with chromosome numbers determined on material from Greenland,

    a recent example being that of Böcher and Larsen (6).



            The approximate number of species of the Greenland flora is given in Table I.

    In 1870 there were 360 known species of vascular plants; within the next 56

    years only 30 additional species were identified. By 1949 there were 456

    species known, composed of: 31 pteridophytes, 1 gymnosperm, 148 monocotyle–

    dons, 173 Apetalae and Polypetalae, and 103 Sympetalae (Gamopetalae). As our

    knowledge particularly of fungi and freshwater algae is rather defective, the

    Table I. Greenland Flora .
    Group Number of species Group Number of species
    Vascular plants 456 Marine algae 200
    Bryophytes 600 Freshwater algae 400
    Lichens 400 Diatoms and dinoflagellates 650
    Fungi 1,000

    003      |      Vol_VI-0241                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    figures for these groups are too low. We may confidently expect an aggregate

    number of more than 4,000 plant species in Greenland.

            A list of all the vascular plant species known to the author as occurring

    in Greenland is given below; for each species, information is given as to its

    distribution in Greenland as far as this is yet known. It has been attempted

    to divide the country into floral “provinces,” the delimitation of which is

    indicated in Figure 1. The boundary lines between the provinces have been

    drawn largely in accordance with the boundaries of the known areas of a great

    many species. Special stress has been laid on boundaries of species considered

    to be good indicators of climate, e.g., Alchemilla alpina , Carex supina , Cas–

    siope tetragona
    , and Ranunculus sulphureus .


    List of Vascular Plants

            The following is a key to the abbreviations used in the listing of vascular

    plants and throughout this article:

    N North Greenland CE central continental part

    of East Greenland
    NW northern West Greenland
    NW(T) Thule District SE southern East Greenland
    NW(U) Upernivik District n northern part
    CW central continental part

    of west Greenland
    s southern part
    SW southern West Greenland intr introduced by man
    S South Greenland alp alpine
    NE northern West Greenland isol isolated
    r rare

            EQUISETACEAE (5): Equisetum arvense , N to S; E. scirpoides , CW, SW, S;

    003a      |      Vol_VI-0242                                                                                                                  

    Fig 1.

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    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    E. sylvaticum , SW, S; E. trachyodon , S; E. variegatum , N to S (r in SE).

            LYCOPODIACEA (5): Lycopodium alpinum , NW(U), SW, S, Se, CE (r in s);

    L. annotinum , NW(U), CW, SW, S, SE, CE (r); L. clavatum , SW (r), S;

    L. complanatum , SW, S; L. selago , N to S.

            SELAGINELLACEAE (2): Selaginella rupestris , S (5); S. selaginoides, SW, S, SE.

            ISOETACEAE (2): Isöetes echinospora , CW (r), SW, S; I. lacustris , S (r).

            OPHILOGLOSSACEAE (4): Botrychium boreale , SW (s), S, SE (s); B. lanceolatum ,

    SW, S, SE: B. lunaria , NW(U) (s), CW (isol in n), SW, S, SE, CE (isol in

    s), NE (r in s); B. tenebrosum , S.

            POLYPODIACEAE (13): Asplenium viride , SW, SE; Athyrium alpestre , S, SE;

    Cystopteris fragilis , N to S; C. montana , S; Dryopteris austriaca , SW, S;

    D. filix-mas , SW, S; D. fragrans , NW, CW, SW (r in n), CE (isol in s);

    D. linnaeana , SW, S, SE; D. phegopteris , SW, S, SE; Polystichum lonchitis ,

    SW, S, SE; Woodsia alpina (r), NW(U), CW, SW, S, SE, NE (s); W. glabella ,

    N to S (r in S); W. ilvensis , NW(U), CW, SW, S, SE, NE (r), CE (r in s).

            CUPRESSACEAE (1): Juniperus communis , CW, SW, S, SE.

            SPARGANIACEAE (2): Sparganium antustifolium , CW (isol at lat. 68°40′ N.), SW,

    S, SE (at lat. 65°37′ N.); S. hyperboreum , CW (s), SW, S.

            POTAMOGETONACEAE (6): Potamogeton alpinus subsp. tenuifolius , CW (s), SW (s), S;

    P. filiformis , CW, SW, S, SE (r), NE (r), CE (r); P. gramineus , CW (s),

    SW (s), S; P. natans , S; P. pusillus subsp. groenlandicus , CW, SW (r),

    S (r); Zostera marina , SW (r).

            JUNCAGINACEAE (1): Triglochin palustre , NW(U) (s, r), CW, SW, S, SE (r), CE (r).

            GRAMINEAE (59): Agropyron (see Roegneria ); Agrostis borealis , CW, SW, S, SE,

    CE (r); A. canina , CE (r in s), SW (s), S, SE; A. gigantea , S; A. stolo–

    nifera , SW (r in s), S; A. tenuis , intr to S; Alopecurus aequalis ,

    005      |      Vol_VI-0244                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    NW (r in s), CW (r), SW, S, SE (r); A. alpinus , N, NW, CW (n), SW (r),

    NE, CE (n); A. pratensis , intr to S; Anthoxanthum odoratum (diploid

    type), S, SE (s); Arctagrostis latifolia , N, NW, CW (n), CE (n), NE;

    Arctophila fulva , SW (r); Calamagrostis hyperborea , SW, S, SE; C. langs–

    , CW (s), SW, S, SE (s); C. lapponica , CW; C. neglecta , NW(U), CW,

    SW, S, SE, NE, CE; C. purpurascens , NW, CW, SW (n), S ( [ ?] r ), NE, CE, SE (r);

    Catabrosa aquatic , SW (r), S (r); Danthonia spicata , S (r); Deschampsia

    alpina , SW, S, SE; D. brevifolia , NW(T), N, NE, CE; D. brevifolia subsp.

    pumila , NW(T), NW(U), Disko, NE; D. flexuosa , CW (single station at lat.

    67° N.), SW, S, SE; Dupontia fisheri , NW(U), CW (n), NE to CE (basalt

    region); Elymus mollis , NW(U) (s), CW, SW, S, Se (s); Festuca brachy–

    , N to S; F. rubra , NW, SW, CW, S, SE, NE, CE; F. vivipara , N to S

    (r or alp in S); F. vivipara subsp. hirsuta , SW, S, SE; Hierochloe alpina ,

    N to S; H. odorata , S; Nardus stricta , S, SE (s); Phippsia algida , N to

    S (r in S and s of CW, SW, Se); Phleum commutatum , SW, S, SE; Pleuropogon

    sabinii , N, NW(T), NE, CE (r); Poa abbreviata , N, NW, CW (n), NE, CE;

    P. alpina , NW(U), CW, SW, S, SE, NE, CE; P. alpina subsp. vivipara, NE,

    SE (n); P. annua , intr to SW, S, Se; P. arctica , N, NW, CW (alp in s),

    SW (n), S (?), SE (r in s), CE, NE; P. flexuosa , S (alp); P. glauca ,

    N to S; P. hartzii , NW(U) (r in s), CW (r), CE (r), NE (r); P. nemoralis ,

    SW (s), S; P. pratensis (incl. P. alpigena and P. irrigata ), all districts

    except N, NW(T), and NE (n); Puccinellia andersonii , NW, N, NE; R. P. angus–

    , NW, CW (n), N, NE, CE; P. coarctata , NW(U), CW, SW, S, SE, NE (r in s);

    P. deschampsioides , CW, SW (r in n), NW(U) (r in s); P. groenlandica , NW(U),

    CW, SW (n); P. langeana , SW (n), NW(U) (s); P. maritima , SW (s), S;

    P. Phryganodes , N to S; P. porsildii , isol on Disko; P. rosenkrantzii ,

    006      |      Vol_VI-0245                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    isol in NW(U); P. vahliana , NW, CW (n), N, NE, CE; Roegneria borealis

    var. hyperar [ ?] c tica , NW(U), CW (n), CE (r), NE (r); R. doniana var.

    virescens , S; R. violacea , CW (r), S; Trisetum spicatum , N to S;

    Vahlodea atropurpurea , SW, S, SE (s).

            CYPERACEAE (51): Carex aquatilis var. stans , N, NW, SW (n), CW, NE, CE (n);

    C. arctogena , NW(U), CW, SW, S, SE (r), CE (r); C. atrata , SW (s), S, SE;

    C. atrofusca , NW(T), NW(U) (r), CW (n), CE, NE; C. bicolor , NW(U), CW,

    SW (r), S (r), CE (r); C. bigelowii , all districts except N; C. brunnes–

    , SW, S, SE; C. buxbaumii , S (r); C. canescens , NW(U), CW (s), SW,

    S, SE (s); C. capillaris (s.l.), all districts except N; C. capillaris

    var. porsildiana , SW, S; C. capitata , isol at lat. 67° N. in CW; C. deflexa ,

    SW, S, SE; C. glacialis , NW(U), CW, SW, S (r), SE (r in s), CE, NE;

    C. glareosa , all districts except N; C. goodenowii , S; C. gynocrates ,

    NW(U), SW (r), CW, S; C. halleri , NW(U), CW, SW, S, SE (r in central part),

    CE, NE (r); C. holostoma , SW (n), CW; C. lachenalii , all districts except

    N, NW(T); C. lyngbei , S (r); C. mackenziei , SW (s), S (r); C. macloviana ,

    CW, SW, S, Se, CE (s, r); C. magellanica , SW (r), S; C. maritima , all

    districts except N and SE; C. microglochin , CW, SW (r), S, SE, CE;

    C. misandra , N, NW, CW, SW (r in n), CE, NE; C. nardina , N to S; C. panicea ,

    S; C. parallela, NE, CE; C. praticola , CW (r in s), SW, S; C. pseudola–

    , NW, NE, CE; C. rariflora , NW(U), SW, CW, S, SE (r in n), CE, NE;

    C. rostrata , S; C. rotundata , NW(U), CW, SW, S, SE (The two species,

    C. rotundata and C. saxatilis , can hardly be kept separate); C. rufina ,

    SW, S, SE, CE (single station in s); C. rupestris , NW, CW, SW (n), NE,

    CE, SE (r in n); C. salina , S; C. saxatilis , NW, CW, SW (n), CE, Ne;

    C. scirpoidea , all districts except N, NW(T); C. sparsiflora , isol in NE

    007      |      Vol_VI-0246                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    (lat. 74°10′ N.); C. stylosa , SW (s), S, SE (s); C. subspathacea , NW(U),

    CW (r), SW, S, SE, NE, CE; C. supina , NW(U) (r), CW, SW (r in n), S (r),

    SE (r), CE, NE; C. ursina , NW, CW, SW (r in n), CE, NE; C. viridula , S;

    Elocharis acicularis , Disko, CW, SW (r in n); E. uniglumis , S; Erio–

    phorum angustifolium
    , N to S (absent from SE north of lat. 61°37′ N.);

    E. callithrix , NE, CE; E. scheuchzeri , N to S; Scirpus caespitosus ,

    NW(U) (r), CW (r in s), SW, S, SE; S. pauciflorus , SW (r at lat. 67° N.),

    SW (r in s), S.

            JUNCACEAE (19): Juncus alpinus , CW (r), SW (one station), S; J. arcticus ,

    NW(U), CW, SW, S, CE, NE (r), SE (r); J. balticus , S; J. biglumis , N to

    S; J. bufonius , CW (s), S, NE (one station at lat. 71° N.); J. castaneus ,

    NW(U), CW, SW, NE, CE, SE (isol at lat. 66°16′ N.); J. filiformis , SW

    (s), S, SE (s); J. squarrosus , S, SE (s); J. subtilis , CW (one station),

    SW (r), S (r), SE (r); J. trifidus , NW(U), CW (Disko Bay), SW, S, SE,

    NE to CE (s); J. triglumis , NW, CW, SW, S, NE, CE, SE (r); Luzula arctica ,

    all districts except S, Se, and SW (s); L. confusa , N to S; L. groen–

    , CW, SW, S; L. multiflora , SW, S; L. multiflora subsp. frigida ,

    NW(U), SW, S, SE, NE to CE (s); L. parviflora , NW (Disko), SW, S, SE (s);

    L. spicata , all districts except NW(T), N, NE (n); L. wahlenbergii , isol

    in NE.

            LILIACEAE (3): Streptopus amplexifolius , SW (s); S; Tofieldia coccinea , NW,

    CW, CE, NE; T. pusilla , all districts except N and NW(T).

            IRIDACEAE (1): Sisyrinchium montanum , CW (r in s), SW (Godthaab Fjord).

            ORCHIDACEAE (5): Corallorhiza trifida , SW, S; Habenaria albida , SW, S, SE;

    H. Hyperborea , SW, S, SE; Listera cordata , SW, S, SE (s); Orchis rotun–

    , CW (one station at lat. 67° N.), SW (one station at lat. 64°09′

    N.), S (r).

    008      |      Vol_VI-0247                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

            SALICACEAE (5): Salix arctica , NW, N, NE, CE; S. arctophila , NW, CW, SW, S;

    S. glauca incl. S. callicarpaea , all districts except N; S. herbacea ,

    all districts except N; S. uva-ursi , SW, S.

            BETULACEAE (4): Alnus crispa , CW (s), SW, S (r); Betula glandulosa , SW, S,

    B. nana , NW(U), CW, SW, SE, NE, CE; B. pubescens (s.l.), SW (r in s), S.

            POLYGONACEAE (7): Koenigia islandica , all districts except N, r in CW and C [ ?] E ;

    Oxyria digyna , N to S; Polygonum heterophyllum , intr to CW, SW, S, SE;

    P. viviparum , N to S; Rumex acetosa , SW, S; R. acetosella , CW, SW, S,

    SE, NE, CE; R. domesticus , intr to S.

            CHENOPODIACEAE (1): Atriplex sp., S (r).

            PORTULACACEAE (1): Montia lamprosperma , CW, SW, S, SE.

            CARYOPHYLLACEAE (32); Arenaria humifusa , NW, CW (n), SW (Disko), S (r); A. pseudo–

    , NE, CE; Cerastium alpinum , N to S; C. arvense, isol in CW (at lat.

    67°5′ N.); C. caespitosum , SW, S; C. cerastioides , NW(U) (s), CW (r in s),

    SW, S, SE, NE, CE (r in s); C. regelii , NW (? Hare Island), N, NE; Honck–

    enya peploides
    , all districts except N; Melandrium affine , N, NW, CW, SW (n),

    NE, CE; M. apetalum , N, NW, CW, CE, NE; M. triflorum , N, NW, CW, SW (n),

    CE, NE; Minuartia biflora , all districts except NW(T) and N; M. groen–

    , SW, S, SE (s); M. rossii , NW(U), N, NE; M. rubella , N to S;

    M. stricta , NW(U) (s), CW, SW (Disko), CE, NE; Sagina caespitosa , NW(U),

    CW, SW, S, ?SE; S. intermedia , N to S except inland in CW (s); S. linnaei ,

    SW, S, SE; S. nodosa , S; S. procumbens , S; Silene acaulis , N to S;

    Stellaria calycantha , SW, S, SE; S. humifusa , all districts except N;

    S. longipes group: S. ciliatosepala , NW, N, NE, CE (r); S. crassipes , NW,

    N, NE; S. laeta , CW, NW, N; S. laxmannii , CW (n), NW, N, NE; S. longipes ,

    NW(U), CW, SW, S, ?CE (s); S. monantha , NW(U), CW, SW, S, SE (r); S. media,

    009      |      Vol_VI-0248                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    probably intr NW(U), CW, SW, S, [ ?] SE ; Viscaria alpina , NW(U), CW, SW, S,

    SE, CE (s), NE (r and isol).

            RANUNCULACEAE (16): Anemone richardsonii , SW (isol between 65° and 67° N. lat.);

    Coptis trifolia , SW, S, SE; Ranunculus acris , SW, S, SE (isol); R. affinis

    (incl. R. pedatifidus ), NW, CW, SW (Disko), NE, CE (r); R. auricomus var.

    glabrata , CE (r), NE (r), SE (n, isol); R. cymbalaria, CW (r), SW (n, r);

    R. glacialis , NE, SE (except s); R. hyperboreus , N to S; R. lapponicus ,

    NW(U), CW, SW (n); R. nivalis , NW, CW, SW (n, r), CE (r), NE; R. pygmaeus ,

    all districts except N; R. reptans , CW, SW, S, SE (isol at lat. 67°37′ N.);

    R. sabinii , NW(T), N; R. sulphureus , N, NW, CE (n), CW (n, r), SW (n), NE,

    CE (r); R. trichophyllus var. eradicatus , all districts except N; Thalic–

    trum alpinum
    , NW(U) (s), CW, SW, S, SE, CE (r), NE (r).

            PAPAVERACEAE (1): Papaver radicatum , N to S.

            CRUCIFERAE (34): Arabis alpina , NW(U), CW (n), SW, S, SE, CE (r in s), NE (s);

    A. arenicola , NW, CW, SW (r), S (r), NE (r); A. holboellii , CW, SW (r),

    S (r), SE (r), NE (isol in s), CE (s); Braya ( Torularia ) humilis , CW

    (Søndre Strømfjord), NE, CE; B. linearis , NW(U) (isol), CW [ ?] (isol) , CE;

    B. purpurascens , N, NW, CW (n), CE, NE; B. thorild-wulffii , N, NE (n);

    Capsella bursa-pastoris , intr to S; Cardamine bellidifolia , N to S (alp

    and r in S and CW (s)); C. pratensis , all districts except N; Cochlearia

    officinalis , N to S; Draba alpina , NW(U), CW (n), SW (n and isol on nuna–

    tak), NE, CE (r); D. aurea , CW, SW, S, SE, CE (s); D. bellii , CW (n),

    NW, N, NE, CE; D. cinerea , N, NW, CW, CE, NE; D. crassifolia , NW(U),

    CW (n), SW (n), NE, CE (s), SE (n); D. daurica , NW, CW, SW (n), NE, CE;

    D. fladnizensis , NE, CE; D. gredinii , NE; D. groenlandica , N, NW, CW,

    SW (n); D. incana , CW (r), SW, S, SE; D. lactea , N, NW, CW, SW (r), CE, NE;

    010      |      Vol_VI-0249                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    D. lanceolata , CW; D. micropetala (incl. D. oblongata ), NW(T), N, NE,

    CE (r in n); D. nivalis , all districts except N; D. repens , isol in

    NE (s); D. rupestris , CW (r), SW, S, SE, NE (s), CE (s); D. subcapitata ,

    N, NW, CW (n), CE, NE; Eutrema edwardsii , N, NW, CW (n), CE, NE; Hali–

    molobos mollis
    , NW, CW; Hesperis pallasii , N; Lesquerella arctica , N,

    NW, CW, CE, NE; Rorippa islandica , CW (isol at lat. 67° N.), SW (intr),

    S; Subularia aquatica , S, SE.

            DROSERACEAE (1): Drose r a rotundifolis, S.

            CRASSULACEAE (4): Sedum acre , SE (Angmagssalik District); S. ann u um, SW, S,

    SE; S. rosea , CW (s, r), SW, S, SE, NE, CE; S. villosum , CW, SW, S, SE.

            SAXIFRAGACEAE (17): Chrysosplenium tetrandrum , NE (isol); Parnassia kotze–

    , CW (n, isol), S (r); Saxifraga aizoides , NW (s, r), CW, SW, S,

    SE (r), CE, NE; S. aizoon , NW(U), CW, SW, S, SE, CE (s); S. cernua ,

    N to S; S. flagellaris , NW(T), N, NE; S. foliolosa , all districts

    except S and SE; S. groenlandica , N to S; S. hieracifolia , CE, NE;

    S. hirculus , NW(T), NE (isol); S. nathorstii , CE, NE; S. nivalis ,

    N to S; S. oppositifolia , N to S; S. rivularis , all districts except

    N; S. stellaris , CW (? Nordre Strømfjord), SW, S, SE; S. tenuis , N to S

    (r in S and CW (s)); S. tricuspidata , N (western part), NW, CW, SW (n),

    NE (isol in s).

            ROSACEAE (24): Alchemilla acutidens , S, SE (isol); A. alpina , SW, S, SE;

    A. filicaulis , SW, S, SE; A. glomerulans , CW (r), SW, S, SE, CE (single

    station in s); A. minor , S; Dryas integrifolia , N to S (two large gaps

    in SE); D. octopetala subsp. punctata , N, NE, CE; Potentilla chamissonis ,

    N, NW, CW, SW (n), CE, NE; P. crantzii , NW(U), CW (r), SW, S, SE, CE (r),

    011      |      Vol_VI-0250                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    NE; P. egedii (incl. var. groenlandica ), NW(U), CW, SW, S, SE; P. hyp–

    , N, NW, CW, SW (n), NE, CE, SE (single station); P. nivea , NW,

    CW, SW, CE, NE; P. palustris , CW, SW, S, SE; P. pulchella , N, NW, CW,

    SW (r in n), NE, CE; P. ranunculus , CW (isol), S, SE; P. rubella , NE;

    P. rubricaulis , NW(T), NE, CE; P. stipularis , NE; P. tridentata , CW,

    SW, S, SE; P. vahli n ana , NW, CW (n), SW (isol at lat. 67° N.); Rubus

    Chamaemorus , SW, S; R. saxatilis , S, SE; Sibbaldia procumbens , NW(U),

    SW, S, SE, CE (s), NE (r); Sorbus decora , SW, S.

            LEGUIMINOSAE (2): Lathyrus maritimus , S; Vicia cracca , intr to S.

            GERANIACEAE (1): Geranium sylvaticum , single station in SW (s).

            POLYGALACEAE (1): Polygala serpyllifolia , SE (isol).

            CALLITRICHACEAE (4): Callitriche anceps , SW, S, SE; C. autumnalis , NW (Disko),

    CW (lat. 68°30′ to 69°13′ N.); C. hamulata , SW (r), S, SE; C. verna , CW

    (r at lat. 69°13′ N.), SW (n and s), S, SE, CE.

            EMPETRACEAE (1): Empetrum nigrum subsp. hermaphroditum , all districts except N.

            VIOLACEAE (4): Viola ericetorum var. friesiana , SW (s), S; V. labradorica ,

    SW, S; V. palustris , SW, S, SE; V. selkirkii , SW (s).

            ONAGRACEAE (7): Chamaenerion angustifolium , SW, CW (r), S, SE; C. latifolium

    N to S (perhaps not in extreme northern part of N): Epilobium anagalli–

    difoli [ ?] u m
    , NW (Disko), SW, S, SE; E. arcticum , NW(U), CW (r), NE; E. hor–

    , NW (Disko), CW (r), SW, S, SE; E. lactiflorum , NW(U) (r in s),

    SW, S, SE; E. palustre , CW (r), SW, S, SE (single isol station).

            HALORAGIDACEAE (2): Myriophyllum alterniflorum , SW (r), S; M. exalbescens , CW.

            HIPPURIDACEAE (1): Hippuris vulgaris , all districts except N and SE (n).

            UMBELLIFERAE (2): Angelica archangelica , SW, CW (s), S, SE; Ligusticum

    scoti [ ?]cum , SW, S.

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            CORNACEAE (2): Cornus canadensis , S (outer coast at Cape Farewell): C.

    suecica , SW, S, SE (s).

            DISPENSIACEAE (1): Diapensia lapponica , NW (not on basalt), CW, SW, S, SE,

    CE, NE (s).

            PYROLACEAE (3); Pyrola grandiflora , NW, CW, SW, S, NE, CE SE (isol at lat.

    66°08′ N.); P. minor , southern Disko, SW, S, SE; P. secunda , SW (isol

    on southern Disko and at Holsteinsborg).

            ERICACEAE (13); Andromeda polifolia (incl. subsp. glaucophylla ), SW (isol at

    lat. 68°47′ N. and 61°33′ to 62°20′ N.); Arctosphylos alpine , CW (n,

    isol), SW (Disko and isol at lat. 65° to 66° N.), NE, CE; A. uva-ursi ,

    isol in SW to CW at lat. 66° to 67° N.); Cassiope hypnoides , NW(U), CW,

    (not inland in s), SW, S (r), SE, NE, CE (r in s); C. tetragona , N, NW,

    CW, SW (n); CE, NE, SE (n); Ledum decumbens , NW(U) (r in s), CW, SW

    (r in n); L. groenlandicum , CW (r), SW, S; Loiseleuria procumbens ,

    NW(U) (absent from basalt regions), CW (not in s), SW, S, SE; Oxycoccus

    quardripetalus var. microphyllus , CW (r, isol at lat. 67°37′ N.), SW, S;

    Phyllodoce coerulea , NW(U), CW (not inland in s), SW, S, SE, CE (s), NE

    (r in s); Rhododendron lapponicum , all districts except N; Vaccinium

    uliginosum , all districts except N; V. vitis-idaea subsp. minus , NW, CW,

    SW, S (r).

            PRIMULACEAE (2): Primula egaliksensis , S; P. stricta , NW(U) (r in s), CW (s),

    SW (Kugsuq in Godthaabsfjord), two isolated stations in CE and NE.

            PLUMBAGINACEAE (1); [ ?] Armeria vulgaris (incl. A. sibirica ), N to S (r in SE).

            GENTIANACEAE (7): Gentiana aurea , NW (r), CW (r), SW (s, r), S, SE (r);

    G. detonsa , three separate areas in CW, S, and CE; G. nivalis , CW (r),

    SW, S, SE, isol in NE; G. tenella , CW, CE, NE; G. uliginosa , S;

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    M Lomatogonium rotatum , CW (s), SW, S; Menyanthes trifoliate , CW, SW (s), S.

            POLEMONIACEAE (1): Polemonium boreale , NE (lat. 73°42′ to 74°52′ N.).

            BORAGINACEAE (1): Mertensia maritima , NW, CW, SW (r), S (r), SE (r).

            LABITAE (1): Thymus arcticus, SW, S, SE.

            SCHROPHULARIACEAE (15): Bartsia alpina , NW(U) (s), CW, SW, S, SE; Euphrasia

    arctica , NW(U) (S), CW, SW, S, SE, CE, NE; Limosella aquatica , CW (isol

    at lat. 71° N.), S, SE (isol); Pedicularis arctica , NW(T); P. capitata ,

    NW(T); P. flammea , all districts except N and NW(T); P. hirsuta , all

    districts except S and s part of SW and SE; P. labradorica, CW; P. lanata ,

    ?NW(T), NW(U), CW, SW (n); P. lapponica , NW(U), CW, SW, NE CE; Rhinan–

    thus groenlandicus
    , SW, S; Veronica alpina , NW, CW (not inland in s),

    SW, S, SE, NE (s), CE (r); V. fruticans , NW to CW (two stations in

    Nugssuaq Peninsula), SW, S, SE, NE (s), CE (single station in s); V. pumila , SW,

    S, SE, NE (s); V. wormskjoldii , SW, S, SE.

            LENTIBULARIACEAE (4); Pinguicula vulgaris , NW(U) (s), CW, SW, S, SE, CE (r);

    Utricularia intermedia , CW (r); U. minor , CW, S (r); U. ochroleuca , CW (r).

            PLANTAGINACEAE (1): Plantago maritima (incl. P. juncoides ), NW(U) (s), CW, SW,

    S, SE.

            RUBIACEAE (3); Galium brandegeei , CW (s, r), SW (r), S, SE (isol at lat.

    65°37′ N.): G. triflorum , SW, S, SE (r); G. uliginosum , SW (?s, intro).

            CAPRIFOLIACEAE (1): Linnaea borealis , SW (r), S (r), SE (r).

            CAMPANULACEAE (2): Campanula rotundifolia (coll.), NW(U), CW, SW, S, SE, CE,

    NE; C. uniflora , N to S, rand alp in S.

            COMPOSITAE (46); Achillea millefolium , SW, S, SE (probably intr); Antennaria

    affinis , CW, S; A. alpina subsp. canescens , NW (s), CW (r in s), SW, S,

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    SE, NE, CE; Antennaria sp. (closely related to A. compacta ), CW, S;

    A. ekmanniana , NW, CW, SW (r), ?SE; A.glabrata , NW(U), CW, SW (n);

    A. hansii SW, S, SE; A. intermedia , CW (n), SW; A porsildii, NW(U)

    (single station), CW (n, r), S (single station), SE (single station),

    CE, NE; Arnica alpina , NW, CW, SW (n), SE (r in n), NE, CE; Artemissia

    borealis , NW(U), CW, SW (r in n); Circium heterophyllum , SW (single

    station ?intr); Erigeron borealis , SW, S, SE; E. compositus , N to S

    (r in S to SE); E. eriocephalus , N, NW, CW, SW (r in n), NE, CE, SE (r);

    E. unalaschkensis , NW, CW SW (n and nunatak at lat. [ ?] 6 2°40′ N.), CE, NE,

    SE (r in s); E. uniflorus , SW, S, SE, CE (r in s), NE (r in s); Gnaphalium

    norvegicum , SW, S, SE; G. supinum , NW (s), CW (r, absent inland in s),

    SW, S, SE, NE (s, r); G. uliginosum , intr to SW, S; Hieracium alpinum ,

    SW (s), S, SE, CE (s), NE (s); H. amitsokense , S; H. angmagssalikensie ,

    SE (isol); H. devoldii , S; H. groenlandicum , SW, S, SE; H. hyparcticum ,

    SW, S, SE; H. ivigtutense , SW, S, SE (s); H. lividorubens , SW (s), S;

    H. nepiocratum , S; H. rigorosum , SW (s), S, SE (s); H. scholanderi , S;

    H. stelechodes , SE (isol); H. sylowii , S; Leontodeon autumnale , intr to S;

    Matricaria inodora , S, isol in [ ?]CE to NE; Taraxacum arcticum , N, NE, CE;

    T. brachyceras , CE NE SE (n); T. [ ?] hyparcticum N, NW(T); T. lacerum (and

    T. arctogenum ), N, NW, CW, SW (r in s); T. lapponicum , NW (s), CW (r),

    SW, S, SE, NE (s, r); T. maurostylum , S, SE; T. naevosum , S; T. phymato–

    , N, NW, CW (n), NE, CE; T. pumilum , N, NE; T. purpuridens , SE;

    T. rhodolepis , SE.


    Climatically Conditioned Distributions

            In Greenland as elsewhere we may distinguish between climatic, edaphic,

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    and historical reasons, or combinations of these reasons, for the distribution

    [?]of the various plants. The first distinction to be made is between distribu–

    tions due to summer heat and distributions also, or chiefly, controlled by the

    degree of continentality.

            Distributions Due to Summer Heat . Here belong the southern species which

    in the north make for the warm inland regions, and northern species which in

    the south try to avoid (or are crowded out from) the warm, dry inland regions.

    Examples of southern species of this type are: Juniperus communis, Potentilla

    palustris , Galium brandegeei , and Menyanthes trifoliate . Northern species are:

    Alopecurus alpinus , Poa abbreviate , Ranunculus sulphureus , Draba subcapitata ,

    and Saxifraga flagellaris .

            Distributions Due to Degree of Continentality . Numerous southern species

    have the distributions SW, S, SE, i.e., they are connected with the parts of

    Greenland influenced by the ocean and make for the north outside the warm

    inland region because it is too dry there, being either too continental or

    having soil that is unsuitable because of the local continentality. Examples

    are Alchemilla alpina , A. vulgaris , Phleum commutatum , Thymus arcticus , Cassiope

    hypnoides , Cornus suecica , and Carex deflexa .

            Other markedly arctic species in the south avoid the moist areas of the

    coastal regions, which have mild winters. Their main distributions are in N,

    NW, CW, NE, and CE. Here we may mention such species of Cassiope tetragona ,

    Arnica alpina , Erigeron compositus , Lesquerella arctica , Melandirum triflorum,

    and Tofieldia coccinea .

            There are also a number of low-arctic and subarctic species with markedly

    continental requirements as regards climate. The are found particularly in

    CW and CE, and sometimes sporadically in the interiors of SW, S, and SE. We

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    may mention here Carex supine , Braya humilis , B. linearis , and, in West Green–

    land only, Artemisia borealis , Draba lanceolata , Pedicularis labradorica , and

    Ledum decumbens .


    Edaphically Conditioned Distributions

            A fair number of species are closely connected with definite conditions

    of soil, which again may be dependent upon the climate. Indeed, it is often

    impossible to explain whether climate or soil is decisive. Clearly edaphically

    conditioned distributions, on the other hand, appear by connection with, or

    evasion of, the basalt areas in the central parts of West and East Greenland.

    Connection with basalt in one or both areas is shown, for example, by Dupontia

    fisheri , Stellaria crassipes , Saxifraga hiriculus , Polemonium boreale , and

    Arenaria humifusa ; as regards the last-mentioned species the connection, how–

    ever, is less pronounced. Evasion is evident in acidophilous species such as

    Loiseleuria procumbens , Vaccinium vitis-idaea , Diapensia lapponica , Potentilla

    tridentata , Carex arctogena , and, as regards West Greenland, Agrostis borealis .


    Historically Conditioned Distributions

            Two main points of view have been advanced to explain the present-day

    distributions of plants: the history of the immigration of the species

    (whether they have come from the west or from the east), and the persistence

    of the species during the last glacial epoch in various ice-free [ ?] refugia

    along the coast of Greenland (cf. 8).

            There are a fair number of eastern (chiefly Eurasian) species which occur

    especially or exclusively in East Greenland. Thus Ranunculus glacialis , Draba

    repens , and Sedum acre , for example, have been found here only, while Viola

    palustris and Hieracium alpinum have their widest distribution in East Greenland.

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    Similarly there are many western (chiefly American) species which have been

    found in West Greenland only: Halimo lo bos mollis , Carex gynocrates , Potentilla

    vahliana , Anemone richardsonii , and others. Some, particularly western,

    species are widely distributed in West Greenland but found in only a very

    limited area in East Greenland ( Saxifraga tricuspidata , Arabis molboellii ,

    Dryopteris fragrans ), a fact which may be due to immigration from the west

    and to the different conditions in East and West Greenland during the glacial


            In the southern part of Greenland the boundaries of the areas of several

    species occur in regions where for topographical reasons the inland ice during

    a greater glaciations than the present one must be supposed to have spread and

    formed obstacles to further dispersal. Hence these species may be supposed

    during the last glacial epoch to have lived in so-called refugia situated

    between the large tongues of the inland ice, wh e nce they were not able later

    to spread to all the places where ecological conditions might lead one to ex–

    pect them to live.

            In West Greenland there is, at latitude 66° N., a considerable break due

    to the inland ice. North of this we have the southern limits of Ranunculus

    affinis , Carex holostoma , C. misandra , Luzula arctica , Pedicularis lanata , and

    other plants. It is true that they are continental species, but their southern

    limit is no doubt conditioned partly by historical considerations, and partly

    by the fact that suitable stations south of the tongue of ice are few and far

    between. At latitude 62°30′ N. there is another ice tongue, and immediately

    south of this we have the northern limit of, for example, Hieracium alpinum

    and Carex atrata . Still farther south many species may, in the Julianehaab

    District, have been cut off by ice advancing in a southward direction between

    018      |      Vol_VI-0257                                                                                                                  
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    longitude 46° and 48° W.; Viola selkirkii has its southern limit about this

    area. Immediately south of Angmagssalik in East Greenland there is also an

    area which no doubt formerly was highly glaciated, and north of this area we

    find the southern limits of such species as Ranunculus glacialis , Pedicularis

    hirsuta , and, so far as their local areas are concerned, of Betula nana and

    Dryas integrifolia .

            Many species are extremely rare, occurring in peculiar small areas which

    are best explained through an assumption that nowadays they like in the near

    the refugia where they persisted during the glacial epoch. Good examples of

    such species are Polemonium boreale , Eriophorum callithrix , and Ranunculus

    suricomus in northern East Greenland, Sedum acre in southern East Greenland,

    Selaginella repestris in South Greenland, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Anemone

    richardsonii in the central part of West Greenland, and Pedicularis capitata

    and P. arctica in North Greenland.

            There are a number of supposedly endemic species in Greenland. These,

    too, suggest that the flora is of a great age in Greenland itself. We may

    mention Melandrium triflorum with a wide distribution in Greenland (it may

    also occur to the west), Braya thorild-wulfii , and the amphidiploids Saxifraga

    nathorstii , as well as several apomictic species within the genus Hieracium .

    There are also certain conditions indicative of diploid races of Campanula

    rotundifolia being endemic to Greenland.


    Distribution of Western and Eastern Species

            Among the western species (with their main distribution west of Green–

    land), few are associated with regions of mainly oceanic character (SE, S,

    SW). We may, however, mention Minuartia groenlandica , Ledum groenlandicum,

    Coptis trifolia , Cornus canadensis , Carex stylosa , and C. deflexa . On the

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    Other hand, there are a good number of western species in the continental

    areas, examples being: Saxifraga tricuspidata , Draba lanceolata , Antennaria

    Compacta , Tofieldia occinea , and Erigeron compositus .

            Inversely, there are a large number of eastern (Eurasian) species asso–

    ciated with the oceanic regions, e.g., Alchemilla alpina , Sedum annum,

    Saxifraga stellaris , Juncus squarrosus , and Carex rufina. There are very few

    eastern species in the continental regions, although we here mention Draba

    repens , Carex parallela , and perhaps Gentiana tanella. Betula nana has a con–

    tinental tendency and is extremely rare in eastern America. Hence it has

    probably reached Greenland from the east.

            Among both the western and eastern species in Greenland, there are several

    whose distribution is little influenced by the degree of continentality, e.g.,

    Carex scirpoides and Potentilla tridentata (western), and Angelica archangelica


            As might be expected, southern East Greenland has the greatest share of

    eastern species, while West Greenland predominates as regards western species.

    This especially applies to the northern and continental portions.



            In considering the vegetation of Greenland, Warming and Rosenvinge used

    three divisions: a birch region (inner fjords in S), a willow scrub region

    (in West Greenland extending as far north as about the Nugssuak Peninsula),

    and a distinctly arctic region with heaths and barrens. Later, the geograph–

    ical division of Greenland vegetation came to be worked out in various ways.

            Subarctic Region . The mean temperature of July is about 10°C. or a

    little more. Warm valleys occur in the interior of S, SW, and the southern–

    most CW. The luxuriant freshwater vegetation, rich in species, is characteristic

    020      |      Vol_VI-0259                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    of this region. In S the region is characterized by tall birch scrub (Fig. 2),

    in SW by alder scrub (Fig. 3) and tall, luxuriant willow scrub, and in CW by

    steppe-like communities (Fig. 7).

            Low-Arctic Region . The mean temperature of July is about 6° [ ?] to 9°C. The

    region includes the greater parts of CW, SW, outer areas of S, the greater

    part of SE, and the interior of Scoresby Sound and the southernmost part of

    King Christian X Land in CE. The region is particularly characterized by

    willow scrub, in tracts near the ocean, also by meadows with high perennials

    (Angelica archangelica) and luxuriant herb fields and various heaths, in con–

    tinental areas by, among other features, a type of Kobresia myosuroides . “steppe”.

            High-Arctic Region . The mean temperature of July is about 2° to 6°C. in

    this region, which includes N, NW, NE, northern part of CE, and high-alpine areas

    in south. Characteristic features are certain heaths ( Cassiope tetragona )

    and dry cyperaceous communities ( Carex nardina and C. rupestris ), several

    types of snow-patch vegetation and of grassy meadows ( Arctagrostis and Alope–

    curus alpina
    ) and swamps.

            Within these three regions various subregions may be distinguished, gen–

    erally separated by differences in degree of continentality. The same three

    main regions may be found in the mountains of Scandinavia, and in other parts

    of the circumpolar or circumboreal area.

            Distributions of Species in the Vegetation Regions . Many species are

    completely or chiefly associated with one or other of the regions and hence

    may be characterized as subarctic, low-arctic, or high-arctic. Subarctic

    (relatively temperate) species are, for example, Potamogeton natans , Carex

    buxbaumii , Dryopteris fillix-mas ; low-arctic species include Bartsia alpina ,

    Sibbaldia procumbens, Gnaphalium norvegicum ; and high-arctic species are

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    Salix arctica , Draba subcapitata , Deschampsia brevifolia , and Pleuropogon

    sabinii .

            Many species are widely distributed in the arctic regions: Saxifraga

    cernua , S. oppositifolia , Oxyria digyna , Polygonum viviparum , and others.

    The species may be grouped biologically in types of distribution, e.g.,

    widely distributed arctic, high-arctic-continental, low-arctic-oceanic

    (see details in 1).



            The following grouping is made on the basis of life form and type of

    distribution of the species. The main groups are distinguished by life form,

    the subgroups largely by types of distribution.


    Scrub and Wood

            There are plant communities showing several strata, the upper one con–

    sisting of low trees or shrubs. The understratum consists mostly of herbs

    and mosses, in rarer cases of drawf shrubs or junipers.

            Low birch woods (Fig. 2) consist of open woodland or tall scrub of

    Betula pubescens s.l., 4 to 8 meters high, with understrata of grasses

    ( Deschampsia flexuosa , Anthoxanthum ) or ferns ( Dryopteris linnaeana ,

    D. phegopteris ), rich in mosses. Warm valleys are found in S on rather dry

    soil that is poor in nutrients.

            Alder scrub (Fig. 3) contains vegetation dominated by Alnus crispa

    shrubs 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 meters high, with understrata of mosses and herbs.

    They are found in the interior of SW; particularly along running water, often

    as a kind of low gallery forest. The soil is fairly rich in nutrients.

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            Willow scrub contains vegetation dominated by Salix glauca (incl. S. cal–

    ) 1/2 to 3 meters high. The understrata are of two main types.

            (1) Oceanic type: understratum rich in mosses and herbs, including num–

    erous species in common with the her fields; found in SW, S, and SE; on well–

    drained, moist soil, in the north chiefly on slopes having a southern exposure;

    in winter protected by a thick snow cover.

            (2) Continental type (Fig. 7): Pyrola grandiflora , Calamagrostis spp.,

    and Stellaria longipes (and S. monantha ) frequent; CW (southern part), CE

    (Scoresby Sound); on rather dry, warm soil, with the snow cover presumably

    moderate, but constant in winter.


    Dwarf Shrub

            There are communities of ericaceous, more or less evergreen, drawf shrubs

    and low willows rising over an understratum consisting particularly of mosses

    and lichens. The communities may be closed, and then generally are called

    heaths; or they may be open, with gravel and bare ground between the plants,

    and then are termed “fell fields” (barrens).

            Oceanic Communities . There are found particularly on acid soils in regions

    with heavy precipitation (SW, S, SE). A number of species with oceanic distribu–

    tion are included.

            (1) Salix uva-ursi type: open vegetation in places exposed to gales and

    black frost, often rich in lichens; the soil is gravelly, slightly acid;

    occurs in S and SW.

            (2) Loiseleuria-Diapensia type: often rich in lichens, occurring in

    highly wind-swept places more or less bare of snow; soil acid; appears both

    as heath and fell field.

            (3) Empetrum hermaphroditum type: often rich in Vaccinium uliginosum ;

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    the heath type of the skerries (Fig. 4), occurring in wind-swept terrain

    often as more or less open fell field; communities in more protected terrain

    are rich in mosses.

            ( 4 ) Phyllodoce-Deschampsia flexuosa type: rich in mosses, occurring in

    places with a constant snow cover in winter and slight drying-up in summer;

    characteristic species are Cornus suecica , Lycopodium annotinum , and Ledum

    groenlandicum .

            Continental Communities . These occur on slightly acid, neutral, or basis

    soils particularly in CW, NW, N, NE CE, and include several species with a

    continental type of distribution. The following eight types may be recognized.

            ( 1 ) Dryas integrifolia-Carex nardina type: found on very wind-swept ground,

    being often bare of snow, and occurs mostly as fell field; found in alpine

    situations in subarctic areas of CW; soil is acid to neutral; other Dryas

    communities are ecologically more closely related to steppe-like communities.

            ( 2 ) Vaccinium uliginosum-Diapensia type: rich in lichens, and occurs on

    dry, rather wind-swept places, both as heath and fell field; soil is fairly

    acid; found in alpine situations in subarctic areas.

            ( 3 ) Arctostaphylos uva-ursi type: develop on sunny slopes on dry, neutral

    soil, and forms a transition to the steppe-like communities; this type of

    heath is of a subarctic character in Greenland, where it occurs only in the

    southern part of CW.

            ( 4 ) Betula nana (or glandulosa ) type (Fig. 5): a low-arctic-subcontinental

    type of heath, in SW and SE often rich in Empetrum ; soil is acid and the snow

    covering may be considerable; Betula nana heath rich in lichens and Hierochloe

    alpina is developed particularly in the interior of SW and S (in the latter

    instance B. glandulosa in the dominant).

    023      |      Vol_VI-0263                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

            ( 5 ) Betula nana-Ledum decumbens-Aulacomnium turgidum type: characteristic

    of northern exposures in the lowland in CW; a typical associate is Pedicularis

    labradorica ; snow covered in winter.

            ( 6 ) Cassiope tetragona type: characteristic high-arctic-continental but

    occurs also in heath, alpine situations in the south in CW, and in northern

    parts of SE and SW; often rich in mosses; soil is acid or nearly neutral;

    develop in places protected by snow in winter and having a medium-long period

    of snow covering into the summer; many subtypes say be recognized, e.g., the

    Cassiope-Vaccinium uliglnosum type (less protected, frequently rich in such

    lichens as species of Stereocaulon and Catraria ), and the Cassiope-Dryas type

    occurring on basic soil,

            ( 7 ) Vaccinium uliginosum-Drayas integrifolia type (with scattered Rhodo–

    dendron lapponicum
    and Arctostaphylos alpina : more or less snow-protected,

    occurring on rather dry and basic soil in NW(U).

            ( 8 ) Rhododendron lapponicum type: developed on moist circumneutral soil,

    often with water oozing through, and is mostly rich in mosses; particularly

    fertile soil it way be rich in Dryas .

            Bogs . In the southern part of Greenland, tussocky bog communities are

    observed that are dominated by various dwarf shrubs ( Vaccinium uliginosum ,

    Empetrun , low phases of Salix glauca s.l.). These communities have not been

    investigated in detail, but an important example is the Salix arctophila type,

    which is particularly widely distributed in S, SW, and CW. In oceanic regions

    the soil is acid and the tussocks rich in Sphagnum . In continental regions

    there are other types (e.g., with Tomenthypnum nitens and Ranunculus lapponi–

    ) developed on neutral soil.


    Xerophilous Grasses and Grasslike Plants

            The vegetation consists of xerophilous Gramineae, Cyperaceae, and Juncaceae,

    024      |      Vol_VI-0264                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    and in certain cases of Dryas as well. As in the preceding types, the vege–

    tation may be closed or consist of open fell field, and the ground stratum

    way vary between being rich is lichens and being rich in mosses.

            Oceanic Communities . The soil is acid, and the distribution SW, S, and

    SE. Three types are found.

            ( 1 ) Juncus trifidus types comprises open vegetation on wind-swept

    gravelly soil, but is mostly rich in lichens; related to the Loiseleuria–

    type of dwarf shrub community.

            ( 2 ) Luzula spicata-Agrostis borealis type: found on lees exposed soil

    and is often rich in lichens; snow covering is moderates a subtype with Carex

    rigida dominant has been described from SE; here, among other plants, was

    much T h ymus arcticus (Fig. 6).

            ( 3 ) Deschampsia flexuosa type: rich in Cladonia , or in mosses on areas

    having a snow-patch character; forms closed communities on acid, protected soil.

            Continental Communities (steppe-like and related types). The soil is

    neutral to basic, sad the distribution particularly In CW (NW), N, and CE

    (Ne). No less than five types may be distinguished.

            ( 1 ) Carex nardina-Poa abbreviata type: developed on wind-swept terrain,

    In high-arctic or alpine areas; often rich in Dryas and constitutes a transition

    to the [ ?] Dryas type mentioned above. Typical associates are, for example, Les–

    querella arctica
    and Arenaria pseudofri gida.

            ( 2 ) Carex rupestris type: often comprises a sense vegetation cover;

    developed on soil [ ?]s that are slightly acid to neutral high-arctic, or alpine

    in the south; sometimes very rich in lichens; and is some places a Dryas-Carex

    rupestris vegetation covers rather large areas (fig. 9); typical associated

    species are Potentilla nivea , Pedicularis lanata , Lesquerella arctica and

    025      |      Vol_VI-0265                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    Campanula uniflora .

            ( 3 ) Kobresia myosuroides type (“ Elyna heath”): a steppe-like vegetation

    which may cover fairly large areas is CW end CE on dry, circumenutral, often

    loess soils; e special subtype developed on soil rich in salts occurs near

    salt lakes In CW(southern pert) end contains halophilous species.

            ( 4 ) Carex supina type (Fig. 7): occurs on dry loses soil, being often

    half open, with a sparse xerophytic lichen-moss flora among the higher

    plants; comprises a kind of subarctic steppe developing on southern exposures

    In CW soil is neutral.

            ( 5 ) Calamagrostis purpurascens types occurs in similar places to type (4),

    but on more alkaline soils occasionally it is developed on salt soil (subtype

    with Gentiana detonsa in CW); characteristic associated species ere Artemisia

    borealis and Potentilla chamissonis .

            Psammophilous Communities . Most characteristic is the Elymus mollis type on

    sandy seashores and on inland dunes. Honckenya peploides and Festuca rubra

    are typical of this community.


    Xerophilous Pteridophytes and Herbaceous Dicotyledons

            These communities have not been investigated sufficiently for detailed

    description. Most of them are found on rocky terrain in which the rock is

    covered by shallow soil, or in rock crevices. From S a vegetation character–

    ized by Selaginella rupestris has been described, and types of vegetation dom–

    inated by Dryopteris fragrans or Woodsia ilvensls have been found in CW.

    Important and typical species occurring on dry ledges are, moreover, Saxifraga

    tricuspidata [ ?] and S. aizoon and sometimes Potentilla tridentata .

    026      |      Vol_VI-0266                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland


    Nondwarfish Hygrophytic and Mesophytic Herbs

            These include, among others, the communities which were formerly termed

    herb fields. Their colorful profusion of flowers makes them the most beauti–

    ful types of vegetation of Greenland.

            High Perennials . These are most frequent in the subarctic parts and in

    particularly favorable places is the low-arctic regions. They occur is S (and

    SW) on moist south-facing slopes that are snow-covered is winter. Examples

    are tall growths of Dryopteris falix-mas or Streptopus amplexifolius , associated

    with Angelica archangelica , Chamaenerion angustifolium , and Alchemilla glomer–

    . Near springs in continental CW occur growths of Archangelica (often

    associated with Calamagrostiz langsdorfii ) which may be classified here.

            Rosette Plants ( Herb Field ). In the north these occur only on south-facing

    soil protected by snow, but in the south they also occur along rivers, though

    always where they are protected by snow in winter. They are absent in the very

    northernmost parts of Greenland, six types may be distinguished.

            ( 1 ) Alchemilla “vulg aris” type (sometimes rich is Sedum rosea ) Fig. 10.:

    the type most closely related to the last preceding community, and is found in

    SW, S, SE, and Gasseland is Scoresby Sound.

            (2) Taraxacum lapponicum-Phelum commutatum type, generally with Polygonum

    viviparum as its dominant: important or characteristic associated species

    include Poa alpina , Thalictrum alpinum , Veronica fruticans , Erigeron uniflorus ,

    and Botrychium lanceolatum ; this type is found in SE, S, and SW.

            ( 3 ) Alchemilla alpina type: forms transitions to the Sibbaldia type of

    dwarfish herbs or to the Deschampsia flexuosa type; this is developed is SW,

    SE, and S, and is alpine in subarctic parts of S.

            (4) Potentilla crantzii-Antennaria alpina (subsp. canescens ) type, often

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    EA- [ ?] PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    with Carastium alpinum as its dominant: typical associated species are

    Erigeron unalaschensis , Draba nivalis , etc.; this type is known from the

    southern part of NE; related types occur in NW(U).

            ( 5 ) Taraxacum arcticum type: characterized among other species by

    Ranunculus nivalis Ranunculus nivalis , R. sulphureus R. sulphureus , and Melandrium apetalum; Melandrium apetalum; this occurs in


            ( 6 ) Arnica alpina type: forms a transition to the steppe-like communi–

    ties; this is a continental arctic type that is such more xerophilous than

    the others, and with slight snow covering; characteristic species are Erig–

    eron eriocephalus
    , Minuartia rubella , Campanula uniflora , and in CW, also

    Draba aurea .

            Protshemicryptophytes (plant with elongated leaf-bearing aerial shoots ).

    Here, particularly, belong the communities dominated by Chamaenerion lati –

    occurring on open sand (Fig. 8) and gravel and in river beds.


    Dwarfish Herbs and Woody Plants

            These are the snow-cover communities proper, or “snow patches” — i.e.,

    the vegetation characterized by a snow covering of very long duration, the

    period of vegetation accordingly being very short. The vegetation is rich

    in mosses and particularly rich in hepatics (species of Anthelia , Junger–

    , etc.), and the vascular plants rise little or not at all above the

    moss carpet. Three types may be noted.

            ( 1 ) Sibbaldia procumbens type; closely related to the herb fields, as

    the snow covering is not of extremely long duration and the exposure is often

    favorable; Vernica alpina is frequent, and Draba crassifolia has been observed

    in several places.

            ( 2 ) Salix herbacea type: comprises a group of communities, some of which

    028      |      Vol_VI-0268                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    are rich in lichens or Caasiope hypnoides , others in Oxyria , Ranunculus pyg–

    (Fig. 13), or Equisetum arvense , etc.; further, there are many differ–

    ent kinds of subdominants, such as species of Anthelia , Dicranum , Polytrichum ,

    or Timmia ; characteristic higher plant species include Gnaphalium supinum and

    Carex lachenalii ; this type of vegetation is extremely important in regions

    of Greenland rich in snow, hut rare and limited to al l p ine areas, for example,

    in the southern part of CW.

            (3) Phippsia algida-Cerastium cerastoides types occurs on soil with a

    particularly long-lasting snow covering, and on summer-wet soil close to melt–

    ing snowdrifts; in East Greenland Ranunculus glacialis may be frequent in this

    community; other species to be mentioned are Saxifraga rivularis , S. cernua ,

    and Carex lachenalii .

            Transitional types between this kind of snow-patch vegetation and a boggy

    or vet meadow-like vegetation are frequent, particularly in high-arctic areas

    (cf. Fig, 12). There also may occur a number of related communities, for exam–

    ple, vegetation dominated by Luzula arctica and Potentilla hyparctica (NW), or

    by Draba micropet ala and Saxifraga foliolosa (NE).


    Mesophilous and Hygrophilous Grasses and Grasslike Plants

            These are generally meadow-like types of vegetation rich in mosses, and

    occur in places that are influenced by subsoil water or by water oozing out.

    In the north they also occur on so-called earth glaciers and vet solifluction

    soil. The group is not sufficiently known for detailed treatment, the several

    types mentioned being provisional.

            Nonhalophtic Communities . ( 1 ) Arctagrostis-Alopecurus alpinus type: comprises

    a high-arctic grassy meadow with Poa arctica , Carex misandra , and other associates

    and occurs in CE, NE, NW, and N; calciphilous subtypes with Carex atrofusca also

    029      |      Vol_VI-0269                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    occur; closely related communities with Ranunculus a ffinis and Saxifraga

    flagellaris are found on vet solifluction clay.

            ( 2 ) Calamagrostis neglecta type: a low-arctic meadow vegetation described

    from SE (is an oceanic variant with Deschampsia alpina ) and found frequently

    in NW(U) and CW, where, in the southern part, summer-dry C. neglecta meadows

    with abundant Poa pratensis and Ranunculus affinis may develop.

            ( 3 ) Calamagrostis lengsdorfii type: a southern tall-grass meadow asso–

    ciated with willow and birch scrubs, and is found in CW mostly along running


            ( 4 ) Carex rariflora type: this often tussocky vegetation rich in mosses

    is greatly reminiscent of raised bogs in more southerly regions; especially

    frequent in the southern part of Greenland, it shows all stages of transition

    to the Salix arctophila type; it occurs mostly on oligotrophic soil.

            ( 5 ) Carex holostoma type: this has been observed to s u rround alpine marshes

    and pools of acid water in CW.

            ( 6 ) Scirpus caespitosus type: this develops near ozzing or slowly running

    water, often on shallow soil over rocks, and occurs in the southern parts of

    Greenland having an oceanic character; in southern CW it is alpine and rare.

            ( 7 ) Kobresia caricina-Juncus castaneus type: calciphilous marsh vegetation

    developed where water oozes or runs out, and is particularly frequent in con–

    tinental regions; closely related to this type, but perhaps independent, are

    communities in which Carex microglochin is dominant.

            ( 8 ) Juncus arcticus type: this is often found on sand or clay near banks

    of alkaline lakes or in river beds; it is most frequent in continental regions.

            ( 9 ) Carex aquatilis var. stans type (locally with abundant Equisetum varie–

    ): this occurs on level areas with water oozing through the soil, and is

    030      |      Vol_VI-0270                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    found Inland in the Nugssuaq Peninsula,

            (D) Carex incurva type: this is developed in holes in Rhododendron

    heaths, on sandy banks of rivers and lakes, or in salt lake basins; most fre–

    quent in continental regions, but in general is widely distributed.

            ( 11 ) Scirpus pauciflorus type: this is found on banks of alkaline or

    salt lakes in CW.

            Halophytic Communities . (1) Puccinellia phryg [ ?] a nodes type (sometimes

    with Carex subspathacea or, in northern Greenland, C. ursina ): this is the

    widely distributed salt-marsh vegetation developed on lower levels which

    are covered frequently by spring tides; in South Greenland Puccinellia mari–

    occurs in a similar type of vegetation.

            ( 2 ) Carex subspathacea-C. aquatilis var. stans type: this occurs about

    lagoons and on sandy or clayey soil on seashores in northernmost Greenland;

    farther south, related types with Stellaria humifusa and Carex glareosa are

    found on salt flats which are covered only by the higher spring tides.

            ( 3 ) Dupontia fisheri type: this is local in NW and NE occurring mainly

    at higher levels than the preceding type.

            ( 4 ) Puccinellia deschampsioides-Plantago maritima type (often associated

    with Triglochin palustre ): found on salt lakes in southern CW, in one place

    with associated Ranunculus cymbalaria ; transitions to steppe-like communities

    are seen when there are associated species of Braya , Primula stricta, and

    Gentiana detonsa .



            This vegetation group is very sparsely developed in Greenland. It may

    be divided into four types.

    031      |      Vol_VI-0271                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

            ( 1 ) Carex saxatilis-rotundata type: this is developed particularly as

    marginal vegetation around lakes, forming narrow meadow-like communities,

    and, as such, belonging to the preceding groups, although also found In the

    later as marsh vegetation; widely distributed, but occurs particularly in

    continental regions.

            ( 2 ) Carex rostrata type: this is developed in wet bogs and at the edge

    of lakes; it is found only in S.

            ( 3 ) Eriophorum scheuchzeri type: a widely distributed marsh [ ?] plant com–

    munity about the margin of fresh water, the main species also occurring in

    many of the other types; the present type comprises the numerous cases in

    which Eriophorum scheuchzeri is the only significant species.

            ( 4 ) Menyanthes trifoliata type (Fig. 15); this occurs in shallow water

    about the margins of lakes with water poor in nutrients, and is often rich

    in Potentilla palustris and Sphagna ; it is found in CW, SW, and S.



            Vegetation of genuine hydrophytes occurs particularly in the southern

    parts of Greenland, Hippuris vulgaris , the most northerly of all hydrophytes,

    reaches as far north as about latitude 77° N. in both West and East Greenland.

    Five types may be distinguished,

            ( 1 ) Hippuris-Pleuropogon sabinii type; Ranunculus hyperboreus may enter

    as a constituent of this high-arctic aquatic vegetation.

            ( 2 ) Potamogeton filiformis type: this is widely distributed, and includes in CW

    the vegetation of vascular plants occurring in salt lakes with the water not

    too saline; in the highly saline lakes only plankton was found.

    032      |      Vol_VI-0272                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

            ( 3 ) Potamogeton alpinus-Sparganium hyperboreum type; this is distributed

    in CW, SW and S, occurring in fairly acid small lakes with the water rich

    in humus.

            ( 4 ) Sparganium angustifolium type: this inhabits oligotrophic pools in

    oceanic regions, and has been described from Angmagssalik in SE.

            ( 5 ) Subularia aquatica type: this oceanic type was described from a pond

    at Angmagssalik, and contained, among other associated species, Juncus bulbosus .

            Besides the types mentioned above, small ponds with abundant Utricularia

    (in CW) and pools mainly with freshwater algae ( Stigonemataceae , Tribonema ,

    etc.) have been observed. So far, investigations of freshwater planton have

    been made to only a small extent.


    Cryophilous Algae

            Here, particularly, belong the communities of microscopic algae forming

    “red snow” ( Chlamydomonas nivalis , etc.), and the communities of diatoms oc–

    curring in cryoconite cavities in the inland ice.


    Marine Algae

            A distinction it here made between littoral and sublittoral communities.

    The littoral region is the area between the upper limit of algal vegetation

    and the lowest tidemerk, below which we have the sublittoral region, which

    stretches down to the lower limit of algal vegetation at a depth of about

    40 to 45 meters. Several types can be identified.

            [ ?] (1) Fucus vesiculosus-Ascophyllum type: this is developed in the

    littoral region in NW(U), CW, SW, S, and SE, particularly in protected places;

    F ucus vesicolosus and Ascophyllum nodosum are the most important species, and

    support various epiphytes.

            (2) Fucus inflatus type: this is much as in the preceding case, but

    033      |      Vol_VI-0273                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    occupies a zone below it and sometimes occurs in less protected places.

            ( 3 ) Th Monostroma-Urospora-Bania : this is found in the littoral region

    in the southern parts of Greenland, particularly in exposed places and at

    such a height that the vegetation at low tide may be dried up; important

    species are Monostroma groenlandicum , Ulothrix flacca , Urospora mirabilis ,

    and Bangia fuscopurpurea .

            ( 4 ) Chordaria-Dictyosiphon type: thin inhabits the lower part of the

    littoral region and rock crevices where there can be no serious drying up at

    low tide.

            ( 5 ) Laminaria type: this is found in the upper sublittoral region, at

    a depth of 9 to 20 meters, and constitutes large submerged “woods” of

    Laminaria nigripes and L. longicruris (of extensive dimensions), and in S,

    also L. groenlandica ; associated may be Alaria pylaii and Saccorhiza dermatodea .

            ( 6 ) Agarum turneri type: this occurs at a depth of 18 to 30 meters and

    is widely distributed on both coasts; typical associated species include

    Laminaria solidungula and Euthora cristata .

            ( 7 ) Desmarestia culeata type: this is widely distributed and, ecolog–

    ically speaking, closely related to the preceding type; it is developed par–

    ticularly in protected bays and natural harbors, the algae often lying partly

    loose on the bottom; among typical associated species may be mentioned

    Caetomorpha melagonium .

            (8) Ptilota-Lithoderma type: this is widely distributed at depths of

    about 20 to 40 meters, and is characterized by upright Florideae including

    crustose species of Lithoderma and Lithothamnion; sometimes the crustose

    species are dominant.

            ( [ ?] 9 ) Lithothamnion type: this is found where there is a gravelly or

    034      |      Vol_VI-0274                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    stony, often comparatively flat bottom at a depth of 20 to 40 meters; char–

    acteristic associates are the upright branched species of Lithothamnion ,

    L. glaciale , L. flabellatum , L. fruticulosum , etc.).

            For details concerning the marine plankton vegetation of the waters of

    Greenland (communities of diatoms such as Chaetoceras , Thalassiosira , and

    Coscinodiscus and various communities of Peridineae, etc.), reference should

    be made to the article on “Phytoplankton.”

            Investigations of communities of lichens and bryophytes on rocks (cf.

    Fig. 16.) have recently been started in Greenland, but the results are not

    yet available (1950).

    035      |      Vol_VI-0275                                                                                                                  
    EA- II PS. Böcher: Flora and Vegetation of Greenland


    1. Böcher, T.W. “Biological distributional types in the flora of

    Greenland,” Medd.Grønland vol.106, no.2, 1938. With

    a comprehensive list of references.

    2. ----. “Climate, soil, and lakes in continental West Greenland in

    relation to plant life,” Medd.Grønland vol.147, no.2, 1949.

    3. ----. “Contributions to the flora and plant geography of West

    Greenland I-II,” Ibid . vol.147, no.3 and 7, 1948, 1950.

    4. ----. “Phylogeographical studies of the Greenland flora,” Ibid .

    vol. 104, no.3, 1933.

    5. ----. “Studies on the vegetation of the east coast of Greenland,”

    Ibid . vol.104, no.4, 1933.

    6. ----, and Larsen, Kai. “Chromosome numbers of some arctic or boreal

    flowering plants,” Ibid . vol.147, no.6, 1950.

    7. Devold, F., and Scolander, P.F. “Flowering plants and ferns of South

    East Greenland,” Norsk Polar institutt, Skrifter no.56, 1933.

    8. Gelting, P. “Studies on the vascular plants of East Greenland between

    Frantz Joseph Fjord and Dove Bay,” Medd.Grønland vol.101,

    no.2, 1934.

    9. Hagerup, O. “Empetrum hermaphroditum,” Dansk Bot.Arkiv vol.5, no.2,


    10. Hartz, N. “Fanerogamer og Karkryptogamer fra Nordøst-Grønland…og

    Angmagsalik,” Medd.Grønland vol.18,pp.315-931, 1895.

    11. ----. “Østgrønlands vegetationsforhold.” Ibid . vol.18, pp. [ ?]

    105-314, 1895.

    12. ----, and Kruuse, C. “The [ ?] vegetation of Northeast Greenland,”

    Ibid . vol.30, pp.333-431, 1911.

    13. Iversen, J. :Moorgeologische Untersuchungen auf Grönland,” Dansk

    Geol.Foren. Medd . Vol.8, p.341, 1934.

    14. Kruuse, Chr. “List of Phanerogams and vascular Cryptogams found in

    the Angmagsalik District,” Medd.Grønland vol.30, pp. 2 09-88,


    15. ----. “Rejser og botaniske undersøgelser i [ ?] østgrønland samt

    Angmagsalikegnens vegetation,” Ibid . vol.49, 1912.

    036      |      Vol_VI-0276                                                                                                                  
    EA- II PS . Böcher. Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    16. ----. “Vegetationen i Egedesminde Skjaergaard,” Ibid . vol.14, pp.348–

    400, 1897.

    17. Lange, J. “Conspectus florae Groenlandicae,” Ibid . vol.3, 1880.

    18. Nathorst, A.G. “Kritiska anmärkningar om den grönlandska vegetationens

    historia,” Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Bihang Handl . vol.16,

    pt.3, no.6, 1890.

    19. Omang, S.O.F. “Übersicht über die Hieraciumflora Ost-Grönlands,”

    Norsk Polarinstitutt, Skrifter no.55, 1933.

    20. Ostenfeld, C.H. “The flora of Greenland and its origin,” Danske

    Vidensk.Selsk.Biologiske, Medd . Vol.6, no.3, 1926.

    21. ----. “The vegetation of the north-coast of Greenland,” Medd.Grønland

    vol.64, pp.221-68, 1923.

    22. Polunin, N. “Contributions to the flora and phytogeography of south–

    western Greenland,” Linnean Soc. J.(Bot.) vol.52, p.349, 1942.

    23. Porsild, A.E. “Contributions to the flora of West Greenland,” Medd .

    Grønland vol.58, pp.157-96, 1926.

    24. Porsild, M. P. “Alien plants and apophytes of Greenland,” Ibid . vol.92,

    no.1, 1932.

    25. ----. “The flora of Disko Island [ ?] and the adjacent coast of West

    Greenland,” Ibid . vol.58, pp.1-156, 1920.

    26. ----. “Skildring of vegetationen paa Øen Disko,” Ibid . vol.25,

    pp.91-240, 1902.

    27. ----. “Stray contributions of the flora of Greenland,” Ibid . vol.77,

    pp.1-44, 1930; vol.93, no.3, 1935.

    28. Rosenvinge, L.K. “Grønlands Havalger,” Ibid . vol.3, pp.763-974, 1893.

    29. ----. “Om algevegetationen ved Grønlands kyster,” Ibid . vol.20,

    pp.129-244, 1899.

    30. ----. “Det sydligate G rønlands vegetation,” Ibid . vol.15, pp.73-250,


    31. Seidenfaden, G. “The vascular plants of S outh East Greenland,” Ibid .

    vol.106, no.3, 1933.

    32. ----, and Sørensen, Th. “The vascular plants of Northeast Greenland from

    74° 30′ to 79° 00′ N.Lat.,” Ibid . vol.101, no.4, 1937.

    037      |      Vol_VI-0277                                                                                                                  
    EA- II PS . Böcher. Flora and Vegetation of Greenland

    33. Sørensen, Th. “The flora of Melville Bugt,” Ibid . vol.124, no.5, 1943.

    34. ----. “Summary of the botanical investigations in N.E. Greenland,”

    Ibid . vol.144, no.3, 1945. With bibliography.

    35. ----. “Temperature relations and phenology of the Northeast Greenland

    flowering plants.” Ibid . vol.125, no.9, 1941.

    36. ----. “The vascular plants of East Greenland from 71° to 73° 30′ N.Lat.,”

    Ibid . vol.101, no.3, 1933.

    37. Trapnell, C.G. “Vegetation types in Godthaab Fjord,” J.Ecol . vol.21,

    p.294, 1933.

    38. Warming, Eugenius. “Om Grønlands vegetation,” [ ?] Medd.Grønland vol.12, 1888.

    39. ----. “The vegetation of Greenland,” Commission for the Direction of

    the Geological and Geographical Investigations in Greenland.

    Greenland . Editors: M.Vahl, G.C. Amdrup, L. Bobe,

    Ad.S. Jensen. Vol. I. The Discovery of Greenland, Explora–

    tion and Nature of the Country
    . Copenhagen, Reitzel;

    London, Milford, 1928, pp.291-317.


    Tyge W. Böcher

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