• Back to Encyclopedia Arctica homepage


    Encyclopedia Arctica 5: Plant Sciences (General)


    Unpaginated      |      Vol_V-0019                                                                                                                  


    Corrections in Taylor’s Arctic Bibliography for Algae

            #11 Boldt, 1888 - ibid refers to #12

            #101 Larsen 1907 - add: pp. 305-364

            #106 Lowe 1923- ibid is wrong

            #114, 115, 116 - ibid should not cover volume number

            #114 volume number is 29

            1875 volume number is 32

            1885 volume number is 42

            #135 Rosenvinge 1898: pages are 129-243, 339-346.

            #136 Rosenvinge 1917: volume number is 43

            #30, 31 Author’s name is Cedercreutz, C.


    H. Croosdale


    for Taylor arctic

    Ed. Plant Sciences

    Unpaginated      |      Vol_V-0020                                                                                                                  
    EA-Plant Sciences (Wm. Randolph Taylor)





    Significance of Arctic Algal Vegetation 1
    Representative forms of Arctic Algae 2
    Factors controlling algal vegetation 6
    Marine Flora of the Arctic and Subarctic 9
    Western Soviet Arctic 9
    Eastern Soviet Arctic 11
    North American Region 12
    Baffin Bay and West Greenland 14
    East Greenland 15
    Iceland 16
    Jan Mayen 17
    The Faeroes 18
    Northern Coast of Norway 19
    West Soviet Arctic (Murman Sea) 19
    Spitsbergen 20
    Summary of Marine Algal Vegetation 22
    Freshwater Algal Vegetation 23
    Algal Floras of Various Regions 28
    Summary of Freshwater Algal Vegetation 32
    Bibliography 34

    001      |      Vol_V-0021                                                                                                                  
    EA-Plant Sciences

    (Wm. Randolph Taylor)





            In the Arctic, as in the Antarctic, the great rigors imposed by the

    climate force us to consider most attentively the factors controlling life,

    and the biological chain by which the more complex forms depend on the

    simpler ones. The first source of organic matter is vegetable, and since

    all animal life is dependent on it, the nature of the plant life in such a

    territory as that which we here consider is very pertinent. It is clear

    that the plant life of the exposed land becomes rapidly less as we pass

    northward; the forests give place to tundra, beyond which there remains little

    continuous vegetation. The sudden extremes of temperature and the destruct–

    tive gales which may affect life on land are not so sharply felt under water.

    In the sea great current drifts exist which carry warm waters far north, so

    the conditions remain fairly suitable for aquatic organisms much farther to

    the north than is the case with terrestrial organisms. The truly aquatic

    vegetation in fresh water consists only in minor degree of vascular plants,

    and in the sea still less.

            When we examine the truly aquatic flora of cold northern regions we find

    it rapidly diminishes, so that, for instance, Potamogetons reach a northern

    002      |      Vol_V-0022                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    reach a northern limit in Scandinavia, except for a few species in Greenland,

    etc., and Myriophyllums and Utricularias also reach only midway on the West

    Greenland coast, while in the sea Zostera disappears a little north of the

    southernmost portion. We find, however, a very considerable bulk and range

    of animal life dependent on the great plant group the Algae, vast in variety

    of species and vast in economic importance in all parts of the world, but in

    cold regions often the sole ultimate source of organic matter.



            Algae are plants of the greatest diversity, often beautiful in form and

    color. Because of this wide range of pattern, it is hard to define them

    except in technical terms. One may generalize by stating that they all have

    the green pigment chlorophyll as their essential photosynthetic tool, just as

    land plants do, though a few decadent types may similarly lose it and in many

    it is concealed by accessory pigments. Then, the algae have no such system

    of food-conducting ducts, or vascular bundles, as is familiar in land plants.

    Finally, they lack the particular types of reproductive organs known as

    archegonia and antheridia, which many nonvascular land plants possess.

            There are several major groups or classes of algae, some ten or twelve,

    depending on how the relationships are interpreted. This is far too many to

    distinguish in a general account such as this, where we will have occasion to

    refer to about six. If we depart from the standard nomenclatorial groupings,

    we find that we can designate the types much more simply as freshwater or

    marine, as bottom [ ?] growng or as free floating (plankton) in the water. The

    brackish-water types are few, especially in the Arctic, and the intergrades

    003      |      Vol_V-0023                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    between plankton and bottom-growing types are limited to very small, even

    microscopic organisms. In the sea the chief bottom types are often large and

    are of the classes of chlorophyceae (green algae), Phaeophyceae (brown algae),

    and Rhodophyceae (red algae), although there are some Bacillariophyceae (diatoms)

    and Myxophyceae (Cyanophyceae or blue-green algae). The plankton types in

    the northern seas are almost exclusively Bacillariophyceae and Dinophyceae

    (peridinians), and are, therefore, quite microscopic. These are groups which

    must be studied and described separately, so the reader is referred to the

    articles “Phytoplankton” and “Algae: Planktonic Groups” in this Encyclopedia,

    for they are the greatest food sources in the sea, and of prime importance.

    While diatoms and peridinians are also important in freshwater plankton, other

    algae of the green and blue-green groups are very important too, and almost

    all forms are microscopic, though their abundance makes them a major food

    source. The bottom vegetation in freshwater ponds consists chiefly of

    organisms belonging to these groups of small species, though they are usually

    different from the marine species. The bottom vegetation of the sea includes

    numerous small forms as well as intermediate ones, and culminates in the great

    rockweeds and kelps several feet in length, which are so conspicuous a feature

    of northern shores. We will hardly concern ourselves with the microscopic

    marine species, most of which are diatoms.

            Blue-Green. Putting aside for the present the freshwater algae, we may

    consider the appearance presented by the marine algae, which are more limited

    in the Arctic than in warmer regions. First let us deal with the blue-green

    algae, the least conspicuous group and the one to be expected highest on the

    shore, in the splahs zone above high tides, between high and low tides, or

    004      |      Vol_V-0024                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    rarely below low tide level. The commonest will be forms like Calothrix or

    Rivularia , filamentous and, like the rest, microscopic as individuals, the

    colonies of which comprise blackish or dark blue-green velvety or gelatinous

    crusts of considerable extent on stones or woodwork. There will be a few

    others which barely discolor the rocks, and in places Hyella , which lives

    in and discolors the substance of mollusk shells. However, the marine blue–

    green algal flora of the Arctic Sea is a sparse one.

            Green . The green algae also are sparingly represented. They are plants

    ordinarily requiring a maximum of light consistent with submergence, and so are

    peculiarly susceptible to the long periods of darkness and the added ice and

    snow cover. Since they prefer an intertidal habitat, they are subject to

    the abrasive action of ice, and consequently green algae are, in general, scarce

    in the Arctic, and inconspicuous wherever moving ice occurs. However, in some

    districts the large club-shaped cells of Codiolum form a close, slippery,

    dark-green coating on stones. Of the Ulvales we have two types, the tubular

    Enteromorphas of which several wide-ranging species are present, and the

    broad, flat blades of Ulva and Monostroma , the latter being relatively more

    prominent than in warmer seas. The filamentous green algae are represented

    by the microscopic Ulothrix , which accompanies Calothrix on the rocks, and

    the large bushy types Chaetomorpha and Cladophora , reaching a decimeter or

    more in height, which chiefly grow in protected shore pools and on littoral

    or sublittoral rocks.

            Brown . With the remaining two major marine algal groups we cannot concern

    ourselves in such detail, because the variety present is too great. The brown

    algae or Phaeophyceae are very conspicuous in the Arctic. They would ordinarily

    005      |      Vol_V-0025                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    appear almost exclusively in the littoral and immediate sublittoral zones.

    Probably because they cannot withstand ice action well enough, the Fucaceae

    or rockweeds alone persist in this zone in any quantity, and chiefly toward

    the south. The widespread Ascophyllum is one of these, and the others are

    chiefly members of the genus Fucus , which is represented by several species.

    These Fucaceae are richly branched, strap-shaped plants with inflations of

    the blades serving as floats, swollen fruiting tips and, in Fucus , blades

    marked by midribs and tufts of minute whitish hairs from minute pits in

    the surface.

            In contrast we have bushy filamentous genera such as Ectocarous and

    Sphacelaria , and even some microscopic epiphytes (i.e., plants which grow

    upon other plants, such as Myrionema . We have also, chiefly in the upper

    sublittoral, a number of wide-ranging plant forms, such as crustose Ralfsia ,

    narrow strap-shaped and foliaceous blades ( Ilea and Punctaria ), unbranched

    tubes ( Scytoeiphon ), soft and branching submucus types ( Aegira , Mesogloia ),

    or slenderly branched firmer bushy genera of larger growth ( Dictyosiphon and

    Desmarestia ).

            The final conspicuous group of brown algae are the kelps. These are quite

    varied in aspect, and while occasionally they grow in the upper sublittoral,

    they are more often in northern seas forced down into deeper water, where

    their relatively long-lived blades and holdfasts may not be destroyed by the

    ice. The genera include especially Laminaria , stalked blades which are plane

    or ruffled, simple or cleft, and often two to several meters in length. Also

    often present are Agarum , having a broader and shorter blade, rarely a meter

    long, with midrib, the blade perfora c ted by a multitude of holes up to a

    006      |      Vol_V-0026                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    centimeter in diameter, and Alaria , again a long entire blade, but with a

    midrib and numerous fertile leaflets at the base.

            Red . The red algae or Rhodophyceae are distinctly less conspicuous on

    northern than on southern shores, and the plants are pretty well restricted

    to the sublittoral. There are plants in many of the form categories described

    for the brown algae. Of broad bladelike types there are not many; a few are

    present and vary from the delicate brown or violet-red blades of Porphyra to

    [ ?] the larger, coarse, red, forking blades of Rhodymenia , a meter

    or more long. Of the tubular types there are still fewer, but branched

    Halosaccion and Dumontia are examples. Bushy filamentous species are more

    numerous, the moderate-sized, exceedingly delicate, rosy tufts of Callitham–

    nion contrasting with the large, coarse ones of Ceramium rubrum or the minute

    ones of Rhodochorton , a few millimeters high. Finally, we have the crustose

    species, not well represented in the brown and green algae. Hildenbrandia

    forms a thin orange-red coat on stones in the littoral, while the opaque white

    calcified crusts of various lithothamnioid types, smooth or raised into papillae

    or bushy branches, form masses one or two decimeters in diameter which, while

    they do not produce “nullipore” reefs as in the tropics, yet in less extreme

    northern waters sometimes grow in conspicuous quantities at considerable depths.



            Recognizing, then, that we are dealing with a very major food source

    even when we have put the diatoms and peridines into other hands for detailed

    discussion, we may turn first to the marine and then to the freshwater environ–

    ments for discussions of their controlling conditions and plant populations.

    007      |      Vol_V-0027                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    The only comprehensive account of these marine plants and their circumboreal

    distribution yet attempted is The Algae of the Arctic Sea (79). Kjellman wrote

    it with firsthand knowledge, since he accompanied Nordenskiöld to Spitsbergen,

    to Novaya Zemlya, and to northern Siberia on the Vega expedition, during 1872-80.

    In the following discussion, the term arctic algae will refer to types characteris–

    tically found in the Arctic, but that does not mean that they are exlusively

    arctic. The major marine flora of the Arctic is very similar around the whole

    circuit. The species found in northern Asia and northern America are much the

    same, so the questions to be answered concern, not continental floras, but the

    controlling conditions which limit the plants in their abundance.

            Light . The first and most striking of the controlling factors is light.

    North of the Arctic Circle the summer season has continuous light but because

    of its obliquity, the light is not continuously effective under water for

    photosynthesis in the submerged marine algae. However, these plants are far

    more adapted to use light of low intensity than land plants, and make a seasonal

    growth quite comparable with that of similar species in temperate regions. In

    fact, where they can grow without interference they often grow in the greatest

    luxuriance. It is not surprising that they can manage with a long light period;

    the adjustment to the long dark winter is a much more impressive adaptation.

    Remembering that oblique illumination from low light near the horizon is not

    very effective under water, we see that the marine algae when submerged live in

    the dark for much of the year, or in a dim light of an intensity very much

    below that which such shoal-water species prefer. Furthermore, penetration of

    the light to the algae is by no means unimpeded. Far beyond the [ ?] arctic

    008      |      Vol_V-0028                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    night the presence of ice cuts down the light to minute proportions; for the

    thick shore ice, fortified by overlying snow, is an effective block.

            Temperature . Unfortunately, it is hard to be certain what temperature

    prevails at the time and place where growth occurs. For plankton it is rela–

    tively easy. Surface temperatures are known for the Subarctic and much of the

    Arctic; they range from an average of about 7°C. at the surface in summer to

    3°C. in winter near Nordkapp, but farther north the average temperatures drop,

    especially the winter temperatures, which generally run well below 0°C.

    Temperatures at various depths, too, are known for many localities, and we

    know that the cold generally increases with the depth (though the range is

    relatively slight), generally to about −1.5°, rarely to −3.0°C. or a little

    more. Kjellman states that the temperature at the depth where the richest

    algal vegetation occurs does not in general exceed 0°C. at any time of the year.

            However, algae, especially nonplankton algae, are much better adapted

    to growing at low temperatures than other plants, and in any case in summer

    the actual growing temperatures for the shallow-water species (but not the

    deep kelp beds) may be considerably above the surface reading for the open sea.

    The fact that the winter temperatures, when these species are encased in ice,

    may be considerably lower, seems less important, for many algae may be frozen

    and survive a remarkable degree of cold, [ ?] Even when the chief vegetative

    parts are destroyed, regeneration may be possible from holdfasts, or spores,

    and sporelings may persist. In the discussion of the algal flora of the

    northern coasts, it will be found that temperature is not simply correlated

    with latitudes, but that ocean currents alter conditions over large areas.

    009      |      Vol_V-0029                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae




    Western Soviet Arctic

            Novaya Zemlya . Having discussed the conditions under which the marine

    algae grow, it is now necessary to select a starting point for a circuit of

    the Arctic and an evaluation of the vegetation and controlling conditions in

    each sector. The area between Baffin Bay, Spitsbergen, and Norway being by

    far the richest and best known, and most continuous with a more temperate

    flora to the south, it is decided to leave this to the last, and to start

    the discussion with the conditions on the coast of the U.S.S.R. farther to the

    east. Here we find considerable differences at once, for the flora of the

    Barents Sea area resembles that of northern Norway and Spitsbergen, while that

    to the east of Novaya Zemlya is somewhat different. On the whole, the northern

    Soviet coast is relatively unproductive. The open character of the coast line

    gives little protection, and the rock character is nearly everywhere unfavorable.

    The numerous great rivers which discharge into the Arctic Sea along this line

    tend to reduce the salinity of the surface water. This is especially marked

    in the eastern part of the Kara Sea and the western Siberian Sea where the

    salinity down to the level where the algae would grow is essentially less

    than the proportion characteristic for the Arctic, or suitable for a general

    flora of marine algae. These rivers also affect the temperature of the water,

    as during a good part of the year the river is warmer than the sea, with the

    result that the surface inshore water is not only less salty but decidedly

    warmer than that offshore. The tides are not great, being extremely slight

    in the eastern part, but somewhat greater about Novaya Zemlya, where they

    010      |      Vol_V-0030                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    produce violent currents in the Mathochkin Shar Strait, which separates the

    islands, with accompanying severe ice action.

            Novaya Zemlya . Our knowledge of this district is very incomplete, and

    we know details only regarding Novaya Zemlya and parts of the Kara Sea. [ ?]

    Kjellman (86; 79) and Sinova (147) have made the most significant contributions.

    A sparse literature in Russian, to which some references have appeared in

    Sinova’s work, is unfortunately unsummarized and not readily inaccessible.

    The algal flora is poor in variety and very deficient over much of the coast,

    being richest in the western and Novaya Zemlya areas. Sinova reports 123 species

    of marine algae for Novaya Zemlya and nearby shores — far more than are re–

    ported by Kjellman. The northeast coast is relatively inaccessible, and

    glacier-bordered. However, the coast immediately northeast and northwest

    of Matochkin Shar has proved unexpectedly rich. The littoral was [ ?] nearly

    bare, with some Urospora high on the rocks and Enteromorpha a little lower

    down, but at the lowest littoral level some dwarfed Fuci, Chordaria and

    Pylaiella appear. In the sublittoral appear the kelps: two Laminarias, three

    Alarias, Phyllaria lorea (which was luxuriant at 77° N. latitude), a Polysiphonia,

    two Delesserias, and a Phyllophora alone were common, but in some places

    Lithothamnia were also frequent. Of this list, only Phyllaria lorea (if dis–

    tinct from P. dermatodea ) is probably strictly an arctic plant, and there are

    few strictly arctic among the less notable species. There are no prominent

    species peculiar to these islands, or indeed to the whole Siberian mainland


            The Kara Sea . In the western part of the Kara Sea, Euthora , elsewhere a

    minor floristic element, becomes abundant. The chief peculiarity of the Siberian

    011      |      Vol_V-0031                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    kelp flora east of Novaya Zemlya is the change in the Alarias, as Alaria

    membranacea and A. pylaii are replaced by A. dolichorachis , A. elliptica ,

    and A. oblonga . There are a few species lacking on the American side which

    are present here, but they are represented in the northern Norwegian or

    Spitsbergen floras. Along the general Siberian coast littoral algae appear

    to be nearly absent, and kelps even in rather deep water are seldom met with.

    Conditions are somewhat better than usual in the eastern parts of the Kara

    Sea at Taimyr Island and east of Cape Bolshoi Baranov in the East Siberian Sea.


    Eastern Soviet Arctic

            With the approach to 170° W. longitude and Bering Strait, one is tempted

    to look for a major change in the flora, for if most of the plants so far met

    have been of North Atlantic affinities, here i w s the possible point of dis–

    persal of a major North Pacific element. No such change occurs. The prominent

    elements in the marine flora continue the same. Inspection of Kjellman’s list

    shows no conjunction of northern Pacific, Siberian, and northwestern American

    records except of very wide-rang i ng types, and the list of Collins (33) offers

    only Chondrus affinis , Pterosiphonia bipinnata , and Rhodomela larix as northern

    Pacific forms which occur in the American Arctic but not the Siberian. Of

    course, the field work in this territory has been altogether inadequate,

    but so far as the records go there is little to suggest a spread from the

    Pacific into the Arctic or vice versa. A close study of the flora and vegeta–

    tion on both sides of Bering Strait from the latitude of St. Lawrence Island

    northward is sorely needed, to define sharply the limits of the floras. We

    do know that the algal floras of the Okhotsk Sea (138), Kamchatka (151), and

    012      |      Vol_V-0032                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    the Gulf of Alaska (139) are clearly subarctic, having their chief relation–

    ships with the floras to the south, and little in common with the arctic flora.


    North American Region

            The conditions for algal growth on the American coast toward the west are,

    like those of northern Eurasia, generally unfavorable. However, there are no

    great rivers except the Mackenzie River (at 135° W. long.), so the salinity and

    temperatures are relatively little affected from this source. The coast is in

    general open and seldom of suitable rocks, so that the substratum is unfavor–

    able. The additions made by Collins from the Canadian Arctic Expedition raise

    the American records slightly, but this coast and that of Siberia still seem

    to possess the poorest floras of the Arctic. As the stations investigated

    poorly represent the whole, we note the need for detailed study, especially

    by dredging, e.g., in Kotzebue Sound, east and west from Point Barrow, west

    of the Mackenzie Delta, and east to both the north and south shores of Amund–

    sen Gulf, where as stations investigated by Collins and. What may occur to

    the north on the many great islands is practically unknown. It is not until

    we pass Melville Peninsula and have the contrast of the subarctic Hudson Bay

    to the south and Baffin Bay to the north, that substantial information regard–

    ing the marine algae is again available.

            Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait . Although from its latitude Hudson Bay cannot

    be considered arctic, its connection with the Atlantic is through the arctic

    algal zone, and its poverty of opportunity for the growth of algae resembles

    much of the Arctic. The literature available is not extensive, Setchell and

    Collins (143) in a short paper, Howe (72), and Polunin (124a) report on the

    013      |      Vol_V-0033                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    Canadian Arctic Expedition materials. The first paper dealt with 28 algae in

    material from Depot Island in the north and James Bay in the south; Howe had

    material from James Bay and as far north as Richmond Gulf on the eastern side,

    so that he was able to increase that total to 61 species and varieties — about

    a fourth as many as occur in Baffin Bay to the northeast. There is little in–

    formation about luxuriance, most of the material having been altogether frag–

    mentary, but the writer, from this and other sources, gathers that the character

    of the shore and bottom is generally soft and not suitable for good algal

    development. One notes a scarcity of kelp, Chorda and a fragment of Alaria

    alone being recorded, and only one Fucus . Most of the material was secured

    by dredging, and some shallow-water types ( Sphacelaria , Pylaiella , Chordaria ,

    etc.) occurred at the surprising depth of 18 meters. A few plants, hitherto

    absent in our circuit, presage the appearance of North Atlantic and northern

    Norwegian algae, such as Ralfsia deusta and Turnerella pennyi .

            Labrador and Newfoundland . Finally, before turning to the North for

    a consideration of the relatively rich flora there, we should note the scanty

    information avaiable regarding the subarctic flora of Labrador and Newfoundland.

    The Labrador Peninsula is represented by one paper (50) dealing with the Ungava

    Bay algae of L. M. Turner and the Howgate Polar Expedition algae of L. Kumlien

    from nearby. The records are for the most part of types common to the Arctic,

    including about 30 species, among which kelps are chiefly represented by Alaria .

    Newfoundland many years ago was studied by De la Pylaie, and his classical

    observations (37; 36) remain the last catalogues, too old by far to be currently

    useful. The flora is subarctic in general, but several typically arctic species,

    such as Polysiphonia arctica , occur there; we badly need a modern study,

    particularly of the northeastern portions.

    014      |      Vol_V-0034                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae


    Baffin Bay and West Greenland

            The Baffin Bay area represents one of the richer algal districts of the

    Arctic. Northward from Hudson Strait on the American side, the shore of Baffin

    Island is considerably dissected, and the dissected shore line of Greenland

    extends even farther north, which all favors algal growth. The American side

    has been very little studied, but there are a few reports for Baffin, Devon,

    and Ellesmere Islands recently especially those of Rosenvinge (132), Lund (107),

    and Polunin (124a). The south coast of Ellesmere Island frequently has a soft

    bottom in the fjords and algal growth is poor, but in Smith Sound the bottom

    is rocky and supports good vegetation; however, good littoral vegetation has

    not been reported anywhere. Laminarias appear as far north as Flagler Fjord

    (79° 04′ N.lat.).

            The Greenland side is quite well known (131; 135; 130; 132; 107). The

    algal flora is an extension of the cold North Atlantic types, with many species

    omitted and several more truly arctic ones introduced; the numbers of the

    arctic and of the North Atlantic kinds are about equal, the subarctic element

    being somewhat greater than either of the others. Considering the small amount

    of coast involved, the last-mentioned is richer than might be expected. Hard

    rocks help support the algal population, and there is open water on the West

    Greenland coast for a considerable annual period quite far to the north, with

    fairly high tides. In spite of the ice and tidal action, the dissected Green–

    land shores favor the littoral development of Fuci, and these abound unusually

    far to the north. Arctic Alarias and Laminarias occur as far north as Uper–

    nivik (nearly 73″ N.lat.), and have been formed loose on Bjørling Island far

    from the mainland (76°43′ N.lat.). At Foulke Fjord (78° 18′ N.lat.), there

    015      |      Vol_V-0035                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    have been reported a littoral Enteromorpha zone and at the low tide line a

    continuous belt of Fucus , with two species of Laminaria in deep water.

            The flora of the Baffin Bay area is clearly related with that of the

    American coast to the south, and with that of Iceland to the east. Currents

    from Iceland sweep around the south coast of Greenland, then curve to the north,

    before swinging toward Labrador and the south. In Baffin Bay and Davis Strait

    the currents are therefore tending to flow south, and would not be expected

    to bring American algae into the area; under conditions such as obtain at

    present, forms from Iceland and the east might perhaps reach the boundaries

    of the territory; but it is more likely that the similarity of the Baffin

    Bay flora to the vegetation of the south is due to spread from the north than

    vice versa.


    East Greenland

            East Greenland would seem much less hospitable to algae than West Green–

    land, for the pack ice is driven against the coast by the current from the

    Greenland Sea, deflected by the warm current tending northward from the North

    Atlantic. There was little information available from the early arctic reports,

    but we know considerably more now, and the flora as reported appears only

    about one-eighth poorer in the east — for which the lesser proportion of brown

    and green algae, forms growing in shallow water, may account. The coast is

    now well reported upon in a preliminary way, for Amdrup’s Expedition (76) carried

    the stations to 74°32′ N. latitude, while the Scoresby Sound Commission, 1932

    expedition, and the Danmark expedition of 1906-08 (136; 133) carried them from

    about 68° to 76°30′ N. latitude, about Danmarks Navn, but with notes from farther

    north. At Lake Fjord in the south (66°21′ N.lat.), there is very good

    016      |      Vol_V-0036                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    littoral development of fuci and kelps, but the fuci grow a few meters below

    low tide line instead of in the littoral, and the kelps are still lower.

    There is a good vegetation of Lithothamnia at considerable depths, and such

    noncalcareous red algae as Turnerella , Phycodrys , Phvllophora , and Polysiphonia

    arctica . there were algae in clumps frozen in the ice at Cap Am e é lie (77°32′

    N.lat.), and this seems the limit of recorded living specimens on this side,

    though there were fragments on the ice at the upper limit of observations,

    Hyde Fjord (83°15′ N.lat.). There are about as many species at Danmarks Havn

    as are known from Scoresby Sound (70° 21′ N.lat.), and they were the same

    species, in general, although with a few notable omissions, such as Scaphosphora,

    Chordaria , Dictyosiphon , Punctaria , and Chaetomorpha . The number of North

    Atlantic species is far smaller in northeast Greenland, and the whole flora

    is more markedly arctic because of this omission.



            Iceland, lying close to eastern Greenland as it does, presents sharply

    contrasting conditions for algal growth. The north coast is highly dissected,

    but receives directly the cold Greenland Sea current bringing the pack ice

    south in summer. The south coast is simpler, and receives the remnant of the

    warmer current coming north from the mid-Atlantic, which tends to deflect the

    ice westward toward Greenland. As this is a long-settled community with rela–

    tively accessible coast, its vegetation is perhaps better known than that of

    any other northern area, but the algae tend to be less known than the land

    plants. Strőmfelt (163) did the pioneering work, Børgesen and J o ó nsson (24; 78)

    a thorough study, reporting 200 species, with an elaborate analysis of the

    phytogeographic relationships. Where the coast is rocky in Iceland, the rocks

    017      |      Vol_V-0037                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    are chiefly fissured and eroded basalt; sometimes dolerite; sometimes on the

    south, however, volcanic tuff. More than half the flora (124 species) is un–

    distinctive, appearing in all suitable areas on the island. The small arctic

    group of 11 species, including Turnerella , Polysiphonia arctica , and only

    Laminaria nigripes to represent the great arctic kelp vegetation of Baffin Bay,

    appear almost exclusively on the north and east coasts, where the cold currents

    prevail and the tides are [ ?] least, being only 0.76 to 2.3 meters in range.

    Here the subarctic elements dominate, as they do in northeast Iceland also.

    However, the southwest coast is more boreal, though with a considerable sub–

    arctic element, the warm boreal being represented by such genera as Chondrus,

    Bonnemaisonia , and Leathesia . This element is barely represented in northern

    Iceland and is absent in the east. On the south coast, the greater, eastern

    portion is sandy and not very productive of algae, but the western border is

    better. The southwest coast is rocky and has the greatest [ ?] tides, of 1.2

    to 4.3 meters. In the southwest, the flora is much like that on the small

    rocky area of the south coast. As a whole the flora resembles that of Finmark,

    with a tendency for the eastern flora to resemble that of the White Sea in

    its subarctic character, while that of the south and southwest resembles the

    flora of the Faeroes.


    Jan Mayen

            The small arctic island of Jan Mayen, with a very inhospitable climate,

    shows a comparatively well-developed marine flora, clearly arctic in dominant

    characters, which we may piece together from the papers of Kjellman (88),

    Rosenvinge (129) and others. None of the collections are adequate to define

    the distribution of the vegetation on the coast. Fuci seem to grow [ ?] at

    018      |      Vol_V-0038                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    considerable depths (about 5 meters); kelps at 5 to 20 meters; Polysiphonia

    and abundant Turnerella still deeper at 50 meters; and the deepest reported

    vegetation of Phycodrys and Pantoneura at 110 to 118 meters. This seems to

    be the usual shift in growth habit in the Arctic where there is considerable

    risk of abrasion by floating ice. Kjellman considers the flora to be inter–

    mediate between that of East Greenland and Spitsbergen, but peculiar in several

    respects, and with a few species which he considered new and endemic. The variety

    of kelps and the presence of Polysiphonia arctica , Turperella , etc., testify to

    the arctic characters, as does the absence of the plants which Jonsson ascribes

    to the boreal groups.


    The Faeroes

            The Faeroes resemble southwestern Iceland in flora, but with an even

    stronger warm boreal element. There is still a very small arctic element, and

    the strong subarctic fraction accounts for more than one-fourth of the species,

    but the warm Atlantic current which sweeps around these islands places them in

    a marine climate definitely milder than latitude would suggest, and gives them

    a considerable number of warm boreal species which are absent from southern

    Greenland. The sea temperature is reported to average 5.5°C. in the late

    winter about Thorshavn, and about 10.3°C. in the late summer. The flora has

    been thoroughly studied by Børgesen (25/ 27). The vegetation is rather luxuriant,

    with a large intertidal growth of Fuci , Porphyra , Gigartina , and Rhodymenia ,

    while Laminaria and Alaria may even be exposed at spring tides. The algal

    growth here is sufficiently rich to promise direct utilization (28), as in

    the Orkneys. The Shetland Islands, only a little farther south, lack the arctic

    floral element altogether, and the subarctic elements becomes much less important

    than the warm boreal element, so reversing the situation found in the Faeroes.

    019      |      Vol_V-0039                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae


    Northern Coast of Norway

            The coast of Norway, lying in the latitudes of south and central Green–

    land, offers a marked floristic contrast to the latter. Receiving as it does

    a good measure of the warm current from the North Atlantic, which swings around

    into Barents Sea, we find that the southern portion has a very distinct boreal

    character; but when Nordland Fylke is reached a quarter of the species are sub–

    arctic, and in the northernmost Finmark Fylke the change is even more marked,

    so that even Kjellman (79b) considers the whale area north of the Arctic Circle

    to be in the Norwegian Polar Sea, and the adjoining coast of Finland and

    western Russia to front floristically on the Murman Sea.

            To the north of the Norwegian Polar Sea is the Spitsbergen Sea, which

    floristically is much more extreme in its arctic character. The Norwegian flora

    clearly has its affinity with the North Atlantic flora, but in the cold arctic

    element may be accounted several species, especially in Monostroma , which are

    not known elsewhere. A special aspect is given to the vegetation by the preva–

    lence of Phyllaria dermatodea , which replaces in the upper sublittoral the

    Laminaria and Alaria vegetation of Greenland, though these genera are not absent.

    Several species occur in northern Norway which are not found on the more ice–

    bound shores, and some, like Porphyra [ ?] amplissima , reach unusual size.

    There is abundance and variety of Fucus species and other rockweeds.


    West Soviet Arctic (Murman Sea)

            The Murman Sea shows the transition from the rather rich flora of the Nor–

    wegian Polar Sea, with its prominent littoral flora of rockweeds and other types,

    to the sparse flora of the Siberian coast which lacks significant littoral

    020      |      Vol_V-0040                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    vegetation. When we compare the list of species we find that the chief charac–

    teristic is a reduction in the variety, for by Kjellman’s listing, the Murman

    Sea flora is much less than half as rich as that of northern Norway. There are

    a few new types, perhaps a score, but these do not much reduce the loss. In the

    western area and the White Sea, the Fuci are still prominent, though Himanthalia

    and Halidrys are gone; but in the eastern area, Ascophyllum and Pelvctia have

    left the flora, only two species of Fucus remaining instead of the eight or

    nine which according to his 500 classification occur in Norway. Though still

    in the flora, Rhodymenia has shifted to a sublittoral habitat. Certain other

    forms become more prominent. Forming brown crusts on the rocks, we find Ralfsia

    deusta widely distributed, while Pantoneura , Halosaccion , and Euthora become

    common and luxuriant. The more truly arctic additions to the flora do not appear

    in the White Sea and western area, but rather in the east, with the advent

    or marked increase in the prominence of Haplospora, Phyllaria lorea, Laminaria

    nigripes , L.fissilis , and Sarcophyllis , and the presence of d e structive ice

    action which presages the shifting of the brown algal flora into deep water,

    as its constitution shifts from a rockweed-dominated to a kelp-dominated list.



            The knowledge we have of the flora of Spitsbergen rests mostly on the

    important studies of Agardh (4; 2) and Kjellman (82; 84; 79), both most expert

    phycologists. These islands lie across the line of 80° N. latitude, being

    mostly below it, while Franz Josef Land lies mostly to the north of it, with

    marine algal flora unrecorded. The shore line of Spitsbergen is much dissected,

    the character of the rocks being uneven as regards suitability for algal growth;

    in great part they are of schists and poor, the proximity to the arctic ice

    021      |      Vol_V-0041                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    fields and the position well within the area of drifting pack ice assuring

    conditions suitable only for a strongly arctic vegetation. The flora is not

    a very poor one, though somewhat smaller than that of [ ?] northern Norway;

    but it is much more extensive than that developed on the Siberian coast. Certain

    general features are apparent. First, it is rare to find many plants in the

    littoral, although about 14 species have been so reported, all sporadicall ; y.

    There are a few fairly characteristic groupings in deeper water. One, based

    on Fucus evanescens and Rhodomela Lycopodioides , with Polsyiphonia arctica and

    other species, is quite often met at a few meters depth. Another, found occa–

    sionally at 9 to 27 meters depth, is based on Lithoderma , associated with

    Phyllophora interrupta , Laminaria solidungula , etc. In fact, the L. solidungula

    vegetation is common and luxuriant in Spitsbergen. Another feature is the

    occasional presence and apparent continuing growth in detached masses on the

    bottom, often in huge bulk, of normally attached species, such as Phyllophora

    , Desmarestia aculeata , and Kallymenia rosea .

            The relations of the Spitsbergen flora are clearly with that of West Green–

    land and arctic Ame b rica, rather than with Siberia, those species occurring in

    common with Siberia being generally forms of wide range. Currents bring to

    the shores of south Spitsbergen large quantities of debris of southern, often

    recognizably Norwegian origin, and algal masses such as Ascophyllum bearing

    Polysiphonia lanosa are included, but no boreal element is evident in the flora.

    The fact that the temperature is constantly below even that of the northermost

    coast of Norway would clearly put such plants at a disadvantage.

    022      |      Vol_V-0042                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae



            The opinion expressed by Kjellman that the arctic algal flora is in its

    distinctive features endemic, evolved and dispersed within the arctic seas, seems

    to have been accepted by most later workers. However, Simmons (146) considers

    that, after the evolution of a Tertiary arctic algal flora, it was largely, or

    perhaps entirely, driven southward by the progress of glaciation, but that

    some representatives afterward moved back. It does not seem that any signifi–

    cant interchange with the Pacific has occurred. The fact that several charac–

    teristic species also occur well down the American coast suggests more strongly a

    dispersal from the Arctic rather than introduction into it. However, it must

    be realized that this view can apply only to the species, not the genera or

    families to which they belong, which are often very wide-ranging, with the

    time of their introduction into the Arctic or dispersal from it accordingly

    remote. There are only a very few endemic genera, and some of these are of

    doubtful worth.

            Of distinctive ecological aspects, perhaps the intertidal rockweed

    vegetation so rich in the Norwegian north as well as in deep water on more

    northern coasts, the Lithoderma vegetation and the kelp vegetation which is

    of very wide range in deep water, are the best examples. The fact that the

    vegetation in deep water can develop well even when it is seasonally snow–

    and ice-shielded, far beyond the winter-long night, from even the feeble nor–

    thern daylight, and at temperatures seldom above zero centigrade, is the most

    striking physiological adaptation. Economically there is little promise of a

    direct utilization of algae in the Arctic proper, where the biological yield

    must be harvested through the cycle of animals in the sea. However, in the

    023      |      Vol_V-0043                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    Subarctic, where the littoral growth is heavy or the sublittoral accessible,

    the recent resurgence of utilization of kelp for alginic acid and of red algae

    for various gels may well encourage exploitation.

            The records of northern peoples using seaweeds for food are few and unsatis–

    factory. That people in the tropics use them is well known; so do people in

    temperate regions, notably the Asiatics. There is nothing about the coarser

    arctic species which would indicate that they could not safely be eaten, with the

    minor exception, probably, of the Desmarestias. Where the elaborate preparation

    accorded them by the Japanese is impossible they could simply be boiled with other

    foods to furnish pleasing bulk and texture, and in some cases a modifying flavor.

    Kelps, Porphyra , and Chondrus are groups which so suggest themselves. The nutri–

    tive value is probably small, but this is true of many foods; other virtues must

    be given due weight.

            Kjellman (79) expresses his opinion of the marine algal flora in the Arctic

    very aptly at one point in his discussion: “the most prominent features in the

    general aspect of the arctic marine Flora are scarcity of individuals, monotony

    and luxuriancy.”



            The arctic freshwater algal vegetation offers a very different problem from

    that of the marine algae. In the first place the expectation of different floras

    in different sectors is much less, freshwater algae having, in general, very wide

    ranges. Then we have the special problem of the similarity of arctic and alpine

    floras. Finally, there is much less literature available, and much of it deals

    024      |      Vol_V-0044                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    only with the areas of interest to Scandinavian scientists. While we have

    many more species listed, less is told about even the most characteristic

    individual species among them.

            The arctic freshwater vegetation may be expected to be the same in all

    general features, whether in Greenland, northwestern Europe, Russia, or Alaska.

    There will be reports of endemic species, of course, but these do not appear

    in any part of the world to play a distinctive role. Therefore, the important

    factors are those which produce special environmental conditions and so cause

    a characteristic type of flora, which may be expected in various parts of the


            The freshwater algal genera found in arctic regions differ very little

    from those found in milder zones. The difference lies not in the genera, or

    even in the species, but in the way particular types dominate their habitats.

    We have the same types of filamentous algae; Nostoc , Spirogvra , Zygnema ,

    Cladophora , Rhizoclonium , of unicellular genera such as [ ?] Gloeocapsa ,

    Cosmarium , of diatoms, and of peridinians. However, in arctic areas among

    desmids Cosmaria are disproportionately common, and many of the “arctic”

    species of desmid lie in Cosmarium , whereas Euastra and some others are rela–

    tively scarce. Indeed, it is only in the specialized groups of desmids that

    much prospect exists of designating phytogeographic areas (Boldt 1887).

            Algae may notably color the damp rocks and soil, because of the per–

    sisting humidity. On the snow they produce the red, green, and brown condi–

    tions so often noted in accounts of travel in mountains and arctic lands.

    We know little of an exact quantitative nature regarding the productivity of

    arctic lakes, but we know that in many subarctic areas the fish production

    025      |      Vol_V-0045                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    of lakes and streams is very generous, and the algae of the subarctic regions

    are largely responsible for this. Where the lakes are too shallow for produc–

    tion of major fish, algae and submerged mosses and vascular plants (often not

    true aquatic genera) will serve as the food source for the lesser fauna.

            Ice and Snow Fields . Freshwater algal habitats may be divided into several

    categories, for they are responsive to many factors, such as temperature, aera–

    tion, pH, available calcium or nitrogen, and light. As these factors have

    been little studied in the Arctic, we had best confine ourselves to a brief

    mention of a few characteristic aspects. First, let us consider the ice and

    snow flora. This has chiefly been studied in alpine and subarctic areas [ ?]

    [ ?] (173; 90), but the observations may be extrapolated to the arctic

    situations. Since ice and snow organisms cannot be studied well except in the

    living state, and few explorers in the Arctic have taken such care as to do

    this, our best knowledge of them comes from the snow fields of mountains parts

    of Alaska, Switzerland, and Scandinavia. But comparable conditions in general

    prevail in the Arctic, and the at least seasonal continuity of habitat has

    tended to a general distribution of the algae concerned, producing a similarity

    of ice and snow flora wherever any is known, although there are a number of

    different species in the Antarctic.

            The classical organism concerned in coloring snow is Chlamydomonas nivalis , which

    most often causes red snow, and is well known in the Arctic. On the old snow

    fields, resting cells of this plant growing near the surface are sufficiently

    abundant to color it, even to a conspicuous pink. Obviously, it multiplies at

    about zero centigrade. Other red-snow algae are found, as C. sanguinea and

    Smithsoniomonas abbottii . Characteristic organisms produce green and yellow

    026      |      Vol_V-0046                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    snow, as Scotiella . Organisms characteristically forming an ice flora rather

    than one on snow are Ancyclonema and Mesotaenium , producing a purplish-brown

    color, the former in particular being reported from Greenland. Numerous other

    species are minor but normal constituents of the snow and ice flora, which is

    by no means an inconsiderable source of organic matter, involving, as it may,

    great areas. In the Arctic the long periods of darkness probably limit

    growth more than the cold.

            Wet Rocks and Ground . Secondly, we may consider the flora of wet rocks

    and ground. These are sometimes provided with gelatinous sheaths and so become

    resistan se t to drying, but the climate of much of the Subarctic and Arctic in

    summer favors algal growth in such situations. The daytime surface temperatures

    rise rapidly; the stones lose heat slowly in the evening. There is often

    abundant water from springs, bogland, melting snow, etc. on stones, red colora–

    tion may be due to Glosocapsa , blue-green to Phormidium , and grass-green to

    Rhizoclonium. One of the notable features of subarctic and arctic puddles and

    wet ground is the development of Nostoc , especially N. commune colonies, which

    have appeared in collections from many countries, including many seen by the

    writer from Arctic America.

            Brooks and Streams . Thirdly, there is the flora of brooks and streams. In

    great part the elements will be like those of alpine districts, and somewhat

    different from those of temperate countries. Notable features are the production

    of abundant brown gelatinous unpleasant-smelling streamers of Hydrurus , and of

    flat green blades of Prasiola fluviatilis . We may even have Batrachospermum

    tufts, e.g., in Greenland. [ ?] Bordering the brooks and rivulets, Mougeotia ,

    Zygnema , Vaucheria , and diatoms may form green or brown mats.

    027      |      Vol_V-0047                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

            Lakes . The floras of deep lakes and of shallow ones may differ markedly,

    particularly in the more arctic stations, as the shallow ones tend to thaw more

    rapidly and completely. The algal flora in these shallow ponds is often in–

    conspicuous, and it may require a close inspection to see that the bottom is

    completely covered with a living carpet. The margin, usually subject to some

    variation in submergence, may support a dense dark-brown felt of Stigonema or

    Scytonema , which may extend out over the bottom. However, here the vegetation

    is often in the form of a nondescript sludge which, if carefully examined, will

    prove to be largely of gelatinous unicellular algae, chiefly blue-greens. When

    such ponds are continuously exposed to sunlight they become quite warm, favor–

    ing such groups of algae.

            The algae are entirely able to withstand freezing and to take advantage of

    even a few hours of thawing for rapid growth (68); in fact, a thin ice cover

    probably does not inhibit growth, though full encasement and darkening by winter

    snow no doubt ends activity for a season. It is not known just what species can

    withstand freezing in the vegetative state, and to what degree. One notes in

    alpine areas a massive development of Zygnema aplanospores, but commonly complete

    absence of zygospores, suggesting that they can well withstand freezing in the

    vegetative state.

            Though net hauls have occasionally been taken, true plankton studies of

    arctic lakes are nearly lacking, and not enough is known upon which to generalize.

    Børgesen and Ostenfeld ( 25 29b ) report on the plankton of one deep lake in the

    relatively temperate Orkneys; it was dominated by the diatom Asterionella , with

    some Dinobryon , and with the diatoms Tabellaria and Fragilaria , the desmids

    Xanthidium and Staurastrum (four species), and Sphaerocystis , all frequent on

    028      |      Vol_V-0048                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    occasion. There is nothing peculiar about this. The area is hardly even sub–

    arctic, to be sure. Strøm reports (159) various subarctic, alpine, and sub–

    alpine lakes with similar floras in which diatoms, Dinobryon , Sphaerocystis ,

    and Anabaena were the important plant elements; earlier (160); in discussing

    some larger arctic-alpine lakes, he reported from these a very meager plankton


            Soil. The algae of the soil have been studied both in Iceland and Greenland.

    Petersen extended his studies of surface-growing (but not submerged) algae (121)

    to an analysis of the subsurface soil of virgin and cultivated areas (124). The

    soil contains in part species more or less peculiar to it, in part species that

    may appear in surface waters. The dampness of the soil was found to be a vital

    ecological factor in Iceland, a much larger population developing in damp soil.

    Exposure to light was also important, soil with a heavy moss or phanerogamic

    cover being unfavorable. The degree of acidity of the soil and the persistence

    of snow cover seemed relatively unimportant.



            Swedish Lappmark . Swedish Lappmark would scarcely deserve consideration were

    it not for the valuable study of Borge (14) on the northernmost part at 68°20' N.

    latitude in the Torne Träsk area at about 345 meters elevation. Borge’s account

    of 442 kinds of freshwater algae is exceptionally informative. In the snow

    fields of the area, red snow is reported to be very common, as it is in the

    Sarek Mountains (161). Hydrurus is reported in several places; desmids are ex–

    ceedingly varied but with southern forms by no means scarce; Pediastrum braunii

    is widespread, but although Stigonemas are reported several times, there is no

    029      |      Vol_V-0049                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    indication that they are striking elements in the flora, as they are in high

    mountains in Canada (165). The Norwegian reports (158; 157; 159) are chiefly

    from alpine and southern areas, but make the Scandinavian Peninsula phycologi–

    cally very well known.

            Finland . Only in its northernmost part can Finland be considered subarctic.

    [ ?] Cedercreutz (30; 31) gives the best account from here. he reports an arctic–

    alpine element of substantial extent, involving 16 Cosmarium species among

    desmids, and Pediastrum braunii , and considers that this high proportion of

    Cosmaria (43 per cent on the Fisher Peninsula) is strong evidence of arctic


            The Soviet Arctic . The Soviet Arctic has not been well surveyed for fresh–

    water algae, and, since even a reconnaissance would require far more detailed

    collecting than for marine algae, the situation is very obscure. In the west–

    central and southeastern parts of the Murmansk region, the reports given by

    Kosinskaia (94; 95) deal especially with desmids; the flora is rather rich and

    not particularly arctic, with several Micrasterias and Euastrum species. The

    desmids alone have been studies at several islands and stations near the arctic

    coast [ ?] (92), from the Kara Sea to the Bering Sea. The whole character is

    arctic, with no Micrasterias, few Closteria and Euastra, but very many Cosmaria

    (50 species).

            Jan Mayen, Novaya Zemlya, and Franz Josef Land . The arctic islands of Jan

    Mayen, Novaya Zemlya, and Franz Josef Land have all been studied and sere reported

    upon by the beginning of the twentieth century (98; 171 a ; 93), in some cases by

    several expeditions, but little has appeared recently. Large lakes are not a

    feature of these islands, and so the algal flora tends to be one of wet rocks,

    030      |      Vol_V-0050                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    marshy ground, and snow fields, exhibiting rather little variety. The flora is

    strongly arctic; for instance on Franz Josef Land, there are, in desmids, no

    species of Micrasterias or Closterium, but many Cosmaria, and Prasiola, Gloeocapea,

    and especially Nostoc populations are, as usual, common.

            Spitsbergen . Spitsbergen has been well studies by Borge (16). The flora

    is sharply arctic. Hydrurus and Prasiola fluviatilis are found in streams. On

    snow fields, Chlamydomonas nivalis , Raphidonema , and Ancyclonema are reported,

    producing characteristic colorations. Though scarce, Pediastrum braunii is re–

    ported. Other, subaerial, Prasiolas are reported on rocks. Among desmids, Micra

    sterias is absent, and there is a wealth of Cosmaria. The hot springs of [ ?]

    Spitsbergen, with temperatures from 20.0° to −28.3° C. in a latitude of 79°25′30″

    N., are a special feature of the island which has been examined by Strøm (162).

    They support quite a large algal flora, including a local from the Chara aspera,

    a genus otherwise apparently unknown so far north.

            The Faeroes . Of the Faeroes the best account is given by Børgesen (24). On

    the whole he finds the relations of the freshwater algae to be strongest with

    the west European flora, except in that area of the islands where the arctic–

    alpine phanerogams appear. Here there is, in desmids, a strong Cosmarium contin–

    gent of the type common in the North. In streams Hyudrurus is common, and, even in

    a subalpine stream, Enteromorpha . Though not a feature of alpine flovas, in the

    Faeroes, Cladophora forms colonies in the lakes. The Sphagnum bogs and Myriophyllum

    communities were rich in algal species. Among notable aerial algae, we have an

    important vegetation of Prasiola on rocks.

            Iceland . Icelandic freshwater algae have been quite extensively studied. The

    general flora, northern in character, needs little additional mention. The most

    031      |      Vol_V-0051                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    distinctive features appear in the studies of the more or less exposed algal

    colonies (120; 121). In spite of the prevailing damp, algae on shrubs, masonry,

    woodwork were not evident. On turf walls Prasiola was common. Among the hillocks

    of the myri, such blue-green algae as Stigonema and Scytonema were common. Meadows

    near the sea that were occasionally flooded by salt water were commonly covered

    with Vaucheria . Shady mountain clefts were dominated by desmids and diatoms.

    About the margins of caves there was much Trentepohlia . Bird cliffs were not

    unexpectedly dominated by Prasiola , which favors areas besprinkled by bird dung,

    and species of blue-green algae. Hot springs as on Spitsbergen are a feature

    of the country; blue-green algae were abundant in them.

            Greenland . Greenland in its southern flora partakes much of the character

    of Iceland and Scandinavia, and space cannot be spared to discuss it. The more

    northern portion has been dealt with by Børgesen (23) and Petersen (122), the

    first with samples from about Danmarks Havn [ ?] (76°46′ N.lat.), and the

    second from 81°15′ to 83°06′ N. latitude, which appears to be the northern

    limit of land samples of freshwater algae to date. At 76° there was quite

    a varied flora. The desmids as usual were distinctive, with [ ?] Cosmarium

    dominating (42 species), Staurastrum not far behind, Euastrum (4), and

    Closterium (2); Micrasterias were absent. Common and often large Nostoc commune

    is reported. At the more northern latitude unfortunately the samples were not

    made from very suitable stations, and desmids were few, but the blue-green

    algae and diatoms were very well represented. Even on the old ice of the fjord,

    the diatoms were freshwater species. Among blue-green algae Nostoc commune

    again appears, from the border of the inland ice; Gloeocapsa and Phormidium are

    prominent, and, depositing lime on the bottom of a stream, even Schizothrix .

    032      |      Vol_V-0052                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

            The American Arctic . The American Arctic at the time of writing (1948 was

    too little known for a report on the algal flora to be completely comprehensive.

    To the southeast we know (166; 167) that the freshwater algal flora of Newfound–

    land has quite a few arctic species, but the variety of Euastra and Micrasterias

    found there makes it clear that the arctic floral characteristics do not pre–

    dominate. Westward, only Lowe (106) reporting on Canadian Arctic Expedition

    (1913-18) algae from the arctic coast of Alaska gives any substantial report.

    As was to have been expected, the one species of Micrasterias reported was rare,

    Euastrum uncommon, but Closterium was represented by several species and Cosmarium

    [ ?] dominated as usual (about 40 species), so that the indicator value of the

    desmids is again shown. The Nostoc vegetation was prominent, as the writer has

    found it represented also in samples from Chesterfield Inlet, Iguliguar Island,

    Sarpic Island, and Southampton Island in Hudson Bay; Winter Island to the north,

    Cape Wostenholme, Cape Dorset, and Lake Harbour in Hudson Strait; and Minto

    Inlet on Victoria Island.



            In summary of the freshwater algal distribution, one may say that as far

    as land is known to go to the north, and is even briefly exposed by melting

    of ice and snow in the summer, there are suitable conditions and a freshwater

    algal flora. A very little more exposure, as at Danmarks Havn and Franz Josef

    Land, gives a substantial variety. On snow and ice there is also a varied flora,

    but very specialized and relatively small. This flora is pretty uniform about

    the whole arctic circuit, but we do not know much of its distribution off the

    land masses, on the sea ice and the snow which may lie on it. The terrestrial

    033      |      Vol_V-0053                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    and aquatic algae of the land masses also show little distinctive variety

    in the different geographical areas apart from that controlled by local climate.

    The species concerned are seldom exclusively arctic in distribution, with some

    notable exceptions in the desmids. Even here, the most distinctive feature is

    the dominance of Cosmarium and considerable suppression of certain other genera.

    Among subaerial green alage, Prasiola is important. Among blue-green algae

    we not the abundance of Gloeocapsa and especially of Nostoc — not in variety

    but of individuals. On the whole one can say that, in terms of reducing variety

    and abundance, freshwater algae are among the slowest of plants to respond to

    the repressions of the arctic climate.

    034      |      Vol_V-0054                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae


    1. Agardh, J.C. “Alger insammlade pa Grönland of Dr Sv. Barggren och P. Oberg,

    bestämda af Prof. J. G. Agardh. — Redogorelse för en expedition

    till Grönland ar 1870 af A. E. Nordenskiöld, Bilaga II,” Svenska

    Vetenskapsakad. Öfvers. Förh . vol.27, pp.1080-81, 1871.

    2. ----. “Birdrag til kännedomen of Spetsbergens Alger, jemte Tilläg,”

    Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl, vol.7, no.8, pp.1-49, 1868.

    3. ----. “Bidrag till kännedomen of Grőnlands Laminarieer och Fucaceer,”

    Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl . Vol.10, no.8, pp.1-31, 1872.

    4. ----. Om Spetsbergens Alger . Lund, Akademisk Program, 1862.

    5. Ashmead, S. “Alage. Enumeration of arctic plants collected by Dr. J. J. Hayes

    in his exploration of Smith’s Sound between parallels 78th and 82nd

    during the months of July, August and beginning of September 1861,”

    Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. Proc . vol.96, 1864.

    6. ----. “Plants from Smith’s Sound. Alage,” Jones, T.R., Manual of the

    Natural History, Geology, and Physics of Greenland , London, 1875,


    7. Babington, C. “Lichens from Barrow and Davis Straits…alga,” Jones, T.R.

    Manual of the Natural History, Geology, and Physics of Greenland . 1875.

    8. Bachmann, H. “Beiträge zur Algenflora des Susswassers von Westgrönland,”

    Nitt. Naturf, Ges. Luzern , vol.8, pp.1-181, 1921.

    9. Bell, H.P. and MacFarlane, C. “Marine algae from Hudson Bay,” Contri. Canada .

    Biol. & Fish. Vol.8, no.3, pp.65-68, 1933.

    10. Berggren, S. “Alger fran Grönlands inlandsis,” Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Öfvers .

    Förh . vol.28, no.2, pp.293-96, 1871.

    11. Boldt, R. “Deamideer fran Grönland,” Ibid ., vol.13, no.3, 5, pp.1-48, 1888.

    12. ----. “Grundrragen af Desmidieernas Utbredning i Norden,” Svenska Veten–

    skapsakad. Bihang. Handl. Vol.13, no.3,6, pp.1-110, 1887.

    13. ----. “Nagra sötvattens-alger fran Grönland,” Botaniska Notiser , 1893,

    pp.156-8, 1893.

    14. Borge, O. “Beiträge zur Algenflora von Schweden, 2. Die Algenflora um den

    Torne-Trasksee in Schwedish-Lappland,” Botaniska Notiser , pp.1-110,


    035      |      Vol_V-0055                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    15. ----. “Chlorophyllophyceer fran Norska Finmarken, “Svenska Vetenskap–

    sakad. Bihang. Handl . Vol.17, no.3, 4, pp.1-15, 1892.

    16. ----. “Die Sűsswasseralgenflora Spitsbergens,” Norske Videnskaps-Akad.

    Mat.-Nat. Kl. Skrifter , vol.11, pp.1-39, 1911.

    17. ----. “Sűsswasseralgen von Franz Josefs-Land, gesammelt von der Jackson–

    Harmsworth’schen Expedition,” Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Öfvers .

    Förh . vol.56, no.7, pp.751-66, 1899.

    18. ----. “Susswasserchlorophyceen gesammelt von Dr. Osw. Kihlman in nörd–

    lichsten Russland, Gouvernement Archangel,” Ibid . vol.19, no.3,

    5, pp.1-41, 1894.

    19. Børgesen, F. “Algues d’eau douce. (Sauf les Diatomees),” Ostenfeld–

    Hansen, C. Contribution a la Flore de l’Ile Jan Mayen, Botanisk

    Tidsskr . Vol.21, pp.18-3221897.

    20. ----. “Conspectus algarum novarum aquae dulcis, quas in insulis Fearoen–

    sibus invenit,” Dansk Naturhist. Foren. Medd. 1899, pp.317-66, 1899.

    21. ----. “En för Faerøerne ny Laminaria,” Botanisk Tidsskr . Vol.20, pp.403-5,


    22. ----. “Ferskvandsalger fra østgrönland,” Medd. Grønland , vol.18, no.1,

    pp.479-81, 1894.

    23. ----. “Freshwater algae from the ‘Danmarks-Expedition’ to North-East

    Greenland (N. of 76° Lat.),” Danmarks-Ekspedition til Grønlands

    Nordøstkyat 1906-1908. vol.3, no.3, pp.71-90, 1910.

    24. ----. “Freshwater algae of the Faeroes,” Bot. of the Faeroes , based upon

    Danish Investigations, vol.1, pp.198-259, 1901.

    25. ----. “The marine algae of the Faeroes,” Ibid ., vol.2,pp.339-532, 1902.

    26. ----. “Nogle Ferskvandsalger fra Island,” Botanisk Tidsskr . Vol.22,

    pp.131-8, 1899.

    27. ----. Om Algevegetationen ved Faerøernes Kyster; en Plantegeografisk

    Undersøgelse . København, Acad. Diss. 1904.

    28. ----, “Om et Par Smaaerhverv før Faerøerne og Island,” Atlanten , vol.2,

    no.14, pp.1-4, 1905.

    29. ----. “Om Faerøernes Algvegetation. Et Gensvar. 1, 2,” Botaniska Notiser,

    1904, pp.245-74; 1905, pp.25-56, 1904-05.

    036      |      Vol_V-0056                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    29a. Børgesen, F., and Jonsson, H. “the distribution of the marine algae of

    the Arctic Sea and of the northernmost part of the Atlantic,”

    Botany of the Faeroes , vol.3, Appendix: I-XXVIII. Copenhagen,


    29b. Børgesen, F., and Ostenfeld, C.H. “Phytoplankton of lakes in the Faeroes,”

    Ibid . vol.2, pp.558-624, 1903.

    29c. Boye, P. “Bidrag til Kundskaben om Algvegetation ved Norges Vestkyst,”

    Bergens Mus. Arbog , 1894-1895, vol.16, pp.16-46, 1896.

    29d. Brown, R. “Cryptogamic Plants from Baffins Bay,” Jones, T.R. Manual of

    the Natural History, Geology, and Physics of Greenland. London,

    1875, p.238.

    29e. ----. “On the nature of the discoloration of the Arctic Seas,” Ibid .


    29f. Cederkrentz, C. “Freshwater Algae from Labrador.” Soc. Fauna flor. Fenn.

    Memor. Vol.19, pp.216-22, 1944.

    30. ----. “Sűsswasseralgen aus Petsamo,” Soc. Fauna Flor. Fenn. Memor. vol.5,

    pp.140-58, 1929.

    31. ----. “----.” Ibid . vol.7, pp.237-48, 1932.

    32. Collins, F.S. “Algae of the Neptune Expedition,” Canadian Arctic Expedition,

    1913-18. Report , vol.4, Botany, B, Marine Algae, pp.29B, 1927.

    33. ----. “Bering Strait and Arctic Ocean Algae,” Ibid ., vol.4, pp.2 [ ?] 1B-16B, 1927.

    34. Croall, A. “Florula Discoana. Marine Algae,” Jones T.R. Manual of the

    Natural History … of Greenland . London, 1875, pp.276-80, 1875.

    35. ----. “Marine algae,” Brown, A. The Florula Discoana. Contributions to

    the phytogeography of Greenland within the parallels of 68° and

    70° North Latitude by R. Brown ,” Bot. Soc. Edinb. Trans . vol.9,

    pp.45-67, 1868.

    36a 35a . Dall, W.H. “Arctic marine vegetation,” Nature , vol.12, p.166,1875.

    36. De la Pylaie, A.J.M.B. Flore de l’Ile de Terre-Neuve et les Iles St. Pierre

    et Miclon . Paris, 1829.

    37. ----. “Quelques observations sur les productions d’ile de Terre-Neuve, et

    our quelques algues de la cote de France apartenant au genre

    Laminaire,” Annales Sci. Nat . vol.4, pp.174-84, [ ?] 1824.

    38. Dickie, G. “Algae and Diatomaceae,” Nares, G.S. Narrative of a Voyage to the

    Polar Sea during 1875-6 in H. M. Ships “Alert” and “Discovery ,”

    with notes on the Natural History. Edited by H.W.Feilden. London,

    1878, vol.2, App.XIV, Botany , pp.323-6.

    037      |      Vol_V-0057                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    39. ----. “Algae,” Hooker, J.B. “An account of the plants collected by

    Dr. Walker in Greenland and arctic America during the Expedition

    of Sir Francis M’Clintock in the yacht ‘Fox,’” Linnean Soc. J .

    Bot . vol.5, pp.86, 1861.

    40. ----. “XXIV (VI). Florula Discoana, freshwater algae,” pp.280-83;

    XXIX. The Algae, In ; Flowering Plants and Algae of Greenland,

    Davis’ Strait and Baffin Bay, Collected by Dr. P. C. Sutherland

    and determined by Sir W. J. Hooker and G. Dickie M.D.,” pp.239-41;

    “LXXV. Arctic Algae collected in Davis strait … Captain

    Penny’s Expedition 1850-51,” pp.515-19; “LXXVI. On Algae col–

    lected in Cumberland Sound, by Mr. James Taylor, with remarks on

    arctic species in general,” pp.519-52; “LXXVIII. Algae, In :

    An Account of the Plants collected by Dr. Walker in Greenland

    and Arctic America … in the yacht ‘Fox’ by J. D. Hooker,” p.526;

    Jones, T.R. Manual of the Natural History … of Greenland .

    London, 1875.

    41. ----. “Notes of algae collected on the coast of northwest America, by

    Mr. R. Brown,” Bot. Soc. Edinb. Trans . vol.9, pp.465-7, 1868.

    42. ----. “Notes on a collection of algae procured in Cumberland Sound by

    Mr. James Taylor, and remarks on arctic species in general,” Ibid .

    vol.9, pp.235-43, 1867.

    43. ----. “Notes on a collection of plants from the northeast shore of Lan–

    caster Sound,” Linnean Soc. J. Bot . vol.11, pp.34-35, 1871.

    44. ----. “Notes on flowering plants and algae collected during the voyage

    of the ‘Isabel,’ Algae,” Inglefield, E.A. A Summer Search for

    Sir John Franklin; with a Pap into the Polar Basin . London,

    1853, pp.140-4.

    45. ----. “Notes on the algae,” Sutherland, P.C. Journal of a Voyage in

    Baffin’s Bay and Barrow Straits in the Years 1850-1851 . London,

    1852, vol.2, pp. exci-cc.

    46. ----. “On the algae found during the Arctic Expedition,” Linnean Soc.

    J. Bot . vol.17, pp.6-12, 1878.

    47. Ehrenberg, C.G. “Über eine frische Probe der die Crimson Cliffs scharlach–

    roth farbenden Substanz aus der Baffin’s Bai und das begleitenden

    Kleinste Loben,” Akad. Wiss. Berl. Monataber , vol.741, 1851.

    48. Farlow, W.G. “Alage,” p.214. In ; Wetherell, H.E. Botany. List of Plants

    Obtained on the Peary Auxiliary Expedition of 1894. Geogr. Club

    Penn. l(5), Appendix C:208-15, 1895.

    49. ----. “List of algae collected at points in Cumberland Sound during the

    autumn of 1877. Contributions to the natural history of Arctic

    America made in connection with the Howgats Polar Expedition,

    1877--78, by Ludwig Kumlien,” U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull . no.15, p.169,


    038      |      Vol_V-0058                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    50. ----. “Notes on arctic algae; based principally on collections made

    at Ungava Bay by Mr. L. M. Turner,” Amerc. Acad. Arts Sci. Proc .

    vol.31, n.s. vol.13, pp.469-77, 1886.

    51. Foerov, B.C. “Sur les algues d’eau douce de Novaia Zemlia,” Wissenach.

    Meeresinst. Ber . Vol.12, pp.13-47, 1925.

    52. Foslie, M. Contributions to a Monograph of the Lithothamnia . Edited by

    H. Printz. Trondijem, 1929.

    53. ----. “Contribution to the knowledge of the marine algae of Norway. I.

    East Finmarken,” Tromsø Mus. Aarsh . Vol.13, pp.1-186, 1891.

    54. ----. “----. II. Species from different tracts,” Ibid . vol.14,

    pp.36-56, 1892.

    55. ----. “The Norwegian forms of Lithothamnion,” Norske Videnskaps-Akad. Skr .

    1894, pp.29-208, 1895.

    56. ----. “Om nogle nye arktiske havalger,” Norske Videns Keps-Akad. Forh .

    1881, vol.14, pp.1-14, 1881.

    57. ----. “Remarks on Lithothamnion murmanicum ,” Ibid . 1908, vol.2, pp.1-8.

    58. Gardner, G. “Liste annotee des especes de pteridophytes, de phanerogamies

    et d’algues recoltees sur la cote du Labrador, a la baie d’Hudson

    et dans le Manitoba nord, en 1930 et 1933,” Soc. Bot. Fr. Bull .

    vol.84, pp.19-51, 1937.

    59. Gobi, C. “Die Algenflora des Weissen Meeres und der demselben zunächts–

    liegenden Theile des Nordlichen Eismeeres,” Akad. Nauk. Mem . Vol.26,


    60. Grönblad, R. “Algen, hauptsäclich Desmidiaceen, aus dem Finnischen, Nor–

    wegischen und Schwedischen Lappland. Mit Berűcksichtigung der

    Organismen des Phytoplanktons und des Zooplantons,” Societas

    Fauna Flora Fenn. Acta , n.s. B, vol.11, no.5, pp.1-46, 1942.

    61. ----. “Einige Desmidiaceen aus Sibirien,” Finska Vetenskaps-Soc. Commenta

    tiones Biol . Vol. 1, no. 9, pp.1-9, 1924.

    62. Gronlund, C. “Tillaeg til Dr. Kjellmans Afhandling,” Botanisk Tidsskr . Vol.11,

    pp.81-83, 1879.

    Hariot, P. “Contribution a la Flore cryptogamique de l’ile Jan Mayen,” J. de

    Bot . vol.7, pp.117-21, 1893.

    64. ----. “Note sur les collections cryptogamiques, rapportees par La Manche.

    II, Ile Jan Mayen In : A. P. L. Bienaime, Voyage de ‘La Masche’ a

    l’ile de Jan Mayen et au Spitzberg, 1892,” Nouv. Arch. Miss. Sci.

    vol. 5, pp.235-54, 1893.

    039      |      Vol_V-0059                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    65. Harvey, W.H. “Alage. Flora of Western Eskimaux-Land,” Seeman, B.L. The

    Botany of the Voyage of H. M. S. “Herald” — London, 1852-1857.

    66. ----. “List of arctic algae, chiefly complied from collections brought

    home by officers of the recent searching expeditions,” Nereis

    Boreali Americana III, Supp. 2, pp.132-4, 1858.

    67. Hauck, F. “Algae” Reichardt, H.W. Flora der Insel Jan Mayen. Beobachtungs

    Ergebnisse die Internationalen Polarforschung 1882-1883. Die

    Osterreichische Polarstation Jan Mayen . Vol.3 (VII Theil, Botanik,

    A), pp.2-4, 1866.

    68. Häyren, E. “Bilder fran Finlands Ishavskust,” Geogr. Sallsk. Finland Terra .

    Tidskr . Vol.40, no. 1, pp.27-44, 1928.

    69. ----. “Notiz über das Überwinttern einiger Algen unter dem Eise,”

    Societas Fauna Flora Fenn. Medd . Vol.48, pp.174-7, 1924.

    70. ----. “Zwei notizen über das Meereseis und die Algen,” Societas Fauna

    Flora Fenn. Memor . Vol.5, pp.134-40, 1929.

    71. Hooker, W.J. “Alagae,” Arnott, G.A.W. The Botany of Captain Beechey’s Voyage;

    comprising an account of the plants collected by Messrs. Lay and

    Collie, and other officers of the expedition, during the voyage to

    the Pacific and Behring’s Strait, performed in his Majesty’s ship

    Blossom, under the command of Captain F. W. Beechey, R. N., F. R.

    and A. S., in the years 1825, 26, 27, and 23 . London, 1841, pp.54,

    77, [ ?] 78, 110, 134, 163-5, 406-9.

    72. Howe, M.A. “Hudson Bay algae,” Canadian Arctic Expedition 1913-1918. Report ,

    vol.4 (Bot., B, Marine Algae), pp.18B-30B, 1927.

    73. Hubbenet, E.R., and Voblikove, T.A. “Sutochniyi khod fotosinteza u vondoroslei

    Barentsova moria vo vremia poliarnogo dnia,” Mauchn. Inst. P. F.

    Lesgafta Izv . Vol.20, no.2, pp.47-68, 1937.

    74. Jones, T.R. Manual of the Natural History, Geology, and Physics of Greenland

    and the Neighboring Regions; Prepared for the Use of the Arctic

    Expedition of 1875, under the Direction of the Arctic Committee

    of the Royal Society … together with Instructions … for

    the Use of the expedition . London, 1875.

    75. Jonsson, H. “A contribution to the Knowledge of the marine algae of Jan Mayen,”

    Botanisk Tidsskr . vol.26, pp.319-20, 1905.

    76. ----. “The marine algae of East Greenland,” Medd. Grønland vol.30, pp.1-7 [ ?] 3 ,


    77. ----. “The marine algae of Iceland, I-IV,” Botanisk Tidsskr . vol.24, no.2

    pp.127-155; vol.25, no2. pp.141-195; vol.25, no.3, pp.337-385,


    040      |      Vol_V-0060                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    78. ----. “The marine algal vegetation of Iceland,” Botany of Iceland .

    Rosenvinge, L. Kolderup and Warming, E., vol.1, no.1, pp.1-196,


    79. Kjellman, F. R. “The algae of the Arctic Sea. A survey of the species,

    together with an exposition of the general character and the

    development of the flora,” Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl . Vol.20,

    no.5, pp.1-350, 1883.

    80. ----. “Bidrag till kännedomen of Kariska Hafvets Algvegetation,” Svenska

    Vetenskapsakad. Öfvers. Förh . vol.2, pp.1-30, 1877.

    81. ----. “Bidrag till kännedomen om Islands hafsalgflora,” Botanisk Tidsskr .

    vol.11, pp.77-80, 1879.

    82. ----. “Förberedande anmärkingar om algvegetationen i Mosselbay enligt

    iaktagelser under vinterdraggningar anställda af Svenska polar–

    expeditionen 1872-1873,” Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Öfvers. Förh .

    vol.5, pp.59-68, 1875.

    83. ----. “Norra Ishafvets algflora,” Nordenskiöld, A.E. Vega-Expeditions

    Vetenskapliga Iaktagelser , vol.3, pp.1-431, 1883.

    84. ---. “Om Spetsbergens marina klorofyllförande Thallophyter 1, 2,”

    Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Bihang. Handl . Vol3, no.7, pp.1-34; vol.4,

    no. 6, pp.1-61, 1875; 1877.

    85. ----. “Redogörelse för Kariska hafvets växtoch djurvärld,” Nordenskiöld,

    A.E., “Redogörelse for en Expedition till mynningen af Jenissej

    och Siberien ar 1875,” Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Bihang Handl .

    vol.4, no.1, pp.47-57, 1877.

    86. ----. “Über die Algenvegetation des Murmanschen Meeres und der Westküste

    von Nowaja Semlya und Waigatsch,” Vetenskaps-Soc. Upsala. Nova Acta

    vol.3, pp.1-86, 1877.

    87. ----. “Über die Meeresalgenvegetation von Beeren Eiland,” Arkiv. för Bot .

    vol.1, pp.1-6, 1903.

    88. ----. “Zur Kenntnis der marinen Algenflora von Jan Mayen,” Ibid . vol,5,

    no.14, pp.1-30, 1906.

    89. Kleen, E.A.G. “Om Nordlandens h ö gre hafsalger,” Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Öfvers .

    Förh . vol.9, pp.3-46, 187 5 4 .

    90. Kol, E. “The snow and ice algae of Alaska,” Smithson. Misc. Coll . Vol.101,

    no.16, pp.1-36, 1942.

    91. Koldewey, K. “Algae,” The German Arctic Expedition of 1869-70, and narrative

    of the wreck of the “Hansa” in the ice . London, 1874, pp.347, 518.

    Several maps and plates.

    041      |      Vol_V-0061                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    92. Kosinskaia, E.K. “Desmidievye vodorosli iz Arktiki,” Akad. Nauk. Bot.Inst.

    Trudy , ser.2, no.3, pp.410-40, 1936.

    93. ----. “Kriticheskii spisok presnovodnykh vodoroslei sobrannykh V. P.

    Savichem v Arkticheskoi pravitel’stvennoi ekspeditsii 1930 g,”

    Bot. Inst. Trudy , ser.2, no.1, pp.35-52, 1933.

    94. ----. “Materiaux pour la connaissance de la flora algologique de la

    Presqu’ile de Kola,” Ibid . ser.2, no2, pp.57-100, 1934.

    95. ----. “Sur la flore des Desmidiees du Lac Montsche,” Ibid . ser.2, no.3,

    pp.451-67, 1936.

    96. Krieger, W. “Süsswasseralgen aus Spitzbergen,” Bericht Dtsch. Bot. Ges .

    vol.56, pp.55-72, 1938.

    97. Kuchuck, P. “Meeresalgen von Sermidlet und Kleinen Karajakfjord. Bot. Ergeb

    der v. d. Gesselsch, f. Erdkunde zu Berline unter Leitung Dr. v.

    Drygalski’s Grönland Expedition nach Dr. Vanhöffen’s Sammlung

    bearbeitet; A. Kryptogamen, IV,” Biblioth. Bot . vol.42, pp.28-39,


    98. Lagerheim, G. “Beiträge zur Flora der Bären-Insel. 2: Vegetablisches Süss–

    wasser-Plankton aus der Bären-Insel,” Svenska Vetenskapsakad.

    Bihang. Handl . vol.26, (3, 11), pp.1-25, 1900.

    99. ---. “Bidrag til kännedomen om snöfloran i Lulea Lappmark,” Botaniska

    Notiser , pp.230-5, 1883.

    100. ----. “Ein Beitrag zur scheeflora Spitzbergens,” Nouva Notarisia ,

    pp.650-4, 1894.

    101. Larsen, E. “Ferskvandsalger fra Vest Gronland,” Medd. Grønland , vol.33, 1907.

    102. ----. “The freshwater algae of east Greenland,” Medd. Grønland , vol.30,

    pp.77-110, 1904.

    103. Lawson, G. “On the Laminariaceae of the Dominion of Canada and adjacent parts

    of British America,” Nova Scotian Int. Nat. Sci. Trans . Vol.2, no.4,

    pp.109-11, 1870.

    104. Lemoine, Mme.P. “Expedition Arctique Canadienne. Melobesiees (Calcareous

    Algae),” Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913-18. Report , vol.4 (Bot. B.,

    Marine Algae), p.17B, 1927.

    105. ----. “Sur les caracteres generaux des genres de Melobesiees arctiques et

    antarctiques,” Acad. Sci. Comptes Rendus , vol.154, pp.781-4, 1912.

    106. Lowe, C.W. “Freshwater Algae and Freshwater Diatoms,” Ibid . vol.4 (Botany, A),

    pp.3A-53A, 1923.

    042      |      Vol_V-0062                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    107. Lund, S. “The Godthaab Expedition 1928. The Marine Algae,” Medd. Grønland ,

    vol.82, no.4, pp.1-18, 1933.

    108. Lyngbye, H. C Tentamen Hydrophytologiae Danicae, continens [ ?] omnia hydrophyta

    cryptogamia Daniae, Holsatiae, Faeroae, Islandiae, Groenlandiae

    hucusque cognita, systematice disposita, descripta et inconibus

    illustrate, adjectis simul speciebus Norvegicus . Copenhagen, 1819.

    I-XXXII, pp.1-248. 70 pl.

    109. Marr, J.W.S. “Plants collected during the British Arctic Expedition, 1925,”

    J. Bot. Lond . vol.65; pp.272-7, 1927.

    110. Merrifield, M.P. “Arctic marine vegetation,” Nature , vol.12, pp.55-58, 1875.

    111. Murray, G., and Barton, E.S. “A comparison of the arctic and antarctic

    marine floras,” Phyc. Mem . vol.3, pp.88-98, 1895.

    112. Nordhagen, R. “Studien über die maritime Vegetation Norwegens. I. Die

    Pflanzen-Gesellschaften der Tangwalle,” Bergens Mus. Arb. Naturv.

    Rekke 1939/40, pp.1-234. 18 pl.

    113. Nordstedt, O. “Alger, insammlade pa Grønlands inlandsis af Dr. Berggren

    bestämda till Grønland ar 1870 af. A. E. Nordenskiöld, Bilaga III,”

    Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Öfvers. Förh . Vol.27, pp. [ ?] 1880-81, 1871.

    114. ----. “Desmidiaceae ex insulis Spetsbergen-sibus at Beeren Eiland in ex–

    peditionibus annorum 1868-1870 suecanis collectae,” Ibid . no.6,

    pp.23-42, 1872.

    115. ----. “Desmidieae arctoae,” Ibid , no.6, pp.13-43, 1875.

    116. ----. “Desmidieer sammlade af Sv. Berggren under Nordenskiöld’ska Ex–

    peditionen till Grönland 1870,” Ibid . no.3, pp.5-12, 1885.

    117. Ostenfeld, C.H. “Om Plantevaeksten paa Grønlands Nordkyst og dens Livsvilkaar,”

    Nat. Verden . Vol.9, pp.289-311, 1925.

    118. Ostenfeld, C.H. and Wesenberg-Lund, C. “A regular fortnightly exploration of

    the plankton of the two Icelandic lakes Thingvallavatan and Myava–

    tan,” Roy. Soc. Edin. Proc . vol.25, no.2, pp.1092-1167, 1906.

    119. Van Oye, P. “X. Die Desmidiaceen von Thingvallavatan und Umgebung. Weten–

    schappelijke Resultaten der Studiereis van Prof. Dr. P. van Oye

    op Ijsland,” Biol. Jaarb. Konink. Natuurw. Genootsch. Dodonaea ,

    vol.7, no.11, pp.306-27, 1941.

    120. Petersen, J. “The aerial algae of Iceland,” Bot. of Iceland, vol.2, pp.327-447,


    043      |      Vol_V-0063                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    121. ----. “Algefloraen i nogle Jordprover fra Island,” Dansk Bot. Arkhiv .

    vol.5, no.9, pp.1-23, 1928.

    122. ----. “Freshwater algae from the northern coast of Greenland collected

    by the late Dr. Th. Wulff. Den II Thule Eksped. til Grønlands

    Nordkyst 1916-18,” Medd. Grønland , vol.64, no.13, pp.307-19, 1924.

    123. ----. “The freshwater Cyanophyceae of Iceland,” Bot. of Iceland , vol.2,

    no.7, pp.251-324, 1923.

    124. ----. “Studies on the biology and taxonomy of soil algae,” Dansk Bot .

    Arkiv , vol.8, no.9, pp.10-183, 1935.

    124a. Polunin, N. et al . “Botany of the Canadian Eastern Arctic, Part II, Thallo–

    phytes and Bryophytes,” Nat. Mus. Can. Bull . no.97, 1947. Biol .

    Ser . no.26.

    125. Porsild, M.P. and Simmons, H.G. “Om Faer o ø ernes Havalgevegetation og dens

    Oprindelse. En Kritik. I. M.P.Porsild, Den faer o ø eske Havalge–

    floras Oprindelse;” “II. H.G.Simmons, De ökologiska enheterna i

    den färöiska hafsalgvegetationen,” Botaniska Notiser , pp.149-80,


    126. Richardson, J. “Algae,” Franklin, John. Narrative of a Journey to the Shores

    of the Polar Sea in the Years 1819, 20, 21 and 22 . London, 1823,

    No.VII. Botanical appendix, p.763.

    127. Richter, P. “Süsswasseralgen aus dem Umanakdistrikt. Bot. Ergebn. Der …

    Dr. v. Drygalski’s … Grönland-expedition … A. Kryptogamen,

    I,” Biblioth. Bot . vol.42, pp.1-12, 1897.

    128. Rosenvinge, L.K. “Algues marines,” Ostenfeld-Hansen, C. “Contribution a la

    flore de l’ile Jan Mayen,” Botanisk Tidsskr . Vol.21, pp.26-28, 1897.

    129. ----. “A botanical trip to Jan Mayen by Johannes Gandrup. 3, Marine

    Algae,” Dansk Bot. Tidsskr . Vol.4, no.5, pp.1-35, 1924.

    130. ----. “Deuxieme Memoire sur les algues marines du Grønland,” Medd. Grøn

    land, vol.20, pp.1-125, 1898.

    131. ----. “Grønlands Havalger,” Medd. Grønland , vol.6, no.765-981, 1893.

    132. ----. “Marine algae collected by Dr. H. G. Simmons during the 2nd Nor–

    wegian Arctic Expedition in the ‘Fram,’ 2d, 1898-1902. Report ,

    no.37, pp.1-40, 1926.

    133. ----. “Marine algae from Kangerdlugssuak. The Scoresby Sound Comm. 2nd

    East Greenland Expedition in 1932 to King Christian IX’s Land,”

    Medd. Grønland , vol.104, no.8, pp.1-14, 1933.

    134. ----. “Note sur une Floridee aerienne ( Rhodochorton islandicum n. sp.),”

    Botanisk Tidsskr . vol.23, pp.61-81, 1900.

    044      |      Vol_V-0064                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    135. ----. “Om Algevegetationen ved Grønlands Kyster,” Medd. Grønland , vol.20,

    pp.1-125, 1898.

    136. ----. “Om the marine algae from northeast Greenland (N. of 76° n. Lat.),

    collected by the ‘Danmark-Expedition,’” Danmarks-Eksped. til

    Grønl. Nordøstkyst 1906-08, vol.3, no.4, pp.93-133, 1910.

    137. Rostrup, E. “Faerøernes Flora, en Floristik Skitze … Algae,” Botanisk

    Tidsskr . vol.4, pp.72-73, 92-93, 1870.

    138. Ruprecht, F. “Tänge des Ochotischen Meeres. — Reise in den äussersten

    Norden und Osten Sibiriens von A. Th. V. Middendorff,” St. Peters–

    bourg, 1851, Bot. I. Abt . vol.1, no.12 [ ?] pp. 193-345.

    139. Saunders, De A. “Papers from the Harriman Alaska Expedition, 25. The Algae,”

    Wash. Acad. Sci. Proc . vol.3, pp.391-486, 1901.

    140. Schmidle, W. “Über einige von Knut Bohlin in Pite Lappmark und Vesterbotten

    gesammelte Süsswasseralgen,” Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Bihang. Handl ,

    vol.24, no.8, pp.1-71, 1878.

    141. Schubeler, C. “Alg e ae,” Heuglin, Th. von. Reise nach dem Nordpolarmeer in

    den Jahren 1870 und 1871. Part 3. Beiträge zur Fauna, Flora und

    Geologie. Kryptogame von Nowaja Semlja und Waigatsch . Braun–

    schweig, p. 317, 1874.

    142. ----. “Alger,” Blytt, A. “Bidrag til Kundskaben om Vegetation paa Nowaja

    Semlja, Waigatsch-øen og ved Jugar-Stroadet. (Rosenthalske Ex–

    pedition 1871),” Norske Videnskaps-Akad. Förh . vol.14, 1872.

    142a. Setchell, W.A. Algae of the Pribilof Islands. The Fur Seals and Fur-Seal

    Islands of the North Pacific Ocean . Washington, vol.3, pp.589-96,


    143. Setchell, W.A., and Collins, F.S. “Some algae from Hudson Bay,” Rhodora ,

    vol.10, pp.114-16, 1908.

    144. Setchell, W.A., and Gardner, N.L. “Algae of northwestern America,” Calif.

    Univ. Publ. Bot . vol.1, pp.165-418, 1903.

    145. Sewell, P. “Algae,” “The flora of the coasts of Lapland and of the Yugor

    Straits, as observed during the voyage of the ‘Labrador’ in 1888,

    with summarized list of all the species renown from the islands

    of Novaya Zemlya and Waigatz, and from the north coast of western

    Siberia,” Bot. Soc. Edinb. Trans . vol.17, pp.460, 465-6, 1889.

    146. Simmons, H.G. “Remarks about the relation of the floras of the northern

    Atlantic, the Polar Sea, and the northern Pacific,” Beih. Bot .

    Centralbl. Vol. 19, no.2, pp.149-93, 1905.

    045      |      Vol_V-0065                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    147. ----. “Zur Kenntnis der Meerealgenflora der Faeroer,” Hedwigia , vol.36.

    pp.247-76, 1897.

    148. Sinova, E.S. “De forma[is?] nov[is?]a Fuci filiformis Gmel. in Oceani Glaciali,”

    Not. Syst. Inst. Sporovykh. Rastenii, Glavnyi Bot. Sad., Lenin–

    grad, vol.1, pp.143-4, 1922.

    149. ----. “De formis novis Fuci Fueci De la Pylaie in Oceani Glaciali,” Not.

    Syst. Inst. Sporovykh. Rastenii, Glavnyi Bot. Sad., Leningrad,

    vol.1, pp.131-4, 1922.

    150. ----. “Die neue Entdeckungen in die Algenflora von Murmanische Küsten,”

    Soc. Nat., Leningrad, Trav . vol.56( 3 , Bot.), pp.17-44, 1926.

    151. ----. “Les Algues de Kamtschatka,” Inst. Hydrol., Expl. des Mers d’U.R.S.S.

    vol.17, pp.17-42, 1933.

    152. ----. “Les algues de la mer Kara,” Soc. Nat., Leningrad, Trav . vol.55

    ( 3 , Bot.), pp.53-116, 1925.

    153. ----. “Sur quelques algues de la baie de Novorosiisk,” Leningr. Obshch.

    Estestv. Trudy , vol.57, pp.45-68, 1927.

    154. Sommerfelt, C. “Bidrag til Spitzbergens og Beeren-Eilands Flora efter Her–

    barier, medbragte af M. Keilhau,” Nytt Magazin Naturv . ser. [ ?] ,

    vol.1, pp.232-52, 1832.

    155. Steenstrup, K.J.V. “Kan Tangranden benyttes til Bestemmelse af Forandringer

    i Vandstanden?” Medd. Grønland , vol.33, no.1, pp.1-8, 1907.

    156. Stockmayer, S. “Kleinder Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Süsswasseralgenflora Spitz–

    bergens,” Österr. bot. Zeitschr . Vol.56, pp.47-53, 1906.

    157. Strøm, K.M. “The alga-flora of the Sarek Mountains,” Naturwissenschaftliche

    Untersuch. Sarekgeb. Schwed. -Lapp. Vol.3, no.5, pp.437-521, 1923.

    158. ----. “Algological Notes. 2. Freshwater algae and plankton from Finmark,”

    Nytt Magazin Naturv ., vol.59, pp.7-9, 1921.

    159 160 . ----. “The phytoplankton of some Norwgian Lakes,” Norske Videnskaps. -Akad.

    Mat. -Nat. Kl. Skrifter , no.4, pp.1-51, 1921.

    160. ----. “Norwegian mountain algae; an account of the biology, ecology and

    distribution of the algae,” Norske Videnskaps-Akad. Mat. -Nat. Kl.

    Skrifter , no.6, pp.1-263, 1926.

    161. ----. “Snow algae ( cryoplankton ) from the Sarek Mountains,” Naturwissen–

    schaftliche Untersuch. Sarekgeb. Schwed. -Lapp. vol.3, no.5, pp. 522–

    24, 1923.

    046      |      Vol_V-0066                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    162. ----. “Some algae from hot springs in Spitzbergen,” Botaniska Notiser

    pp.17-21, 1921.

    163. Strömfelt, H.F.C. “Om algvegetationen vid Islands kuster,” Göteb, Kgl.

    Vetensk. Och Vittern. Samhal. Handl., ny Tidsfk . vol.21, no.2

    pp.1-89, 1887.

    164. v. Suhr, J.N. “Beiträge zur Algenkunde,” Flora, vol.23 ( I , 17, 18, 19):

    pp.257-67, 273-82, 289-98, 1840 ( cf . p.292).

    165. Taylor, Wm.R. “The alpine algal vegetation of the mountains of British

    Columbia,” Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad [ ?] . Proc . vol.80; pp.45-114, 1928.

    166. ----. “The freshwater algae of Newfoundland, I,” Mich. Acad. Sci. Pap .

    vol.19, pp.217-78, 1934. Pl. 45-57.

    167. ----. “----, II,” Ibid . vol.20, pp.185-229, 1935.

    168. ----. Marine Algae of the Northeastern Coast of North America . Ann

    Arbor, Mich., 1937.

    169. Vonhöffen, E. “Die fauna und flora Grönlands. Freshwater Algae,” Drygalski,

    E. von. Gr ö nland-Expedition der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu

    Berlin 1891-1893 . Berlin, 1897, vol.2, pp.159-71.

    170. ----. “Peridineen und Dinobryeen, Bot. Ergebn. der... Dr. v. Drygal–

    ski’s … Grönlandexpedition …, A. Kryptogamen III,”

    Biblioth. Bot . vol.42, pp.25-27, 1897.

    171. Wille, N. “Ferskvandsalger fran Novaja Semlja samlade af Dr. F. Kjellman

    paa Nordenskiölds Expedition 1875,” Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Öfvers .

    Förh . no.5, pp.13-74, 1875.

    171a. ----. “Om Faerøernes Ferskvandsalger og om Ferskvandsalgernes Sprednings–

    maader,” Botaniska Notiser , pp.1-32, 49-61, 1897.

    172. Wille, N., and Rosenvinge, L.K. “Alger fra Nowaia-Zemlia og Kara Havet,

    Samlede paa Dijmphna-Expeditionen 1882-83 af Th. Holm,” Lutken,

    Chr. F. Dijmphna-Togets zool. -bot. Udbytte . Copenhagen, 1887,


    173. Wittrock, V.B. “Om snöns och isens flora, särskildt i de arktiska trak [ ?] terna,

    Nordenskiö ld, A.E. Studier och forskningar főranledda of mina

    resor i höga norden , vol.2, pp.65-124, 1883.

    174. Wycoff, E. “Bibliography Relating to the Floras of Arctic Regions, Iceland,

    Scandinavia, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Russia, Finland, Lapland,

    Russian Poland and Caucasia,” Lloyd Library Bibliogr. Contr . vol.7,

    8, pp.311-52, 1912.

    047      |      Vol_V-0067                                                                                                                  
    EA-PS. Taylor: Algae

    175. Zanon, D.V. “Diatomee della Baia del Re (Swalbard),” Mem. Pont. Acad. Sci.

    Nuovi Lincei, Mem . ser.2, vol.12, pp.419-63, 1929.

    176. Zeller, G. “CIII. The algae of east-arctic Greenland,” Jones, T.R. Manual

    of the Natural History, Geology, and Physics of Greenland .

    London, 1875.

    177. ----. “Algen,” Mosle, A.G., and Albrecht, G. Die zweite Deutsche Nord

    polarfahrt in den Jahren 1869 and 1870 unter Fuhrung des Kapitän

    Karl Koldewey
    . Leipzig, 1872, Bd. 2, Wissenschaftliche Ergeb–

    nissee, I. Botanik, pp.83-87, 1874.

    178. ----. “Algen und Zoöphyten in Nordischen Meer und Sibirien gesammelt

    von Graf Waldburg-Zeil,” Wurtemb. Naturw. Jahresh . Vol. 39, pp.104-6,



    William Randolph Taylor

    Back to top