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    Flora and Vegetation between 55° and 60° N. in Quebec and Labrador

    Encyclopedia Arctica 6: Plant Sciences (Regional)

    Flora and Vegetation between 55° and 60° N. in Quebec and Labrador

    Unpaginated      |      Vol_VI-0147                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. (Jacques Rousseau)





    Introduction 1
    Arctic and Hemiarctic Phanerogamic Flora 7
    The Arctic Zone Proper 22
    Subdivisions of Arctic Quebec and Labrador 23
    The Kogaluk and Payne Regions 24
    Sectors of the Kogaluk and Payne Regions 34
    Entrance of the Kogaluk and Adjoining Coast 35
    The Kogaluk River to Tasiak Lake 39
    Height of land between the Kogaluk and Payne rivers 47
    Payne River from Source to Estuarine Zone 49
    Payne River Estuary 52
    The Hemiarctic Zone 58
    Subdivisions of the Hemiarctic Zone 60
    The George River Region 62
    Sectors of the George River in the Hemiarctic Zone 65
    Arctic Outposts 80
    Phytogeographical Aspects and Glaciation 80
    Bibliography 83

    Unpaginated      |      Vol_VI-0148                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. (Jacques Rousseau)






            With the manuscript of this article, the author submitted 26 photographs

    for possible use as illustrations. Because of the high cost of reproducing

    them as halftones in the printed volume, only a small proportion of the photo–

    graphs submitted by contributors to Encyclopedia Arctica , can be used, at most

    one or two with each paper; in some cases none. The number and selection must

    be determined later by the publisher and editors of Encyclopedia Arctica . Mean–

    time all photographs are being held at The Stefansson Library.

    001      |      Vol_VI-0149                                                                                                                  
    EA-Plant Sciences

    (Jacques Rousseau)






            The Province of Quebec and the Labrador coast are the regions where the

    arctic zone, considered biologically, attains its southernmost limit on land.

    These regions belong to two different provinces of Canada; the Labrador coast

    to Newfoundland and the rest of the peninsula to the Province of Quebec. The

    islands near the peninsula in Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and Ungava Bay come

    under the jurisdiction of the Northwest Territories. The portion of Quebec

    north of approximately 52° N. latitude was formerly known as Ungava; the term

    Labrador is often misused by explorers and geographers to include Ungava. In

    this arctic Ungava is defined as that part of the Province of Quebec which

    lies north of the Eastmain River, and the name Labrador is used only in its

    official sense, that is, the coast of the mainland belonging to Newfoundland.

    To designate the whole area, Quebec-Labrador Peninsula (81) seems an appro–

    priate name.

            Previous Studies on the Vegetation of the Labrador Coast . The first gen–

    eral work on the flora of Labrador is a small book of 218 pages entitled De

    plantis labradoricis , by Meyer, published in 1830 (54). This work contains a

    bibliography of former works dealing with the Labrador coast as well as notes

    002      |      Vol_VI-0150                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec and Labrador

    on the climate and the phytogeography of the region. Then come other general

    works by Schlechtendal (93) and Macoun (46; 48), the last being mainly a com–

    pilation of what was known before. Among other authors who have worked on the

    flora of the Labrador coast, mention must be made of Ascherson (3), Butler (7),

    Fernald and Sornborger (21), Delabarre (10; 11), Mackay (44), Hantzsch (28),

    Fernald (17) for the southern extremity at Blanc Sablon, Wetmore (101), Wood–

    worth (102, Polunin (57), Abbe (1), Gardner (24; 25) and Hustich and Pettersson

    (33), and Wenner (100). Some of these did not actually visit Labrador but

    studied the collections made by others in the region. There are moreover a

    list published by the Kew Royal Botanical Gradens, (36), based upon the collec–

    tions of Sir William MacGregor and, among the authoritative works on the ecology

    of the Labrador coast, the important chapter from Tanner’s book (96) to which

    Hustich contributed.

            Former Studies on the Vegetation of Ungava . The flora of the Labrador

    coast was studied from quite early times, while that of Ungava remained nearly

    unknown until after 1940. Prior to the surveys and collections of R. C. Clement

    in 1944 and 1945, A. R. A. Taylor in 1944, Lepage and Dutilly in 1945, Rousseau

    in 1947 and 1948 (74; 75; 81), and Marr in 1948 (identified mainly by Marcel

    Raymond), whose herbarium specimens were consulted by the author, and the collec–

    tions of Polunin in 1946 and 1949 (unpublished data), all that existed on the

    flora of the interior of Ungava was a handful of notes, mainly on trees, gathered

    by a few amateur botanists and especially the energetic geologist and explorer,

    Albert Peter Low (43; 46; 81; 84). Before 1884, Lucien M. Turner had made

    botanical collections while doing ethnological work at Fort Chimo. As for the

    003      |      Vol_VI-0151                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec and Labrador

    coast, south of the sixtieth parallel and the islands off its shore belonging

    to the Northwest Territories, little more than scattered records were avil–

    able prior to the investigations of Malte in 1928 and 1933, the numerous trips

    of Gardner, Polunin in 1936 and subsequently, and Abbe and Marr in 1939 (53).

            Former Studies on the Phytogeogaphical Divisions of the Quebec-Labrador

    Peninsula . Although the information was rather scant, phytogeographers have

    nevertheless agreed on a crude division of the peninsula into phytogeograph–

    ical regions. Harshberger in 1911 (29), following Merriam in 1891, recognized

    an arctic zone in Quebec and Labrador (the northernmost part of northwest

    Ungava, approximately north of the 60th parallel, and most of the Labrador

    coast), the subarctic or Hudsonian zone (with its southern limit below Lake

    Mistassini), and the North American temperate zone. Marie-Victorin (50) has

    substantially the same main divisions ( region arctique , region hudsonienne ,

    region laurentienne ). Halliday (27), considering only the forest, recognizes

    in Quebec and Labrador the arctic tundra (with approximately the same limit

    as Harshberger’s arctic) and the boreal forest region (covering the subarctic

    and a part of the temperate zone as outlined by Harshberger).

            Hustich (32) presents the most up-to-date work on the peninsula, based on

    his own work as well as on data obtained from the most recent surveys (1949).

    In accordance with facts, he divides the whole territory into eighteen dis–

    tricts, distributed through four major divisions: the tundra, the forest

    tundra, the taiga, the southern spruce region, and, beyond the limits of his

    work, the St. Lawrence mixed-wood forest (not described, but shaded on his ac–

    companying map). To Hustich, the forest tundra is identical with the subarctic

    region, and the taiga and southern spruce areas constitute the boreal forest

    region. This interpretation can be questioned. It would seem rather that the

    004      |      Vol_VI-0152                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec and Labrador

    taiga is essentially the subarctic forest and should not be considered as a

    part of the Laurentian boreal forest which itself is a sector of the temperate

    zone. This point will be discussed in the introduction to section II The Hemiarctic

    Zone. In the present article, the term taiga applies to the subarctic forests,

    in the subarctic zone, and to the subarctic patches in the hemiarctic zone.

            Among general works concerned with the phytogeography of Quebec-Labrador,

    we should mention Villeneuve’s Apercu climatique du Quebec (99), because of its

    relation to natural vegetation, and Fernald’s work on “ Persistence of Plants in

    Unglaciated Areas of Boreal America (19), which will be discussed under the

    heading Phytogeographical Aspects and Glaciation.

            Physiological Behavior of Arctic and Alpine Plants . A good many plants

    grow simultaneously in the arctic tundra and on the alpine meadows of the highest

    summits in the northern temperate zone. The arctic and alpine formations have

    in common certain factors: an absence of tree growth, which favors the sun-loving

    plants; a short growing season allowing the existence of only fast-growing plants

    which generally have a well-developed underground system; and finally a great

    variation in diurnal and nocturnal temperature — an eliminating factor for

    tender species. Alpine as well as arctic plants must be equipped to germinate

    at low temperature. Marcel Raymond and Nils Johanssen reported (verbatim) an

    observation made in the refrigerators of the Montreal Botanical Garden, where

    pans sown with different seeds are stored for some time at low temperature

    before being brought to the warmer temperature in the greenhouse. After being

    stratified for six weeks, pans of Oxytropis podocarpa (the seeds of which had

    been brought from Payne Bay) freely produced seedlings before leaving the refrig–

    erator, while plants of the temperate or tropical zones germinate only occasion–

    ally under such unfavorable conditions.

    005      |      Vol_VI-0153                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

            The main difference between arctic and alpine plants — which require

    similar conditions as far as soil, water, and temperature are concerned — is

    probably the length of the period of daylight during the growing season. While

    in sectors of the Arctic in mid-July there are 22 hours of daylight, the number

    is reduced to approximately 16 or 17 hours in the Gaspe region mountains, even

    less on Mount Washington, and to only 12 hours on Mount Popocatepetl, near Mexico

    City. The plants of Popocatepetl, although morphologically comparable with

    arctic plants, nevertheless belong to entirely different species. Often trop–

    ical plants grown in northern latitudes do not develop normally because of the

    greater length of summer days, and will flower and produce fruits only if the

    daily period of light is reduced. (See discussion concerning Lathyrus venosus

    var. tonsus (syn. L. [ ?] r ollandii ), in reference 52). Some plants are evidently

    adapted to a specific length of daylight. Theoretically, within the limits of

    Canada, we appear to have: ( 1 ) indifferent arctic-alpine plants, ( 2 ) strictly

    arctic plants, which cannot tolerate southern alpine habitats where the period

    of daylight is too short, and ( 3 ) strictly alpine plants, which, although built

    to survive in the severe conditions of the Arctic, will not grow spontaneously

    in the far-northern habitats because, for example, the summer period of daylight

    is too lengthy.

            Scope of the Present Study . The present article is not an exhaustive

    floristic work on Ungava and Labrador, but only a preliminary study based mainly

    on recent surveys. More attention will be given to the two districts surveyed

    by the author in particular, not only for practical reasons but also because

    they are extreme types which may be considered more or less as samples of the

    whole territory. The author has also had access to the collections of colleagues

    who have not yet published their monographs of the areas they surveyed, mainly

    006      |      Vol_VI-0154                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec and Labrador

    Clements, Taylor, Marr, Lepage, Dutilly, and Calder. The northernmost parts

    of Labrador and of northwestern Quebec, north of 60° N. latitude, are

    described in this Encyclopedia by Polunin (see “Canadian Eastern Arctic.”).

    Bryophytes and thallophytes are considered only briefly in this study,

    which will limit itself to examining the arctic aspects of the vegetation

    of the Quebec-Labrador Peninsula. After describing the main floristic

    regions, it will be necessary to consider briefly the arctic outposts in

    the temperate zone and their phytogeographical aspects.

            Floristic Regions of the Quebec-Labrador Peninsula . In the portions

    of Quebec and Labrador considered here, we can distinguish the following

    floristic zones: ( 1 ) the arctic zone, north of limit of tree growth;

    ( 2 ) the hemiarctic zone, approximately between latitude 55° and 58° N., which

    is an area covered by the forest tundra composed of patches of taiga and

    tundra, and is described in Section II. For detailed description, the

    arctic and hemiarctic zones will be subdivided into smaller regions. The

    subdivisions which have been chosen correspond more or less to the main

    hydrographic basins; though convenient from a geographical point of view,

    they are not really phytogeographical regions.

            The subarctic zone, covered by the taiga, approximately between lat–

    itude 50° and 55° N., lies outside of the scope of the present study.

    However, in the subarctic zone and even in the temperate zone are certain

    outposts of arctic vegetation which will be considered briefly at the end

    of this article.

    007      |      Vol_VI-0155                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec and Labrador


    Arctic and Hemiarctic Phanerogamic Flora

            The numbers refer to geographical sectors, figured on the accompanying

    map and described later. The numbers preceded by “A” designate sections of

    the arctic zone, by “H” those of the hemiarctic zone. The number of arctic

    and hemiarctic species of each family is given in parentheses after the name

    of the family, and the total number of species from each zone is listed at

    the end of the enumeration.

            POLYPODIACEAE (A7; H14)

            Polypodium virginianum , H2

    Athyrium filix-femina , H2, H8

    A. alpestre , H8

    Dryopteris disjuncta , A3, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    D. fragrans , A2, A3, A7, H1, H2, H [ ?] 3

    D. linnaeana , H7, H8

    D. phegopteris , A4, A6, H1, H2, H4, H7, H8

    D. spinulosa , H1, H2, H7, H8

    Cryptogramma stelleri , H2

    Cystopteris fragilis , A1, A2, A3, A6, A7, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    Woodsia belli , ?A3, H2

    W. glabella , A3, A4, A6, H2, H4, H8

    W. ilvensis , A2, A4, A6, H1, H3, H7, H8

    Onoclea sensibilis , H8

            OSMUNDACEAE (H1)

            Osmunda claytoniana , H8

            OPHIOGLOSSACEAE (H4)

            Botrychium lanceolatum , H2

    B. lunaria , H2, H4, H8

    B. matricariaefolium , H2

    B. multifidum , H2

            EQUISETACEAE (A3; H8)

            Equisetum arvense , A2, A3, A6, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

    E. fluviatile , H1, H2, H3, H8

    E. litorale , H7

    E. palustre , H3, H4

    E. pratense , H7

    E. scirpoides , H3

    E. sylvaticum , A2, A3, A4, A6, H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    E. variegatum , A2, A3, H2, H4

            LYCOPODIACEAE (A4; H8)

            Lycopodium alpinum , A6, H2, H8

    L. annotinum , A2, A3, A6, H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    008      |      Vol_VI-0156                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec and Labrador

            L. clavatum , H2, H8

    L. complanatum , A3, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    L. lucidulum , H8

    L. obscurum , H2, H4, H7, H8

    L. sabinaefolium , H2, H4, H7, H8

    L. selago , A2, A3, A6, A7, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

            SELAGINELLACEAE (A1; H1)

            Selaginella selaginoides , A6, H2, H4, H8

            ISOETACEAE (H2)

            Isoetes braunii , H2, H3, H4, H8

    I. Macrospora , H8

            PINACEAE (H4)

            Larix laricina , H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    Picea glauca , H2, H4, H7, H8

    P. mariana , H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    Abies balsamea , H8

            CUPRESSACEAE (A1; H1)

            Juniperus communis , A6, A7, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

            SPARGANIACEAE (A1; H2)

            Sparganium angustifolium , H7, H8

    S. hyperboreum , A2, A3, A6, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

            POTAMOGETONACEAE (A1; H6)

            Potamogeton alpinus , A4, H2, H7

    P. filiformis , H2

    P. gramineus , H4, H8

    P. praelongus , H7, (?) H8

    P. pectinatus , H4

    P. richardsonii , H2

            SCHEUCHZERIACEAE (A1; H2)

            Triglochin maritima , H2, H3, H8

    T. palustris , A6, H2, H7, H8

            GRAMINEAE (A29; H52)

            Hierochloe alpina , A2, A3, A6, A7, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

    H. odorata , A2, A6, H2, H4, H8

    Oryzopsis canadensis , H2, H4

    O. pungens , H2

    Phleum alpinum , H2, H7, H8

    Alopecurus alpinus , A7

    A. aequalis , A6

    Agrostis borealis , A2, A3, A4, A6, H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    A. scabra , H2, [ ?] H8

    Arctagrostis latifolia , A1, A2, A3

    Cinna latifolia , H2

    009      |      Vol_VI-0157                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec and Labrador

            Calamagrostis canadensis , A2, A3, A6, A7, H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    C. deschampsioides , H2

    C. hyperborea , H2

    C. inexpansa , H4, H8

    C. labradorica , H7

    C. lacustris , A3

    C. neglecta , A3, A6, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    C. pickeringii , H7

    C. purpurascens , H4

    Deschampsia alpina , A6, H7

    D. atropurpurea , A2, A3, A6, H2, H7

    D. caespitosa , A2, A4, H1, H2, H3, H4, H7

    D. flexuosa , A2, A3, A6, H2, H3, H7, H8

    O. spicata , H8

    Trisetum spicatum , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    Catabrosa algida , A3, A6

    C. aquatica , H2, H8

    Poa alpigena , A6, H2

    P. alpina , A1, A2, A3, A6, A7, H2, H7, H8

    P. arctica , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, [ ?] H7, H8

    P. eminens , H2, H8

    P. fernaldiana , H7

    P. glauca , A2, A3, A6, H2, H7, H8

    P. intermedia , A2

    P. labradorica , H8

    P. pratensis , A2, H2, H3, H8

    Dupontia fisheri , A2, A3, A6, H2, H7

    Glyceria borealis , H8

    G. nervata , H8

    Puccinellia angustata , H2

    P. lucida , A7

    P. macra , H2

    P. paupercula , A3, A7, H8

    P. phryganodes , A3, A6, H8

    Festuca brachyphylla , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    F. prolifera , H2, H3

    F. rubra , A2, A6, H2, H7, H8

    F. saximontana , H2, H3

    F. vivipara , A6, H8

    Bromus pumepllianus , H2

    Schizachne purpurascens , H2

    Agropyron latiglume , H3, H4

    A. repens , H8

    A. trachycaulum , H2, H4, H8

    A. ungavense , H3, H4, H7

    Hordeum brachyantherum , H8

    J. jubatum , H4, H8

    Elymus arenarius , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    010      |      Vol_VI-0158                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec and Labrador

            CYPERACEAE (A45; H75; hybrids not counted)

            Eleocharis acicularis , A3, H2, H3, H8

    E. smallii , H2

    Scirpus atrocinctus , H8

    S. caespitosus , A2, A3, A6, A7, H2, H3, H7, H8

    S. hudsonianus , H2, H8

    Eriophorum angustifolium , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H3, H7, H8

    E. brachyantherum ( E. opacum ) H2, H8

    E. callitrix , A6, H2, H8

    E. chamissonis ( E. medium sensu Hulten, E. chamissonis var. aquatile

    sensu Fernald), H2, H3, H8

    E. rousseauianum , A2, H2, H3

    E. russeolum ( E. chamissonis sensu Fernald), H3, H7, H8

    E. scheuchzeri , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    E. spissum ( E. callitrix sensu Fernald et al., non Cham. and E. vaginatum

    auct.), A2, A3, A6, A7, H2, H3, H7, H8

    Kobresia myosuroides , A3, A6, H8

    K. simpliciuscula , A7, H3

    C. angustior , H8

    C. aquatilis (including C. stans ), A2, A3, A6, A7, H2, H3, H4, H7, [ ?]H8

    C. arcta , H3

    C. atrata , H2, H3

    C. atratiformis , H2, H3, H7, H8

    C. atrofusca , A3, A7, H2, H3, H 78

    C. bicolor , A3

    C. bigelowii (incl. C. anguillata ), A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    C. brunnescens , A2, A3, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

    C. buxbaumii , H2

    C. canescens , A2, A3, A6, H2, H3, H7, H8

    C. capillaris , A6, A7, H2, H3, H8

    C. capitata ( C. artogena incl.), A2, A6, H2, H3, H7, H8

    C. chordorrhiza , H1, H3, H7

    C. deflexa , H2, H3, H7

    C. disperma , H2, H3

    C. exilis , H2

    C. glacialis , A3, A6, A7, H2, H3, H4, H7, H 98

    C. glareosa , A3, A6, H2, H7, H8

    C. gynocrates , A2, B2, H3, H7, H8

    C. haydeni , H3, H4

    C. holostoma , A2

    C. interior , H2

    C. lagopina , A2, A3, A6, A7, H2, H8

    C. langeana , A3, H8

    C. [a ?]lenticularis , H2

    C. leptalea , H2, H3, H8

    C. limosa , H3, H8

    C. macloviana , A6, H3, H4, H8

    C. marina , H7

    C. maritima , A3, A4, A6, H2, H3, H8

    011      |      Vol_VI-0159                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec and Labrador

            C. media , A6, H2, H4, H8

    C. membranacea , A2, A3, A6, H3, H8

    C. microglochin , A6, H2, H3, H7

    C. miliaris , A2, A3, A4, H2, H7, H8

    C. misandra , A3, A6, A7, H2, H8

    C. misandroides , H4

    C. morrisseyi , A6

    C. nardina , A3, A7, H2, H3, H4

    C. nigra , H2

    C. norvegica , A2, A3, A6, A7, H2, H3, H8

    C. oligosperma , H2, H8

    C. paleacea , H2, H8

    C. pauciflora , H2, H7, H8

    C. paupercula , A6, H2, H3, H7

    C. praticola , H2, H3, H4

    C. raeana , A3

    C. rariflora , A2, A3, A4, A6, H2, H3, H7, H8

    C. recta , H2, H8

    C. rostrata , H2, H7, H8

    C. rotundata , A2, A3, H1, H3

    C. rupestris , A3, A6, H2, H3, H7

    C. salina , A2

    C. saxatilis (incl. C. saxatilis var. laxa = C. procerula ) A2, A3, A6, A7,

    H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

    C. scirpoidea , A3, A6, A7, H2, H3, H7, H8

    C. stellulata , H2, H4

    C. sterilis , H8

    C. stylosa , A6, H2, H5, H8

    C. subspathacea , A2, A6, H7, H8

    C. supina , H3, H4

    C. tenuiflora , A2, A3, H2, H3, H7

    C. trisperma , H2, H7, H8

    C. ursina , H2

    C. vaginata , A2, H2, H3, H4, H8

    C. vesicaria , H8

    C. williamsii , A2, A3, H3, H7

            ARACEAE (H1)

            Calla palustris , H8

            ERIOCAULACEAE (H.)

            Eriocaulon septangulare , H8

            JUNCACEAE (A11; H19)

            Luzula confusa , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H3, H7, H8

    L. groelandica , A2, A3, He, H7

    L. nivalis , H8

    L. parviflora , A2, A3, A6, H2, H3, H7, H8

    L. spicata , A2, A3, A6, H2, H7, H8

    L. sudetica , H2, H8

    L. wahlenbergii , A2, A3, A7, H2

    012      |      Vol_VI-0160                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec and Labrador

            Juncus albescens , A2, A3, A6, A7, H2, H3, H7, H8

    J. alpinus , H2, H3, H7, H8

    J. arcticus , A2, A7, H3, H8

    J. balticus , H2, H3, H4, H8

    J. biglumis , A2, A6, H2, H8

    J. brevicaudatus , H2, H8

    J. bufonius , H2, H8

    J. castaneus , A2, A3, A4, A6, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    J. filiformis , A2, A3, A6, H2, H4, H7, H8

    J. subtilis , H3, H8

    J. trifidus , A2, A3, A6, H2, H7, H8

            LILACEAE (A2; H6)

            Tofieldia pusilla (syn. T. borealis ), A2, A3, A6, A7, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    Clintonia borealis , H8

    Smilacina trifolia , A6, H8

    Maianthemum canadense , H8

    Streptopus amplexifolius , H1, H2, H7, H8

    S. rosus , H4

            IRIDACEAE (H1)

            Iris hookeri , H8

            ORCHIDACEAE (A3; H8)

            Habenaria dilatata , A6, H1, H2, H3, H8

    H. hyperborea , H2

    H. obtusata , A2, A4, A6, A7, H2, H8

    H. viridis , H2

    Spiranthes romanzoffiana , H8

    Listera borealis , H2

    L. cordata , H2, H7, H8

    Corallorhiza trifida , A6, H7 (A3; H8)

            SALICACEAE (A11; H24)

            Salix arctica , A2, A3, A6, A7, H2, H7, H8

    S. arctophila , A2, A3, A6, A7, H2, H3, H7, H8

    S. argyrocarpa , A6, H2, H3, H8

    S. bebbiana , H3

    S. brachycarpa , A2, A3, H2, H7

    S. calcicola , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H3, H4, H7

    S. candi[?]a , H2

    S. cordifolia , A2, A3, A6, A7, H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    S. discolor , H2, H7

    S. glaucophylloides , H2

    S. hebecarpa , H4

    S. herbacea , A2, A3, A6, H2, H3, H7, H8

    S. humilis , H2, H7, H8

    S. myrtillifolia , H3, H4

    S. pedicellaris , H2, H7

    S. pellita , H2, H4, H7

    S. planifolia , A2, A3, A6, H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    013      |      Vol_VI-0161                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

            S. pseudomonticola , H2

    S. pyrifolia , H2, H8

    S. reticulata , A2, A3, A6, A7, H2, H3

    S. uva-ursi , A2, A3, A6, °4, H1, H3, H4, H7, H8

    S. vestita , A2, A6, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    Populus balsamifera , H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    P. tremuloides , H8

            MYRICACEAE (A1; H1)

            Myrica gale , A6, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

            BETULACEAE (A2; H8)

            Betula borealis , H7

    B. glandulosa , A2, A3, A6, A7, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

    B. michauxii , H5, H8

    B. minor , H2, H3, H7

    B. papyrifera , H8

    B. pumila , H8

    Alnus crispa , A2, A3, A6, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

    A. rugosa , H2 (A2; H8)

            SANTALACEAE (H1)

            Comandra livida , H2, H4, H7, H8

            POLYGONACEAE (A3; H11)

            Oxyria digyna , A2, A3, A4, A6, H2, H7, H8

    Koenigia islandica , A2, A3, A4, A6, H2, H8

    Rumex acetosa , H8

    R. acetosella , H8

    R. fenestratus , H2, H8

    R. pallidus , H2

    R. triangulivalvis , H2

    Polygonum aviculare , H7, H8

    P. boreale , H8

    P. convolvulus , H8

    P. viviparum , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H3, H7, H8

            PORTULACACEAE (A1; H1)

            Montia lamprosperma , A6, H2, H7, H8

            CARYOPHYLLACEAE (A27; H28)

            Sagina caespitosa , A3, A6, A7, H8

    S. intermedia , A2, A6, H [ ?]8

    S. nodosa , A2, H3

    S. procumbens , H8

    S. saginoides , A2, A3

    Arenaria groenlandica , A3, A6, H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    A. humifusa , A2, A3, A6, H2, H8

    A. macrophylla , H3

    A. peploides , A2, A3, A4, A7, H3, H7, H8

    A. rossii , A3

    014      |      Vol_VI-0162                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

            A. rubella , A2, A3, A6, H2, H4, H3, H8

    A. sajanensis , A6, H8

    A. uliginosa , H3

    Stellaria borealis ( S. calycantha ), A2, A3, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    S. crassifolia , A3, A6, H2, H3, H7, H8

    S. crassipes , A2, A3

    S. humifusa , A4, A6, H2, H3, H7, H8

    S. laeta , A2, A3, H3

    S. longipes , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    S. media , H8

    S. monantha , A2, A3, H3, H4

    S. subvestita , A2, A3

    Cerastium alpinum , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H4, H7, H8

    C. arvense , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H3, H4, H7, H8

    C. beeringianum , A2, A3, A4, A6, H3, H4, H7

    C. cerastoides , A3, A6, H7, H8

    Lychnis affinis , A2, A3, A4, A7, H2

    L. alpina , A4, A6, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    L. apetala , A4, H2

    L. furcata , A6, H4

    Silene acaulis , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H1, H2, H7, H8

    S. cucubalus , H8 (H28)

            NYMPHAEACEAE (H1)

            Nuphar variegatum , H2, H8

            RANUNCULACEAE (A13; H16)

            Ranunculus acris , H8

    R. allenii , A2, A6, H2, H7

    R. cymbalaria , H2, H8

    R. hyperboreus , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H3, H8

    R. lapponicus , A2, A3, H3, H7, H8

    R. nivalis , A2, A3, A6

    R. pallasii , A2

    R. pedatifidus , A2, A3, A6, A7, H2

    R. gomelini var. hookeri , A2

    R. pygmaeus , A2, A6, H2, H7, H8

    R. reptans , A2, A3, A6, H1, H2, H4, H7, H8

    R. trichophyllus , A2, A3, A4, A6, H2, H7, H8

    Thalictrum polygamum , H8

    Anemone multifida , H2

    A. parviflora , A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H3

    A. richardsoni , A2, A3, A4, H2, H3

    Caltha palustris , H2

    Coptis groenlandica , A2, A3, A6, H2, H3, H7, H8

    Actaea rubra , H2

            PAPAVERACEAE (A1; H1)

            Papaver radicatum , A2, A3, A6, A7, H7, H8

            FUMARIACEAE (H15)

            Corydalis sempervirens , H3

    015      |      Vol_VI-0163                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

            CRUIFERAE (A18; H21)

            Cochlearia officinalis , A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H7, H8 .

    Draba alpina , A3, A7

    D. arabisans , A4, A6, H2, H8

    D. Aurea , A6, H2, H3

    D. crassifolia , A6

    D. fladnizensis , A2, A3, A4, A6, H2, H8

    D. glabella , A2, A3, A6, A7, H2, H3, H8

    D. incana , A6, H2, H8

    D. lanceolata , H2

    D. minganensis , H2, H3

    D. nivalis , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H8

    D. norvegica , A7, H2 , H8

    D. rupestris , A3, A6, H2

    D. [ ?] sornborgeri , A6

    Thlaspi arvense , H8

    Subularia aquatica , H2, H8

    Capsella bursa-pastoris , H8

    Raphanus raphanistrum , H8

    Braya purpurascens , A3

    Rorippa islandica , H3, H8

    Barbarea orthoceras , H3

    Eutrema edwardsii , A2, A3

    Gardamine bellidifolia , A2, A3, A6, A7, H2, H7, H8

    C. pratensis , A2, A3, H3, H7, H8

    Arabis alpina , A3, A4, A6, H2, H8

    A. arenicola , A3, A6, A7, H1, H2, H3, H4, H7

            DROSERACEAE (H3)

            Drosera anglica , H2

    D. intermedia ( D. longefolia ), H8

    D. rotundifolia , H2, H7, H8

            CRASSULACEAE (A1; H1)

            Sedum rosea , A4, A6, H3, H7, H8

            SAXIFRAGACEAE (A16; H20)

            Saxifraga aizoides , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H3

    S. aizoon , A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H3, H7, H8

    S. caespitosa , A2, A3 A4, A6, A7, H2, H8

    S. cernua , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H7, H8

    S. foliolosa , A2, H7

    S. hirculus , A2, H2

    S. nivalis , A2, A3, A4, A6, H2, H8

    S. oppositifolia , A2 , A3, A6, A7, H2, H8

    S. rivularis , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H7, H8

    S. stellaris , A6, A7, H8

    S. tricuspidata , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H3

    Mitella N

    016      |      Vol_VI-0164                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

            Mitella nuda , H2, H7

    Chrysosplenium tetrandrum , A3, A4, H2

    Parnassia glauca ( P. caroliniana ), H8

    P. kotzebuei , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H1, H2, H3, H7

    P. obtusiflora ( P. palustris auct. amer .), A6(?), H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    P. parviflora , A6(?), H8

    Ribes glandulosum , A3, H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    R. lacustre , H2

    R. triste , H2, H4

            ROSACEAE (A12; H31)

            Sorbus americana , H2, H8

    S. decora , H2, H7, H8

    Amelanchier bartramiana , H2, H4, H7, H8

    Fragaria virginiana , H2

    Sibbaldia procumbens , A2, A3, A6, H2, H7, H8

    Potentilla anserina , H8(?)

    P. Chamissonis , A2

    P. crantzii , A2, A4, A6, A7, H2, H3, H8

    P. egedii , A2, A4, H2, H7, H8

    P. fruticosa , H2

    P. hyparctica (P. emarginata), A2, A3, A6, A7, H7

    P. multifida , H4

    P. nivea , A2, A3, A6, H2, H4, H7, H8

    P. norvegica , H3, H4, H7, H8

    P. pacifica , H8

    P. palustris , A2, A3, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

    P. pectinata , H2, H4

    P. pulchella , H2

    P. tridentata , A2, A3, H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    Geum rivale , H2

    Rubus acaulis , A2, A3, A6, H1, H2, H3, H7

    R. arcticus , A6, A7, H8

    R. chamaemorus , A2, A3, A6, A7, H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    R. strigosus , H2, H4, H7, H8

    R. peracaulis , H7

    R. pubescens , H8

    Alchemilla filicaulis , H7, H8

    A. glomerulans , H8

    A. vestita , H7, H8

    Sanguisorba canadensis , H7, H8

    Dryas integrifolia , A2, A3, A6, A7, H2, H3, H8

            LEGUMINOSAE (A9; H11)

            Trifolium repens , H8

    Astragalus alpinus , A2, A3, A4, A6, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    A. eucosmus , A3, A6, A7, H2, H3, H4, H8

    Oxytropis belli , A7, H3

    017      |      Vol_VI-0165                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

            O. foliolosa , A2, A3, A6

    O. hudsonica , H2

    O. johannensis , A2, A3, H3, H4, H8

    O. maydelliana , A2, A7

    O. podocarpa , A3

    O. terrae-novae , A2, A6, H2, H8

    Hedysarum alpinum , H3, H4

    H. mackenzei , A4, H2

    Lathyrus japonicus , A2, A6, H2, H8

    Vicia cracca , H8

            CALLITRICHACEAE (A1; H3)

            Callitriche anceps , A4(?), H2.

    C. heterophylla , H8

    C. palustris , H2, H3

            EMPETRACEAE (A1; H1)

            Empetrum nigrum (incl. E. hermaphroditicum ?), A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H1, H7, H8

            VIOLACEAE (A4; H5)

            Viola adunca , H8

    V. labradorica , A2, A3, A6, H2, H3, H7, H8

    V. pallens , A2, A3, A6, H2, H7, H8

    V. repens ( V. palustris auct. amer.), A6, H7

    V. selkirkii , A2, H2

            ELAEAGNACEAE (H1)

            Shepherdia canadensis , H2, H4, H8

            ONAGRACEAE (A7; H10)

            Epilobium anagallidifolium , A3, A6, H2, H7, H8

    E. angustifolium , A2, A3, A6, A7, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

    E. ciliatum , H4

    E. davuricum , H2

    E. glandulosum , A3, H7

    E. hornemanii , A2, A6, H2, H3, H8

    E. lactiflorum , A6(?), H2, H3(?), H8

    E. palustre , A2, A3, A6, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    E. steckerianum , H3

            HALORAGIDACEAE (H2)

            Myriophyllum exalbescens , H2, H3

    M. verticillatum , H2

    Hippuridaceae (A1, H2)

            HIPPURIDACEAE (A1; H2)

            Hippuris tetraphylla , H2

    H. vulgaris , A2, A3, A6(?), H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

    018      |      Vol_VI-0166                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

            UMBELLIFERAE (A1; H5)

            Ligusticum scothicum , H2, H8

    Coeleplerum lucidum , H8

    Heracleum lanatum , H2, H8

    Conioselinum chinense , A6, H8

    Angelica atropurpurea , H8

            CORNACEAE (A2; H2)

            Cornus canadensis , A2, H2, H3, H7, H8

    C. suecica , A2, A3, H2, H7, H8

            PYROLACEAE (A3, H4)

            Pyrola grandiflora , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    P. minor , A6, A7, H2, H4, H7, H8

    P. secunda , A6, H2, H7, H8

    Moneses uniflora , H2, H7, H8

            ERICACEAE (A13; H20)

            Ledum groenlandicum , A2, A3, A6, H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    L. Palustre , A2, A3, A6, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

    Rhododenron lapponicum , A2, A3, A6, H2, H3, H7, H8

    Loiseleuria procumbens , A2, A3, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

    Kalmia angustifolia , H8

    K. polifolia , H2, H3, H7, H8

    Phyllodoce coerulea , A2, A3, A6, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

    Cassiope hypnoides , A2, A3, A6, H7, H8

    Andromeda glaucophyll a, H2, H3, H7

    A. polifolia , A2, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

    Chamaedaphne calyculata , H1, H2, H7, H8

    Arctostaphylos alpina , A2, A3, A6, A7, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

    A. rubra , H2

    Chiogenes Hispidula , H2, H7

    Vaccinium angustifolium , A6, H2, H7, H8

    V. caespitosum , A3, H2, H7, H8

    V. myrtilloides ( V. canadense ), H7

    V. oxycoccos , A2, A3, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

    V. uliginosum , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

    V. vitis-idaea , A2, A3, A6, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

            DIAPENSIACEAE (A1; H1)

            Diapensia lapponica , A2, A3, A6, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

            PRIMULACEAE (A4; H5)

            Primula egaliksensis , A2, A6, H2, H7, H8

    P. laurentiana , A2(?), A6, H3, H4, H8

    P. stricta , A4, A6, A7, H2, H7, H8

    Androsace septentrionalis , H2, H3

    Trientalis borealis , A6, H2, H3, H7, H8

    019      |      Vol_VI-0167                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

            PLUMBAGINACEAE (A1; H1)

            Ameria maritime ( A. labradorica ), A2, A3, A6, H2, H3, H8

            GENTIANACEAE (A3; H6)

            Gentiana amarella , H2, H3, H4, H8

    G. nesophila , H2

    G. nivalis , A6

    G. propinqua , H2

    G. tenella , A2, A3, A4

    Lomatogonium rotatum , A4, H2, H3, H4, H7, H9

    Halenia deflexa , H8

    Menyanthes trifoliata , H3, H7, H8

            BORAGINACEAE (A1; H2)

            Mertensia maritima , A2, A7, H2, H8

    Lappula echinata , H8

            SCOPHULARICEAE (A13; H18)

            Limosella aquatica , H2, H3, H8

    Veronica alpina , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H3, H7, H8

    Castilleja septentrionalis , A4, A6, A7, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    Euphrasia arctica , A2, A3, A4, A6, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    E. disjuncta , H8

    E. hudsoniana , A6, H1

    E. oakesii , H2(?), H8

    Bartsia alpina , A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, H2, H3, H7, H8

    Pedicularis flammea , A2, A3 A4, A6, A7, H2, H3, H7, H8

    P. groenlandica , A2, A3, A6, H1, H2, H3, H7, H8

    P. hirsuta , A2, A3, A6

    P. labradorica , A2, A3, A6, H2, H3, H7, H8

    P. lanata , A3, A4

    P. lapponica , A2, A3, A4, A6, H2, H8

    P. palustris , H8

    P. sudetica , A2, A6, H2.

    Rhinanthus borealis , A6, H8

    R. crista-galli , H8

    R. groenlandicus , H2, H3, H8

    R. oblongifolius , H2, H3, H4, H7

            LENTIBULARIACEAE (A4; H6)

            Pinguicula villosa , A2, A6, H2, H3, H8

    P. vulgaris , A2, A6, A7, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    Utricularia intermedia , H3

    U. minor , A3, H8

    U. ochroleuca , A2, A3, H3

    U. vulgaris , H2(?), H8(?)

    020      |      Vol_VI-0168                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

            PLANTAGACEAE (A1; H2)

            Plantago juncoides , A2, A3, A4, A6, H2, H7, H8

    P. major , H8

            RUBIAECEAE (A1; H3)

            Galium brandegeei , H7

    G. labradoricum , A3, H2, H7, H8

    G. trifidum , H7 H8

            CAPRIFOLIACEAE (A2; H4)

            Lonicera villosa , A6, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    Linnaea borealis , A2, A3, A6, H1, H2, H7, H8

    Viburnum acerifolium , H2

    V. edule , H2, H3, H7, H8

            VALERIANACEAE (H1)

            Valeriana septentrionalis , H2

            CAMPANULACEAE (A2; H2)

            Campanula rotundifolia , A3, A6, A7, H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    C. uniflora , A2, A3, A6, H2, H8

            LOBELIACEAE (H1)

            Lobelia dortmanna , H8

            COMPOSITAE (A35; H50)

            Solidago macrophylla , A2, A3, A6, H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    S. multiradiata , A4, A6, A7, H2, H3, H4, H7 H8

    S. uliginosa , H2(?)

    Aster foliaceus , H8

    A. longifolius , H2

    A. memoralis , H8

    A. novi-belgii , H8

    A. puniceus , H2, H7, H8

    A. radula , H2, H8

    Erigeron elatus , H2, H4

    E. eriocephalus , H1

    E. humlis , A2, A3

    E. unalaschensis , A6, A7

    Antennaria augustata , A2, A3, A6, H4

    A. canadensis , H8

    A. canescens , A2, A3 A6, H1 H8

    A. hudsonica , A6

    A. isolepis , A2, A6, H2, H4, H8

    A. labradorica , A2, A6, H3

    A. neglecta , H2

    A. petaolidea , H8

    A. pygmaea , A6, H1

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            A. rousseauii , A2, A3, A7

    A. ungavensis , A2 A3, H3

    Gnaphalium norvegicum , A6, H2

    G. supinum , A2, A6 H7

    G. uliginosum , H8

    Achillea borealis , H7, H8

    A. lanulosa , H7

    A. millefolium , A2, H2, H8

    A nigrescens , H1, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    A. ptarmica , H8

    Matricaria inodora , A2, H2, H8

    Chrysanthemum arcticum , A2, H2

    Tanacetum huronense , A2, H2

    Artemisia borealis , A2, A6, H2, H3, H7, H8

    Petasites palmatus , A2, A3, H2, H3, H7, H8

    P. sagittatus , A2, H2, H3, H7

    P. trigonophyllus , A2, H2, H3

    Arnica alpina , A6, H7

    A. attenuata , H2

    A. terrae-novae , A6

    A. plantaginea , A2, A3, A4, A6, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    Senecio congestus , A2, A6, H2, H7, H8

    Senecio indecorus , (A6(?)

    S. pauciflorum , A3, A6, A7, H2, H3, H4, H7, H8

    S. pauperculus , H2(?)

    S. pseudo-arnica , H8

    S. vulgaris , H8

    Taraxacum ceratophorum , A2, A3, H2, H8

    T. hyperboreum , A2

    T. lacerum , A2, A3, A4, A6, H2, H7, H8

    T. lapponicum , A2, A6, A7, H2, H3, H7, H8

    T. phymatocarpum , A2

    T. pseudonorvegicum , H3

    T. russeolum , H3

    T. umbrinum , A2, A3

    Crepis nana , A6

    Hieracium canadense , H2

    H. groenlandicum , H8

            TOTAL . The total gives 325 species (belonging to 47 families) for the

    arctic parts of Quebec and Labrador studied in this article, and 551 species

    (belonging to 61 families) for hemiarctic Quebec and Labrador. To give a true

    picture, we should add to the arctic species those tabulated for section A1 and

    022      |      Vol_VI-0170                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    A5, described in this Encyclopedia by Polunin (See “Canadian Eastern Arctic”).

    These two sections will add only a few species not tabulated here.

            It will be noted that weeds are particularly common in section H8, the

    southern Labrador coast, probably on account of the more numerous contacts with

    Europe, Newfoundland, and the St. Lawrence Valley.

            The most important families in arctic and hemiarctic Quebec and Labrador

    are the following, the percentage being that of the total phanerogamic flora

    in the zone considered:


    (Total 325 species)

    (total 551 species)
    Cyperaceae 13.8% 13.6%
    Gramineae 9.0% 9.5%
    Juncaceae 3.4% 3.3%
    Salicaceae 3.4% 4.4%
    Caryophyllaceae 8.3% 5.0%
    Ranunculaceae 4.0% 2.9%
    Cruciferae 5.5% 3.8%
    Saxifragaceae 4.9% 3.6%
    Rosaceae 3.7% 5.6%
    Ericaceae 4.0% 3.6%
    Scrophulariceae 4.0% 3.3%
    Compositae 10.8% 9.1%

            If we put together the most important families of the territories studied,

    the Cyperaceae, Gramineae, and Compositae, the total is 109 arctic species

    and 177 hemiarctic species, respectively, 33.5% of the arctic flora and 32.1%

    of the hemiarctic flora tabulated here.



            In the arctic zone proper, coniferous trees or any others, except for

    scrubby dicotyledons, are entirely absent. Instead of a forest covering, a

    dwarf and largely herbaceous or cryptogamous — often discontinuous — set

    of communities occurs. Although arctic Quebec is the most southerly arctic

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    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    region, it is less known botanically than the more northerly portions of the

    Canadian Eastern Arctic.


    Subdivisions of Arctic Quebec and Labrador

            It is still premature, with the information now on hand, to attempt to

    characterize the phytogeographical districts of the Quebec-Labrador arctic

    area. For the sake of convenience the zone could be divided into districts,

    based mainly upon the hydrographic systems. Two of the districts (A1 and A5)

    have been studied by Polunin in his article “Canadian Eastern Arctic.” Of the

    five remaining groups, two will be described in greater detail, viz. the Kogaluk

    and Payne regions. They have been chosen because they represent important sec–

    tors of arctic Quebec and we well known to the author.

            Northernmost Quebec (A1). In this region, north of 60° N. latitude, the

    main river system is the Povungnituk. The botanical surveys cover mainly the

    seashore and McGill Lake in the interior.

            Kogaluk Region (A2). This district, belonging to the Hudson Bay drainage

    system, lies between 60° N. latitude and the limit of trees north of Lake Minto.

    The main river is the Kogaluk, surveyed for the first time in 1948 by the author

    (Rousseau 1948 B and 1949, Aubert de la Rüe 1949-50, Gadbois 1949).

            Payne River Region (A3). This is in the Ungava Bay drainage system,

    between 60° N. latitude and the limit of trees a few miles north of Leaf River.

    The most important hydrographic system in the region is Payne River, having its

    source in Payne Lake, a lake sixty miles long.

            South Shore of Ungava Bay (A4). For some miles inland, the southern shore

    of Ungava Bay is treeless. On the whole, the region is poorly known.

            Port Burwell Region (A5). This is the northernmost part of Labrador and

    northeastern Quebec, north of 60° N. latitude.

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    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

            Labrador Arctic Lobe (A6). South of the preceding region, this part of

    the country, destitute of forest, extends as far south as 56° N. latitude, and

    embraces the highlands of northern Labrador and northeastern Quebec. The sec–

    tor begins east of George River. In certain bays between Hebron and Port

    Manners are found northern outposts of the coniferous subarctic forest. They

    would better be considered as parts of section H8 (Labrador Hemiarctic coast).

            Belcher Islands and Other Islands of Eastern Hudson Bay (A7).


    The Kogaluk and Payne Regions

            Before the author’s exploration of the Kogaluk and the Payne, only the

    lowest parts of these rivers were known. Low (41) had visited the mouth of te

    Kogaluk, Todd (97) and Doutt had traveled about 25 miles inland from its mouth.

    As for Flaherty (22), his explorations extended from Ungava Bay to the North

    Payne, which might well bear the name of Flaherty River. The first botanical

    survey of the territory, as well as the first exploration of the Kogaluk and

    Payne rivers, was accomplished in 1948 (5; 74; 81). Accompanying the author

    were Edgar Aubert de la Rűe, geologist, Jean Michea, ethnographer and archaeolo–

    gist, Pierre Gadbois, geographer, and four Montagnais Indians from Seven Islands.

            Topography and Geology . The geographical features (topography, geology,

    hydrography, mete o rology and soil) are described briefly and only as far as the

    comprehension of plant habitat demands. The entire region is pre-Cambrian and

    formed of granitic and gneissic material with the exception of the Payne Bay

    post vicinity where shaly rock is found. The whole, an undulated plain worn

    away by the Quarternary glacier, is covered by numerous boulders and dotted by

    innumerable lakes. On the Hudson Bay slope, the terrain is low and flat, with

    only a few small hills. Between the Kogaluk and Payne systems is a broken

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    country with summits of approximately 400 to 600 feet. Around Payne Lake,

    the country is as level as long the Kogaluk system. The farther the Payne

    is descended, the more hilly is the sourrounding country.

            Hydrography . The Kogaluk and Payne rivers are quite different in aspect.

    Th [ ?] e first is more or less a chain of Quaternary lakes separated by falls and

    having only a few small affluents. There are no falls or cascades on the Payne;

    the rapids, however, are numerous, the majority of which need no portages when

    following the current. The affluents of the Payne are much more numerous than

    those of the Kogaluk. In spite of the rapidity of the current of the Payne,

    aquatic Ranunculi establish themselves in the river to a depth of five to ten

    feet. The color of the water, as viewed from the air, varies occasionally.

    The light green of the lakes and rivers, no doubt, is due mainly to the pig–

    mentation extracted from decaying Cladonia . Some lakes are of a dark green,

    almost black, a color produced by the presence of various algae. In swift

    rivers, the dark green lines of the bottom are caused by the feathery nature

    of aquatic Ranunculi . Only a few lakes are of a milky color. On Anticosti

    Island, the author noticed that this color was caused by marly bottoms. In

    northern Ungava, the same appearance must be owing to a clayey bottom, as clay

    formations are present here and there. The circumstances of the trip did not

    allow time to ascertain whether other factors may possibly be responsible for

    the production of such conditions.

            Meteorology . The only meteorological data from the interior in this

    area are those from the year 1948, a particularly early summer. The lakes

    had already thawed out before July 14. Two years earlier, Payne Lake was

    still a mass of ice on July 23, as may be judged from an aerial photograph.

    In the summer of 1948 a temperature of 88°F. was read during the day, and

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    at night it frequently remained as high as 60°F. only two nights, during

    the first half of August, the t h ermometer dipped to 30° 32° and there was a light

    frost. Based upon such records, the isotherm for the summer of 1948 would

    be decidedly over 50°F. (10°C). If such conditions recurred for a few years,

    the vegetation no doubt would change, and even spruces could well introduce

    themselves. But the summer of 1948 was extreme, and the normal summer isotherm

    calculated over a period of twenty years would certainly give a much lower

    figure. Near Hudson Bay there were no snow patches in the middle of July. On

    the Kogaluk three patches were observed; in the valley between the Kogaluk and

    Payne systems, none whatsoever. Near the Payne estuary there were still some

    in the middle of August, which apparently persisted from one winter to the next.

    The condition of vegetation in many habitats revealed the presence of snow

    patches under normal conditions, but with the exceedingly warm and dry summer

    recorded, their disappearance in 1948 required no further explanation. Further–

    more, the differences in climatic and physiographic conditions between the

    neighborhood of Hudson Bay, the center of the peninsula, and the neighborhood

    of Ungava Bay, justifies the persistence of more numerous snow patches in the

    Ungava Bay region. We may assume that in the immediate vicinity of Hudson and

    Ungava bays, the maritime climate allows for a greater precipitation in winter

    than in the interior, say between Payne Lake and Tasiak Lake. In summer, the

    proximity of the sea favors the maintenance of a lower temperature along the

    Hudson Bay and Ungava Bay coasts; consequently snow patches melt easily in

    the center rather than near the shore. Near the mouth of the Kogaluk, where

    the climate favors the preservation of snow patches, there are practically no

    sheltered places where snow could be protected. Such places are more numerous

    toward Ungava Bay. The factors conditioning the accumulation and conservation

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    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    of snow patches inevitably will have some influence upon the vegetation. In

    the tundra, strong winds prevail and are sometimes sever enough to prevent

    canoe portage. When the sky is overcast the wind is cold, but after a few

    consecutive days of sunshine the wind has the warmth of hot air from a furnace

    and has a highly dehydrating capacity. This has a manifest effect upon the

    lichen polygons.

            Soil . Bare rock surfaces are numerous, but the areas covered or [ ?] by

    vegetation or at least by soil predominate. Among the sediments, mention

    must be made of sand and clay loams of glacial origin, and also of marine

    origin. The latter are on the Hudson Bay side where at least two fossiliferous

    terraces were found at the first falls of any importance, twenty miles inland

    (2). No fossils were observed along terraces of the Payne estuary. If they

    are of fluviomarine origin, as they appear to be, this does not necessarily

    mean that they were built during an azoic period. In fact, even today, although

    the Kogaluk and Payne flow through a “living” country and harbor a rich ichthyo–

    logical fauna (considered from the point of view of quantityt), neither mollusk

    shells nor fish skeletons were observed along the river beaches, except in the

    regions of brackish estuary. In addition to the sand and clay formations of

    glacial or fluviomarine origin, a thin humic soil is formed on rock by the de–

    composition of vegetation. Depressions are sometimes filled with peat. Cli–

    matic conditions are responsible for the following modifications of the soil;

    solifluction, soil polygons, tundra ostioles, and ochreous holes.

            Tundra and Peat Bogs . Leandri in 1948 (40), following von Bulow in 19 3 2 9,

    considers the tundra as a type of peat bog which receives its water from the

    permafrost. It is to be noted that plants of peat bogs and the tundra are to

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    a certain extent the same, as for instance Ledeum groenlandicum and other members

    of the family. If to classify a habitat as a peat bog we rely mainly on erica–

    ceous elements, dry quartzite hills of Nova Scotia would be peat bogs, because

    Ledum groenlandicum and Kalmia angustifolia are found in such habitats as well,

    accompanied by other plants such as Drosera rotundifolia , D. intermedia , Viola

    lancelo [ ?]lata , and even Sarracenia purpurea , when the roots have had a chance to

    establish themselves in small pockets of humid Sphagnum . Nor is the presence

    of a subsoil of organic matter the main character, since such subsoils are found

    in all the drained forests which have nothing at all to do with peat bogs.

            It is often in the driest sections of the tundra that peat-bog elements

    are the most characteristic. The main element on the surface in the Kogaluk and

    Payne regions is often a mixture of lichens of the genus Cladonia which are popu–

    larly known as “caribou moss.” These, with some of their associates, should be

    considered as floristic elements of dry habitats rather than of peat bogs. If

    they occur in peat bogs, it is only in the driest sections. Typical peat bog

    normally increases in thickness, which is not the case with the tundra, where

    the coat of organic matter over the permafrost is generally thin. Although

    there is water in the tundra subsoil, resulting from the melting of icy loam,

    the surface itself generally remains dry and more exposed to oxidation than the

    permanently watered humus in peat bogs. Of course, in certain parts of the

    tundra, there could be peat bogs owing to the accumulation of humus in poorly

    drained depressions, but we should not lump the dry tundra with the peat bog.

            The word “tundra” asks also for supplementary precision, as it really has

    two meanings. It could apply to the whole of the arctic region which is destitute

    of trees. In this sense, it is [ ?] i n opposition to the forested regions and covers

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    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    all lakes, rivers, and the tidal zone, as well as arctic meadows. It is then

    a region. Likewise, when considering the “boreal forest,” from a climatic

    point of view and not as a forest, we include in this term the lakes, rivers,

    peat bogs, and the true forest. The second meaning of tundra is that of the

    localized habitat, either dry or humid, of the arctic region discussed in the

    first part of this paragraph. Consequently, in the tundra considered as a

    region we find the following habitats: dry and humid tundra (in the restricted

    sense) peat bogs, lakes, rivers, brooks, shores, tidal flats, rocky exposures,

    and so on. In this article, “tundra” is employed only in the restricted sense.

            Solifluction and Marshy Areas . The upper limit of the permafrost, in this

    sector, in 1948, lies at a depth of 15 to 18 inches in the clayey areas entirely

    covered by vegetation, according to Gadbois’ observations (23). When a slight

    slope occurs, the surface soil with its cover of water-soaked vegetation will

    slide a little after thawing. The phenomenon of solifuction is responsible for

    the establishment of marshes made of the more or less parallel bands of vegeta–

    tion so distinctive in appearance when viewed from the air (81).

            Soil Polygons . Of considerable interest also are the wide soil polygons,

    so common south of Leaf River, but also present in the Kogaluk-Payne territory.

    The oversized polygons are composed mainly of a whitish carpet of Cladonia sur–

    rounded by a shrubby border of Betula glandulosa, Salix and other small scrubby

    plants, like Empetrum nigrum and Vaccinium vitis-idaea var. minus . Their forma–

    tion could well be the same as that of reticulate soils denuded of vegetation,

    which consist of polygons with a border of pebbles larger than those in the

    center. The steps in the construction of these polygons are apparently the fol–

    lowing: The soils impregnated with water expand with the first frosts; with

    the very low temperatures in winter, there is a contraction and the soil covering

    030      |      Vol_VI-0178                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    is cut into polygons. With a thawing of the surface, the border of the polygon

    is partly washed, in consequence of which a reticulate superficial ditch is

    produced. This ditch, in the summer, favors the concentration of humidity, and

    the shrubs will grow there more easily than in the dry center (78).

            Tundra Ostioles (Fig. 2). Where the soil is clayey, another phenomenon

    occurs, which has some bearing on the vegetation. This results in the produc–

    tion of numerous clay holes, from which, in the summer, water and plastic clay

    exude. In small areas, there may be sometimes thousands of them. On account

    of their resemblance, when seen from the air, with the stomata ostioles on a

    surface of a leaf, the name of “tundra ostiole” was proposed (78). Their

    formation could be explained as follows: when the clayey loam impregnated

    with water freezes at the beginning of winter, the soil is not immediately

    entirely frozen to the depth of the permafrost, but it must subsist for some

    time as an unfrozen layer between two icy strata. The intermediate unfrozen

    layer starts to freeze and there is a first expansion. The expansive strength

    developed between the superficial layer and the pressure finds a value in the

    weak spots. Some clay is pushed outside like the contents of a bottle of milk

    left to freeze or a tube of tooth paste under pressure. The plants disturbed

    in this area are exposed to be killed by frost. In spring, there will be a

    more or less circular lifeless spot. Because the soil has no vegetation cover–

    ing this spot, the soil thaws out more easily, and the water circulating between

    the mud cracks will exude there, with some clay. The surface of the ostiole

    is convex at first, owing to the internal pressure of the clay exudation, but

    when in time it becomes concave, water accumulates in the concavity and algae

    develop, mainly

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    Gloeocapsa alpicola Schizothrix lacustris
    Gleocystis grevillei S. purcellii
    Nostoc commune Scytonema myochrous
    N. macrosporum Stigonema ocellatum

    Among the first phanerogams to ccupy these holes is Juncus albescens . The

    tundra ostiole, although distinct from the ingo (Possild 1938) is a related


            Ochreous Holes . Of different origin are the reddish holes in the tundra,

    of common occurrence between Fort Chimo and Payne Bay, which were named

    ochreous holes (78). They are absolutely lifeless and are of interest to the

    vegetation from a negative point of view. Unlike tundra ostioles, the ochreous

    pits are neither round nor oval, but of diverse shapes. They are not formed

    on movable soil but in places where the vegetation lies directly on gneissic

    rock. The superficial holes contain angular or acicular pieces of rock, and,

    because of their concave nature, water. It is not easy to known whether the

    saucer-shaped holes are caused by the superficial breakage of limited portions

    of the mother rock, on account of its contraction in winter, but the angular

    and acicular pebbles owe their origin to frost. The pits are coated with ochre

    which apparently comes from the pyrotine of the subjacent rock. By oxidation,

    the pyrotine gives iron oxide (the base of ochre), sulfuric acid and hydrosul–

    furic acid. The acids are toxic to plants and account for the lack of vegeta–

    tion. The oxidation of pyrotine is perhaps also facilitated by some micro–

    organism, a point which the author has not been able to verify.

            Cladonia Polygons (Fig. 1). These polygons have nothing to do with reti–

    culate soil or with the soil polygons discussed above. They have no relation

    to soil modifications and are of interest only for their actual vegetation cover.

    The Cladonia , popularly caribou moss, which constitute the most important

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    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    elements of the tundra and the taiga, form extensive whitish carpets which,

    from a distance, look like a covering of snow. In the early morning, when

    they are imgregnated with dew, they constitute a continuous mattress and are

    as soft as moist sponges; but when the sun heats the soil they become crisp

    and breakable. At the same time, with the evaporation of the dew under the

    sun’s action, they contract and the carpets divide for the whole day into a

    number of polygonal “tiles.” The next night, with a fresh covering of dew,

    the “floor” softens and spreads out again into a continuous carpet, which

    divides again when it is dried by the sun. In many places this phenomenon,

    as unnoticeable as the tide, occurs daily. However, in some parts of the

    tundra, in especially dry places, there is not enough condensation at night

    to produce any effect. This happens particularly in places which are contin–

    uously swept by a dry, warm wind. With the breaking of the crests of the tiles

    and the coming of rain there will be no resultant continuous carpet of Cladonia ,

    but a rugose surface with the appearance of a gigantic piece of morocco leather.

    These polygons generally have a diameter of 30 to 50 centimeters. For such

    polygons, either diurnal or permanent, the name “lichen polygons” or better,

    Cladonia polygons ” has been proposed.

            Economic Plants . Among edible plants, we find such berries as the baked–

    apple ( Rubus chamaemorus ), the arctic-alpine blueberry ( Vaccinium uliginosum ),

    the mountain cranberry ( V. vitis-idaea ), the rare cranberry ( V. oxycoccos ) and

    in emergencies the less palatable bearberry ( Arctostaphylos alpina ) or the crow–

    berry ( Empetrum nigrum ). The only edible roots are those of the alpine knot–

    grass ( Polygonum viviparum ), which have a vague hazelnut flavor, and in some

    other sectors perhaps, but not in the parts surveyed by the author, those of

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    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    the licorice root ( Hedysarum alpinum ), with a licorice-like flavor. The

    yellow root of the woolly lousewort ( Pedicularis lanata ) is eaten much like

    the carrot. Among leafy edible plants, mention must be made of the mountain

    sorrel ( Oxyria digyna ), of relatively poor food value but having a delicious

    acid flavor, the scurry grass ( Cochlearia groenlandica ) rich in vitamin con–

    tent, and the northern fireweed (Epilobium latifolium), which may be prepared

    like spinach. A common edible mushroom is Boletus scaber , but another species

    closely related to it is regarded with some suspicion. The “tripe-de-roche”

    or rock tripe (different species of Umbilicaria or Gyrophora ) give a gelatin–

    ous substance after boiling and cooling off, but in some instances it may be

    necessary to add a pinch of sodium of bicarbonate to counteract its laxative


            Reindeer moss ( Cladonia rangiferina ) and other Cladonia are good fodder

    plants for the caribou (Fig. 3) and eventual herds of reindeer. Forest Indians

    and Eskimos even eat the partially predigested foodstuff taken from animal

    stomachs. The two species of lemmings live on the bark of the arctic birch

    ( Betula glandulosa ) and other vegetable substances; being themselves the staple

    food of the white fox, they are of great economic importance and in fact con–

    trol the fox cycle. As indicated by the stomach contents observed, the willow

    ptarmigan relies mainly upon the leaves of arctic willows as well as on berries

    and other plants (55).

            Fuel of vegetable origin includes the arctic birch ( Betula glandulosa ),

    which because of the resinous matter in the leaves may be used even when

    green; the creeping or rampant willows and alder, when dry, giving only a

    rather poor flam [ ?] and in extreme cases, lichens, although they give a thick

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    white smoke and burn too rapidly. For fuel, the shrubs of the tundra are

    far from inexhaustible (Fig. 4). Depending solely upon them, permanent

    camps with several fires burning at the same time would have some difficulty

    in keeping supplied. The heads of arctic cotton ( Eriophorum sp.) are used by

    Eskimos as wicks in their soapstone oil maps. Other plants mainly Sphagnum

    are reported to be employed also for this purpose.

            Coprophytic fungi . In specimens of arctic animal dung brought back by

    the author from the Kogaluk and Payne districts, R. F. Cain found the follow–

    ing fungi. On the dung of Canada goose: Ascobolus stercorarius ; on that of

    the arctic hare, Chaetomium torulosum , Coniochaeta leucoplaca , Delitschia

    marchalii , D. anerswaldii , Sporormia australis , S. corynespora , S. fimetaria ;

    of the lemming, Chaetomium aureum , C. torulosum , C. cochlioides , C. globosum ,

    C. funicolum , Sordaria fimicola , and a new species belonging to an undescribed

    genus; of the caribou, Chaetomium aureum , C. torulosum , C. cochlioides , C. globo

    sum , and Coniochaeta discospora .

            Tundra Fires . Among the factors conditioning the tundra, none has such

    importance as fire. During the day, when lichens are dry, a fire starts easily.

    In only a few hours it can entirely destroy the vegetable cover and the humic

    surface litter, leaving in its place bare rocks where a new crop of vegetation

    will establish itself only in the course of time. It may take centuries in

    some cases to return to the former stage. With the destruction of the tundra,

    the disappearance of the lemming ensues, and consequently that of the white

    fox, as well as that of the caribou and the ptarmigan.


    Sectors of the Kogaluk and Payne Regions

            If we divide the arctic zone into high-arctic and low-arctic, the low–

    arctic would no doubt apply to the Quebec-Labrador peninsula. The Kogaluk

    035      |      Vol_VI-0183                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    and Payne river regions could naturally be divided into the following sectors:

    ( 1 ) entrance of the Kogaluk and adjacent territory on the Hudson Bay east

    coast; ( 2 ) the Kogaluk from the first rapids to the head of Tasiak Lake; ( 3 )

    the high land between the Kogaluk and Payne river systems. (This last sector

    will overlap the artificial divisions of the Kogaluk and Payne rivers, based

    only on the hydrographic systems, but is convenient for the floristic invent–

    tory.) ( 4 ) the Payne River, from the head of Payne Lake to the tidal zone;

    ( 5 ) the Payne River and adjacent territory on Ungava Bay.


    Entrance of the Kogaluk and Adjoining Coast

            The localities studied were those surrounding the Povungnituk Hudson’s

    Bay Company post and the mouth of the Kogaluk River, sheltered by islands

    from the open water of Hudson Bay.

            Halophitic Formations . At the Povungnituk post, on beaches occasionally

    covered by brackish water, are found an abundance of plants customary in such

    habitats, such as:

            Arenaria peploides var. diffusa

    Elymus arenarius var. villosissimus

    Mertensia maritima var. tenella

    Potentilla egedii var. groenlandica

            There are also other species having no particular halophilous affinity, and

    indicating a rather low degree of salinity, such as:

            Cerastium alpinum

    Chrysanthemum arcticum

    Matricaria inodora var. nana

            Primula laurentiana , which in Anticosti and along the Gaspe coast grows only

    above the shore line; Sagina saginoides and Papaver radicatum , attracted by

    the sandy loose soil; and Saxifraga rivularis f. hyperborea .

    036      |      Vol_VI-0184                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation of in Quebec-Labrador

            Permanent brackish lagoons, soaked by the sea during the spring tides,

    contain two aquatic species, Ranunculus pallasii and R. hyperboreus . Cer–

    tain lagoons such as the large one behind the Povungnituk post, are filled

    with brackish water only in the course of spring tides, being otherwise merely

    humid. There the usual species appropriate to brackish marshes or at least

    saline habitats are found:

            Carex lagopina

    Carex subspathacea

    Juncus albescens

    Plantago juncoides var. decipiens , f. pygmaea

    Primula egaliksensis

            associated with others belonging simply to humid clay or humid soil habitats

    in general. These include

    Carex membranacea Pedicularis hirsuta
    C. rariflora Ranunculus pedatifidus
    Chrysanthemum arcticum Salix arctophila
    Dupontia fisheri f. psilosantha Saxifraga cernua
    Eriophorum angustifolium S. foliolosa
    Gentiana tenella S. hirculus
    Juncus arcticus S. rivularis
    J. castaneus

            Freshwater Shores . At the entrance of the Kogaluk, behind the screen of

    islands, the huge flow from the Kogaluk washes away nearly all salinity, even

    within the tidal range. The real halophilous elements are missing excepting

    perhaps Lathyrus japonicus and to a certain degree Primula egaliksensis . Below

    the line of the high normal level, we find:

    Draba nivalis Sagina nodosa f. bulbillosa
    Melandryum affine Saxifraga rivularis
    Primula laurentiana Stellaria laeta
    Sagina intermedia S. monantha

            Above, between the shore line and the edge of the low bank, among the more con–

    spicuous elements, where the lavender of the beach pea and the gold of the Oxy

    tropis dominate, we find:

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    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    Armeria maritima var. labradorica Potentilla palustris
    Draba glabella Primula egaliksensis
    Lathyrus japonicas P. laurentiana
    Luzula spicata Salix arctophila
    Oxytropis maydelliana S. cordifolia
    Parnassia kotzebuei Tanacetum huronense var.

    Pedicularis hirsuta

    Of these plants Lathyrus japonicus and Oxytropis maydelliana have not been

    found in the interior of the peninsula.

            Shore Slopes . Between the shore proper and the dry tundra lies a declivity

    where the soil is naturally more crumbly and allows the growth of species found

    only occasionally in the dry tundra. The most important elements of this habi–

    tat are:

    Antennaria angustata P. labradorica
    A. canescens Phyllodoce caerulea
    Astragalus alpinus Polygenum viviparum
    Campanula uniflora Potentilla chamissonis
    Eutreme edwardsii P. hyparctica
    Erigeron humilis Pyrola grandiflora
    Lycopodium annotinum var. pungens Tanacetum huronense var.

    Melandryum affine
    Oxytropis maydelliana Taraxacum phymatocarpum
    Pedicularis flammea Trisetum spicatum

            Dry Tundra . On the top of the bank, the typical tundra of the coast begins,

    as a slightly undulating meadow intermittently cut by granitic exposures. This

    section of the tundra normally contains three habitats: the dry tundra, the

    ponds, and the humid tundra. In the dry tundra, the base is a carpet of lichens,

    mainly Cladonia alpestris intermixed with Pertusaria panygera , and other lichens

    and mosses. From the carpet emerge three typ e s of plants: erect shrubs approx–

    imately one to two feet high, prostrate shrubs, and herbaceous elements. The

    most important shrubs among the tall and erect ones are:

            Betula glandulosa

    Ledum palustre var. decumbens

    Salix anglorum

    S. planifolia

    038      |      Vol_VI-0186                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    Of these, Betula glandulosa is by far the most important and is the dominating

    ligneous species in the tundra. The very small or completely prostrate shrubs


    Andromeda polifolia Rubus chamaemorus
    Arctostaphylos alpina Salix reticulata var. semicalva
    Cassiope tetragona Vaccinium vitis-idaea var. minus
    Empetrum nigrum V. uliginosum var. alpinum
    Rhododendron lapponicum

            The herbaceous elements consist mainly of the following:

    Arctagrostis latifolia Luzula confusa
    Arenaria rubella L. groenlandica
    Calamagrostis canadensis Lycopodium selago
    Deschampsia caespitosa var. littorale Oxytropis terrae novae
    Diapensia lapponica Pinguicula vulgaris
    Dryas integrifolia Poa arctica
    Dryopteris fragrans Saxifraga oppositifolia
    Dupontia fisheri S. tricuspidata
    Epilobium latifolium Silene acaulis var. exscapa
    Hierochloe alpina Trisetum spicatum agg.

            Of these, Dryopteris fragrans is nearly restricted to the vertical faces of

    rock exposures, Arenaria rubella is often the exclusive element of the surface

    of the most sterile rocks, the Pinguicula grows in damp crevices of the rocks,

    while in the interior it naturally grows in the muddy parts of the tundra. On

    exposed rock, the normal elements are Diapensia , the two Saxifragae , and the

    Silene .

            Tundra Ponds . Of small size, outside of algae, the ponds harbor only

    Hippuris vulgaris , but this paucity of species may well be owing to local con–

    ditions, as we will see by the study of inland examples. Growing among the

    aquatic mosses are the following algae: Gloeocapsa dimidiata , Glaucocystis

    nostochinearum , and Synechococcus aeruginosus . The bottoms of the shallow

    ponds are frequently covered by granular masses of algae, giving the water a

    special green color. In two different ponds, the algae lying under one foot

    039      |      Vol_VI-0187                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    of water were: in the first pond, the association Gloeocapsa alpicola and

    Gloedinium montanum, and, in the second pond, the association Gloeocapsa al–

    and Plectonema nostocorum .

            Humid Tundra . The lasting humidity is owing to the fact that in small

    depressions the water produced by the melting of the permafrost cannot easily

    escape. Nevertheless, this habitat cannot be considered as a peat bog any more

    than can the dry tundra, which contains many of the peat-bog elements that are

    sometimes not found in the humid sections. Here we find:

    Bartsia alpina P. lapponica
    Carex miliaris var. major Poa arctica
    C. subspathacea Ranunculus lapponicus
    Equisetum arvense f. irriguum Salix anglorum
    Eriophorum angustifolium S. herbacea
    E. scheuchzeri Saxifraga aizoides
    Habenaria obtusata var. collecteana Tofieldia pusilla
    Pedicularis flammea Vaccinium uliginosum var. alpinum

            Damp rock surfaces . On the granitic rocks over which a thin film of water

    flows, algal communities occur, such as:

    Coccochloris stagnina f. rupestris Schizothrix lacustris
    Gloeocapsa alpicola Scytonema crustaceum
    Nostoc commune S. figuratum


    The Kogaluk River to Tasiak Lake

            The river, having an approximate length of 100 miles, may be described

    as more or less a series of lakes, formed by glacial knolls which empty by

    falls and rarely by rapids. Generally the narrow portion of river which unites

    two lakes is rather swift, but does not itself contain any true rapids. The

    shores of the Kogaluk are either narrow strips of gravelly and sandy beaches,

    or accumulations of boulders, with occasional stretches of rock exposure.

    These are the normal conditions at the more than twenty falls which cut the

    040      |      Vol_VI-0188                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    river from its source to its mouth. On either side of the river normally

    lies undulating tundra where dry formations alternate with humid formations

    and rock exposures. In a few localities the shores are slightly hilly, but

    with elevations rarely more than 100 or 200 feet higher than the river. In

    several spots also, a vertical granitic cliff with a loose basal slope con–

    stitutes a habitat inviting species of peculiar requirements. We will rapidly

    pass in review the different habitats.

            Flowing Water . Only two cascular species are found in the river’s water:

    Hippuris vulgaris f. fluviatilis and Ranunculus trichophyllus f. eradicatus .

    They constitute the occasional feathery growth found at the river’s bottom

    from its mouth to the source.

            Shores of the River (Fig. 5). Inundated over a part of the year, the

    shores do not harbor many elements of the grassy tundra. A few having an af–

    finity for wet habitats, such as Rubus chamaemorus , will establish themselves

    occasionally in company of sand-loving elements, such as Arenaria rubella ,

    Armeria maritima var. labradorica , and Empetrum nigrum . These are often found

    in dry habitats, but can tolerate a short annual submersion, especially before

    the definite start of the growing season. Among the shore elements the most

    striking feature in the 75 miles of the lower Kogaluk is the complete absence

    of Alnus . East of this point is found the first grove of Alnus crispa , about

    six feet high, along one of the very rare rivulets flowing into the Kogaluk.

    The plant then becomes more and more common along the shoreline and the embank–

    ment, where it generally ranges in height from one to three feet. Amongst the

    Antennaria , a new species A. rousseauii , described by A. E. Porsild (60), re–

    veiled itself to be common, not only along the Kogaluk and the Payne, but also

    041      |      Vol_VI-0189                                                                                                                  
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    along the George, surveyed the year before by Rousseau. No doubt it is as

    common an Ungava element as A. angustata , A. canescens , and A. isolepis . The

    flora of the shore, where Cardamine bellidiflora and Tanacetum huronense var.

    monocephalum are perhaps the most characteristic elements, may be summarized

    as follows:

    Agrostis borealis L. wahlenbergii
    Alnus crispa Lycopodium annothum var. pungens
    Antennaria angustata O [ ?] xyria diagyna
    A. canescens Oxytropis terrae-novae
    A. isolepis Parnassia kotzebuei
    Arenaria rubella Poa arctica
    Armeria maritima var. labradorica Potentilla palustris var. parviflora
    Arnica plantaginea P. palustris var. villosa
    Bartsia alpina P. tridentata
    Calamagrostis canadense var. arcta Primula egaliksensis
    Campanula uniflora Ranunculus pygmaeus
    Cardamine bellidifolia R. reptans
    Carex bigelowii Rubus acaulis
    C. bigelowiii f. anguillata R. chamaemorus
    C. brunnescens Salix arctophila
    C. lagopina var. debilis S. cordifolia var. callicarpaea
    C. rariflora S. herbacea
    C. tenuiflora S. planifolia
    Cassiope hypnoides S. reticulata var. semicalva
    Cerastium alpinum Saxifraga cespitosa f. uniflora
    C. berringianum S. hirculus
    Deschampsia caespitosa Sibbaldia procumbens
    D. flexuosa Silene acaulis var. exscapa
    Elymus arenarius var. villosus Solidago macrophylla var. thyrsoidea
    Empetrum nigrum Stellaria crassipes
    Erigeron humilis Tanacetum huronense var. monocephalum
    Festuca brachyphylla Taraxacum ceratophorum
    Gnaphalium supinum T. lacerum
    Hierochloe alpina Trisetum spicatum agg.
    Juncus filiformis var. pusillus Vaccinium uliginosum var. alpinum
    Luzula groelandica V. vitis-idaea var. minus
    Veronica alpina var. unalaschensis

            In a spring oozing from the gravelly shores, the algal flora contains among

    other species, Microspora stagnorum and Mougeotia parvula . Although lichens,

    for the major part, are plants of dry habitats, Buellia occidentalis (which

    grows also on the humid ostioles as well as on dry granitic rocks), is a common

    042      |      Vol_VI-0190                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    species on boulders of the shore submerged under one to three feet of water

    during the spring and the first part of summer. Also Cetaria hepatizon is a

    common inhabitant of the undersides of the shore-line boulders. The bryophytic

    flora of the gneissic and granitic rocks of the shore contains Tetraplodon

    mniodes .

            Shore Embankment . Many of the preceding species may grow on shore embank–

    ments and are not necessarily characteristic of the low areas. Such is the

    case with species of the preceding list belonging to the generae Alnus, Anten–

    , Armeria, Arnica, Erigeron, Lycopodium, Oxytropis, Oxyria, Parnassia,

    Rubus, Salix, Sibbaldia, Trisetum , and Vernoica , which contain the majority of

    the species in the preceding list. Accompanying these are Arctostaphylos alpina ,

    Carex capitata , Phyllodoce coerulea , and some others which are simply escaping

    from the dry tundra crowning the bank. The species most typical of embankments


    Astragalus alpinus P. lapponica
    Campanula uniflora Polygonum viviparum
    Cornus suedica Potentilla hyparctica
    Dryopteris fragrans Primula laurentiana
    Epilobium angustifolium f. intermedium Saxifraga rivularis
    Equisetum arvense var. boreale Senecio palustris var. congestus
    Luzula wahlenbergii Stellaria calycantha
    Papaver radicatum Taraxacum lapponicum
    Pedicularis flammea

            Of these, Papaver radicatum , the Primula , and Senecio palustris var. congestus

    do not apparently penetrate more than twenty miles into the interior. Sometimes

    the shore embankments are almost devoid of vegetation, showing only a few green

    spots where Betula glandulosa dominates.

            Dry Tundra in the Lowlands . This is approximately the same as the tundra

    in the maritime district at the entrance of the Kogaluk, but some elements like

    Oxytropis maydelliana are definitely absent. The shrubs are the thirteen species

    043      |      Vol_VI-0191                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    already mentioned for the entrance of the Kogaluk, with Betula glandulosa

    dominating and accompanied by such important additions as Ledum groelandicum ,

    Salix herbacea , S. uva-ursi and S. brachycarpa (Fig. 6). The more or less

    herbaceous elements are mainly:

    Bartsia alpina Lycopodium selago
    Campanula uniflora Pedicularis Flammea
    Carex bigelowii Phyllodoce coerulea
    C. capitata Polygonum viviparum
    C. holostoma Pyrola grandiflora
    Cassiope hypnoides Rubus chamaemorus
    Cornus suecica Saxifraga cernua
    Diapensia lapponica S. tricuspidata
    Dryas integrifolia Silene acaulis var. exscapa
    Epilobium latifolium Taraxacum umbrinum
    Equisetum arvense var . boreale Tofieldia pusilla
    Eriophorum rousseauianum Veronica alpina var.

    E. spissum

            Among these elements of the dry tundra, we notice such plants as the Eriophorum

    which normally belong to moist habitats. This may be explained as follows:

            Cladonia alpestris

    C. coccifera

            and other lichens such as:

            Electoria ochroleuca

    Cetraria nivalis

            and Icmadophila ericetorum , and among phanerogams, Saxifraga tricuspidata ,

    Diapensia lapponica , and Silene acaulis . It is also a wet habitat to plants

    which, like Eriophoru [l ?]m , have a root system penetrating deeply into the soil,

    to a depth where the icy subsoil, continuously melting, creates a marshy condi–

    tion. Boletus scaber is the most common mushroom in the tundra, and Amanitopsis

    vaginata is also frequent.

            Highland Exposures . The highlands are only rocky hills about 100 to 200

    feet higher than the river. They are partly the same as those mentioned in

    044      |      Vol_VI-0192                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    the preceding paragraph, except that we must draw attention to the presence

    [ ?] of species, such as Cardamine bellidifolia , which are quite an important

    element along sandy shores, and a few species which have not been found near

    the Hudson Bay shore. An example of these last is Anemone richardsoni . The

    plants of rocky hills are:

    Anemone richardsoni Festuca brachyphlla
    Arenaria humifusa Hierochloe alpina
    Antennaria angustata Juncus albescens
    Calamagrostis canadensis Luzula confusa
    Cardamine bellidifolia L. parviflora
    Cerastium alpinum L. wahlenbergii
    Carex bigelowii Pedicularis lapponica
    C. brunnescens Poa arctica
    C. capitata P. glauca
    C. saxatilis Potentilla chamissonis
    C. saxatilis var. laxa

    (syn. C. procerula )
    Phyllodoce caerulea
    Pyrola grandiflora
    Cassiope tetragona Salix herbacea
    Cystopteris fragilis S. planifolia
    Diapensia lapponica Saxifraga foliolosa
    Draba fladnizensis S. rivularis
    Dryopteris fragrans S. nivalis
    Epilobium angustifolium

    f. intermedium
    Silene acaulis var. exscapa
    Solidago macrophylla var. thyrosoidia
    Eriophorum spissum Taraxacum lacerum
    Euphrasia arctica Vaccinium uliginosum var. pubescens

            On humid hills two important mosses are Preissia quadrata and Sphagnum girgen–


            Humid Tundra . Many of the elements of the dry tundra will likewise appear

    in this section, mainly Rhododendron lapponicum , Andromeda polifolia , Vaccinium

    uliginosum , and Salix planifolia ,-but the most characteristic elements in the

    humid sections of the tundra are:

    Agrostis borealis E. spissum
    Arnica plantaginea Habenaria obtusata var. collectanea
    Bartsia alpina Pinguiscula villosa
    Carex rotundata P. vulgaris
    C. salina Potentilla Palustris var. villosa
    C. tenuiflora Rhododendron lapponicum
    Cornus suecica Salix arctophila
    Eriophorum angustifolium Tofieldia pusilla

    045      |      Vol_VI-0193                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

            Humid Slopes at the Base of Cliffs . Different from the humid parts of

    the low tundra are the gravelly slopes at the base of cliffs or under a neve,

    from which water continuously oozes. Some of the elements are those of the

    shore embankment, probably because that habitat, as far as irrigation goes,

    is about the same ;e others are typical of the rocky exposures. On account of

    the crevices through which water continually trickles, some of these gravelly

    slopes are really moist habitats. Here are the main species:

    Anemone richardsoni Pedicularis lapponica
    Cardamine bellidifolia Petasites palmatus
    Cerastium alpinum Pinguicula villosa
    C. arvense Poa arctica
    Cystopteris fragilis Ranunculus nivalis
    Draba nivalis R. pygmaeus
    Luzula confusa Rubus acaulis
    L. wahlenbergii Saxifraga cernua
    Lycopodium selago S. rivularis
    Oxyria digyna Veronica alpina var. unalaschensis

            Tundra Ponds . Compared with the small ponds studied at the entrance of

    the Kogaluk, the tundra ponds here are richer and contain:

    Carex aquatilis var. stans R. gmelini var. hookeri
    Hippuris vulgaris Sparganium hyperboreum
    Ranunculus pallasii Utricularia ochroleuca

            Among algae are found Gloeocapsa dimidiata and Ophrydium sp. parasitized by

    Zoochlorella parasitica . In the muddy sections, Plectonema nostocorum , Ana–

    cystis firma
    and Desmonema wrangelii grow amongst decaying Stigonema . In places

    Gloeocystis grevillei may cover the surface of the dried ponds, while the liver–

    wort Gymnocolea inflata grows in the ponds.

            Alpine Gullies . In a way, the flora of these is somewhat related to that

    of low shore embankments, and of the tundra itself. Some elements, however, like

    Epilobium hornemanni , Cardamine pratensis var. angustifolia , Carex lagopina , and

    Solidago macrophylla var. thyrsoidea , seem to show a preference for this type of

    046      |      Vol_VI-0194                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    habitat where snow lasts longer, and which, in the absence of real brooks,

    may constitute an outlet for the tundra toward the main stream. If there is

    a flowing rivulet, its bed is generally occupied by Viola pallens . Some of

    these inland depressions are true centers of accumulated snow. The flora

    starts developing only late in the season although sometimes the area becomes

    quite dry. The species which will accept such adverse conditions most easily


    Agrostis borealis Ranunculus allenii
    Antennaria rousseauii Salix anglorum
    Carex canescens Solidago macrophylla var.

    C. lagopina
    C. miliaris Stellaria calycantha
    Cardamine pratensis var. palustris Tanacetum huronense var.

    Cerastium beringianum
    Pedicularis lapponica Trisetum spicatum
    Rubus acaulis

            The characteristic algae of the alpine gullies in rivulets are Lyngbya ochracea

    (also found at Fort Chimo in the same habitat), Microspora stagnorum , Zygnema

    leiospermum , and species of Mougeotia and Spirogyra , both sterile at the moment

    of gathering. Among funi, Panixa corium grows in the grassy formations.

            Eskers . A very specialized habitat is the esker, consisting of loose soil

    exposed to the sun on both sides, and therefore an exceedingly dry habitat. The

    number of species harbored there is very small, and in some instances on the

    summit there are hardly more than a dozen. The most characteristic are:

    Arctostaphylos alpina Oxytropis terrae-novae
    Betula glandulosa Pedicularis labradorica
    Carex bigelowii Salix uva-ursi
    C. capitata Vaccinium uliginosum var. alpinum
    Empetrum nigrum V. vitis-idaea var. minus

            In these habitats, Betula glandulosa is very small in stature except on the

    slopes (Fig. 3).

    047      |      Vol_VI-0195                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador


    Height of land between the Kogaluk and Payne rivers

            Between Lake Tasiak and the source of the Kogaluk, and the large Payne

    Lake, some 60 miles long, there were about 25 miles to portage (Fig. 7). The

    fact that the canoes were put to use more than 30 times during this interval

    indicates that the country is cut by numerous lakes, and also by small streams.

    Some stretches of water were no more than a few hundred feet long, but a couple

    extended for two or three miles. The whole region is occupied by low hills

    separated by valleys offering a decrease in height from approximately 300 to

    100 feet. The flora is almost the same as along the Kogaluk, and we found

    habitats which approximately correspond to the humid or dry shores, shore em–

    bankment, dry and humid tundra, and, in great abundance, rocky gneissic ex–

    posures. Nevertheless, many species were found which were not previously noted

    along the Kogaluk. This could be attributed to the fact that this lengthy

    portage, lasting over five days, allowed a more exhaustive sampling of the

    flora. The new elements from the shores of small lakes were:

    Antennaria ungavensis C. lagopina
    Carex williamsii Eriophorum angustifolium

            In the dry tundra Loiseleuria procumbens and Taraxacum hyperboreum were observed.

    On the humid slope, where formations of Linnaea borealis and Lycopodium complana–

    and the violets appeared as advanced outposts of the subarctic habitats, the

    following were found:

    Calamagrostis canadensis var. arcta Linnaea borealis var.

    Carex lagopina
    C. norvegica var. inserrulata Lycopodium complanatum

    var. canadense
    C. saltuensis
    C. saxatilis Scirpus caespitosus var.

    Deschampsia atropurpurea
    Juncus biglumis Viola labradorica
    J. castaneus V. selkirkii

            And finally on rocky exposures, Woodsia ilvensis .

    048      |      Vol_VI-0196                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

            Among the noteworthy algae in the ponds are Plectonema nostocorum , Schizo–

    thrix lamyi
    and Stigonema panniforme .

            Zygnema stellinum is an element of the swift brooklets. The depressions

    of the old clayey ostioles contain:

    Gloeocapsa alpicola Nostoc macrosporum
    Gloeocystis grevillei Schizothrix purcellii

            On the humid slope of mountains, Ankistrodesmus spiralis grows with Dicho–

    thrix orsiniana
    and Zygnema sp.

            Lichens are particularly abundant in this habitat. Buellia occidentalis

    is to be noted on the humid clayey ostioles, while the following are found in

    the dry tundra:

    Alectoria jubata C. coccifera
    A. ochroleuca Dactylina arctica
    Cetraria islandica Nephroma arcticum
    C. nivalis Sphaerophorus fragilis
    Cladonia alpestris Stereocaulon alpinum
    C. mitis

            On humid slopes of hills we find:

    Cladonia coccifera Psoroma hypnorum
    C. gracilis var. chordalis Solorina crocea
    Nephroma arcticum Stereocaulon alpinum

            On the granitic rocks in the tundra are:

    Cetraria hiascens Haematomma lapponicum
    Cladonia amaurocraea Parmelia centrifuga
    C. bellidiflora Umbilicaria hyperborea

            In the bryophytic flora of this area, are found among other species, in

    the dry tundra, Rhacomitrium lanuginosum , and on humid slopes of hills, the fol–


    049      |      Vol_VI-0197                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    Aulacomnium palustre Lophozia ventricosa
    Barbilophozia hatcheri Pleurozium schreberi
    Blepharostoma tricophyllum Pohlia nutans
    Calliergonella sarmentosum Polytrichum juniperinum var.

    C. schreberi
    Drepanocladus uncinatus Preissia quadrata
    Dicranum bonjeani Ptilidium cilliare
    D. elongatum Sphagnum compactum
    D. fuscescens S. girgensohnii
    D. scoparium S. robustum
    Fissidens osmundioides Sphenolobus minutes
    Temmoma setiforme

    In the humid border of lakes and ponds are:

    Calliergon sarmentosum Pohlia drummondii
    C. stramineum Preissia quadrata
    Drepanocladus aduncus var. typicus Scapania paludora
    D. exannulatus Sphagnum squarrosum
    D. uncinatus var. typicus Sphenolobus minutus
    Pogonatum alpinum


    Payne River from Source to Estuarine Zone

            This area of the country appears in the interior as a plateau, a few feet

    above the river, but even when the river approaches the coast and becomes lower

    in altitude, the plateau keeps more or less to its old level (Figs 8 and 9). The

    flora does not differ essentially from that already observed along the Payne and

    in the territory lying between the Kogaluk and the Payne, if we note the fact

    that Alnus crispa and Betula glandulosa become more and more luxuriant as we pro–

    ceed eastwards towards Ungava Bay, except below the estuary where they practically

    disappear. Another fact also is the presence of more temperate elements such as:

            Dryopteris disjuncta

    Equisetum sylvaticum var.


    Galium labradoricum

    Petasites palmatus

    Ribes glandulosum

    Vaccinium caespitosum

    050      |      Vol_VI-0198                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

            Other noteworthy species not previously listed for the Kogaluk system

    include the following, growing on gravelly or sandy flats and rare sand dunes:

    Arabis arenicola Carex bicolor
    Arenaria groenlandica Epilobium glandulosum
    Calamagrostis lacustris E. palustre
    C. neglecta Potentilla tridentate
    Campanula rotundifolia Stellaria laeta

            Growing under Alnus crispa groves six to eight feet high on humid soil are:

    Carex miliaris var. aurea Senecio pauciflorus var.

    Coptis groenlandica
    Sagina linnaei Vaccinium oxycoccos

            On humid shores are:

    Chrysosplenium tetrandrum Stellaria longipes and f.

    Eleocharis acicularis
    Pedicularis groenlandica S. monantha and ssp. atlantica
    Ranunculus hyperboreus S. subvestita

            Arctagrostis latifolia grows in tundra depression as well as on the shoreline,

    while Deschampsia atropurpurea inhabits gneissic shores. In dry tundra, Carex

    rupestris grows amid Cladonia , and the fairly common Pedicularis labradorica

    with occasional Oxytropis terrae-novae , Carex membranacea borders cool brooks,

    C. scirpoidea covers the dry roche moutonne e , Sagina caespitosa grows in associa–

    tion with Juncus albescens in the clayey ostioles previously described. Euphrasia

    arctica and Dupontia fisheri f. micrantha grow together on the littoral line.

    Cerastium alpinum is found in the different habitats from the shore to the dry

    tundra. The sandy or gravelly habitats support three varieties of Calamagrostis

    canadensis (var. arcta , var. robusta , var. scabra ), Antennaria rousseauii abounds

    along dry shores and alternates with the extensive formations of Eriophorum

    scheuchzeri in the humid parts. Sometimes a sandy, humid shore is covered with a

    thin, peaty bed in which Ranunculus lapponicus freely establishes itself. Of the

    shore elements, Papaver radicatum , not seen in the interior, reappears a few miles

    051      |      Vol_VI-0199                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    above the brackish estuary. Tanacetum huronense , a characteristic element

    along the Kogaluk, is absent here. in the river itself, to a depth of four

    to eight feet, long threads of Hippuris vulgaris f. fluviatilis and Ranunculus

    s trichophllus , the latter reaching many feet in length, color parts of the

    normally white bed a dark green, as seen through the clear water. Ranunculus

    trichophyllus flowers well even under water, and the petals carried away by

    the current accumulate in some places and form a long band, several inches in

    width, along the shoreline.

            In this territory are found the following algae in the thin film of water

    flowing on the granitic roche moutonee :

    Calothrix parietina Stigonema panniforme
    Gloeocapsa alpicola Synechococcus aeruginosus

            In cold springs filled with Sphagnum , mixed with sterile Mougeotia , Spirogyra , and

    Zygnema , occur Microspora stagnorum and Palmodictyon viride .

            On the still submerged or emerging shore grow:

    Entophysalis brebissonii Schizothrix purcelli
    Microspora stagnorum Scytonema figuratum
    Mougeotia elegantula Stigonema panniforme

            In the tundra ponds grow sterile Mougeotia and Osdogonium , with Microspora

    stagnorum and Oocystis solitaria . Finally on the boulders and caribou horns

    in dry habitats occur:

            Protococcus viridis

    Stichococcus bacillaris

    S. subtilis

            Among the fungi, Boletus scaber is the common mushroom of the dry tundra,

    growing with Calvatia cretacea and Omphalia fibuloides . On the sandy elevations

    there occurs Lycoperdon umbrinum , and on the humid sandy shore, Humarina sp.

    (apparently a new species).

    052      |      Vol_VI-0200                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

            The main lichens encountered in the dry tundra are Cladonia gracilis

    var. elongata , Dactylyna arctica , and those previously mentioned (in similar

    habitats); and, on the granitic rocks of the tundra,

    Buellia occidentalis Umbilicaria cylindrica
    Parmelia centrifuga U. hyperborea
    P. omphaloides U. torrefacta
    Rhizocarpon geographicum

            To elements of the bryophytic flora already mentioned for other parts

    of the territory must be added Polytrichum piliferum , growing on sandy embank–

    ments of the river with Pogonatum capillare .

            Sphagnum lindberggii is found on the gneissic rocks and Dicranoweizia

    crispula on humid slopes in the tundra.


    Payne River Estuary

            From the mouth of the Payne, in Kayak Bay, to the point where the tidal

    current flows inland, the distance is approximately fifty miles. At this point

    there is no trace of rapids at high tides, at which time the shore is submerged

    under brackish water. Beyond this brackish shore lies a zone seldom attained

    by high water, and beyond this a rocky bank, the crest of which is covered by

    tundra when it is not simply a rocky exposure consisting of ferruginous schists

    or serpentine. On either shore of the river the hills reach a few hundred feet

    in height, and bear scattered snow patches which ordinarily last from one winter

    to another (Fig. 10).

            Tidal Zone . Only a few plants inhabit this zone, and some of them do not

    belong exclusively to this habitat. This, for instance, is the case of Armeria

    maritima var. labradorica , usually a plant of sandy areas, and Cardamine belli–

    , a common species of the river shores in the interior. In their company

    grow Arenaria peploides var. diffusa , Carex glareosa , Cochlearia officinalis var.

    053      |      Vol_VI-0201                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    arctica , Plantago juncoides var. decipiens , Puccinellia phryganodes , Poa alpina ,

    Stellaria crassifolia , and occasionally Arctogrostis latifolia . In the normally

    submerged brackish habitat, the most noteworthy algae seem to be Cladophora

    glomerata , Entocladia polymorpha , and Entophysalis brebissonii .

            Shore Above the Tidal Zone . Above the ordinary tidal zone lies a section

    of the shore which is only occasionally reached by water. This usually occurs

    during the high spring tides or after the breakup of ice when the level of the

    river is very high. It is difficult in such circumstances to judge whether the

    action of the brackish water has much influence there. In some sectors the

    beach is habitally humid, and harbors:

    Anemone parviflora Juncus albescens
    Arnica plantaginea J. castaneus
    Carex atrofusca Parnassia kotzebuei
    C. membranacea Salix arctophila
    C. norvegica var. inserrulata S. calcicola
    C. rotundata S. reticulata var. semicalva
    Equisetum variegatum Saxifraga oppositifolia

            Of the preceding the Arnica is frequently infested by Sphaerotheca humuli var.

    fuliginea . On humid clayey slopes of terraces, the dominant element is Sibbaldia

    procumbens , at times associated with Epilobium anagallidifolium and Caloplaca

    subolivacea , a lichen. On sandy or schistous shores, just above the littoral line,

    we usually find Cerastium alpinum , C. arvense , Melandrium affine , and Puccinellia

    phryganodes . On the roche moutonnee of the shore but higher than the tidal zone,

    an interesting fungus is Paxina sulcata , with abundant Alectoria ochroleuca , a lichen.

            The rocky shore is generally formed of a gneissic roche moutonnee or a soft

    green schist. The formations are here much richer than inequivalent habitats

    along the Kogaluk or the Payne above the estuary, as may be judged from the fol–

    lowing list:

    054      |      Vol_VI-0202                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    Antennaria angustata Luzula confusa
    A. canescens Melandrium affine
    Arabis alpina Oxyria digyna
    A. arenicola O. foliolosa
    Arenaria rubella O. podocarpa
    Arnica plantaginea Papaver radicatum
    Astragalus alpinus Parnassia kotzebuei
    A. eucosmus Pedicularis hirsuta
    Campanula rotundifolia P. flammea
    C. uniflora Poa alpina
    Cardamine bellidiflora P. glauca
    Carex lagopina Potentilla hyparctica
    C. langeana P. nivea
    C. maritima Puccinellia paupercula
    C. nardina Ranunculus pedatifidus var.

    C. norvegica var. inserrulata
    C. rupestris Rhododendron lapponicum
    Cerestium alpinum Salix calcicola
    C. beringianum S. reticulata var. semicalva
    C. cerastoides Saxifraga caespitosa
    Cochlearia officinalis var.

    S. cernua
    S. nivalis
    Cystopteris fragilis S. oppositifolia
    Draba glabella var. typica and

    var. brachycarpa
    S. rivularis
    S. tricuspidata
    D. nivallis Silene acaulis var. exscapa
    Dryas integrifolia Stellaria laeta
    Dryopteris fragrans S. longipes
    Erigeron humilis Taraxacum ceratophorum
    Euphrasia arctica T. lacerum
    Eutrema edwardsii Trisetum spicatum
    Gentiana tenalla

    As the rocky shore is generously supplied [ ?] with water percolating from above,

    some elements from the ordinary wet habitats succeed here as well. The Gentiana

    mentioned above is the diminutive form of Gentiana tenella described by Aven

    Nelson as G. monantha . It grows in grassy mats above the shore.

            The lichen flora contains, among other species:

    Caloplaca elegans Stereocaulon denudatum
    Lecanora contractula Umbilicaria hyperborea
    L. polytropa f. ecrustacea

            and in the bryophytic flora such a universal species as Ceratodon purpureus .

    055      |      Vol_VI-0203                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

            Of all habitats surveyed in the Payne and Kogaluk rivers, this is doubtless

    the richest in number of species, but surprisingly enough it does not seem to

    suit Betula glandulosa and Alnus crispa . Furthermore, of the dominant species

    at the entrance of the Kogaluk, Lathyrus japonicus and Oxytropis maydelliana

    seem to be completely absent here.

            The cracks of the quartz blocks on the shore are filled by a gelatinous

    cement of a metallic blue-green color containing the following algal association:

    Gloeocapsa alpicola Schizothrix lacustris
    Nostoc microscopicum Stigonema minutum

            Rocky Highlands . The rocky highlands comprise four types. The one of

    serpentine does not apparently harbor any special plant not found in the vicinity,

    on green schists or ferruginous exposures. In addition to this type of rock,

    there are to be considered the schistose hills, the cliffs of finely broken

    schists, and the ferruginous exposures.

            The flora of the schistose hills is for the greater part a repetition of

    elements along the rocky shore beyond ordinary tidal influence, with a few excep–

    tions such as Oxytropis podocarpa , which is here missing. The Astragalus , Cam–

    , Draba , Saxifraga , Silene , Pedicularis , and Ranunculus listed above, as

    well as Carex nardina , C. rupestris , Oxytropis foliolosa , and Potentilla nivea

    are all common. The dominating shrubs are:

    Rhododendron lapponicum S. herbacea
    Salix cordifolia S. uva-ursi

            Among the herbaceous elements where Saxifraga aizoon and Carex scirpoides tend

    to dominate, while Kobresia myosuroides is of extremely rare occurrence, the

    following seem to be restricted to the highlands in this sector:

    056      |      Vol_VI-0204                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    Arenaria rossii P. lapponica
    Bartsia alpina Sagina caespitosa
    Carex scirpoidea Saxifraga aizoon var.

    neogaea f. frigida
    Draba fladnizensis
    Kobresia myosuroides Taraxacum umbrinum
    Pedicularis lanata Tofieldia pusilla
    Woodsia glabella

            On broken schist, none of the endemic species found in equivalent habitats

    at Mont Saint-Pierre in Gaspe Peninsula appear to occur. Of the elements found

    here which are widely disperse, Equisetum arvense var. boreale is the most uni–

    formly distributed. In some sections Draba rupestris dominates, and, in others,

    Cerastium cerastoides . Additional species characteristic of this habitat are:

    Carex lagopina Koenigia islandica
    C. lagopina var. debilis Poa alpina
    Catabrosa algida Luzula spicata
    Cerastium alpinum Ranunculus hyperboreus
    Euphrasia arctica R. nivalis

            At the base of these broken schists is a zone of drainage where the algal

    association contains: Schizothrix heufleri , S. purcellii , Stigonema panniforme ,

    with, as associates, the bryophytes Calliergon sarmentosum , Grimmia apocarpa

    var. alpicola , and Marchantea polymorpha .

            On rusty colored ferruginous hills, in addition to the common Saxifraga

    oppositifolia , are a few species which, although they are apparently absent

    from other rocky exposures, are so abundant just here that they give the habi–

    tat a distinctive aspect. They are:

    Arenaria humifusa Draba alpina
    A. rubella f. epilis D. fladnizensis var.
    Braya purpurascens heterotricha

            With them grow the lichens Buellia discoensis and Caloplaca elegans .

            Dry Tundra . In general the tundra bordering Payne estuary differs by

    only a few elements from that found in the interior. The shrubs are normally

    the same species. As for the herbaceous elements, many of those which, along

    057      |      Vol_VI-0205                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    the Kogaluk and the upper part of the Payne, were restricted to rocky exposures,

    here occupy flat lowlands. This is probably owing to the fact that the region

    is quite hilly and the habitats not distinctly marked. To the species already

    mentioned for the tundra in the interior, one may add the following:

    Carex misandra P. lapponica
    Eutrema edwardsii Pyrola grandiflora
    Juncus trifidus Saxifraga nivalis
    Kobresia myosuroides Stellaria crassipes
    Pedicularis lanata

            Of these, Eutrema and Pedicularis lanata are rather common, though more or less

    scattered as individual elements. Pyrola grandiflora is more common. Lycopodium

    selago was so common hereabouts that one day a few children made, without dif–

    ficulty, a collection [?] of some twenty-five pounds of the plant for a chemical

    analysis. On the south side of the Payne estuary, the slope is made up of three

    or four succeeding terraces, where the vegetation, without necessarily being that

    of a humid habitat, is at least partially protected from drought. The carpet is

    of a more spongy texture. Salix vestita is the dominating shrub and there is an

    abundant growth of Astragalus alpinus , A. eucosmus , and luxuriant Oxytropis

    foliolosa . In the depressions of the old tundra ostioles, Juncus albescens is

    accompanied by the following algae:

    Gloeocapsa alpicola Schizothrix lacustris
    Gloeocystis grevillei Scytonema myochrous
    Nostoc commune Stigonema ocellatum

            Botetus seaber and Calvatia cretacea are frequent fungi here.

            Humid Tundra . In humid parts, and especially along the small rivulets in

    the tundra, the elements are about the same as those on the shore of the Payne

    River itself, with the addition [?] of a number from the dry tundra. Carex misandra

    is much more common here. Chrysosplenium tetrandrum and Saxifraga rivularis

    058      |      Vol_VI-0206                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    sometimes form nearly pure formations very locally. Other characteristic

    species are the following:

    Arctagrostis latifolia Phyllodoce coerulea
    Carex atrofusca Potentilla hyparctica
    Cassiope hypnoides Ranunculus hyperboreus
    Cerastium alpinum Salix brachycarpa
    C. arvense S. calcicola
    Eriophorum angustifolium S. reticulate var. semicalva
    Festuca brachyphylla Silene acaulis var. exscapa
    Juncus trifidus Stellaria longipes f. humilis
    Luzula wahlenbergii Taraxacum umbrinum

            In the marshy parts, Utricularia minor and U. ochroleuca predominate, and

    in ponds we find, amongst the algae, Scenedesmus obliquus and Tolypothrix lanata .

            It is curious to note the effect of drought on certain tundra ponds sit–

    uated at the level of the spring tides and receiving the brackish water to become

    temporary lagoons. Hippuris vulgaris var. maritima continues to grow luxuriantly

    along with Cardamine pratensis , Carex raeana (dedicated to the arctic explorer

    John Rae (1813-1893) and probably the rarest Carex of Ungava), Koenigia islandica ,

    and Dupontia fisheri var. aristata , while simultaneously Draba fladnizensis in–

    vades the bottom where it is covered with the dry crusty remains of algae.



            Definition . The tundra is characterized by the complete absence of trees,

    all the ligneous elements being limited to shrubs of small stature. The taiga

    is a forest, but with trees widely dispersed and a soil covering mainly of lichens.

    The trees generally are of no commercial importance, and the whole formation gives

    the impression of a park rather than of a true forest. Between the tundra and

    the taiga, in the Quebec-Labrador Peninsula, lies a wide strip of land, approx–

    imately three hundred miles in width, where tundra patches alternate with taiga

    bands. To be more precise, the highlands are covered by the tundra, while the

    059      |      Vol_VI-0207                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    valleys and vier borders are covered by the taiga (75; 81). This habitat is

    the forest tundra (Fig. 11). The passage from the taiga to the forest tundra is

    quite abrupt. On the George River, in eastern Ungava, the territory south of

    latitude 55°05′ N. is covered by the typical taiga; at 55°05′ N. the first tundra

    patch appears on a hill, and such patches increase in number until about lat–

    itude 55°09′ N. North of this point, the taiga in the immediate vicinity of

    rivers and at the foot of hills never covers more than 25% of the territory,

    and sometimes even less. Often, as for instance near latitude 55°10′ N. on

    the George, the zone denuded of trees goes down to the river. The continuous

    stretch of tundra, north of the absolute limit of trees rather than the timber

    line which naturally stops farther south, belongs to the Arctic. The taiga

    itself, in the author’s opinion, belongs to the subarctic zone. Of the same

    opinion are Harshberger (29), Marie-Victorin (50), Villeneuve (99) and others,

    whereas Hustich (32) considers the forest tundra in the subarctic region and

    places the taiga together with the evergreen forest of the Laurentians in the

    boreal forest region. This solution would perhaps [ ?] be acceptable if we con–

    sidered the forest itself, but in the typification of a zone, the whole vegeta–

    tion and climatic factors should be considered. Permafrost was found in the

    taiga (35); furthermore the taiga is entirely north of the 32°F. isotherm for

    the whole year (26). Such considerations alone would place the taiga in the

    subarctic zone. If we acknowledge this point, the forest tundra is a mixed

    arctic and subarctic zone. Considering the percentage of tundra (approximately

    75%), this sector should be classified as arctic rather than subarctic. For

    the reasons above, and considering the size of the forest tundra area in Quebec

    and Labrador, it is important to characterize this zone by a name. Most

    060      |      Vol_VI-0208                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    appropriate would see that of “hemiarctic zone,” referring to its partly

    arctic nature. The hemiarctic zone is truly a mixed zone, where the treeless

    and “subarctic” parts are distinctly separate, and not a transitional habitat.

    We will find there, of course, as to the north of the absolute limit of trees,

    a transitional habitat between the taiga and the tundra proper, but this is

    generally of small extent. The tundra and taiga formations are quite ordinarily

    clear-cut and easily distinguishable.

            Limit of the Hemiarctic Zone . Starting from the absolute limit of trees,

    a few miles north of the Leaf River, this zone extends southward approximately

    to latitude 55° N. (exactly 55°09′ N. on the George River), except near the

    coast of Labrador, where it reaches approximately the vicinity of Blanc Sablon.

    In general, this is the region covered by the forest tundra, as illustrated by

    Hustich (32).


    Subdivisions of the Hemiarctic Zone

            This zone, studied from the forest point of view, has been divided by

    Hustich (32) into two main divisions: the “Koksoak forest-tundra section” covering

    only the valley of the Kaniapiskau and Koksoak, and the “Ungava forest-tundra

    section” covering the remainder of the zone. The reason for separating the Kok–

    soak section was that this valley has a decidedly more luxuriant vegetation

    than its surroundings, which appear largely barren. No doubt, many floristic

    regions will ultimately have to be delimited in this zone, as may already be

    judged by the flora known from distinct sectors. At present it is impossible

    to suggest, even tentatively, a phytogeographical subdivision. For this reason,

    it would be better temporarily to consider the geographical units as based on

    the hydrographic system. The sections then would be the following:

    061      |      Vol_VI-0209                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

            Leaf River Region (H1). This extends from Lake Minto to a few miles

    from Ungava Bay; the vicinity of Ungava Bay itself belongs to the “arctic

    south shore of Ungava Bay” listed in the arctic zone. This Leaf River region

    is the contact between the arctic and the hemiarctic in western Quebec. It

    is separated from the Kogaluk and Payne arctic regions by the absolute limit

    of trees.

            Richmond Gulf Region (H2). This lies near Hudson Bay, and covers the

    basin of Nastapoka River, Richmond Gulf, and the Hudson Bay coast, extending

    south to Fort George and Little Whale River (including its source, Upper Seal


            Koksoak Region (H3). This comprises basin of the Koksoak River, from the

    fork of the Larch and Kaniapiskau rivers, and extends to the limit of the

    “arctic south shore of Ungava.” In this region lies Fort Chimo, the “airport

    gateway” to the North. From seeds collected by the author at Fort Chimo,

    plants were grown at the Copenhagen Botanical Garden and described by Bocher (6)

    as Luzula groenlandica var. fuscoatra .

            Stillwater-Larch Region (H4). This is the district between the Richmond

    Gulf region and the Koksoak and Kaniapiskau drainage basins. The main hydrogra–

    phic elements of this region are Stillwater Lake and Larch River.

            Kaniapiskau Region (H5). This comprises the hydrographic basin of this

    river, from the fork at Koksoak River to the taiga near the 55th parallel of


            Whale River Region (H6). As there are three Whale rivers in Ungava, con–

    fusion must be avoided. Little Whale and Great Whale rivers flow into Hudson

    Bay, while the Whale River flows into Ungava Bay. In the Whale River region,

    062      |      Vol_VI-0210                                                                                                                  
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    I place the basin of the False River, the Whale River, and all the small rivers

    east of this to approximately longitude 66°30′ W., excluding the arctic shore

    of Ungava Bay.

            George River Region (H7). The basin of this river, one of the most im–

    portant in Ungava, is in the hemiarctic zone from latitude 55°09′ N. to 68°35′ N.,

    approximately. The region, surveyed by Rousseau in 1947, will be studied in

    greater detail.

            Labrador Coast (H8). This irregular section may be taken to include the

    Labrador coast from Okkak Bay (with some northern outposts) to Blanc Sablon,

    and consequently the greater part of the basins of the Fraser and Assiwaban

    rivers. The taiga, according to Tanner’s map (96), penetrates as a wedge into

    the southern portion of this territory, and the Labrador arctic lobe (already

    mentioned above as section A6 of the arctic zone) [ ?]penetrates as a northern

    wedge into the interior at least as far as the source of Assiwaban River. Except

    for the interior, which should perhaps be separated, this section corresponds to

    a natural phytogeographical division, “the Atlantic coast section,” as described

    by Hustich (32). Some outposts of the Labradorian taiga (marked H8 on the map)

    exist north of the limit of section H8, between Port Manners and Hebron in sec–

    tion A6 (Labrador Arctic lobe).


    The George River Region

            The whole length of this river was traveled for the first time by Mrs.

    Leonidas Hubbard in 1905, followed by Dillon Wallace a few weeks later (81).

    From Mrs. Hubbard’s account (30) we are given a few hints concerning the trees

    along this river. The next complete exploration [ ?] of the river, and its first

    scientific survey, was made by Rousseau in 1947 (81). This region will be

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    considered in some detail as an example in the hemiarctic zone.

            Topography . At the source of the George River the terrain forms a plateau.

    At latitude 54°57′ N. the first undulations appear. From Indian House Lake to

    Ungava Bay both shores of the river are hilly, the summits of the hills rising

    500 to 1000 feet above the level of the river (Fig. 12). Special attention

    must be given to some hills which have, on the side toward the river an abrupt

    cliff with a broken scree slope at its base; the opposite sides have no cliffs.

    To this type of mountain, which constitutes a highly specific habitat — and

    of which Bic Mountains in Rimouski County and the summits along the north shore

    of the Gaspe Peninsula are so ch a racteristic — the Seven Islands Montagnais

    have given the name tissekau , which will be adopted in the present study (Fig. 16).

            Geology . The only published geological information about this region is a

    short note of Ritchie (70) based on a manuscript report by Rousseau. The whole

    region belongs to the pre-Cambrian and is composed of granites, gneisses, and

    paragneisses, except for two narrow bands of anorthosite approximately five

    miles wide which lie near latitude 55°06′ and 55°25′ N. The whole region has

    been strongly marked by the passage of glaciers; moraines, erratic boulders,

    striae, roche moutonnee , eskers, etc., being plentiful.

            Hydrography . On the subarctic plateau the region is covered by lakes, some

    of which seem to have no outlet and merely to drain by filtration, which favors

    the formation of peat bogs. The river, with Hubbard Lake as its source, is

    nearly 400 miles long. The first 70 miles are a chain of lakes dotted by scat–

    tered boulders and linked by rapids. After this, through 45 miles of swift cur–

    rent, the waters flow to Indian House Lake, a narrow lake about 1 to 2 [ ?] miles

    wide and 54 miles long. From Indian House Lake to Helen Falls, the 157 miles

    of river break over 35 rapids, altogether some 45 miles in length. The river

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    is one of the most rapid in Ungava, and for this reason was traveled only in

    parts by Naskapi Indians. The tidal zone starts at latitude 58°17′ N. and the

    spring tide is supposed to rise the height of 40 feet. In the region of the

    George River post, the muddy tidal flats are approximately a mile wide (81).

            Meteorology . A meteorological station was operated at Indian House Lake

    during part of World War II and for a short time afterward, but the only data

    accessible to the author are the maxima and minima which he observed during

    the 1947 survey. From July 16 to August 8, when he was traveling down the river,

    the night minima were between 32° and 54°F. in the camps, which were near the

    river level and consequently more or less in the subarctic patches. When the

    sky was [ ?] clouded over, the maximum during the day was sometimes not higher than

    48°F. After sunset there was a sudden drop in temperature. For example, July 15

    the thermometer indicated 60° at 9 p.m. and fifteen minutes later the thermometer

    was at 48°F. Another point to be considered is that there is often a great dif–

    ference between the night temperature six inches above the soil and that of five

    feet above. The temperature near the soil was sometimes two to four degrees lower

    than that at five feet. The temperature near the surface of the soil, although

    not as important for meteorological purposes as that a few feet above, is very

    significant as far as the vegetation cover is concerned. As in the Payne and

    Kogaluk regions, windy conditions are normal, and the wind attained a velocity

    which at times hind e red the advance of the expedition. From the southern part of

    Indian House Lake northward all the way to the estuary, scattered snow patches

    are apt to remain from one winter to another.

            Soil . Except at a few hundred feet from the river, rock in situ is generally

    found only in and beside the rapids. Elsewhere the river bed is an almost

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    continuous series of moraines, the “wall” of boulders being sometimes many

    miles long and twenty or even more feet high. Here and there, sand exposures

    are found along the river and in rare instances, especially below Indian House

    Lake, clay shores. In the upper part of the river, soil is rarely seen. Sandy

    eskers are common everywhere. At a short distance from the immediate border of

    the river, from the beginning of Indian House Lake to the estuary, the rocky

    hills are strewn with boulders and have only a thin covering of soil. All that

    was said in the previous chapter about the arctic zone, its tundra and peat bogs,

    solifluction and marshy areas, soil and Cladonia polygons, etc., may be repeated


            Economic Plants. Apart from the absence here of Pedicularis lanata and

    Hedysarum alpinum , there are the same plants as in the Payne and Kogaluk sections,

    with, of course, the addition of trees. Of these black spruce ( Picea mariana )

    is the most common, white spruce ( Picea glauca ) being rare, and larch ( Latrix

    laricina ) largely confined to the margins of the rivers and lakes. The black

    spruce could be used as fuel or for tent poles, or utilized otherwise, but it is

    seldom if ever of any real economic importance. The white spruce is big enough

    to use more widely, but too rare. Balsam fir ( Abies balsamea ) is limited to the

    southern extremity of the area, being always small and rare.


    Sectors of the George River in the Hemiarctic Zone

            Before dividing the George River district into smaller ecological sections,

    we must remember that its source lies in the subarctic zone and its mouth prac–

    tically in the arctic zone. All of the general aspects described here concerning

    the George could apply in part to these portions of the river that lie outside

    the hemiarctic zone. Instead of dividing the region into geographical sectors,

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    it would be better to consider separately the different types of habitat, as

    follows: (1) the shores of the tidal zone; (2) the shores above the estuary;

    (3) the subarctic forest patches or taiga patches; (4) the tundra; (5) peat

    bogs; (6) ponds and other aquatic habitats; (7) weeds.

            Tidal Zone . With the flow of the tide, the reversible current forces

    water back to latitude 58°17′ N. on the George River, completely covering two

    very important rapids. As the spring tide reaches to a height of about forty

    feet, it is normal for great tidal flats to be uncovered at low tide. Around

    George River post (Fig. 12) they are approximately one milewide. These muddy

    flats have no vegetation except for occasional algae. Where the tidal shore

    is sandy and steeper, and consequently less extensive, the vegetation is more

    pronounced. We can distinguish three steps in the tidal sections. In the low–

    est part of the shore, near the limit of low tide and consequently covered by

    brackish water twice each day, grow:

    Calamagrostis labradorica Festuca rubra
    Carex marina Potentilla egedii var. groonlandica
    C. subspathacea Stellaria crassifolia
    Dupontia fisheri Triglochin palustris

            In the central section of the tidal zone, touched by brackish water every

    day, but for a shorter period, the following species from a turf in which the

    maritime plantain is dominant and Sedum rosea is found in great abundance:

    Arenaria peloides var. diffusa Plantago juncoides var. decipiens
    Euphrasia arctica Potentilla egedii var. groenlandica
    Galium brandegeei Primula stricta
    Lomatogonium rotatum Sedum rosea
    Parnassia obtusiflora (P.

    palustris auct. am.)

            In the higher portions of the shore, which are never covered by brackish

    water nor by fresh water during the neap, all these species mentioned above will

    be found again, in the company, of:

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    Agropyron ungavense Montia lamprosperma
    Astragalus alpinus Potentilla palustris var.

    Carex rariflora
    Cochlearia officinalis

    var. groenlandica
    Primula egaliksensis
    Stellaria humifusa
    Elymus arenarius var. villosus

    Of these, Agropyron ungavense seems to be an intergeneric hybrid of Agropyron

    and Elymus , like Agroelymus adamsii (72), but of different parentage. The

    shore line and the part of the shore itself never reached by brackish water

    do not differ from the same section of the shore above the estuary. In a pond

    to which brackish water penetrates at high tide are found the following algae:

    Calothrix stellaris , Cladophora crispata , Dictyosphalium pulchellum and Gom–

    phosphaeria lacustris
    . Mosses of this habitat are Calliergon sarmentosum and

    Drepanocladus exannulatus var. typicus , while in a similar habitat, on Naupats

    Island, in the arctic zone near the outlet of George River, Tortula ruralis

    constituted an important element.

            Shore Above the Estuary . The sandy or gravelly shore is generally dry,

    but for a part of the year is submerged by the riv e r. often the vegetation of

    this section is a kind of dry turf in which Betula glandulosa will occasionally

    grow, with Alnus crispa , although frequently both of them remain very short.

    The species are mainly the following:

    Archillea lanulosa Campanula rotundifolia
    A. nigrescens Cardamine bellidifolia
    * Agrostis borealis * Carex anguillata
    Alchemilla filicaulis * C. aquatilis
    Antennaria rousseauii * C. bigelowii
    * Arabis arenicola C. brunnescens
    Arctostaphlos alpina C. capitata
    Arenaria groenlandica C. microglochin
    Artemisia borealis f. wormskioldii * C. miliaris
    Astragalus alpinus * C. rariflora
    Calamagrostis canadensis var.

    * Castilleja septentrionalis
    Cerastium arvense
    C. neglecta

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    Deschampsia atropurpurea Rhinanthus oblongifolius
    D. caespitosa var. glauca Ribes glandulosum
    Dryopteris spinulosa var. americana * Rubus acaulis
    Epilobium angustifolium var.

    R. idaeus var. strigosus
    R. paracaulis
    * E. glandulosum * Salix arctophila
    E. latifolium S. brachycarpa
    * Equisetum arvense var. boreale S. calcicola
    Euphrasia arctica * S.cordifolia var. callicarpaea
    Festuca brachyphylla S. herbacea
    Hierochloe alpina S. planifolia
    Kalmia polifolia S. uva-ursi
    * Lonicera villosa var. calvescens Sanguisorba canadensis
    * Luzula parviflora var. melanocarpa * Scirpus caespitosus var. callosus
    L. groenlandica * Solidago macrophylla var.

    L. spicata
    Lychnis alpina var. americana S. multiradiata
    Oxyria digyna Stellaris calycantha
    * Pedicularis groenlandica * Taraxacum lacerum
    Petasites palmatus * T. lapponicum
    * Phleam alpinum * Tofieldia pusilla
    Poa arctica Trisetum spicatum
    P. glauca * Vaccinium uliginosum
    Polygonum viviparum V. vitis-idaea var. minus
    Potentilla emarginata * Veronica alpina var.

    * Pyrola grandiflora

            The species in the preceding list marked by an asterisk (8) frequently grow

    in the humid sections of the shore as well as on the dry part.

            Of the preceding, the cologically important species are Antennaria rousseauii ,

    Arenaria groenlandica , Betula glandulosa , Carex anguillata , C. miliaris , Luzula

    spicata , Pedicularis groenlandica , Polygonum viviparum , Potentilla tridentata ,

    Salix arctophila , S. brachycarpa , S. cordifolia , S. herbacea , S. planifolia ,

    Solidago macrophylla , Taraxacum lapponicum , Trisetum spicatum , and Veronica al–

    [?]a, varying locally according to the sector of the shore. Furthermore, they

    are found everywhere along the river. On the contrary, Alchemilla filicaulis

    is very localized; and Arabis arenicola , Artemisia borealis , Astragalus alpinum s ,

    and Lychnis alpina var. americana , grow only in the lower part of the river.

    069      |      Vol_VI-0217                                                                                                                  
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    Many of the species listed above are plants of the dry tundra which have found,

    along some portions of the shore, a favorable habitat. This is the case with

    Arctostaphylos alpina , Carex capitata , Hierochloe alpina , Nulmia polifolia ,

    Luzula groenlandica and Salix uva-ursi .

            Prominent among associates in the various wet places are: Andromeda

    , Eri [ ?] phorum angustifolium , E. scheuchzeri , Juncus albescens ,

    Parnassia kotzebuei , Pinguicula vulgaris , Viola labradorica , and V. repens

    (=V. palustris auct. amer.). Less important species are:

    Bartsia alpina E. russeolum
    Calamagrostis canadensis

    var. scabra
    Juncus castaneus
    J. filiformis
    Cardamine pratensis var. palustris Galium trifidum
    Carex atratiformis Luzula groenlandica
    C. canescens L. spicata var. kjellmani
    C. glareosa Myrica gale
    C. williamsii Pedicularis flammea
    Corallorhiza trifida Poa alpina
    Epilobium anagallidifolium Potentilla palustris var. parvifolia
    Equisetum sylvaticum Steptopus amplexifolius
    Eriophorum angustifolium Vaccinium oxycoccos

            Of the last list, Cardamine pratensis var. palustris , Carex williamsii ,

    Corallorhiza trifida , Epilobium anagallidifolium , Luzula groenlandica , and

    Pedicularis flammea were rather uncommon species. The chief bryophytes of this

    habitat are Brepanocladus uncinatus var. typicus , Grimmia alpicola var. rivularis

    f. papillosa , and Pogonatum capillare .

            On the sttep embankment of the river, the preceding species listed from dry

    or humid shores are also found, but some of them seem to be more appropriate to

    the rocky banks, as for instance:

    Carex rupestris Epilobium palustre
    C. tenuiflora [ ?]Juncus alpines var. alpestris
    Dryopteris phegopteris Potentilla nivea

    070      |      Vol_VI-0218                                                                                                                  
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    Ribes glandulosum Silene acaulis var. exscapa
    Saxifraga aizoon Stellaria longipes
    S. foliolosa Woodsia irvensis

            On the nearly vertical humid cliffs, bordered at their summit by shrubs,

    grows Umbilicaria vellea, one of the more palatable rock tripes. On these

    cliffs the dominating bryophytes are the following:

    Calliergon sarmentosum Pogonatum alpinum
    Drepanocladus uncinatus var.

    Rhacomitrium fasciculare
    Sphagnum girgensohnii
    Hypnum patientiae Tetraplodon mnioides

            On the steep sandy embankment, with Empetrum nigrum dominant, are:

    Equisetum pratense Ledum groenlandicum
    Festuca brachyphylla L. palustre var. decumbens
    F. rubra Linnaea borealis var. americana
    Hierochloe alpina Potentilla norvegica

            Nevertheless, the normal embankment of the river is either made up an

    almost barren boulder accumulation or of the luxuriant birch-alder community,

    (Fig. 15). Among the boulders we find some of the elements of the dry shore,

    but the most common elements are Campanula rotundifolia , Castilleja pallida

    var. septentrionalis , Epilobium latifolium , Oxyria digyna , and Salix cordi–

    var. callicarpaea , with, in the lowest part of the river, Cerastium

    beeringianum , Papaver radicatum , forming sometimes almost pure stands, and

    some Arnica plantag [ ?][in?] ea .

            As for the birch-alder community (Fig. 15 and 26), it is almost a contin–

    uous band of Alnus crispa and Betula glandulosa , with as usual shrubby asso–

    ciates Salix planifolia , S. cordifolia var. callicarpaea , and Ribes glandulosum ,

    and as very occasional associates Amelanchier bartramiana , Betula borealis ,

    Populus balsamifera , Salix pellita , Sorbus decora and Viburnum edule . As for

    the herbaceous elements, a great number are similar to shore and embankment

    species, though none of them is really common, excepting perhaps Viola palustris .

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    But other species, not yet encountered on the shore and the embankment, were

    growing in the birch-alder community, such as:

    Alchemilla vestita Lycopodium annotinum var.

    Calamagrostis neglecta
    Cornus canadensis Mitella nuda
    C. suecica Petasites palmatus
    Dryopteris disjuncta P. sagittarus
    Galium brandegeei Trientalis americana

            Of the preceding, Alchemilla vestita and Petasites sagittarus were particularly

    rare. Cornus canadensis , Dryopteris disjuncta , Lycopodium annotinum , Mitella

    nuda , and Trientalis americana are species which normally inhabit the taiga as

    well as the boreal coniferous forest.

            A specialized habitat that could be considered as a part of the shore is

    the tissekau (Fig. 16) of which a description has been given above. Here normally

    grow the species of the embankment and shores, especially humid shores. In

    some places Alnus crispa is dominant, in others Betula glandulosa associated

    with Ledum groenlandicum . After these, the chief elements are, in order of

    importance: Vaccinium vitis-idaea var. minus , Cornus canadensis , Lycopodium

    annotinum , and Ledum palustre var. decumbens . Of the Cyperaceae, one of the

    main types is Carex scirpoidea var. scirpiformis. Dryopteris disjuncta , Cala–

    magrostis neglecta
    , and Pedicularis labradorica are rather rare.

            Taiga Strips (Figs. 13 and 14). Restricted generally to the lower part of

    the valleys or to hillsides, the taiga strips show relatively luxuriant growth

    toward their centers. In the portions bordering the tundra patches, the trees

    are smaller, being sometimes hardly more than shrubs. For a few feet, there is a

    transitional zone between the habitats representing the typical taiga and tundra.

    Are the subarctic thickets progressing or receding? Some ecologists consider

    the presence of juniperoid black spruce, Picea mariana , at the limit of subarctic

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    EA-PS. Rousseau: Flora and Vegetation in Quebec-Labrador

    forest patches as a proof of forest regression, while the occurrenc