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Volume 2b: Electrical and Mechanical Engineering

Effects of Extreme Cold on Materials

Flow of Coolant Which Carries Heat From Engine to Radiator
Relation Between Concentrations and Freezing Protections of Various Antifreeze Solutions
Effect of temperature on the compression strength of concrete during the curing period.
Strength, Temperature, Moisture Relationships from Kollmann’s Report

Tractor-Type Transportation Units for Arctic Operations

Steel and glass cab on International TD-18 tractor.
Steel and glass cab mounted on Caterpillar D8 tractor.
Canadian type canvas enclosure on Caterpillar D6 tractor.
Canvas type enclosure for operator. The track carrier rollers have been replaced with a hard wood block, to eliminate difficulty in getting carrier rollers to turn in extreme cold and deep snow. Note also the plywood engine side doors.
Herman-Nelson hot air generator, being used to warm up tractor engine.
Caterpillar D7 tractor, equipped with two Vapor Car hot water heaters.
Using an open flame type heater on Caterpillar D7 tractor starting engine.
Caterpillar D-7 tractor pulling 24 sleighs (each carrying 4 cords) of pulpwood logs.
Form from Caterpillar Tractor Co. describing work done in Figure 6
Caterpillar D-6 diesel tractors and 32 sleighs carrying approximately 300 tons of supplies.
Form from Caterpillar Tractor Co. describing work done in Figure 7
A Caterpillar D-7 diesel tractor opening a road for spring traffic.
Form from Caterpillar Tractor Co. describing work done in Figure 8
Caterpillar D-8 diesel tractor, pulling 3 sleds, each loaded with approximately 25 tons of lumber and other building materials, went through the ice.
Form from Caterpillar Tractor Co. describing work done in Figure 9

Sled-Type Transportation Equipment for Arctic Operations

“Michler Common-Sense” No. 9, Extra Heavy Duty “Modified” Sleigh Chassis. Made by the Michler Sled Company of Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. Note Sled Beds, left center.
Elevation of Bob Sled (Michler Co.)
Plan of Bob Sled (Michler Co.)
Pipe Running Sled. Fig. 4
Standard “Michler Go-Devil”.

Power Plant Development and Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems

Precipitation, Fairbanks, Alaska 1904-1946. From records Fairbanks Station, U. S. Weather Bureau.
Temperature, Fairbanks, Alaska 1904-1946. From records Fairbanks Station, U. S. Weather Bureau.
Table I: Soil and Snow Surface Temperatures. Fairbanks, Alaska -- Ladd Field, 1947.
Lifting forces from swelling of ground because of freezing.
Collars or muffs around pole to assist in preventing lifting of pole.
Lifting of pole because of freezing of water at foot of pole.
Pole anchor in permafrost.

Prospecting and Exploration of Minerals in the Arctic and Subarctic Alaska

Diagram to Show Tools and Drilling Operations of Hillman Airplane Placer Drill
Construction Details for Canvas Boat
Vertical Section illustrating some of the conditions which may be found in a permafrost area.
Pier illustrating the use of “ice batter”.
Mat foundation on tundra.
Yuba Manufacturing Company San Francisco, Calif. U.S.A. 9 Cu. Ft. Dredge No 56 Dwg. No 41144
Yuba Manufacturing Company San Francisco, Calif. U.S.A. 9 Cu. Ft. Dredge No 56 Dwg. No 41145

Petroleum in the Arctic

Partial map of the globe centered on the North Pole
Monthly Temperatures and Hours of Daylight Barrow, Alaska
Map of Alaska and small part of Canada
[From the previous page:] A bolted-frame wanigan protects the drill crew and equipment from the weather.
[From the previous page[?]:] Electronic seismograph instruments require very little special adaptation to arctic work.
[From the previous page:] All cable insulation should be cold-tested to insure its remaining flexible at the temperatures encountered in the arctic winter.
[From the previous page:] The problems presented to gravity and seismograph operations in the Arctic are not ones involving techniques and measurements as much as of logistics during the widely differing summer and winter seasons.

Arctic Sanitary Engineering

Arctic & Subarctic Regions.
Eskimo Homes in Alaskan Arctic.
Typical Occurrence of Permafrost in the Northern Hemisphere.
A Residential District of Fairbanks, Alaska.
A Railroad and Communications Line in the Permafrost Region of Alaska.
Arctic tundra north of the Brooks Range in Alaska.
There are many glaciers such as this in the mountainous sections of the Arctic.
Possible Groundwater Location in Permafrost.
Typical Permafrost Cellar for Storage of Ice & Food.
Wooden barrel on sled which serves as means for bringing water for domestic uses from nearby lake during the warm months at Barrow, Alaska (Note sewage and refuse disposal barrel sitting on ground nearby the sled).
Relation Between Rainfall and Catchment Area for Cistern Water Supplies.
Flow of Subpermafrost and Entrapped Water into River in Permafrost Zone.
Subsurface Dam and Streambed Water Collection Works.
Entrapped Water in Permafrost.
Unsafe Ground Water Supply in Permafrost
Occurrence of Ground Water in Interior Alaska.
Frost Mound Formation.
Relation Between Temperature and Viscosity in Water (After Bingham and Jackson).
Method for Anchoring Piling in Permafrost.
Design for Building Footings Above Permafrost (Kojinov).
Relation Between Time of Mixing, Temperature, a Rate of Settling (Baylis).
Theoretical Relation of Hydraulic Subsiding Values to Temperature.
Solubility of Chlorine in Water - 32° to 212° F. (Water Quality and Treatment Manual - A.W.W.A., 1941).
Relationship Between Temperature and Loss of Head in Sand Filter (After Flinn, Weston & Bogert).
Water Distribution by Tank Truck, Nome, Alaska.
Commercial Type Utilidor (Prefabricated Units).
Wood Stave Utilidor.
Walk Through Type Utilidor 7′ × 9′ with 8″ Concrete Shell.
Above Ground Utilidor
Small Wood Construction Utilidor.
Utilidor Service Connection
Drainage of Entrapped Water into Improperly Sealed Utilidor.
Removable Top on Cast-In-Place Utilidor.
Utilidor Located in Earth Mound at Ground Surface.
Clearing to Permit Penetration of Sun’s Rays (Kojinov).
How Pipe is Laid in Perpetually Frozen Ground (Kojinov).
Single Main Recirculating & Distributing System.
Dual Main Recirculating Distribution System.
The Thermal Tap Service Connection.
Dual Main Service Connection
Influence of Temperature upon the Nitrogen Content of Prairie Soils (After Jenny).
Abundance of Bacteria in Soils at Different Seasons of the Year (After Russell).
Vigorous frost action in the seasonally frozen layer of soil in the Arctic causes mounding and cracking of the soil as is shown in the above picture.
Map of permafrost area in Alaska. As indicated in the above map, about 60% of Alaska is underlaid by permanently frozen ground (permafrost). In the most northerly sections, this permafrost often extends to a depth of several hundred feet. In such areas, the usual Stateside methods of maintaining adequate water supplies and waste disposal systems must be extensively modified for effective and economic use.
Map of the Territory of Alaska Fig. 53
Sewage disposal barrels (metal oil drums with tops removed) sit near each tent and house in this Arctic village. Tin cans and other refuse are piled on ground in the fore part of the picture.
A tin shop in Nome, Alaska displays metal boxes for use in the box and can waste disposal system.
Chemical Toilet.
Table II Approximate Monthly Mean Ground and Air Temperatures at Certain Points in the Arctic Permafrost Area.
Vertical Alignment Support for Sewer in Permafrost which Becomes Unstable upon Thawing.
View of building [purpose uncertain]
Sewage Disposal Plant near Fairbanks, Alaska
Coal Fired Portable Boiler Thawing Sewers at Fairbanks, Alaska
Small Coal or Wood Fired Rental Unit for Sewer Thawing at Fairbanks, Alaska
Relation of Digestion Tank Capacities to Mean Sludge Temperature (After Imhoff and Fair)
A Refuse Dump in a Trailer Camp at Fairbanks, Alaska
Construction Cost Indices for Alaska
Population in Thousands