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    Sanitary Engineering

    Encyclopedia Arctica 2b: Electrical and Mechanical Engineering

    Arctic Sanitary Engineering

    Unpaginated      |      Vol_IIB-0438                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. (Amos J. Alter)




    Introduction 1
    Sources of Information 3
    A Different View of Common Phenomena 4
    Low Temperatures Retard Biological Reactions 4
    Physical Changes 5
    Low Temperatures Retard Chemical Reactions 8
    Sunlight is Seasonal 8
    Effective and Efficient Use of Resources and Materials

    the Key to Arctic Development
    Water Supply 17
    Water Sources 20
    Surface Water 23
    Surface Water Supply Intake Facilities 29
    Suprapermafrost Sources 31
    Intrapermafrost Water 32
    Subpermafrost Water Supplies 35
    Water Treatment 38
    Water-Supply Structures and Appurtenances 39
    Aeration 44
    Mixing of Chemicals 45
    Sedimentation 46
    Use of Chemicals in the Arctic 46
    Slow Sand Filtrations 51
    Rapid Sand and Diatomaceous Earth Filtration 51
    Water Softening 53
    Corrosion Control 53
    Water Distribution 54
    Distribution by Tank Truck 54
    Seasonal Distribution Systems 57
    Utilidor 57
    Preheating and Recirculating Distribution System 67

    Unpaginated      |      Vol_IIB-0439                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Arctic Sanitary Engineering


    Contents #2

    Sewage Disposal 79
    Individual Waste-Disposal Systems 84
    The Box and Can System 84
    The Pit or Surface Privy 89
    Septic Tanks, Subsurface Tile Field, and Sand Filters 89
    Cesspools 89
    Chemical Toilets 91
    Practical Waste Disposal for Individual Properties 91
    Community Sewer Systems 92
    Sewer Systems in Utilidors 92
    Sewers Placed Directly in the Ground 93
    Pumping Stations 96
    Sewage Treatment 96
    Plain Sedimentation 98
    Flocculation 99
    Screens 100
    Skimming Basins 100
    Grit Chambers 100
    Septic Tanks 101
    Imhoff Tanks 101
    Sewage Filters 101
    Biological Treatment 103
    Chlorination of Sewage 104
    Sludge Digestion 104
    Sludge Disposal 105
    Garbage and Refuse Disposal 106
    Garbage Collection 107
    Sanitary Fill 108
    Other Methods of Garbage Disposal 109
    Utility Construction Costs 110
    Summary 114
    Conclusions 115
    Bibliography 117

    Unpaginated      |      Vol_IIB-0440                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. (Amos J. Alter)

    Arctic Sanitary Engineering



    Fig. 1 Arctic and subarctic regions 2
    Fig. 2 Eskimo homes in Alaskan Arctic 6
    Fig. 3 Typical occurrence of permafrost in the

    Northern Hemisphere
    Fig. 4 A residential district of Fairbanks, Alaska 11
    Fig. 5 A railroad and communications line in the

    permafrost region of Alaska
    Fig. 6 Arctic tundra north of the Brooks Range in Alaska 18
    Fig. 7 Typical glacier in mountainous sections of the Arctic 18
    Fig. 8 Possible groundwater location in permafrost 19
    Fig. 9 Typical permafrost cellar for storage of ice and food 21
    Fig. 10 Wooden barrel on sled which serves as means for

    bringing water for domestic uses from nearby lake

    during the warm months at Barrow, Alaska. (Note

    sewage and refuse disposal barrel sitting on ground

    nearby the sled.)
    Fig. 11 Relation between rainfall and catchment area for cistern

    water supplies
    Fig. 12 Flow of subpermafrost and entrapped water into river

    in permafrost zone
    Fig. 13 Subsurface dam and streambed water collection works 28
    Fig. 14 Entrapped water in permafrost 30
    Fig. 15 Unsafe ground water supply in permafrost 33
    Fig. 16 Occurrence of ground water in interior Alaska 34
    Fig. 17 Frost mound formation 36

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    Arctic Sanitary Engineering


    Page #2



    Fig. 18 Relation between temperature and viscosity in water 37
    Fig. 19 Method for anchoring piling in permafrost 41
    Fig. 20 Design for building footings above permafrost (Kojinov) 42
    Fig. 21 Relation between time of mixing, temperature, and

    rate of settling (Baylis)
    Fig. 22 Theoretical relation of hydraulic subsiding values to

    Fig. 23 Solubility of chlorine in water −32° to 212°F. 50
    Fig. 24 Relationship between temperature and loss of head in

    sand filter
    Fig. 25 Water distribution by tank truck, Nome, Alaska 55
    Fig. 26 Commercial type utilidor (prefabricated units) 59
    Fig. 27 Wood stave utilidor 60
    Fig. 28 Walk through type utilidor 7′ × 9′ with 8″ concrete

    Fig. 29 Above ground utilidor 62
    Fig. 30 Small wood construction utilidor 63
    Fig. 31 Utilidor service connection 65
    Fig. 32 Drainage of entrapped water into improperly sealed

    Fig. 33 Removable top on cast-in-place utilidor 68
    Fig. 34 Utilidor located in earth mound at ground surface 69
    Fig. 35 Clearing to permit penetration of sun’s rays (Kojinov) 71
    Fig. 36 How pipe is laid in perpetually frozen ground (Kojinov) 72
    Fig. 37 Single main recirculating and distributing system 73
    Fig. 38 Dual main recirculating distribution system 74
    Fig. 39 The thermal tap service connection 75

    Unpaginated      |      Vol_IIB-0442                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Arctic Sanitary Engineering


    List of Figures #3

    Fig. 40 Dual main service connection 77
    Fig. 41 Influence of temperature upon the nitrogen content

    of prairie soils (After Jenny)
    Fig. 42 Abundance of bacteria in soils at different seasons

    of the year (After Russell)
    Fig. 43 Vigorous frost action in the seasonally frozen layer

    of soil showing mounding and cracking
    Fig. 52 Map of permafrost area in Alaska 83-a
    Fig. 53 Map of the Territory of Alaska 83-b
    Fig. 44 Sewage disposal barrels (metal oil drums with tops

    removed) sit near each tent and house in this Arctic

    village. Tin cans and other refuse are piled on ground

    in the fore part of the picture
    Fig. 45 A tin shop in Nome, Alaska displays metal boxes for

    use in the box and can waste disposal system
    Fig. 46 Chemical toilet 88
    Fig. 47 Vertical alignment support for sewer in permafrost

    which becomes unstable upon thawing
    Fig. 54 Sewage disposal plant near Fairbanks, Alaska 97-a
    Fig. 55 Coal-fired portable boiler thawing sewers at

    Fairbanks, Alaska
    Fig. 56 Small coal or wood-fired rental unit for sewer

    thawing at Fairbanks, Alaska
    Fig. 48 Relation of digestion tank capacities to mean

    sludge temperature
    Fig. 49 A refuse dump in a trailer camp at Fairbanks, Alaska 107-a
    Fig. 50 Construction cost indices for Alaska 111
    Fig. 51 Per capita cost curves, water and sewer utilities

    for Alaskan towns

    001      |      Vol_IIB-0443                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. (Amos J. Alter)





            Sanitary engineering relates to structures and operations for pro–

    moting and maintaining a healthful environment. Environmental control is

    accomplished through consideration and application of principles of sani–

    tary science, physics, chemistry, and engineering . (1) .

            Arctic sanitary engineering (2) is the art and science by which the

    above principles are effectively and efficiently utilized to provide a

    favorable environment for man in a geographic region in which the mean

    temperature for the warmest month is less than 50°F. (Figure 1). Arctic

    sanitary engineering precepts may be said to apply equally in most parts

    of the Subarctic as well as the Arctic. All the customary factors of

    environment (3) must be dealt with, such as, water supplies; sewage and

    industrial waste disposal; refuse collection and disposable; food and milk

    production, processing, handling, and storage; industrial hygiene; ice sup–

    plies; housing; heating, lighting, ventilation, and air conditioning; purity

    of streams, lakes, and other waters; rodent and insect control; and other

    miscellaneous factors. Sanitary engineering as it applies to water supply,

    sewage disposal, and garbage and refuse disposal will be discussed in

    this paper.

    002      |      Vol_IIB-0444                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 1

    002a      |      Vol_IIB-0445                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            Community water and sewage systems as they are known in temperate

    climates are not common in the Arctic. Prior to 1928, community water and

    sewer services and systematic refuse disposal did not concern the arctic

    dweller. Popular opinion has held that low temperature and related physical

    conditions obviate the need for customary environmental health control


            Occurrence of diseases associated with faulty environment has dis–

    proved beliefs that sanitary control may be relaxed in the Arctic. Indus–

    trial development, defense activities, and an intensified public health

    movement have shown the need for modern community water supply and waste

    disposal systems in regions where the ground is permanently frozen.

            Dictated by expediency, sanitary engineering facilities and services

    designed for temperate climate use have been utilized with little or no

    modification to meet low temperature needs. Trial and error have charted

    the course of sanitary engineering in the northern latitudes rather than

    research and investigation, and, now, many general conclusions on arctic

    sanitary engineering may be drawn from practical experience.

            There is little reason to believe that the principles involved in

    arctic sanitary engineering are materially different from those of sanitary

    engineering in temperate climates. The application of these principles is

    different. Top, side, and end views of the same object may give a different

    impression of the object, and likewise tropical, temperate, and arctic

    sanitary engineering may appear differently.

            Much research and investigation are necessary for full clarification

    of the limitations of sanitary engineering principles. However, facilities

    are now being built and new projects are developing continuously. An

    003      |      Vol_IIB-0446                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    evaluation of the present status of sanitary engineering in the Arctic is

    needed now.

            An effort has been made in this paper to combine the theories of

    temperate climate sanitary engineering with reported practical experience

    in the Arctic and with the extremely limited investigative date available,

    and thereby to establish the present status of arctic sanitary engineering.

            The policies set forth in this paper are now (1949) being used by the

    Sanitation and Engineering Division of the Alaska Department of Health, and it

    is hoped that they may serve as a useful reference for persons concerned with

    sanitary engineering in regions of low temperature.



            The information presented in this paper is based on the latest data

    available. The conclusions and interpretations set forth here have been

    partially derived from a careful study of reports and literature (4) on

    arctic sanitary engineering, geology, geography, and climatology, including

    Canadian, Russian (5), and American sources. These data have been combined

    with actual observations and practical experience gained through field in–

    vestigations of the Alaska Department of Health personnel.

            References on arctic sanitary engineering, particularly in the American

    Arctic, are not extensive, as little purely arctic research has been carried

    out to date. Basic research in problems of arctic sanitary engineering is

    greatly needed to determine more practical methods of environmental control

    by which orderly development of arctic regions may be achieved (6; 7).

            Despite the handicap of lack of specific knowledge concerning the

    operation of many of the physical laws and biological processes under conditions

    004      |      Vol_IIB-0447                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    peculiar to the Arctic, considerable progress has been made in applying

    known principles of sanitary engineering to problems of A a rctic sanitation (8).



            Initially, temperature is the principal variant distinguishing arctic

    sanitation from sanitation in other regions. Low prevailing temperature (9)

    results in a changed exhibition of certain common biological, physical,

    chemical, and engineering principles.

            The great length of time through which contagion may remain viable

    under low temperature conditions, the difficulties and expense encountered

    in the construction and operation of sanitary facilities, and the somewhat

    primitive practices of many arctic dwellers enhance the danger of passage

    of infectious disease from source to healthy individual.

            Low Temperatures Retard Biological Reactions . The usual temperature

    range for growth of protozoans, metazoans, and pathogenic bacteria is between

    15° and 40°C.; however, in ice cream inoculated with Salmonella typhosa and

    stored at −4.0°C., the presence of viable organisms has been demonstrated at

    the end of 2½ years (1; 3; 10).

            Free-living and saprophytic bacteria that grow very well at 0°C. have

    been isolated from fish, brine, and similar sources (Buchanan and Fulmer).

    Although few in species, there are many microorganisms that will grow at

    low temperatures. Zooplankton are not affected as greatly by low temperatures

    as are phytoplankton (11). An increase in plant forms during summer periods

    is closely related, however, to the number of plant-eating animals.

    005      |      Vol_IIB-0448                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            Physical Changes . Temperature gradients become steeper through heat

    conductors, and the moisture content of the air drops; soils and materials

    normally in a fluid or plastic state become frozen and solid, and many other

    physical changes occur in the environment.

            At 0°F. there is less than one-fifteenth as much water in the air as

    there is at 70°F., and at lower temperatures the air becomes even drier (13).

    Dehydration occurs rapidly when this cold air is heated. Vapor barriers

    assume unusual importance in building construction, and necessary ventila–

    tion is very costly in lost heat.

            Heating of homes, shops, etc., becomes a major concern. Each degree

    that the mean daily temperature is below 65°F. is a degree-day unit. Barrow,

    Alaska, for example, has in excess of 20,000 degree-day units as compared to

    4,560 for Washington, D.C. Even the smallest type of house at Barrow, Alaska,

    requires a minimum of 5 to 7 tons of coal to heat it for one year (12).

    Many of the houses at Barrow are no larger than 8 ft. by 10 ft. with a

    ceiling height of 5 ft. to 6 ft. (see Fig. 2).

            At the low temperatures prevailing in the subsurface layers of the earth,

    the soil water or water contained in the voids or interstices of the earth is

    permanently frozen from below a shallow, seasonally thawed section at the

    surface down several feet at the southern boundary of the Arctic (14; 15),

    and, at many points within the Arctic , it is frozen down several hundred feet

    (Fig. 3). Permafrost (permanently frozen ground) exists almost uninterruptedly

    under approximately one-fifth of the land surface of the world. Special con–

    sideration must be given to the stability of engineering structures (16), the

    availability of water, the decomposition of garbage and refuse, and the dis–

    posal of sewage in permanently frozen soils.

    006      |      Vol_IIB-0449                                                                                                                  

    Eskimo Homes in Alaskan Arctic

    Fig. 2

    007      |      Vol_IIB-0450                                                                                                                  



    Fig. 3

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    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            Materials that are plastic in temperate climates often become solids

    in the Arctic , and the viscosity of fluids become s greater as the temperature

    lowers. Solidified plastic materials when subjected to pressures and stray

    heat losses may again become plastic. Soil mechanics takes on different

    aspects in the Arctic (17). (See “Soil Mechanics in Permafrost Regions.”)

            Woody plants of significant economic value do not grow in the Arctic,

    and this complicates the construction of sanitary engineering works from

    local materials. Local inorganic materials for the construction of housing

    and other environmental facilities have not been developed for use (12).

            Low Temperatures Retard Chemical Reactions . Such forces as oxidation,

    reduction, coagulation, solubility, vaporization, and precipitation are

    affected by lowering of temperature. In general, all chemical reactions

    utilized in environmental control are retarded by lowering the temperature.

    In reversible reactions a decrease in temperature will decrease the rate

    of both the forward and reverse reactions. Reactions of decomposition of

    organic material are heat-absorbing reactions. As stated in V v an’t Hoff’s

    principle, “the reaction that absorbs heat is made more nearly complete by

    raising the temperature.”

            At low temperatures, the oxidation of organic material is slowed

    appreciably. Temperature has an effect upon coagulation, filtration, and

    precipitation in water and sewage treatment (18; 19; 20). Most solids

    and liquids decrease in solubility with decreasing temperature. Vapori–

    zation occurs less readily at low temperatures.

            Sunlight is Seasonal. Other physical factors in the Arctic, not directly

    related to temperature, also create a changed effect upon environment. The

    response of elements affected by light must conform with almost continuous

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    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    light (2; 9) during the summer period and extended periods of night and

    twilight during the winter months. Certain wave lengths of light (3287-

    2265 A.) exert bactericidal action (10). It is not known what effect

    natural light may have as a bactericide in the Arctic. The action of light

    as a bactericide in the Arctic might differ from its action in temperate

    regions. Photosynthesis and growth of most plants are affected by light

    and many of the microscopic organisms of interest to us in the provision

    of safe water supplies are closely related to the plant kingdom. It is not

    known what effect natural light has on these common phenomena in the Arctic.

    Minute changes in atmospheric composition such as a reported relatively

    high concentration of ozone in the arctic air might exert some influence

    on environmental control (Millikan).

            Effective and Efficient Use of Resources and Materials the Key to

    Arctic Development
    . Almost anyone, given unlimited materials and resources,

    can construct housing and utilities in the Arctic. However, sanitary

    engineering connotes efficient and practical utilization of available

    resources. Abnormally high construction and operation costs (21; 22)

    in the Arctic make efficiency a necessity where permanent development is


            Arctic construction must be preceded by careful investigation of all

    physical features which affect the construction and operation of sanitary

    facilities. The extent of permafrost (permanently frozen ground), subsurface

    frost, topography, ground temperatures, air temperatures, soil conditions

    when the soil is thawed as well as in a frozen state, available materials

    for construction and energy sources must be carefully considered (12; 15).

    010      |      Vol_IIB-0453                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            Many people inhabit the Arctic and Subarctic, and one community of

    almost a quarter of a million population has developed in these regions

    (Fig. 4 and Table I). In many communities the normal structures and ser–

    vices relating to sanitary engineering have not been fully developed

    (23; 24; 25). However, people are making their homes in the Arctic and

    many improvements are being made in environmental health facilities (26).

            Russian engineers encountered permafrost problems as early as the

    end of the 19th century (27) during construction of the Great Trans-Siberian

    Railway and later again, in 1912-16, during construction of the Amur Railway.

    Industrialization of the U.S.S.R., beginning with 1928, brought with it a

    vast growth of industrial enterprises in the arctic and subarctic regions.

            Such industrial enterprises as the gold fields of Transbaikal [ ?] , of

    the former Amur region, of Yakutia and of the Vitim and Yenisei districts,

    have been successfully developed in the region of permanently frozen ground.

    A water plant (capacity of 6 million gallons per day) was designed shortly

    after 1930 for use in iron-ore extraction in the Transbaikal region (27).

    Coal mines in Bureia and fish canneries at Anadyr have also been supplied

    with water (27).

            Placer - gold mining in Alaska and Canada received new impetus after the

    development, during the thirties, of cold water thawing techniques.

            Highways, railroads, and communications have been constructed in the

    permafrost region of Alaska.

            Community water and sewer systems at various points in the Alaskan

    and Canadian Arctic and Subarctic have been constructed for the first time

    in recent years (12; 28).

    011      |      Vol_IIB-0454                                                                                                                  

    A Residential District of Fairbanks, Alaska

    Fig. 4

    A Railroad and Communications Line

    in the Permafrost Region of Alaska

    Fig. 5

    012      |      Vol_IIB-0455                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    Table I. Communities in the Arctic Permafrost Zone.

    (Population reported in 1940 except for certain communities

    for which the most recent estimates available have been used)
    Community Location Population
    Aldan Inland --
    Aksha Inland --
    Aian Coastal --
    Berezovo Coastal 4,706
    Bulun Coastal --
    Chita Inland 102,555
    Dudinka Coastal --
    Gizhiga Coastal --
    Bailar Inland 39,877
    Iar Coastal --
    Igarka Inland 25,000
    Irkutsk Inland 243,380
    Kanak Inland 24,628
    Khantaisk Coastal --
    Khatanga Coastal --
    Kirensk Inland --
    Komsomolsk Coastal 70,746
    Krasnoe Inland --
    Kyzyl Inland --
    Manchouli Inland --
    Nerchinsk Inland 6,545
    Nizhne Kolymsk Coastal --
    Nizhneudinsk Inland 10,342
    Novomariinsk Coastal --
    Okhotsk Coastal 3,500
    Olekminsk Coastal 1,300
    Penzhinsk Coastal --
    Post Aleksandrovski Coastal --
    Sale-Khard Coastal --
    Sofisk Coastal --
    Sredne Kolymsk Coastal --
    Srentensk Inland --
    Tauisk Coastal --
    Tigil Coastal --
    Tunguskoie Inland --
    Turukhansk Inland --
    Udskoi Ostrog Coastal --
    Ulan Bator Khoto Inland 70,000
    Ulan Ude Inland 129,417

    013      |      Vol_IIB-0456                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    Table I. Communities in the Arctic Permafrost Zone.

    (Population reported in 1940 except for certain communities

    for which the most recent estimates available have been used)
    Community Location Population
    Siberia (cont’d)
    Ust Iansk Coastal --
    Ust Kiakhta Inland --
    Ust Maisk Inland --
    Ust Viliuisk Inland --
    Verkhne Kolymsk Inland --
    Viliuisk Inland 630
    Vitim Inland --
    Yakutsk Inland 52,888
    Zhigansk Inland --
    Zverevo Coastal --
    Christianshaab Coastal --
    Etah Coastal --
    Godhavn Coastal 496
    Godthaab Coastal 1,814
    Eastern Canadian Arctic ( Baffin Island )
    Amadjuak Coastal --
    Arctic Bay Coastal --
    Frobisher Bay Coastal 183
    Pangnirtung Coastal 68
    Pond Inlet Coastal 351
    Western Canadian Arctic ( Victoria Island )
    Cambridge Bay Coastal 162
    Fort Collinson Coastal --
    Cartwright Coastal --
    Hebron Coastal 257
    Hopedale Coastal 148
    Nain Coastal 155

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    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    Table I. Communities in the Arctic Permafrost Zone.

    (Population reported in 1940 except for certain communities

    for which the most recent estimates available have been used.)
    Community Location Population
    Aklavik Coastal 762
    Banff Inland 2,187
    Calgary Inland 88,904
    Chimo Coastal 271
    Churchill Coastal 1,000
    Coppermine Inland 37
    Dawson Inland 1,043
    Fort George Coastal 677
    Fort Nelson Inland 73
    Fort Reliance Inland --
    Fort Simpson Inland 454
    Fort St. John Inland 170
    Good Hope Inland --
    Kent Coastal --
    Liard Inland 216
    Mayo Landing Inland 190
    McPherson Inland --
    Moosonee Coastal 140
    Nordegg Inland 768
    Norman Wells Inland --
    Port Nelson Coastal --
    Providence Inland 230
    Selkirk Inland 80
    Whitehorse Inland 754
    York Coastal 412
    Akiak Coastal 209
    Allakaket Coastal 105
    Anvik Coastal 110
    Barrow Coastal 750
    Beaver Coastal 88
    Bethel Coastal 376
    Buckland Coastal 115
    Candle Coastal 119
    Chandalar Coastal 62
    Chatanika Coastal 106

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    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    Table I. Communities in the Arctic Permafrost Zone.

    (Population reported in 1940 except for certain communities

    for which the most recent estimates available have been used)
    Community Location Population
    Alaska (cont’d)
    Chitina Coastal 176
    Circle Coastal 98
    College Coastal 234
    Copper Center Coastal 138
    Deering Coastal 230
    Eagle Inland 73
    Eek Coastal 170
    Est b er Inland 218
    Fairbanks Inland 8,500
    Flat Inland 146
    Golov n in Coastal 116
    Haycock Coastal 87
    Healy Inland 77
    Holy Cross Inland 226
    Igloo Coastal 114
    Kaltag Coastal 140
    Kiana Coastal 167
    Kivalina Coastal 98
    Kotzebue Coastal 400
    Koyukuk Inland 106
    McGrath Inland 175
    Minchumina Inland 135
    Minto Inland 135
    Nenana Inland 250
    Noatak Coastal 336
    Nome Coastal 1,600
    Nondalton Coastal 100
    Noorvik Coastal 211
    Nulato Inland 113
    Point Lay Coastal 60
    Ruby Inland 138
    Selawik Coastal 239
    Shageluk Inland 92
    Shaktolik Coastal 128
    Shishmaref Coastal 257
    Solomon Coastal 106
    Suntrana Coastal 78
    Takotna Coastal 70

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    Table I. Communities in the Arctic Permafrost Zone. (concluded)

    (Population reported in 1940 except for certain communities

    for which the most recent estimates available have been used)
    Community Location Population
    Alaska (cont’d)
    Talkeetna Coastal 136
    Tanacross Inland 135
    Tanana Inland 135
    Teller Coastal 118
    Tigara Coastal 257
    Unalakleet Coastal 329
    Wainwright Coastal 300
    Wales Coastal 193
    White Mountain Coastal 199
    Wiseman Inland 53

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            Like an oasis in a desert, an adequate supply of water suitable for

    domestic and industrial usage may govern the location and development of

    permanent communities and industry in the Arctic. Although in the flat

    areas there are myriads of shallow ponds and lakes (Fig. 6), and the rela–

    tively swampy tundra may be a veritable watery mass during the warm months

    (12; 27; 29), the long winter period retains practically all such water

    sources in a frozen state. With present methods, it is not economically

    feasible (12; 27) for large communities or industries under ordinary cir–

    cumstances to utilize much of the vast amount of water that is present

    practically everywhere in the Arctic in the frozen state (Fig. 7). The

    problems of location of an adequate water supply are really those involved

    in locating a continuous and readily usable source.

            In the Arctic, shallow rivers, and sometimes deep ones, are frozen in

    the winter down to the bottom (12). The deepest rivers may contain water

    in winter which is unfit for use (12; 27; 30). Ground waters (Fig. 8) are

    found in smaller amounts than under usual conditions. Usual water treatment

    practices must be modified to conform with low temperature conditions. Where

    year-round distribution by pipes is provided, such a system often must be laid

    in permafrost. Waterworks buildings and other structures may be damaged by

    freezing and thawing of ground under foundations (31; 32). Water must be

    preheated before it is introduced into the mains, or heated conduits must be

    used to protect the distribution system from damage by freezing.

            In somewhat primitive arctic villages and towns, where water for domestic

    usage is obtained during most of the year by melting ice and snow, average per

    018      |      Vol_IIB-0461                                                                                                                  

    Arctic Ttundra north of the Brooks Range in Alaska

    Fig. 6

    There are many glaciers such as this in

    the mountainous sections of the Arctic.

    Fig. 7

    Unpaginated      |      Vol_IIB-0462                                                                                                                  

            Typical glacier in

    mountainous sections of

    the arctic

    019      |      Vol_IIB-0463                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 8

    020      |      Vol_IIB-0464                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    capita water consumption probably does not exceed two gallons a day. According

    to estimates reported by Andriashev (33) for Yakutsk in the U.S.S.R., 100 gallons

    of water brought as ice from a distance of 2 to 25 miles costs 7.5 to 9.5

    roubles (approximately $6.50 to $8.25). Cost estimates for 100 gallons of

    water obtained by these methods at Barrow, Alaska, averaged $7.25 in 1947

    (12). According to Andriashev, with a water supply from wells distributed

    by a specially designed distribution system, the cost of water will be but

    0.27 of a rouble per 100 gallons, or one-thirtieth the cost of an “ice” water

    supply. Per C c apita consumption increases greatly with modern supply and

    distribution facilities and the standard of living in arctic areas is improved.

    Mr. Milo Fritz reports that the generally prevalent corneal opacities found among

    the Alaska Eskimos may be closely associated with lack of personal hygiene (34).

    Water supplies are inadequate for proper personal hygiene in many communities

    solely dependent upon melted ice and s h n ow for winter c d omestic water supply

    (12; 29; 35; 36).



            The principal source of water supply, used by natives of the Arctic,

    is melted ice and s h n ow; however, this method of procuring water is not economi–

    cally feasible for community and industrial water supply development (12; 29; 36).

    Ice, cut from fresh - water lakes in the fall when it is about 10 to 12 inches

    thick, is stored either in permafrost cellars (see Fig. 9) or on the surface

    of the ground in a convenient spot. Improper handling of the ice may contami–

    nate it and make it unsafe for human consumption. Although uncommon, it is

    possible that freezing may not have excluded all impurities, including

    pathogenic bacteria present in the contaminated water, and ice cut from such

    021      |      Vol_IIB-0465                                                                                                                  



    Fig. 9

    022      |      Vol_IIB-0466                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    a supply may be unsafe for human consumption. Several outbreaks of gastro–

    intestinal illness have been reported from contaminated ice (1; 3). Patho–

    genic bacteria have been known to survive for a great period of time under

    freezing conditions.

            The harvested ice is frequently taken a block at a time and placed in

    a container in a heated room. There it is allowed to melt at room tempera–

    ture for household use (12). These methods for handling and melting the

    ice are frequently questionable and it is doubted if the resultant water is

    safe for general use without disinfection. The ice should not be out from

    a surface which has partially thawed and accumulated waste and organic

    material and then refrozen. Ice from a pond in which the ice surface has

    been flooded with surface water and refrozen should not be used. Natural

    exclusion of filth from the refrozen portion of the ice does not occur under

    such conditions. In the coastal areas of the Arctic, fresh - water ice is

    sometimes found on the salt - water ice of the ocean and used for human


            The snow is frequently melted and used for water supply (12); however,

    this method requires more effort than melting ice and is less desirable.

    The quantity of snow in many places is relatively small except where snow

    has drifted. Barricades may be placed in such a fashion as to cause the

    drifting and accumulation of snow for water supply, but there is usually

    a great amount of dirt, silt, and organic material mixed in with drifted


            Present equipment used by civilians for melting snow and ice in the

    Arctic is generally of an improvised nature and is not efficient. Steam

    generators and jets, used for thawing frozen ground or holes in ice, are

    023      |      Vol_IIB-0467                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    not economically feasible for providing a community or industrial water

    supply and are impractical for thawing ice or snow for small water users.

    During the summer months, water for household usage is usually obtained

    from fresh water, lakes or rivers. The water is dipped from the river or

    lake, poured into a barrel and hauled fo the home . The water barrel usually

    sits near the entrance way outside of the house as shown in Figure 10.

            Surface Water . Rainfall is so small throughout much of the Arctic

    that it is impractical to rely upon cisterns as a source of water supply (9).

    The use of such a source, even where sufficient rainfall and catchment area

    are available, is economically unsatisfactory for more than two or three

    persons. At Barrow, Alaska, approximately 20,000 to 30,000 square feet of

    catchment area would be needed for a family of four, and almost 20,000 gallons

    per person storage would be desirable (see Fig. 11). The cost of heating such

    a volume of stored water would be enormous and impractical.

            Shallow surface sources of water supply are not practical where a con–

    tinuous supply of water is needed. Such sources may freeze solid and are

    frequently physically unsatisfactory without treatment (12). Seasonal ice

    rarely, if ever, exceeds a depth of from six to eight feet on surface waters

    (37); however, the majority of surface sources are only a few feet deep and

    many of them freeze solid (12; 28). The freezing action tends to concentrate

    mineral and organic content in the unfrozen water, and for this reason the

    water may be undesirable or unsuitable for domestic usage.

            There are comparatively few rivers which are large enough to maintain

    an appreciable flow throughout the year. Utilization of water from rivers

    in the permafrost region is complicated not only by such bodies of water

    freezing solid in some places, but also by the formation of frazil and anchor

    024      |      Vol_IIB-0468                                                                                                                  

    Wooden barrel on sled which serves as means for

    bringing water for domestic uses from nearby

    lake during the warm months at Barrow, Alaska

    (Note sewage and refuse disposal barrel sitting

    on ground nearby the sled)

    Fig. 10

    025      |      Vol_IIB-0469                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 11

    026      |      Vol_IIB-0470                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    ice. “Frazil ice” is ice formed by freezing turbulent water and it resembles

    slush (37; 39). “Anchor ice” is ice formed on the bottoms of rivers and

    lakes. The Ni In goda and Nikishik b h a rivers at Tchita in Russia are reported

    by Ko j zh inov to freeze solid, as do many rivers in arctic Alaska. Despite

    these obstacles, Ko j zh inov reports the river Baliago in Russia serves as the

    source of water supply for the Petrovsko-Transbaikal steel works. Clogging

    of intakes with frazil ice and anchor ice formation have been controlled with

    steam lines placed in intake works at some Alaska water supplies (12).

            Rivers receiving water from subpermafrost sources and entrapped water

    from extensive areas may flow continuously at points where the depth of

    channel-flow characteristics and quantity of flow are sufficient to offset

    tendencies to freeze (Fig. 12).

            Checks can be made on temperature and general physical and chemical (word missing)

    characteristics of water in a water s c ourse at intervals downstream in trying

    to help locate appreciable quantities of subpermafrost water flowing into a

    water course (15).

            In some places, subsurface dams may be placed across the path of ground–

    water flow in a stream bed and perforated pipes placed in the bed upstream

    from the subsurface dam to collect ground water before it enters the stream

    (Fig.13) (12). The latent heat of fusion from entrapped ground water may

    be sufficient to prevent freezing of a river source; however, the quantity

    of entrapped water may be quite limited, and in such a case the river source

    can not be depended upon unless there is also subpermafrost or spring water

    flowing into it. Impounding reservoirs have also been constructed on top

    of permafrost (39).

    027      |      Vol_IIB-0471                                                                                                                  



    Fig. 12

    028      |      Vol_IIB-0472                                                                                                                  



    Fig. 13

    029      |      Vol_IIB-0473                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            Relatively deep lakes, which do not freeze to the bottom, usually

    receive considerable entrapped water and frequently receive subpermafrost

    or artesian water. They can serve as a continuous water supply source.

    Shallow lakes receiving considerable entrapped water (Fig. 14) can be

    used as a limited source of water supply. The great proportion of ice to

    unfrozen water in a pond or lake which is not fed with considerable en–

    trapped water or from subpermafrost sources may make the quantity of stored

    water under the ice u i ns i u fficient for supplying demands for an extended


            Surface Water Supply Intake Facilities . Special provisions must be

    made for protecting intake works for surface water supplies in the Arctic.

    Frazil ice and solid ice will form and completely choke intake works if

    adequate protection is not provided to retain the heat of the water or if

    facilities are not provided to keep the water thawed at the intake (12; 40).

    Water at several Alaska surface supply sources has been found to be at 32°F.

    during winter and not more than 37°F. during the summer. Location of an

    intake at a point approximately 10 or 12 feet below the minimum level of the

    surface of the body of water from which water is taken, facilitates protection

    of the intake. Such an arrangement does not give complete protection because

    turbulence created at the entrance of the intake may cause unnecessary cool–

    ing of water at the intake and the formation of anchor or frazil ice, par–

    ticularly during the early freezing stages of winter. Apparently minimal

    intake velocities decrease the tendency for formation of frazil ice at the

    intake. Intakes are frequently fitted with steam lines and g j ets arranged

    so that water at the intake may be heated and the formation of frazil ice

    prevented (12). Steam heating and thawing of intake works is costly and is

    not an efficient method for maintaining flow.

    030      |      Vol_IIB-0474                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 14

    031      |      Vol_IIB-0475                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            Where water-bearing soils, sands, or gravels exist under the body of

    water from which the supply is to be taken, it is possible to use a sub–

    surface intake works (Fig. 13). Anchor ice and accumulated organic material

    at the bottom of a lake may necessitate special means for opening up the

    bottom of the body of water so that a subbottom perforated intake may be used to

    utilize stored water as well as underground flow to the lake. Deposits of

    organic material, mud, etc., in the bottom of many bodies of water in the

    Arctic act as check valves which permit ground-water flow into the body of

    water but do es not permit flow out of the body of water into the aquifer or

    an underground collection system. Intake openings should not be placed

    directly on the bottom of a lake or other body of water because freezing of

    the upper portion of the water, as well as settling, concentrate foreign

    material at this point. Since most of the lakes and ponds in the Arctic are

    shallow, it is necessary to construct special intake facilities which are not

    affected by low temperature and do not collect foreign material from the

    bottom of the lake or pond.

            Suprapermafrost Sources . Suprapermafrost water supply , or ground water

    from above the permafrost, is irregular and frequently such sources disappear

    altogether before the end of winter. This is particularly true in areas where

    the seasonal frost extends down to the permafrost. In the Subarctic and

    southern sections of the permafrost region, shallow layers of thawed ground

    may exist continuously above the permafrost (Fig. 3), and with appropriate

    soil type these layers serve as an aquifer for suprapermafrost water supplies.

    These supplies are generally poor producers and cannot be depended upon

    where any great amount of water is needed. Several hundred such supplies are

    being used at Fairbanks, Alaska (12).

    032      |      Vol_IIB-0476                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            The safety of the suprapermafrost supply is highly questionable for

    several reasons. They are rarely more than 10 to 20 feet deep and receive

    water from the contaminated zone of the subsoil. Cesspools and other

    waste disposal facilities are usually placed at about this same depth to

    avoid seasonal frost and yet not be in permafrost. Heat losses from houses

    tend to thaw the permafrost under them and cause formation of a sump in the

    top of the permafrost (Fig. 15).

            Ground water from above the permafrost is usually obtained by use of

    bored, dug, and driven wells or by use of infiltration galleries (12).

            Intrapermafrost Water . Entrapped water or artesian water found within

    the permafrost is called intrapermafrost water (Fig. 8). Intrapermafrost

    water supplies are rare except in the southern portion of the area of perma–

    nently frozen ground. In the foothills of mountain ranges, where geological

    formations and permafrost exist in such a fashion that subpermafrost water

    may be forced up into the permafrost by hydrostatic pressure, it is possible

    that such water may be found in fault zones of the permafrost (Fig. 8). It

    does not appear that such water is in a stable position and in time such a supply

    may be exhausted or may come through the permafrost and appear as a supraper–

    mafrost or subpermafrost water. Intrapermafrost water supplies may be tapped

    by use of drilled or thawed and jetted wells. This type of ground-water

    supply may be likened to a water supply in fissured limestone. Such supplies

    differ greatly in quality and safety.

            Various types of well-water supplies in use at Fairbanks, Alaska, are

    shown in Figure 16. It may be noted that a thawed area exists on the inside

    of the river curve. Well (a) is a normal well. Wells (b) and (c) are through

    the permafrost. Well (d) displays some artesian effect as a result of the

    033      |      Vol_IIB-0477                                                                                                                  

    Fig. 15



    034      |      Vol_IIB-0478                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 16

    035      |      Vol_IIB-0479                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering confining layer of permafrost. Well (e) is a rock well. The zone between

    wells (d) and (e) in Figure 16 is a probable site for frost - mound formation

    as shown in Figure 17.

            Subpermafrost Water Supplies. Subpermafrost water supplies, although

    they may appear to be the most promising means of continuous arctic water

    supply, are difficult to locate (41), costly to develop (42), and are

    frequently highly mineralized. Permafrost has been reported to extend to

    a depth of 900 feet at some points in the Arctic and pervious strata below

    this point are not readily charged with ground water (43). At many points

    the permafrost extends to and into impervious strata, such as rock, and there

    ground water is not available in appreciable quantities. Several satisfactory

    subpermafrost test wells have been drilled at Fairbanks, Alaska (12). The

    warmest water may be found some distance below the lower limit of permafrost

    and such sources should be utilized wherever possible.

            Drilling through permafrost presents special problems and water-well

    drilling in the Arctic at such depths is relatively costly. Wells penetrating

    permafrost must be operated almost continuously and sometimes heated to prevent

    freezing of the well. Pumpage must not be too great, as excessive pumpage may

    freeze a well or possibly change local hydrology (15). U.S. Geological Survey,

    Water-Supply Paper Water-Supply Paper 140, discusses the effect of temperature on percolation.

    Movement of ground water, through a water-bearing stratum is slower at a low

    temperature than at average temperatures and the yield from a given type of

    aquifer may be appreciably less under low temperature conditions (Fig. 18).

            Most subpermafrost ground-water supplies that have been developed in

    Alaska have been highly mineralized. Freezing of ground water down to depths

    of several hundred feet has possibly tended to increase the mineral content of

    the water below the permafrost.

    036      |      Vol_IIB-0480                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 17

    037      |      Vol_IIB-0481                                                                                                                  

    Relation Between Temperature and Viscosity in WATER

    (After Bingham and Jackson)

    Fig. 18

    038      |      Vol_IIB-0482                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            Well casings should be anchored firmly in permafrost and constructed

    so that seasonal freezing of the surrounding soil does not disjoint, crush,

    or otherwise destroy the casing. It has been recommended that fill-around

    casings be of sand or gravel to minimize cohesion of the seasonally frozen

    soil around the casing (15). Puddled clay may freeze to and damage the

    casing. This type of construction enhances the possibility of contamination

    of the well by surface drainage. Wells should be located in a heated structure

    to minimize seasonal frost damage and to prevent damage caused by cold air.

    However, wells should not be placed in pits because such an arrangement may

    disturb the thermal regime of the ground excessiv e ly as well as increase

    possibility of contamination. A large-diameter casing and continuous moderate

    pumping are helpful in preventing freezing of a well through permafrost since

    this reduces the tendency for supercooling of the water and frazil - ice


            Dynamiting of subpermafrost and intrapermafrost wells in order to

    increase yield is a dangerous practice and may result in possible hazards of

    contamination of a water supply similar to the hazards associated with blasting

    of limestone wells.



            Records of the Alaska Department of Health show the occurrence of

    water-borne typhoid fever at several points in the permafrost region of

    Alaska, i.e., Kotzebue, 1946 (12) and Nenana, 1947 (44). They also indicate

    the occurrence of reportedly water-borne dysentery in several arctic communities

    (12; 45; 46; 47; 48). Scores of shallow ground-water supplies in the permafrost

    039      |      Vol_IIB-0483                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    region of Alaska have been found to be bacteriologically unsatisfactory for

    use. Some water has been found to be very hard, and organic material, silt,

    and objectionable dissolved gases may be found present in many arctic waters.

            The need for appropriate treatment of arctic water supplies to render

    them physically and bacteriologically satisfactory is comparable to such

    needs in temperate climates. Although principles involved appear to be the

    same in the Arctic as elsewhere, the physical features of water treatment

    under low temperature conditions may differ slightly at several points.

            Water - Supply Structures and Appurtenances . Proper housing, insulation,

    and protection must be provided for all equipment and processes. Due regard

    must be taken for protection of all units from the destructive forces of

    seasonal frost, and the effect of permafrost must be evaluated before pump–

    ing stations, treatment facilities, and water towers are constructed.

            The depth to which the ground thaws seasonally governs the method of

    construction for foundation.

            If foundations do not extend into the permafrost, frost action in the

    thawed or active layer will cause settling and heaving of the structure.

    Damage may occur because parts of the permafrost and upper soil are removed

    and replaced with materials, such as concrete, which have a higher heat

    conductivity than the original soil. Heat in the structure, as well as heat

    absorbed by the structure from the sun’s rays, is conducted through the

    foundation and into the ground (Fig. 15). Such action tends to destroy the

    permafrost. Thawing of the permafrost affects the stability of the soil and

    the structure will settle. Due to differential thawing and possible variations

    in soil characteristics, the structure may settle unevenly (49). Water may

    also drain down along the foundation and collect at the base of it. Refreezing

    040      |      Vol_IIB-0484                                                                                                                  
    EA-I Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    of the soil and water causes heaving. An impervious layer of permafrost near

    the base of the foundation prevents the escape of entrapped water, and thus

    the effects of frost action are magnified.

            The Federal Building at Nome, Alaska, shows the effect of such action

    on a large building. The effect on smaller buildings may be observed in

    almost any community in the Alaska permafrost region. Annually repeated

    displacement of foundations, walls, and other parts of a structure causes

    leaks in reservoirs, cracks in walls, breaks in foundations, and threatens

    the stability of a structure.

            Methods of preventing the thawing of permafrost and for anchoring

    structures into permafrost to prevent settling and heaving have been used

    to minimize the frost effects (Fig. 19). If the permafrost lies onat a con–

    siderable depth, thawing may be avoided by making a shallosw excavation (27).

    In this case, a layer of ground, 10 to 13 feet thick, is left between the

    bottom of the foundation and the upper level of permafrost. Evacuation for

    the foundation is extended down 6 o t r 7 feet, and the excavated ground is

    replaced with dry sand, gravel, or rubble (Fig. 20). Insulating layers in

    foundations are recommended (50). Such layers may be made of asphalt, felt

    impregnated with tar, or other similar materials with a low heat conductivity.

    Pilings are commonly used for foundations in many places in Alaska, and an

    18- to 24-in. clear open space is often left under buildings to prevent dis–

    turbance of the permafrost under the structure. Few structures in arctic

    Alaska are built with basements.

            In the Subarctic, where permafrost exists at a temperature near the

    freezing point, the upper permafrost may be completely thawed prior to place–

    ment of a structure. In such regions the permafrost may not return and

    041      |      Vol_IIB-0485                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 19

    042      |      Vol_IIB-0486                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 20

    043      |      Vol_IIB-0487                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    construction of stable facilities may thus be simplified.

            Thawing of ground under pump - house floors must be prevented. Pipes

    passing through a pump - house floor and under buildings must be properly

    insulated to prevent frost destruction. Pipes placed under continuous

    foundations may cause damage to the foundation if they are not properly


            Foundations and walls should be finished smoothly. Such a finish

    decreases the cohesion of frozen ground with the wall and tends to prevent

    raising of foundations. It is also desirable to give foundations a trape–

    zoidal profile. The surrounding excavation should be filled with coarse

    sand or gravel, and water should be led off by means of a drain. Clay or

    asphalt berms may be necessary to lead off surface water. Location above

    ground of settling basins, mixing chambers, and other units of a treatment

    plant facilitates housing and protection of the units from unequal forces

    of freezing and thawing f g round, and affords better opportunity to prevent

    permafrost destruction.

            Unequal expansion and contraction of dissimilar materials used in

    equipment may result in damage to the unit. All piping must be installed

    with a steep slope so that rapid drainage may be accomplished, and all drain

    ports must be sufficiently large to permit rapid drainage. All water–

    lubricated equipment is subject to rapid freezing immediately upon stopping,

    unless heated. Such equipment may be considered unsatisfactory, in some

    instances, for arctic use. Pumps, even though they are not water-lubricated,

    may frequently freeze when they are stopped. Even prompt drainage may leave

    enough moisture in a centrifugal pump to permit freezing of the impeller

    blades to the housing.

    044      |      Vol_IIB-0488                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            An unheated or improperly protected filter may freeze in a few

    minutes when it is taken out of service. Hydraulically operated control

    equipment employing water is not well adapted for operation under low

    temperature conditions. Elevated storage must be properly insulated and

    heated with a recirculating heater system. For rapid sand filter plants,

    wash - water pumps are sometimes preferable to elevated storage for back-

    washing filters. It is desirable to provide for proper re-use of filter

    wash water and to take advantage of other water conservation possibilities

    in arctic water treatment.

            Radiant heating and use of ventilating fans to maintain even heat

    distribution (12) are highly desirable in providing appropriate heating

    facilities for enclosures containing treatment units. Appropriate provi–

    sion must be made for the use of heated outside air for ventilation of

    enclosures where exposed water surfaces or other vapor sources may exist

    and tend to cause excessive condensation of moisture on the cold surfaces

    of the enclosing structure. Appropriate vapor barriers must be provided

    over all insulating walls in such enclosures to prevent the soaking and

    damage of insulating materials due to excessive condensation (12).

            Aeration . Waterfall types of aeration are not practical in general

    for use in the Arctic, but aeration by air diffusion may be satisfactorily

    carried out. With low temperatures, the viscosity of the water is relatively

    high, and aeration may not be as effective as it is at higher temperatures

    (Fig. 18). Aeration periods should probably be extended somewhat over

    normal operation (12; 18).

            Many arctic waters have undesirable tastes, and iron and manganese

    contents, which may be improved by aeration. Aeration will frequently

    045      |      Vol_IIB-0489                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    improve the taste of water in which freezing action has concentrated mineral

    and organic material, and of water from beneath the ice or in frozen soil,

    which as a consequence has had insufficient mixing with oxygen.

            Waterfall-type aerators are difficult to enclose properly during very

    cold weather. Enclosures reduce the possibilities of aeration unless pro–

    vision is made for p e r oper circulation of air in the enclosure. Circulated

    air from the outside must be heated. Spray and mixing of the water in the

    air present problems of condensation of water from the relatively high - humidity

    air on the cold surfaces of the enclosing structure. Suitable vapor barriers

    must be provided on the walls of such encasing structures.

            The introduction of finely divided air bubbles into the water by air

    diffusion methods permits an easy enclosure of the process of aeration for

    protection from the cold. Diffusion air should be heated, and the diffusion

    chamber should be constructed in such a fashion that water-saturated air may

    be controlled and kept from causing excess condensation on the walls of the

    enclosing structure. Under certain conditions, the condensation and freezing

    of water on the walls of the enclosing structure may not be undesirable.

    However, such condensation may be deleterious to the enclosing wall and make

    housekeeping very difficult in that portion of the plant. Economics of heating

    would not normally permit the compartmenting and isolation of each unit of the

    treatment plant.

            Mixing of Chemicals . Mixing chambers and mixing are affected by tempera–

    ture, and design and operation must take this into consideration for satisfactory

    results. Presumably, a change in electrochemical phenomena, under low tempera–

    ture conditions, causes the more rapid formation of a small floe (18); however,

    additional mixing beyond what is normally required is necessary to consolidate

    046      |      Vol_IIB-0490                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    the floe and to secure proper settling of it (Fig. 21). It is recommended

    that the normal mixing time of from 10 minutes to 30 minutes be tripled

    when water at temperatures of from 32° to 38°F. is being treated. Both

    rapid and slow mixing should be increased for best results. In certain

    instances, it may be desirable to increase the quantity of coagulant to

    secure proper floe formation in a minimum of time. Efficient design should

    make this means unnecessary.

            Arctic water treatment (51) deals with water at approximately its

    maximum density, and the case with which complete mixing is obtained is

    somewhat different from that for temperate climate operation.

            Sedimentation . Sedimentation in arctic water treatment is slowed greatly

    by the increased viscosity of the water at low temperatures (19; 20) ( Fig. 22).

    Sedimentation chambers should be designed for operation at 32° to 35°F., and

    probably should provide capacities of from 1½ to 2 times that provided for

    operation in temperate climates.

            The entire settling basin should be enclosed and the entire structure

    should be located above the surface of the ground. Such an arrangement will

    m o i nimize heat losses to the ground and prevent destruction of permafrost and

    the damage which may result from differential settling. Means must be pro–

    vided for proper heating of the entire enclosure.

            Use of Chemicals in the Arctic . Use of chemicals under arctic conditions

    requires the knowledge of certain changes which occur at low temperatures.

    In general, practically all chemicals react much slower at temperatures near

    freezing than they do at normal temperatures. Better mixing and longer

    reaction times are necessary for proper effect. Frequently, chemicals must

    be added in excess to procure the desired result within a reasonable period of

    time. Jar tests and laboratory tests are highly desirable for efficient

    047      |      Vol_IIB-0491                                                                                                                  



    Fig. 21

    048      |      Vol_IIB-0492                                                                                                                  



    Fig. 22

    049      |      Vol_IIB-0493                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    operation under most conditions; however, they are even more desira v b le

    under arctic conditions.

            Certain difficulties are experienced with the use of chlorine in cold

    water and under low temperature conditions. At temperatures between 1 3 2° to

    slightly more than 49°F., chlorine hydrate forms (18), removing the chlorine

    from solution (Fig. 23). At 32°F. there is practically no chlorine in

    solution. Gaseous chlorine containers may have to be heated slightly to

    keep the chlorination apparatus working properly. The gassing rate is

    reduced with temperature lowering, but great care must be taken to prevent

    the overheating of gaseous chlorine containers.

            The application of chlorine to overheated water results in inefficient

    use of the chlorine, and care must be taken to prevent the introduction of

    chlorine near a condensate line or other heating means that may raise the

    temperature of the water considerably above normal. For the most effective

    use of chlorine, the water to be treated should be at a temperature of about


            Chemical storage should be constructed in connection with treatment

    facilities because low temperatures make unnecessary carrying, hauling, and

    running out of doors highly undesirable for operating personnel. The high

    humidities that may exist in enclosures for water treatment facilities, when

    ventilation is improper, may make the handling of water treatment chemicals

    difficult unless they are properly protected from condensation and moisture.

    The solubility of chemicals is generally considerably less in cold water

    than in warm. However, calcium carbonate, for example, is soluble to a

    greater degree in cold water than in warm water. Solution feeding of chemicals

    may be undesirable in some instances.

    050      |      Vol_IIB-0494                                                                                                                  



    Fig. 23

    051      |      Vol_IIB-0495                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            Most measuring equipment is calibrated for use under temperate condi–

    tions and any change in use may cause error. Feeding equipment should be

    designed for use at or near the freezing point and efficiencies should not

    vary materially from normal temperature operation.

            It is difficult to mix ozone with water under normal conditions (18)

    but even harder under low temperature conditions. The efficiency of acti–

    vated carbon in the removal of odors and tastes tends to be reduced somewhat

    at low temperatures. Ultraviolet light may have greater application in the

    disinfection of cold water than it has for disinfection of water at moderate


            The reclaiming of chemicals for use may be desirable wherever possible,

    due to the cost of transporting chemicals to relatively isolated arctic


            Slow Sand Filtrations . Slow sand filtration is not practical for use

    under low temperature conditions because of the extensive filter area that

    must be enclosed and heated (18). Although the filters have been reported

    to function satisfactorily, even when covered with considerable ice for ex–

    tended periods, they are not economically feasible under severe arctic


            Rapid Sand and Diatomaceous Earth Filtration . Rapid sand filters, or

    diatomaceous earth filters, appear to be the most practical filtering means

    for low temperature operation. Rapid sand filters may be relatively easily

    enclosed and heated. Theoretically the rates of filtration may be lowered

    as much as 30% at temperatures of from 32° to 35°F. (Fig. 24). Filter

    design should take this reduction in efficiency into consideration. Dia–

    tomaceous earth filtering rates may also be reduced somewhat at low temperatures.

    052      |      Vol_IIB-0496                                                                                                                  



    (After Flinn, Weston & Bogert)

    Fig. 24

    053      |      Vol_IIB-0497                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    Such filters constructed of materials with unequal rates of expansion and

    contraction may afford operating difficulties under low temperature condi–

    tions. Under arctic conditions, it is frequently more desirable to provide

    for backwashing by use of pumps rather than by use of elevated storage. In

    places where water is scarce, it is desirable to reclaim backwash water

    rather than discharge it from the filters to waste.

            Hydraulically operated control equipment is undesirable unless at all

    times the enclosure is heated to temperatures of 35°F. and up.

            Surface washing and air washing of rapid sand filters may have some

    more significant economic advantages under arctic conditions than under

    operation at normal temperatures.

            Water Softening . Conventional water softening in the Arctic is affected

    by slowed reaction times for chemicals, and longer mixing and settling times.

    Zeolite-type softeners are common on small ground-water supplies. It appears

    that lowered temperatures may tend to reduce the maximum rate of softening to

    somewhat below the usual 75 to 120 gallons per square foot of zeolite surface.

    Temperature is very important in lime softening. Less calcium and magnesium

    stay in solution s at high temperatures than at low temperatures.

            Corrosion Control . Corrosion control in recirculating water distribution

    systems would not normally present a serious problem. Such systems are usually

    designed and constructed so as to utilize insulating nonferrous-type materials

    which are not readily attacked by corrosive water. Chemical action is also

    retarded by low temperatures.

            However, metal piping is usually used in utilidor-type systems, and under

    such conditions corrosion problems in the Arctic do not differ from similar

    problems elsewhere.

    054      |      Vol_IIB-0498                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering



            Several means have been employed for distributing water under low

    temperature conditions (52; 53; 54; 55). The most common method is by

    tank truck (12). Preheated water, distributed by a recirculating system,

    and heated pipe galleries are also used in water distribution.

            Permafrost complicates the laying and operation of a water distribu–

    tion system. Only a shallow layer of the top soil thaws in the summer, and

    this thaws an insignificant amount. Permafrost extends down into the ground

    so deep that at present it is impractical to attempt to lay water mains below

    it. Laying mains at usual depths results in freezing of the water. Such

    experience was encountered in the early exploitation of the Transbaikal region in

    Russia (27). In America the difficulties of water distribution in permafrost

    have been predominantly overcome by use of heated distribution galleries

    called utilidors; but in Russia the predominant method is reported to be the

    use of recirculating systems with preheating of the water (27; 52). Professor

    M. J I . Chernyshev has studied the operation of water works, subjected the

    results of his observation to mathematical analysis, and deduced from it a

    number of formulas for the thermal calculations of water pipes in frozen ground.

            Distribution by Tank Truck . Distribution by tank truck and by carboy,

    although they are the most common methods employed, leave much to be desired

    (Fig. 25). Such a method of distribution subjects the water to much handling

    and exposes it to many opportunities for contamination. A residual of dis–

    infecting agent must be maintained in the water at all times, and it is

    difficult to maintain a properly effective residual with low water temperature,

    frequent handling, pumping, jostling, heating to relatively high temperatures

    055      |      Vol_IIB-0499                                                                                                                  

    Water Distribution by Tank Truck, Nome, Alaska

    Fig. 25

    056      |      Vol_IIB-0500                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    to prevent freezing, aeration, etc. Hoses become contaminated by dragging

    on the ground and from handling; carboys, tanks, and hoses are difficult to

    clean and keep clean; filling facilities are often makeshift and may intro–

    duce contamination.

            All valves, controls, drains, hinges, seals, close-fitting edges, and

    movable equipment must be designed and constructed for operation at −80°F.

    This same equipment must also serve its purpose at normal temperatures.

    Dust-tight gaskets are necessary during dusty periods. Hoses, pails, and

    carboys, as well as the tank, must be kept free from dust and filth during

    all periods of operation.

            Tanks must be insulated (56) and constructed of materials which prevent

    the freezing of the water. With a temperature differential of 100°F. between

    water in a well-insulated truck and the temperature of the air, heat losses

    of from 2 to 3 degrees per hour may be expected when the water is not being

    jostled. Wood-stave tanks with additional insulation by use of burlap, paper,

    felt, sawdust, tar, and dead airspace are commonly used in Alaska. Peat and

    commercial insulating materials are recommended, but are not common. One

    commercial water company in Alaska, distributing water by tank truck, uses

    a 3-compartment body with a stove located in one compartment for keeping the

    water warm in the other compartments.

            It is estimated that moderate water service for a family of four costs

    from $15.00 to $20.00 per month b y this method (12). Under such conditions

    water usage is greatly curtailed and in some places insufficient water is used

    to maintain adequate personal hygiene. Modern sanitary conveniences are

    usually out of the question when such distribution methods are employed.

    057      |      Vol_IIB-0501                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            Such a method for water distribution does not provide adequate water

    for fire protection (12). In some arctic communities in Alaska, where

    water distribution is accomplished in this fashion, fire insurance is almost

    unpurchasable due to prohibitive rates.

            Seasonal Distribution Systems . Seasonal distribution systems are used

    in some places (12). Water pipes which may be disjointed and drained during

    cold weather are laid on the surface of the ground and are used in the warm

    months. Distribution by tank truck or carboy for domestic usage is also prac–

    ticed in both winter and summer. Aside from interrupted service, the pipe

    distribution system is usually unfit for carrying water for human consumption.

    Pipes are left open and exposed on the ground for several months to accumulate

    whatever contamination may be found on the street. Complete collection,

    storage, and re-laying of the pipe each season is costly and considered

    impractical. Hasty assembly and the use of worn and damaged joints and pipe

    make the system subject to contamination whenever negative heads occur in the

    system. Water distribution, during a lengthy portion of the year, must be

    entirely by tank truck or carboy.

            Utilidor Systems. Placement of water distribution lines in heated

    conduits, or utilidors (53), has been used in many places, and continuous

    distribution can be maintained relatively easily by this method; however, this

    method of water distribution is very costly to install and operate.

            Two general types of utilidor are in use at the present time: ( 1 ) under–

    ground utilidors constructed of wood, metal, or concrete, some of which are

    insulated and ( 2 ) above-ground utilidors constructed principally of wood or

    metal, practically all of which have special insulation, such as commercially

    prepared asbestos, rock wool or similar insulators, or sawdust, fiberboard,

    paper, tar, felt, peat, and dead - air spaces.

    058      |      Vol_IIB-0502                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            There are commercially made insulated metal conduits which may be

    purchased in standard sections, or lengths, which provide for heating and

    the transmission of one or more materials or services (Fig. 26). Present

    cost of estimates indicate that a commercially made utilidor of the simplest

    design and constructed to heat and carry one small water line may cost

    approximately $50.00 per lineal foot in place, without provision of service

    connections. Wood-stave pipe may be adapted for use as a utilidor (Fig. 27).

            Wood and/or concrete utilidors of rectangular cross section and con–

    structed in place are the most common type of utilidor presently in use.

    The size of these utilidors ranges from those just large enough to convey

    the services carried through them to those almost 9 ft. high by 7 ft. wide,

    inside dimensions (Fig. 28). Figure 29 illustrates a small above-ground

    utilidor, and an underground utilidor constructed of wood is shown in Figure 30.

    Little attempt has been made, in some instances, to insulate the utilidors

    any more than that insulation provided by the wood or concrete walls making

    the enclosures. Other utilidors have been insulated by use of gravel, fiber–

    board, sawdust, peat, moss, paper, and bituminous coverings. Heat losses are

    great through the walls of most constructed-in-place utilidors, and operation

    is costly.

            Certain hazards exist in utilidors where both water and sewer services

    are placed in the same duct. Leakage of sewage and negative heads in water

    mains might readily and seriously contaminate a water supply. Adequate drain–

    age is necessary in all utilidors. Provision of adequate drainage complicates

    the construction of underground utilidors. Provision of adequate drainage

    for above-ground utilidors may impair the insulation. If adequate drainage

    is not provided, the insulating material may be destroyed by leakage.

    059      |      Vol_IIB-0503                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 26

    060      |      Vol_IIB-0504                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 27

    061      |      Vol_IIB-0505                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 28

    062      |      Vol_IIB-0506                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 29

    063      |      Vol_IIB-0507                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 30

    064      |      Vol_IIB-0508                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Atler: Sanitary Engineering

            Rodentproof construction should be used for all utilidors (12; 57).

    Improperly constructed utilidors may serve as runways for rodents and pro–

    vide harborage.

            Service connections are difficult to operate unless the utilidor is

    extended all the way to d e ach property served (Fig. 31). This difficulty

    is most commonly overcome by providing heat as a utility along with sewer

    and water services. The heat service line from the heat main is connected

    to the premise through the same pipe gallery that is used for water service.

            Underground utilidors, which extend down in the ground to a point below

    the permafrost table level, must be constructed water tight or they will

    serve as an infiltration gallery and collect ground-water flow from the

    surrounding ground (Fig. 32). Even though the utilidor may not extend down

    to a point near or in the permafrost, it will, unless it is tight, collect

    ground water at any point where the ground water reaches an elevation above

    the floor of the duct. During the summer, tundra, peaty, and similar soils,

    prevalent in the Arctic, are saturated with ground water almost to the ground

    surface in many places, and under such conditions the underground utilidor

    must be water tight and special arrangements must be made for drainage.

            Lost heat from the underground utilidor frequently destroys the permafrost

    near it. Unless the soil characteristics where the utilidor is place s d are such

    that its properties are not altered greatly by this change in state, differen–

    tial settling may occur, with resultant damaging effects on the utilidor.

    Placing of the utilidor on piling properly placed in the permafrost will tend

    to reduce these effect. Proper insulation around the tu ut ilidor to protect the

    permafrost is necessary where the permafrost must not be disturbed (Fig. 28).

    Distribution systems placed in utilidors with a large cross-sectional area

    065      |      Vol_IIB-0509                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 31

    066      |      Vol_IIB-0510                                                                                                                  



    Fig. 32

    067      |      Vol_IIB-0511                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    are readily accessible for repair and maintenance. For small cast-in-place

    concrete tu ut ilidors, the top for the utilidor should be constructed so that

    it is readily removable and also so that it is tight enough to retain all

    heat possible in the duct. Tops for concrete utilidors may be cast in

    sections and each section fitted with pulls so that it may be easily lifted

    (Fig. 33). Such an arrangement may not be necessary or desirable for utilidors

    with a width and depth sufficient to permit adequate work space inside of the

    duct. Many utilidors made from sections of wood or metal pipe are not con–

    structed so that they can be readily opened for repair. It is difficult to

    open a utilidor for repairs within it except during the summer period. Utilidors

    placed at the surface of the ground, as illustrated in Figure 34, are much

    easier to service and drain but are not practical where roads or streets must

    cross them.

            Topography of the permafrost table, thermal regime of the ground, ground

    water conditions, soil characteristics, and the minimum amount of utilidor

    required to serve a given area must be carefully studied in planning the

    installation of an underground utilidor. The thermal regime of the ground

    will determine whether permafrost should be thawed prior to installation of

    the system (15). In the Arctic, permafrost should not be destroyed, and

    necessary measures should be used to prevent its destruction. In parts of

    the Subarctic, if permafrost is destroyed, it may not return, and it may be

    best to thaw the th p ermafrost. The relatively high cost of utilidor construction

    necessitates careful study of the area to be served in order to determine the

    absolute minimum length of utilidor necessary to provide service.

            Preheating and Recirculating Distribution System . Heating of the water

    to be distributed and the recirculation of it to a pumping station and heating

    068      |      Vol_IIB-0512                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 33

    069      |      Vol_IIB-0513                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 34

    069a      |      Vol_IIB-0514                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    plant, through a system designed and constructed in such a fashion as to

    make most efficient use of all available heat, offers the most economical

    solution to water distribution in many instances but presents numerous

    problems of design and satisfactory operation.

            According to Ko j zh inov, in 1933 the Moscow Scientific Research Institute

    of Water Supply worked out detailed technical specifications for laying

    water pipes in the permafrost region. The Russians have rejected the use

    of utilidors, and the following recommendations are quoted from Ko j zh inov (27):

            “The pipes are laid directly into the ground about 10 feet deep,

    i.e., at a depth at which temperature fluc ut tu ations are insig–

    nificant, and the temperature does not sink below 26.5°F. The

    foundation under the pipes is made of gravel or sand. The pipe

    is surrounded for a distance of two diameters by loose earth.

    This is covered from above by a layer of dry peat eight inches

    thick. The rest of the trench is filled up with local ground

    which has been taken out in its digging.

            “The purpose of the peat layer is to speed up the warming through

    of the ground around the pipes, this being important only in the

    beginning of the pipe’s functioning. Therefore, if the prelimin–

    ary heating of the ground has been made in summer, the peat cover

    is not necessary.

            “If the pipes are laid in a forest clearing, the longitudinal axis

    of the latter must not coincide with the longitudinal axis of the

    pipe. In other words, the main must not be laid along the middle

    of the clearing, but along its sunny border. The width of the

    clearing is to be equal to 1½ times the height of trees.

            “The artificial heating of the water is an indispensable peculiarity

    of the water supply in the perpetually frozen areas. It is usually

    carried out in the vicinity of the pump at the beginning of the

    discharge line. The method of heating chosen is dependent on the

    kind of engines used for driving the pumps. When steam engines are

    installed their waste steam and the waste gases of the boilers must

    be utilized. If electric motors drive the pumps, the heating of

    the water may be done by means of the electric current or with the

    help of a special heating boiler. At present, steam heaters utili–

    zing the waste steam are almost exclusively employed.

            “In concluding, we must state that all expenses for these special

    measures are quite justified, as they preclude the expenses for

    continuous repairs of the building, which would be unavoidable if

    070      |      Vol_IIB-0515                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    the peculiarities of water supply construction in the perpetually

    frozen region were not taken into consideration in the design of

    structures for such areas.” Figure 35 and 36 illustrate points

    made by Ko j zh inov. zh

            The firm of Black and Veatch, of Kansas City, designed a recirculating

    type of water system for Fairbanks, Alaska, in 1944; however, this system

    has never been constructed. There are no large recirculating-type water

    systems in use in Alaska. A few very small systems of this type have been

    constructed in Alaska and operated with some difficulty (12). In the northern

    Arctic, ground temperatures drop below 26.5°F. (see section on sewage dis–

    posal). The recirculating system consists of a distribution main, a water

    return main, circulating pumps, and a water heating system. The distribution

    and return mains may be one continuous line starting and ending at the recircu–

    lating pump, or they may be a dual piping system with high and low pressure

    lines placed side by side (Fig. 37 and 38).

            Service connections for the single main are kept operative by use of

    ( 1 ) good insulation, ( 2 ) short service - connection utilidors, ( 3 ) electrical

    resistance tape, which, when energized, warms the service connection, or

    ( 4 ) by use of a thermal tap to the main (12). Short service-connection

    utilidors may be heated by the heating system at the premises they serve.

    Use of electrical energy for warming service connections is expensive but is

    a positive method. The thermal tap (Fig. 39) on the water distribution main

    theoretically takes the warmest water from the top of the distribution main

    and delivers it to the premise and a return line from the premise brings unused,

    cooled water back to the distribution main and injects it into the bottom of

    the main during periods of minimum flow. During periods of maximum flow, velocity

    head may tend to cause circulation in the service-connection line. The dual ?

    piping system afford the more positive means for complete recirculation.

    071      |      Vol_IIB-0516                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 35

    072      |      Vol_IIB-0517                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 36

    073      |      Vol_IIB-0518                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 37

    074      |      Vol_IIB-0519                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 38

    075      |      Vol_IIB-0520                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 39

    076      |      Vol_IIB-0521                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    Service connections to premises are made by tapping the high-pressure main

    and serving the property from this main, and the unused water, which has

    cooled, is returned to the distribution system by tapping the return line

    from the premise to the low-pressure line (Fig. 40). The low-pressure line

    returns the unused water to the recirculating pump and heating unit.

            In the recirculating system, the water is usually heated only a few

    degrees above freezing (27), or an amount which will just permit the unused

    water to return to the recirculating pump and heating plant slightly above

    freezing. It is very difficult to start operation of such a system if it is

    attempted during cold weather. Only small sections of the system should be

    started at a time, and intensive pumping with continuous waste is necessary

    until the entire system and the ground around it have been warmed.

            Heat conservation and the most efficient use of available heat are

    necessary for sound engineering design and operation of the recirculating

    distribution system. Heat losses for the distribution system should be com–

    puted for various types of construction, and the most efficient and economical

    type of main should be selected. Conduction and convection heat losses from

    the distribution system vary with the type of materials used for the main.

    These losses also v e a ry with the flow characteristics of the water; greater

    turbulence will dissipate heat faster than it is dissipated from still water.

            Location of the distribution system above ground, on the surface of the

    ground, or in the ground has been practiced. A careful study of the heat

    losses involved in each method and the relation of construction, operating,

    and maintenance cost should be made and evaluated in each instance. In locating

    the pipe in the ground, careful consideration should be given to determine

    077      |      Vol_IIB-0522                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 40

    078      |      Vol_IIB-0523                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    whether the pipe should be placed at the top of the permafrost table, in the

    permafrost, or in the seasonally thawed area. If the distribution system

    is placed on top of the ground rather than in the ground, winter temperatures

    around the system are lower but summer temperatures are higher. If the dis–

    tribution system is in the permafrost, low temperatures prevail throughout

    the year, but at no time are they as extreme as when the pipe is placed at

    the ground surface. If the distribution system is placed at the top of the

    permafrost table, advantage may be taken of the latent heat of fusion of

    entrapped water. However, when the system is placed at this point, and if

    insulation is used, it may be damaged or rendered almost useless by the

    ground water.

            Intermittent circulation of water in the system conserves heat (15).

    Turbulence is reduced to a minimum when the water is static. Utilization

    should be made of exhaust steam or other waste-heat sources in heating the

    water prior to circulation. Insulation of the distribution system should be

    done with economical materials. Peat, moss, gravel, and other similar

    insulating materials may be found readily in many places in the Arctic.

            Rigid control of plumbing is of prime importance on a recirculating

    system. Cross-connections and back-siphonage conditions must not be tolerated.

    It is desirable where possible to eliminate dead ends and to arrange the

    distribution system so the largest users are located at the points of maximum

    distance for water flow. On large systems, several heating points may have

    to be established. Location of water mains near sewer mains may help to keep

    the water mains from freezing, but this is a dangerous practice. Frost action

    may damage both the water lines and the sewer lines, with resultant leakage

    and possibility of contamination of the water supply.

    079      |      Vol_IIB-0524                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering



            Numerous methods are employed for the disposal of sewage in the Arctic

    (12; 58); however, the effectiveness and safety of most of them are greatly

    impa i red by low temperatures, and treatment processes are relatively costly.

    The biological and chemical reduction of organic material proceeds very

    slowly under low temperatures. Putrefaction and decomposition occur in the

    Arctic under certain conditions, but the usual processes of decomposition

    do not appear to occur within the permafrost (3; 12). Organic materials

    exposed on the surface of the ground, or placed within the shallow top layers

    of seasonally thawed ground, decompose slowly (Fig. 41). An abundance of

    psychrophilic organisms apparently accomplish the process along with frost and

    chemical action (Fig. 42). Slow decomposition of organic matter tends to

    maintain a greater supply of food for many forms of life, and it is presumed

    that this may account for the reported abundance of life.

            In temperate climates, natural processes reduce and destroy great quanti–

    ties of organic and infectious material through the normal action of the soil

    (3; 59). The soil has been described as a living thing presenting many of

    the vital phenomena that characterize life: digestion, metabolism, assimilation,

    growth, respiration, motion, and reproduction. Rosenau states that the soil

    breathes — it absorbes oxygen and exhales carbon dioxide; through comple s x

    metabolic processes, it digests vast amounts of organic material; it excretes

    wastes and, if the wastes are retained, it becomes choked with the accumulation

    of its own poisons. The rise and fall of ground water is analogous to the

    movements of the diaphragm and assist the respiratory functions of the soil.

    Sedgwick has described the soil as a “living earth,” teeming with life, such

    as bacteria, molds and protozoa, and other forms of the animal kingdom.

    080      |      Vol_IIB-0525                                                                                                                  



    SOILS (After Jenny)

    Fig. 41

    081      |      Vol_IIB-0526                                                                                                                  


    OF THE YEAR (After Russell)

    Fig. 42

    082      |      Vol_IIB-0527                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            Permafrost and the extended period of seasonal frost in the Arctic

    interfere with normal breathing and metabolic processes of the soil and

    retard the assimilation of organic material. Permafrost frequently does

    not permit proper drainage of the soil, and it becomes water-logged when

    it is not in a frozen state. The vigorous frost action, however, opens up

    the interstices or pores in the upper layers of the soil to a greater degree

    in permafrost areas than in ground where permafrost does not exist (Fig. 43).

            Very little investigation has been made concerning the specific role

    arctic soil may play in carrying on the metabolic processes necessary to

    render harmless the organic waste which must be assimilated in proper sewage

    and garbage disposal. At present it appears that the sluggish biological

    state and the difficult physical state of arctic soils almost preclude the

    use in the a A rctic of biological and drainage practices now used in temperate

    climates for sewage disposal (Fig. 52 and 53). Unless the existing heat in

    sewage can be better retained or methods of waste disposal adapted to this

    environment can be developed, proper waste disposal will be costly. The

    search for discovery, culturing, and use of effective psychrophilic organisms

    to accomplish the desired result has been suggested. Development of better

    methods for waste disposal, such as incineration or other methods which do not

    involve the use of water, has also been suggested.

            The sluggish action of the soil in assimilating wastes, coupled with the

    existence of permafrost, tends to make the use of surface water supplies and

    shallow ground-water supplies even more precarious in arctic communities than

    such a practice may be in temperate climates (12; 60). The permafrost table

    may serve as an impervious stratum which will retain viable pathogenic organisms

    in shallow ground water. The seasonal frost serves to open up the soil and

    083      |      Vol_IIB-0528                                                                                                                  

    Vigorous frost action in the seasonally frozen

    layer of soil in the Arctic causes mounding and

    cracking of the soil as is shown in the above


    Fig. 43

    083a      |      Vol_IIB-0529                                                                                                                  

    Map of Ppermafrost area in Alaska.

    Fig. 52

    As indicated in the above map, about 60% of Alaska is underlaid by

    permanently frozen ground (permafrost). In the most northerly sections, this

    permafrost often extends to a depth of several hundred feet. In such areas,

    the usual Stateside methods of maintaining adequate water supplies and waste

    disposal systems must be extensively modified for effective and economic use. omit?

    083b      |      Vol_IIB-0530                                                                                                                  

    Fig. 53

    084      |      Vol_IIB-0531                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: San itary Engineering

    and force entrapped water through an aquifer at relatively high velocities

    so that the soil may not exert the normal filtering action that may be found

    in similar soil in temperate climates.



            The Box and Can System . The euphemistic chamber pot and box and can

    system of waste disposal are the most common types of waste-disposal systems

    in the Arctic (12; 28; 61). In many small communities, the chamber pots are

    dumped indiscriminately on the surface of the ground near the homes. This is

    a dangerous practice which should be abandoned. Arctic soil conditions may

    retain the pathogenic organisms, that exist in excrement, viable for great

    lengths of time. The excrement freezes almost immediately during the winter;

    however, it thaws and becomes a stinking and disgusting, as well as disease–

    producing accumulation during warm weather.

            In some small communities, excrement from chamber pots is dumped into

    receptacles such as empty barrels, which are placed near the homes, until

    they are filled, and they are then hauled away and dumped on the tundra or

    at some other convenient point (Fig. 44). In coastal areas, during the W w inter,

    filled containers are placed on nearby ice of the ocean and are allowed to

    drift out to sea when the spring thaw comes and the ice moves out from shore.

    At one point near Kotzebue, Alaska, dung-filled metal oil barrels drifting

    out from the village have been reported to have accumulated at shallow points

    in Kotzebue Sound in such an amount that they were creating a hazard to naviga–

    tion in these shallow waters. During the warm months, these villages depend

    upon dumping of the barrels on the tundra near the village.

    085      |      Vol_IIB-0532                                                                                                                  

    Sewage disposal barrels (metal oil drums with

    tops removed) sit near each tent and house in

    this Arctic village. Tin cans and other ref–

    use are piled on ground in the fore part of

    the picture.

    Fig. 44

    086      |      Vol_IIB-0533                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            In the larger communities, scavenger services, for the collection of

    excrement, are operated either by private operators or by municipalities.

    In some instances, the scavenger collects the filled can and leaves an empty

    one, while some scavengers empty the filled containers into a tank truck and

    return the can unwashed to the home. Washing of cans on the truck is unsatis–

    factory at the time of collection under extreme low temperatures. Heated

    quarters must be provided for the emptying and cleaning of cans where the

    filled can is collected and an empty can exchanged for it. Although the

    scavenger usually dumps the collected excrement in a relatively isolated

    spot, such material may be a source of infection unless it is buried or

    otherwise properly disposed of. Burial is very difficult in permafrost and

    cannot usually be accomplished except in the summer months.

            Commercially manufactured boxes and cans may be purchased and local

    tinsmiths, in some areas, make them (Fig. 45). In many places, the standard

    chemical toilet is used, with or without the use of chemicals (Fig. 46).

    Usually the boxes are made so that they may be ventilated and they are vented

    to some point outside of the living quarters, although there are many such

    installations in use which are not vented. Under the low temperatures ex–

    perienced at times in the Arctic, hoarfrost forms in the vent in such

    quantities that the vent is almost inoperative. Frequently the box is con–

    structed of wood and almost any type of can which does not leak is used. All

    cans should be fitted with tight-fitting lids for use when the can is carried

    for emptying. The boxes should be designed for proper ventilation, or the device

    will cause an unpleasant odor to permeate the room and sometimes the entire

    building in which the box and can are located. The box and can privy is located

    in the bedroom, or at some other convenient point in the building, but must be

    placed in a heated room for proper operation.

    087      |      Vol_IIB-0534                                                                                                                  

    A tin shop in Nome, Alaska displays metal boxes

    for use in the box and can waste disposal system.

    Fig. 45

    088      |      Vol_IIB-0535                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 46

    089      |      Vol_IIB-0536                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            The Pit or Surface Privy . In general, the pit or surface privy or

    other similar unheated means for waste disposal have been considered imprac–

    tical (61). Lack of heat in the structure makes its used undesirable. The

    surface privy in permafrost may not adequately dispose of the excrement so

    as to preclude the possibility of it contaminating ground water supplies

    or food stored in underground pits. During warm months, ground water may

    fill the pit of the pit privy, and during the winter all material in the

    pit remains frozen so that it is uncertain if the pit serves for much more

    than a storage point for the waste.

            Septic Tanks, Subsurface Tile Field, and Sand Filters . Small waste–

    disposal systems, such as septic tanks, subsurface tile fields, or sand

    filters, as ordinarily constructed for use in temperate climates, are

    impractical. During much of the year such a system remains frozen when it

    is located near the surface of the ground where the effluent may be subjected

    to assimilation by the soil (Table II). Unless the tank is located deep

    enough in the ground so that the ground temperature is only a few degrees

    below freezing, the sewage will freeze in the tank. Temperatures at this

    point in the ground are low enough so that biological action in the tank is

    sluggish, and it is not economically feasible to construct a standard tank of

    sufficient size to operate under these conditions for a single premise.

    Increasing the size of the tank tends to increase the heat losses of the

    tank, and it will freeze. Artificial heating of individual premise disposal

    systems under these conditions has not been demonstrated to be economically


            Cesspools. Under certain conditions, cesspools may be kept operative during

    most of the year. At points where drainage from the cesspool finds its way to

    090      |      Vol_IIB-0537                                                                                                                  


    091      |      Vol_IIB-0538                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    an aquifer, which discharges to a large drainage course, sufficient heat may

    be added to keep the system operating. Such an instance is a rare occurrence,

    and, in general, cesspools may not be depended upon for operation during the


            Formation of frost mounds in many places is an indication of the pressures

    exerted on entrapped water and a contra-indication to use of any waste dis–

    posal system which must rely upon the discharge of effluent or raw liquid

    wastes into the soil. If a cesspool is operable, it is quite probable that

    ground water or food stored in pits underground may be contaminated and such

    a method will be dangerous.

            Chemical Toilets . Small chemical toilets for individual promises cannot

    be operated satisfactorily without heating. Heating is not economically feasible

    except where such a system is in a building and is a part of a home or business


            Practical Waste Disposal for Individual Properties . In general, the

    chamber pot and the box and can method for disposal are the only presently

    known methods for waste disposal in the Arctic which are practical for an

    individual property.

            Great care must be taken in discharging heated liquid wastes near a

    building. Continuous discharge of such waste tends to destroy permafrost

    rapidly during the warm months. The warm liquid thaws a depression in the

    permafrost which collects ground water. Collected ground water tends to thaw

    the permafrost and destruction of the permafrost is speeded up with possible

    damage to foundations of buildings resulting.

    092      |      Vol_IIB-0539                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering



            A system of collecting sewers and treatment facilities for a community

    appear to be economically feasible in certain instances, and with proper

    construction and care these facilities will op e è rate under arctic conditions.

            Sewer systems for the collection of sewege and industrial wastes must

    be constructed in such a manner that they may be maintained operative by use

    of added heat and/or so that the maximum heat from the sewage is retained

    by insulation and appropriate design of the system. In communities where

    utilidors are used for water distribution, sewers have usually also been

    placed in the utilidor for protection from low temperatures. In some places

    sewers may also be operated satisfactorily by placing them directly in the

    ground without the use of a utilidor. However, appropriate steps must be

    taken to retain the natural heat of the sewage, to prevent cooling of the

    sewers by cold air, and to control hydraulics within the sewer.

            Sewer Systems in Utilidors. Utilidors, constructed in a manner similar

    to those discussed under water supply, have been used for carrying sewer

    services. Utilidors have been used just for protection of sewers and for

    transmission of both water mains and sewers. The latter arrangement fre–

    quently presents undesirable conditions which may lead to contamination of

    the water supply. The salient features in construction of utilidors for

    water distribution must also be considered in the planning and construction

    of utilidors for sewers. Sewers placed in utilidors are much more expensive

    to construct than sewers installed directly in the ground; however, maintenance

    is less expensive and the certainties of operation during all periods are

    greater (21; 22; 53). The underground type of utilidor is more practical for

    093      |      Vol_IIB-0540                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    use in established communities than the above-ground utilidor because of the

    difficulty of making connections to the latter. Sewers laid in utilidors

    govern the slope of the utilidor to a great degree. Sewers placed in utili–

    dors which do not also carry steam lines for transmission of heat from a

    central heating plant must be heated by use of a steam tracer line placed

    in the utilidor.

            Sewers Placed Directly in the Ground . In consc tur tru cting sewer systems

    placed directly in the ground, care must be taken to use sewers of of materials

    with a relatively high insulation value, and insulation such as peat, moss,

    and gravel must be placed around the sewer in the ground. Masonry, concrete,

    vitreous, and iron sewers conduct heat relatively rapidly. Conduction losses

    may be excessively high in such sewers if proper insulation is not provided.

    Convection heat losses from the sewage are largely controlled through regu–

    lation of the hydraulics of the sewer.

            Sewers should be located so as to avoid compaction of the soil over them.

    Compaction occurs in the center of a street. They should be located where

    snow cover will be the greatest and vegetative cover may be utilized. They

    should also be located so that they are not in the shadow when the sun is

    shining (Fig. 35). By i u se of these procedures most efficient use is made

    of the natural heat.

            Special arrangements for the conservation of warm air in the venting of

    this type of sewer system are necessary. Standard venting of manholes with

    openings to the arctic air is not practical, and house vents which permit

    the loss of heat from the sewer are unsatisfactory. Experience at Fairbanks,

    Alaska, where a standard-design sewer system is used, shows a definite

    correlation between air temperatures and sewer freezing, even though these

    effects are not noticeable in the upper layers of the ground above the sewer

    prior to freezing.

    094      |      Vol_IIB-0541                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            This type of sewer system may be placed so that advantage may be taken

    of the latent heat of fusion of entrapped ground water where such heat is

    of significant value. However, in this location, infiltration must be kept

    at a minimum.

            Sewers placed in soils which lose their stability when the permafrost is

    disturbed must be designed and constructed with adequate supports and founda–

    tions to maintain proper alignment under all conditions. Original construc–

    tion and slopes must be exact, and piling anchored in permafrost must be

    used to maintain grades in some soils (Fig. 47).

            Sewage velocities which prevent deposition of solids in sewers must be

    used in all sewer construction; however, in the Arctic, additional factors

    further limit velocity. High velocities and turbulence dissipate excessive

    heat through convection losses, and turbulence exposes an increased area of

    the water to the cold environment (40). Laminar flow may reduce these heat

    losses. The economic desirability of designing sewers to function with a

    minimum of turbulent flow needs further investigation. Although sewers do

    not usually flow full, any inside surface irregularities or excessive slope

    may create unnecessary heat losses. A velocity which prevents the deposition

    of solids and yet does not cause undue heat loss should be selected in sewer

    design. Each section of a sewer system has certain static, or fixed, heat

    losses under a given condition of flow and ground temperature — and flow

    and temperature at any given time in a sewer must be sufficient to satisfy the

    fixed-heat losses of the system and yet prevent freezing of the sewage.

            In many instances, it may be simpler to regulate flow of sewage in the

    system, or air temperature within the sewer, than to attempt to heat all of

    the sewage to prevent freezing. Sewage may be diluted to maintain the critical

    095      |      Vol_IIB-0542                                                                                                                  



    Fig. 47

    096      |      Vol_IIB-0543                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    velocity, or by the use of pumps and pumping wells it may be possible to

    maintain a somewhat continuous flow in the system. Regardless of measures

    taken to control the flow or velocity at all times, the heat present in the

    sewage flowing through the system must be sufficient to provide for the fixed–

    heat losses of the system under the most critical conditions of ground tempera–

    ture and flow, so that the temperature of the sewage is maintained above

    freezing. Steam condensate should be used wherever available to help keep

    this type of sewer installation from freezing.

            Pumping Stations . Because of the generally flat terrain in many arctic

    communities, it is usually necessary to install sewage pumping stations at

    one or more points in the collection and disposal system. These stations

    are particularly necessary in systems designed to operate as nearly as possible

    at some fixed depth in relation to the permafrost table. Pumping stations

    are practically always necessary to prevent complete freezing. Steam tracer

    lines are often used to keep the outfall open and operable. Conventional

    pumping stations are expensive to construct in permafrost areas, and permit

    excessive heat losses. A more suitable pumping station design should be

    developed for use in the Arctic.



            The ultimate disposal of sewage, in the past, has not troubled arctic

    dwellers to any great degree; however, with further development of the Arctic

    it is realized that more consideration must be given to this important phase

    of sanitary engineering. Arctic and subarctic dwellers have made several

    attempts to deal properly with this part of the waste-disposal plan, but

    there are few successfully functioning examples of an economically feasible method (word missing)

    097      |      Vol_IIB-0544                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    for use in the continued development of the Arctic. The most common method

    of ultimate disposal has been by dilution in the larger water courses and

    tidal waters. Disposal by dilution has meant the discharge of sewage into

    the receiving waters with little or no treatment.

            Several plants have been installed which have utilized only plain

    settling and steam and condensate to keep the tanks from freezing (Figs. 54;

    55 and 56). Effluent has been discharged into streams and lakes. Sludge

    has been drawn off into the same receiving waters or pumped into trucks and

    hauled to a relatively isolated point and discharged on the surface of the


            Large septic tanks have been used in some places, and it has been found

    that septic action takes place very slowly even when the tanks are heated with

    steam. Open-bottom tanks with sand floors have been used with little success

    as either septic tanks or leaching pits. Deposition of solids clogs the inter–

    stices of the sand bottom, and, unless considerable heat is applied, septic

    action does not occur and the tank freezes. Attempts to heat sewage and treat

    it by means of an Imhoff tank appear to be economically unfeasible. The entire

    amount of sewage and sludge must be heated to a suitable temperature for di–

    gestion of the sludge. A great amount of heat must be added to the sewage and

    into the Imhoff tank to secure proper operation.

            All sewage works facilities, except the sewers and outfalls, have been

    protected with tight buildings or enclosures surrounding them. Many of the

    plants that have been constructed have been mounded with earth well toward the

    top of the enclosing structure, and, in many places, destruction of the

    permafrost by heat from the sewage as well as seasonal frost action has

    seriously damaged the treatment units, causing walls to break and units to settle.

    097a      |      Vol_IIB-0545                                                                                                                  


    Fig. 54

    Sewage Disposal Plant

    near Fairbanks, Alaska

    097b      |      Vol_IIB-0546                                                                                                                  

    Fig. 55

    Coal Fired Portable Boiler Thawing

    Sewers at Fairbanks, Alaska

    Fig. 56

    Small Coal or Wood Fired Rental Unit

    for Sewer Thawing at Fairbanks, Alaska

    098      |      Vol_IIB-0547                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            Irrigation has been successful in a few instances where the sewer system

    and outfall have been located in such a fashion that sewage may be discharged

    from a bench and irrigated onto lower ground in a valley below. Such a

    method is highly undesirable as communities develop. Wide areas are heavily

    contaminated with wastes and organisms which remain dangerous and objectionable

    for indefinite periods of time. The permafrost prevents proper leaching into

    the soil, and ground water and sewage mix to form a veritable surface cesspool

    of large extent.

            Theoretically, primary and secondary treatment with incineration of the

    sludge and adequate dilution of the effluent appears to offer the most promise

    as a means of ultimate disposal of both sludge and effluent.

            Low temperature operation of sewage treatment facilities and the design

    of facilities for such service present many problems, most of which have not

    been satisfactorily answered.

            Plain Sedimentation. In plain sedimentation under low temperature condi–

    tions, certain physical factors must be considered which may well spell the

    success or failure of this stage of sewage treatment. Temperature has a

    marked effect upon the subsidence of sewage particles. Settling velocities

    decrease with falling temperatures (Fig. 22), viscosity of sewage increases

    at low temperatures, and more resistance is offered to the settling of sewage

    particles. It takes almost a third longer for particles to settle at 32°

    to 35°F. than it does at 50°F., and twice as long for them to settle at 32°F.

    as it does at 74°F. Settling tanks, for operation in the Arctic, should be

    designed for settling at minimal rates. Designs perhaps should be based on

    surface area loadings. Tray-type settling basins lend themselves more readily

    to arctic construction, since deep tanks may be difficult to construct in such

    a fashion that the structure does not interfere with the permafrost.

    099      |      Vol_IIB-0548                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            Too much heat and uneven heating of the enclosure in which settling

    tanks are located may seriously affect the operation of the process. Proper

    ventilation and vapor barriers must be provided in the enclosing structure

    to prevent undue condensation on the walls of the enclosure. As a result of

    increased viscosity of water and decreased rate of subsidence of sewage par–

    ticles, plain settling tanks in the Arctic should be increased to one and

    one-half times the size necessary in a temperate climate.

            Settling tanks for flocculent material at low temperatures may be more

    desirable if they are designed for upward flow and if the tanks are deeper

    than necessary for settling of plain granular material; however, tray-type

    unite may be best protected from freezing. Design of settling tanks for use

    in the Arctic should be preceded by a laboratory determination of required

    settling time. Pilot-plant tests should be made where there is sewage

    available for testing. Field temperatures and conditions should be faithfully

    duplicated in the laboratory determination. A detention period as great as is

    required for effective sedimentation in a glass tube, which is as deep as the

    effective depth of the proposed settling tank, may be used as a guide in the

    design of a pilot plant.

            Flocculation. Flocculation, by use of chemicals, appears to be signifi–

    cantly speeded up by relatively low temperatures (Velz, 1934). Increased

    viscosity of the sewage at low temperatures may play a part in this occurrence,

    as may a change in electrochemical phenomena under low temperature conditions.

    The floc may form readily but precipitation of the floc is retarded by low

    temperature, as mentioned under plain sedimentation. Very little change in

    the quantities of chemicals needed for flocculation is noted at low or average

    sewage temperatures. In certain instances it is necessary to add more chemicals

    100      |      Vol_IIB-0549                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    when the sewage is at about 32° to 35°F. (for good precipitation in a minimum

    time) than may be necessary at average sewage temperatures. Efficient opera–

    tion is dependent upon both time of settling and the concentration of chemicals.

            Conservative design for chemical precipitation basins, under low tempera–

    ture conditions, would include the following: ( 1 ) Moderate mixing of chemicals

    in sewage prior to sedimentation; ( 2 ) Use of deep-type tanks, which are enclosed

    and located above the surface of the ground or at a point where they will not

    affect the permafrost; and ( 3 ) Application of a factor of 1½ to tank size or

    other adjustment in design as determined from a pilot plant.

            Sludge accumulation may amount to as much as 0.5% of f t he volume of sewage

    treated, and special consideration must be given to handling this large amount

    of sludge. The cost of chemicals for treatment may frequently become very

    high under arctic conditions because of relatively high costs for shipment and

    handling of such materials.

            Screens . Low temperatures have little or no effect upon the screening of

    sewage to remove coarse suspended and floating matter, unless the temperature

    of the sewage is permitted to drop low enough that icing of the screen may

    occur. Frazil ice may form in the channel following the screen if the tempera–

    ture of the sewage is too low. Screen chambers must be enclosed in heated


            Skimming Basins . Skimming tanks for the removal of grease and oil operate

    much more efficiently under low temperature conditions than they do in temperate

    climates. Skimming chambers should be kept as cold as possible without lower–

    ing the temperature to freezing.

            Grit Chambers . The design of grit chambers that will function properly

    under low temperature conditions is difficult. Due to change of viscosity,

    101      |      Vol_IIB-0550                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    it takes almost 1½ times as long for many mineral solids to settle at 32° to

    35°F. as it does for them to settle at 50°F.

            Septic Tanks . Septic tanks must be heated, enclosed, and constructed so

    that they do not destroy the permafrost. Septic tanks for use under arctic

    or subarctic conditions should be approximately twice as large as may be

    necessary where sewage temperatures are 55° to 60°F. (Figs. 22 and 48) .

            Imhoff Tanks . Heat must be added to the sewage in an Imhoff tank, as

    ordinarily designed, to make it operate properly. If sufficient heat is added

    to permit mesophilic digestion of the sludge in the sludge digestion chamber,

    excessive heat is lost to the effluent of the tank and the process becomes

    economically unfeasible under low temperature conditions. An enclosure must

    be provided to protect the tank from freezing, in addition to the heating of

    the sludge compartment of the tank to permit mesophilic digestion. Utilizing

    psychrophilic digestion, the sludge storage space would have to be almost three

    times as great as is required for this process in the mesophilic range (Fig. 48).

    Minimal heating of the raw sewage may be required to prevent freezing. Sedi–

    mentation rates are only about 2/3 as great as at normal temperature, and the

    sedimentation chamber must be increased in size accordingly. The size and

    proportions of such a tank make it cumbersome for use in an enclosure. Further

    research and investigation might reveal possibilities for use of certain psychro–

    philic organisms for more efficient treatment of sewage in the Arctic.

            Sewage Filters. Rapid filters with a magnetite, sand, or coal filtering

    medium might be used under arctic conditions if all facilities are enclosed and

    heated and careful operation is provided. Although experience with certain

    filters has not been satisfactory in some places in temperate climates, it

    appears that rates of filtration might be lowered as much as 30 to 40% at

    102      |      Vol_IIB-0551                                                                                                                  


    (After Imhoff and Fair)

    Fig. 48

    103      |      Vol_IIB-0552                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    sewage temperatures of 32° to 35°F. as compared to rates at sewage temperatures

    of 50°F. (Fig. 24). It appears that the maximum space may be conserved in the

    enclosing structure if upflow-type fil f t ers are used.

            Rapid filters of the vacuum type can possibly be used to great advantage

    under low temperature conditions. However, an investigation should be made to

    better determine their application under arctic conditions. They do not occupy

    much space, and heating them should not be difficult, but their operation is

    somewhat complicated as compared to other filtering methods. These filters

    appear to be most suitable for the de-watering of sludge after either plain

    or chemical precipitation.

            Biological Treatment . Present-known biological methods for separation o f r

    stabilization of sewage solids in suspension or in solution, such as contact

    beds, trickling filters, and activated-sludge processes, will require modifi–

    cation for use in the Arctic. Units must be housed properly and special arrange–

    ments made for ventilation. Although Eddy and Fales (20) report that volumes

    of air in the ratio of 3,250 parts air to 1 of water are necessary to impart the

    same heat change in sewage, it must be remembered that extremely severe operating

    conditions may be experienced in the Arctic and Subarctic. In Siberia, a tem–

    perature of −89°F. is reported by Ko j zh inov; a temperature of −103°F. ? −94°F ? has been better restore original text. p. 103 original

    reported at Oimekon . Alaska newspapers have reported that at Snag, Yukon

    Territory, a temperature low of −81°F. has occurred; other sources have reported

    the low at Snag to be −84°F. Such temperature would mean at least a minimum

    difference of 113°F. between unheated ventilating air and minimum permissible

    sewage temperature.

            Pilot-plant studies should be made over an extended period of time before

    biological treatment facilities are installed for use under arctic conditions.

    104      |      Vol_IIB-0553                                                                                                                  
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            Chlorination of Sewage . Use of chlorine gas or similar disinfectants

    may be indicated in some instances where a relatively safe effluent is re–

    quired, and where sewage temperatures permit effective use of chlorine. It

    is generally not necessary to chlorinate for odor control, although in

    instances where little or no treatment is provided and dilution is insuffi–

    cient, unsatisfactory conditions may occur. Ice cover during a great part

    of the year may prevent re-aeration of the receiving water. Accumulations

    of waste may give trouble during the warm period. Low temperature and rela–

    tively high dissolved oxygen content of arctic waters tend to minimize the

    immediate effects of pollution but greatly prolong self-purification of the

    receiving water.

            It appears that pathogenic bacteria in dilution water under much conditions

    may remain viable for great lengths of time, and, where there is any possibility

    of sewage wastes contaminating water or food sources, disinfection should be

    provided for proper treatment of sewage wastes. The solubility of chlorine

    in water is increased under low temperature conditions down to the point where

    chlorine hydrate forms (Fig. 23) but the contact time must be lengthened

    greatly over that at normal temperatures for proper results. Cold retards the

    action of chlorine.

            The pressure of chlorine gas at 70°F. is more than five times as great as

    it is at 0°F., and special considerations must be given to control of chlorine–

    dosing in arctic areas. Slight variations in temperature of the enclosing

    structure may affect dosing equipment and vary dosage considerably.

            Sludge Digestion . Tanks for separate sludge digestion by biological

    processes require the use of considerable heat, but they may be useful in

    certain instances even under arctic conditions. Heat losses for digestion in

    105      |      Vol_IIB-0554                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    the thermophilic range may be so great that this range of digestion is probably

    impractical. Digestion capacity for the mesophilic range at 40°F . must be

    approximately twice that provided for digestion at 60°F. (Fig. 48). Since,

    under arctic conditions, heating is necessary throughout the entire year

    for optimum mesophilic digestion, it is possible that additional gas recovery

    might more than offset operation at this temperature in certain instances.

    Insulation of the digester, and efficiency and economy of heating methods

    would have to be highly favorable for such operation. Digester capacity for

    digestion at the optimum mesophilic temperature of 100°F. would be only

    about one-quarter of the capacity required for digestion at 40°F. (Fig.48).

    At present, known psychrophilic digestion is impractical, but it has been

    suggested that further investigation should be made of the possibility of

    more efficient use of this range. Properly digested sludge can be readily

    dried and represents only approximately one-fourth of the volume of the

    undigested sludge. This reduction in volume and resultant simplification of

    final de-watering and incineration or burial represent an appreciable saving

    in effort and money in ultimately disposing of the sludge.

            Sludge Disposal . Ultimate disposal of sludge may be accomplished in

    several ways, but under low temperature conditions de-watering and incineration

    or filling appear to be the more positive means. Undigested sludge, except

    for chemically precipitated sludge, contains sufficient fuel for incineration

    without additional use of fuel except for certain periods, but the water content

    may make incineration of it impractical. Chemically precipitated sludge does

    not burn as readily as undigested sludge, and additional fuel must be added

    for its incineration. Under arctic conditions, available gas from digestion

    processes probably will not mee d t added fuel requirements necessary to incinerate

    106      |      Vol_IIB-0555                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    digested sludge, and added fuel will be necessary for burning of digested


            Provision must be made for adequate preheating of cold air used for

    drying and for combustion. Arctic air is comparatively low in moisture con–

    tent and upon heating becomes very dry.

            Drying of sludge on sand beds is generally impractical because of slow–

    ness of evaporation, heating difficulties, and the water-logged conditions

    of the soil during thawed periods.



            Refuse and garbage collection and disposal present somewhat different

    problems in the Arctic from those encountered in temperate climates. Very

    little readily combustible refuse is mixed with the garbage in native com–

    munities, since the arctic dweller usually utilizes all combustible scrap

    materials. The lack of commercially valuable woody plants in the Arctic, and

    high costs of transportation of lumber and wood from other areas, tend to

    cause all scraps to be utilized. Dunnage is frequently used for building

    material to construct and repair homes. Almost any combustible material,

    wood, paper, cardboard, etc., which is not suitable for construction or repair

    material, is frequently used as fuel. Although coal, oil, and other fuels

    are available, they are co n s tly, and combustible refuse helps keep to an

    absolute minimum that portion of the very limited Eskimo income which must

    be spend for fuel. Lack of combustible materials increases the difficulty

    of incineration of garbage and refuse.

            The early Eskimo method for disposal of the dead (48) may furnish some

    clue to appropriate arctic garbage-disposal methods. The dead were decomposed

    107      |      Vol_IIB-0556                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    by placing the corpse in a fetal position and leaving it exposed to the elements

    several feet above the ground. The role of insects in use of such a practice

    is not known, but it is quite probable that filth would be disseminated by


            There are many insects in the Arctic, although the housefly is not common,

    and rodents are prevalent in many arctic communities (62). Where garbage and

    wastes are accessible to rodents and insects, problems similar to those found

    in temperate climates may be expected in the Arctic.



            Very few of the smaller arctic communities have organized collection

    systems for the removal of refuse and garbage. Accumulations of tin cans,

    bones, and other waste materials are frequently found near the home of the

    arctic dweller. Prevailing low temperatures tend to prevent obnoxious odors

    during most of the year, and the people are not immediately reminded of these

    unsightly conditions. Sled dogs eat whatever edible scraps of foods or meats

    may be discarded near the homes.

            Better organization of garbage and refuse collection and disposal systems

    is apparent in recent years throughout arctic Alaska. In communities where

    garbage and refuse are collected and hauled out of the community, these

    wastes are usually thrown on a dump near the city or village, or they are

    thrown into water courses or into shallow lakes or tidal waters if convenient.

    Such disposal methods are highly undesirable under certain conditions, since they

    may contaminate water supplies or serve as food for rodents, as well as become

    unsightly and offensive during a part of the year. Tin cans and scrap metals

    are not usually commercially salvagable in the Arctic because of local utiliza–

    tion and the high cost of transportation.

    107a      |      Vol_IIB-0557                                                                                                                  

    A Refuse Dump in a Trailer Camp at Fairbanks, Alaska

    Fig. 49

    108      |      Vol_IIB-0558                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            Lack of streets and roads in many Eakimo communities and lack of order

    in community arrangement make such a service difficult to provide. Many

    communities are not platted and subdivided, and development is on a personal–

    choice basis rather than according to plan. Community planning is usually

    practiced to a certain extent in the larger communities.

            Special equipment, suitable for operation under low temperatures and

    designed for trav le el over tundra, is needed for collection and hauling by other

    than dog teams. Refuse and garbage collection in cans, which must usually

    be stored outside of heated structures, is complicated by the freezing of

    wastes in the cans. In the past, this has been combatted by the use of

    nonuniform containers for collection and by disposal of the container with

    the garbage. Emptied oil barrels, etc., have been used for collection because

    present economy does not permit their re-use as oil containers. These con–

    tainers do not have fitted covers and are subject to depredation and spillage.

            Can-washers on trucks are not practical under arctic conditions, and as

    yet few arrangements have been made for central can-washing and emptying of

    garbage such as had been done in the box and can sewage - disposal system.



            Burial of garbage and sanitary land-fill methods for garbage disposal do

    not appear to offer any great promise, at the present time, as a means of

    garbage and refuse disposal in the Arctic. Extended periods in which the

    ground may be almost completely frozen down several hundred feet do not permit

    ready use of this method. Stockpiling of earth for fill during the long winter

    period is impractical because of excessive frost penetration and the resultant

    complications and cost of earth movement. If the garbage is stockpiled for

    109      |      Vol_IIB-0559                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    several months until it may be conveniently buried, the garbage might as well

    be disposed of by plain dumping at the outset unless it is enclosed in rodent–

    proof bins. Stockpiled garbage may be instrumental in the dissemination of

    disease. It may serve as a source of food for rodents, dogs, or other

    animals and may contaminate a water supply. Assimilation by the soil is

    greatly retarded and the garbage is mostly preserved after burial rather n than


            I t s the garbage is placed within the permafrost, preservation may be

    almost complete. Rosenau reports the discovery of mastod e o n flesh and hide

    intact after centuries of existence in the frozen state in Siberia.



            Lack of domestic animals, such as hogs, throughout much of the Arctic,

    and the small quantity of edible materials usually left in garbage make it

    impractic a l e to try to feed garbage to pigs, chickens, etc.

            Reduction of garbage and refuse materials is not economically feasible.

            Fermentation processes for the destruction of garbage require considerable

    heating over a long period of time and do not appear to present any advantages

    over complete incineration.

            Incineration appears to offer the most promise for disposal of refuse

    and garbage in the Arctic where a properly controlled dump or dumping at sea

    are objectionable. The small quantity of combustible material and the

    frozen condition of much of the refuse and garbage may increase the cost of

    incineration considerably above that for normal incineration.

            Grinding of wastes for disposal along with sewage may be suitable in large

    communities but does not appear to offer immediate promise for use in most

    arctic communities.

    110      |      Vol_IIB-0560                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering



            Utility construction costs in the Arctic and Subarctic are affected

    chiefly by such factors as the accessibility of the area to regular shipping

    routes; local labor costs; local availability and demand for building mate–

    rials and construction equipment; and the need for modification of standard

    construction because of terrain, climate, or other factors.

            In southeastern Alaska, which has ready access to year-round shipping

    points, a fairly tight labor and materials market, a moderate climate, and

    no special problems of terrain other than steep grades, construction costs

    are approximately one and a half times as high as the average cost of utility

    construction in continental United States (Fig. 50). The increase in cost

    in this area is due chiefly to high shipping rates, high wages, and a con–

    tinued demand for construction materials.

            Construction costs in northern Alaska are five times as high as the

    United States' average, and almost three and a half times the cost in south–

    eastern Alaska. In the Fort Yukon area of Alaska, for example, all construc–

    tion equipment and materials must be shipped by water to the nearest port on

    the Gulf of Alaska at Seward, where all cargoes are transferred to the Alaska

    railroad, taken to the Tanana River, put on the river boat downstream to the

    Yukon River and then up to Fort Yukon. During the winter, in interior Alaska,

    all materials must be transported by air or overland by dog sled. Otherwise

    the equipment and materials must be flown directly from Outside points to

    Fairbanks, and transplaned to Fort Yukon at relatively high air-freight rates.

            Skilled labor forces for utility construction in the Fort Yukon area

    are practically nonexistant, and workmen for any extensive project must be

    imported to the area from elsewhere in the Territory or f or ro m continental

    United States. In addition, Fort Yukon lies within the approximately 60%

    111      |      Vol_IIB-0561                                                                                                                  



    Fig. 50

    112      |      Vol_IIB-0562                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    of Alaska which is underlaid by permafrost. Permafrost complicates the task

    of the design engineer, and raises the cost of construction accordingly.

            Specially designed systems, such as recirculating or utilidor systems,

    are usually necessary. Both systems are much more expensive than conven–

    tional installations, as may be seen on Figure 51.

            Figures 50 and 51 (21) were prepared from recent cost data available to

    the Alaska Department of Health. It is realized that construction costs are as

    shown cannot be more than general approximations because of the large number

    of variables involved. However, these data indicate relatively high costs

    for water and waste - disposal facilities in the Alaskan Arctic and Subarctic.

    The four curves shown in Figure 51 indicate the approximate per capita cost

    of constructing each of four types of community water or water - disposal systems

    on the basis of population size. The map (Fig. 50) indicates the cost indices

    which must be applied in different sections of Alaska. By way of illustration,

    for approximation of the cost of constructing a recirculating water system in

    Fairbanks, Alaska, data from Figures 50 and 51 are used as shown below:

    Design population of Fairbanks 10,000
    Per capita cost of utilidor system (curve 2 on Fig. 51) $69.00
    Cost index for Fairbanks area (from Fig. 50) 3
    Approximate cost $ 2,070,000.00

    113      |      Vol_IIB-0563                                                                                                                  


    Figure 51

    114      |      Vol_IIB-0564                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering



            Sanitary engineering in regions where the subsoil remains continuously

    frozen is called Arctic Sanitary Engineering. In these regions temperature

    is the initial variant from temperate climate conditions, but this results

    in a changed exhibition of certain common phenomena. Biological and chemical

    reactions are retarded and the physical state of fluids, soils, plastics,

    and other materials are appreciably different. Heat conservation, humidity,

    light, construction and operation costs, and the efficient use of materials

    and resources assume significant proportions in sanitary engineering planning.

            Communities and industry are developing in the Arctic despite the diffi–

    culties associated with low temperature. People have been living in the

    Arctic for many centuries. With appropriate modification, sanitary control

    of the environment can be maintained in low temperature regions.

            The history of diseases associated with faulty environment shows the

    need for sanitary engineering in these regions.

            Satisfactory water supplies are difficult to obtain. Many surface

    supplies freeze and much of the ground water is in a frozen state. With

    intelligent systematic search, suitable supplies may be found. The high

    V v iscosity of water at low temperatures has an appreciable effect on certain

    treatment practices, and design and operation must be adjusted accordingly.

    Special provision must be made for the distribution of water in regions where

    portions of the ground remain continuously frozen. Water may be heated and

    circulated in the distribution system or it may be distributed from mains

    placed in heated conduits : . Without such facilities the water must be dis–

    pensed by carboy or tank truck.

    115      |      Vol_IIB-0565                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            The soil does not assimilate wastes as readily under low temperature

    conditions as it does under normal conditions. Bacteriological processes

    involved in waste disposal are retarded by the low temperature. Special

    arrangements for heating and additional capacity to accommodate retarded

    processes must be provided.

            Air temperatures and flows in sewers should be controlled to minimize

    freezing. Sewers placed in permanently frozen ground must be constructed

    so that alignment may be maintained. Special construction such as heated

    conduits is sometimes employed in sewer construction. Potential danger of

    contamination of potable water is present whenever sewers and water mains

    are placed in the same heated conduit.

            Unusual problems are presented in the disposal of garbage and refuse.

    Such materials do not appear to decompose readily in the soil, and frozen

    conditions make sanitary fill difficult. Yet, improperly handled garbage

    may serve as food for rodents and may be instrumental in the spread of

    infection. The arctic economy does not make reduction and salvage feasible.

    Bacteriological processes are retarded. Fuel cost makes incineration




            ( 1 ) Further research and investigation are indicated in practically every

    phase of arctic sanitary engineering.

            ( 2 ) A thorough investigation of permafrost, ground temperature, and soil

    characteristics in addition ot to usual investigations should precede

    the construction of all arctic sanitary facilities.

    116      |      Vol_IIB-0566                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

            ( 3 ) Where possible pilot facilities should be operated for at least one

    year prior to the design and construction of permanent community

    sanitary facilities.

            ( 4 ) Operation costs assume great importance under arctic conditions and

    they should be carefully compared with construction costs in deter–

    mining the most desirable design.

            ( 5 ) Practical experience indicates that the principles of arctic sanitary

    engineering are no difference from those of temperate climate sanitary

    engineering, but the application of those principles may vary signi–

    ficantly from established practice.

            ( 6 ) The viscosity of water and sewage increases as temperature is lowered,

    and this has a significant effect on the design and operation of all

    treatment operations involving mixing, settling, and filtration.

            ( 7 ) Without special arrangements for heat conservation or heating, water

    distribution lines, sewers and appurtenances will freeze under arctic


            ( 8 ) Arctic waters do not readily show the immediate effects of pollution

    with organic wastes but require a great length of time for recovery.

            ( 9 ) Incineration of garbage and refuse appears to offer the most promise

    as a means of disposal where dumping at sea and burial cannot be used.

            ( 10 ) Utility construction costs in Alaska range from 1.5 to 5.0 times as

    much as in continental United States.

    117      |      Vol_IIB-0567                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering


    1. Prescott, S.C. and Horwood, M.P. Sedgwick's Principles of Sanitary Science

    and Public Health
    . N.Y., Macmillan, 1935.

    2. Stefansson, Vilhjalmur. Arctic Manual . N.Y., Macmillian, 1945.

    3. Rosenau, M.J. Preventive Medicine and Hygiene . N.Y., Appleton-Century, 1935.

    4. ----. Bibliography on Ice of the Northern Hemisphere . U.S. Navy Department.

    H.O. Publ . 240. Wash.,D.C., G.P.O., 1945.

    ✓ t 5. ----. Russian Arctic Engineering Doc g t rine. A Bibliography . Fort Belvoir,

    Virginia, Engineer School Library, Building 270. August, 1947.

    6. Whittaker, H.A. Proposed Program of Research in Arctic Environmental

    . Alaska. Department of Health. Division of Sanitation and

    Engineering. Bull . Juneau, Alaska, Sept., 1948.

    7. ----. Arctic Health Institute. Juneau, Alaska, 1949. Alaska. Department

    of Health. Bull .

    8. ----. General Information Regarding Alaska . Juneau, Alaska Planning

    Council, 1941.

    9. ----. Monthly Climatological Summary . Wash.,D.C., Weather Bureau, 1945-47.

    Covers various Alaska stations.

    10. Breed, R.S., Murray, E.G.D., and Hitchens, A.P. Bergey's Manual of

    Determinative Bacteriology
    . 6th ed. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins,


    11. Phelps, E.B. Stream Sanitation . N.Y., Wiley, 1944.

    12. Alter, A.J. "Sanitary Surveys of Nome, Teller, Wales, Shishmaref, Deering,

    Candle, Kiwalik, Selawik, Kiana, Noorvik, Køtzebue, Noatak, Kivaline,

    Tigara, Wainwright, Barrow, Umiat, Mile 26, Ladd Field, Fairbanks,

    College and Nenana, Alaska," Juneau Alaska. Department of Health.

    Division of Sanitation and Engineering, Juneau (Unpublished reports.)

    13. ----. Heating Ventilating Air Conditioning Guide . N.Y., American Society

    of Heating and Ventilating Engineers, 1948.

    14. Smith, P.S. Areal Geology of Alaska . Wash., D.C., G.P.O., 1949. U.S.

    Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap Prof. Pap . 192.

    118      |      Vol_IIB-0568                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    15. Muller, S.W. Permafrost or Permanently Frozen Ground and Related

    Engi [ ?] n eering Problems . Ann Arbor, Mich., Edwards, 1947.

    16. ----. "S t udies determine proper construction procedures in permafrost

    areas," Civil Engng ., Easton, Pa. vol.17, no.7, pp. 29-31, July, 1947.

    17. Robinson, R. "Permafrost arctic building problem," Constructor vol.29, no.6,

    pp. 28-32, June, 1947.

    18. ----. Water Quality and Treatment Manual . N.Y., American Water Works

    Association, 1941.

    19. Imhoff, Karl, and Fair, G.M. Sewage Treatment . N.Y., Wiley, 1940.

    20. Metcalf, Leonard, and Eddy, H.P. American Sewerage Practics . N.Y.,

    McGraw-Hill, 1935. Vol.3.

    21. ----. Community Facilities in Alaska . Juneau, Alaska, 1949. Alaska.

    Department of Health. Bull .

    22. Spofford, C.M. "Low temperatures in inaccessible arctic inflate construction

    costs," Civil Engng ., Easton, Pa., vol.19, pp.12-15, Jan., 1949.

    23. ----. "Soap and water," Alaska's Hlth . vol.6, no.1, Jan., 1948.

    24. Totter, J.R., and Shukers, C.F. "Nutrition surveys of Eskimos," Ibid .

    vol. 6, no.10, Oct., 1948.

    25. ----. "Well known facts that aren't so," Ibid . vol.2, no.1, Jan., 1944.

    26. ----. Public Health Progress in Alaska . Juneau, Alaska, 1949. Alaska.

    Department of Health. Bull .

    27. Kozhinov, V.E. Russian Water Supply Systems in Areas Where the Ground is

    Perpetually Frozen
    . (Unpublished Paper.)

    28. Perry, A.H. "Water works and S s ewerage practices in areas of perpetually

    frozen ground in Canada." (Personal Communications to Alaska

    Department of Health.)

    29. Lambert, L.E. "Sanitary surveys of Bethel and McGrath, Alaska," Juneau,

    Alaska. Department of Health. Division of Sanitation and Engineering . , Juneau.

    (Unpublished reports.)

    30. Waring, G.A. Mineral Springs of Alaska . Wash., D.C., G.P.O., 1917. U.S.

    Geol.Surv. Wat.Supp.Pap . 418.

    31. Lewin, J.D. "Essentials of foundation design in permafrost," Public Wks .

    vol.79, pp.28-30, Feb., 1948.

    119      |      Vol_IIB-0569                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    32. ----. "Test study of foundation design for permafrost conditions,"

    Engng.News Rec . vol.193, no.12, pp.404-407, Sept. 18, 1947.

    33. Andriashev, M.M. "Symposium. (Municipal Construction)," Kommunstroi , 1935.

    34. Fritz, M.H. "Corneal opacities among Alaska natives," Alaska's Hlth .

    vol.5, no. 12, Dec., 1947.

    35. ----. Operations in Snow and Extreme Cold . Wash.,D.C., G.P.O., 1944.

    U.S. War Department. Basic Field Manual. FM 70-15.

    36. ----. "Sanitary surveys of Unalakleet, Hooper Bay, Dillingham, [ ?]

    Naknek, Kodiak, Palmer, Anchorage, and Several Other Alaska

    Communities," Juneau, Alaska. Department of Health. Division of

    Sanitation and Engineering . , Juneau. (Records) 1936-1939.

    37. Alter, A.J. "Water supply problems of the Arctic, " Alaska's Hlth . vol.7,

    no.3, Mar., 1949.

    38. Ellsworth, C.E., and Davenport, R.W. Surface Water Supply of the Yukon–

    Tanana Region, Alaska
    . Wash., D.C., G.P.O., 1915. U.S. Geol.Surv.

    Wat.Supp.Pap . 342.

    39. ----. "Earth-fill dam built on frozen ground," Engng.News Rec . vol.140,

    no.6, pp.182-184, Feb. 5, 1948.

    40. Barnes, H.T. Ice Engineering . Montreal, Renouf, 1928.

    41. Chernyshev, M.J. "Searth for underground water in perpetually frozen areas,"

    Amer.Wat.Wks.Ass., J . vol.27, no.4, p. 581, April, 1935.

    42. Fagin, K.M. "Petroleum development in Alaska," Petrol.Engr ., Aug., Sept.,

    Oct., and Dec., 1947.

    43. Willson, C.O. "Full-scale exploration under way by Navy in arctic Alaska,"

    Oil & O G as J ., Aug. 9, 16, 23, 1947.

    44. Morley, L.A. "Typhoid outbreak at Nenana, Alaska," Alaska. Department of

    Health. Division of Senitation and Engineering . , Juneau. (Unpublished report.)

    45. Williams, K R .B. "Echinococcosis or hydatid disease," Alaska's Hlth .

    vol. 6, no.2, 1948.

    46. ----. "As a newcomer sees us," Ibid . vol.1, no.4, Sept., 1943.

    47. Williams, R.B. "Tularaemia in Alaska," Ibid . vol.3, no.12, Dec., 1945.

    48. Aronson, J.D. "The history of disease among the natives of Alaska," Ibid .

    vol.5, no.3, Mar., 1947.

    120      |      Vol_IIB-0570                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Alter: Sanitary Engineering

    49. Taber, Stephen. "Some problems of road construction and maintenance in

    Alaska," Public Rds ., Wash. vol. 23, no.9, pp.247-251, July, Aug.,

    Sept., 1943.

    50. ----. Construction of Runways, Roads, and Buildings on Permanently

    Frozen Ground
    . Wash.,D.C., G.P.O., 1945. U.S. War Department.

    Technical Bull. TB 5-255-3.

    51. Lambert, L.E. "Municipal water treatment in western Alaska," Alaska's

    . vol.6, no.3, Mar., 1948.

    52. Chernyshev, M.J. "Water services in regions with perpetually frozen ground,"

    Amer.Wat.Wks.Ass. J . vol.22, no.7, p.899, July, 1930.

    53. Hyland, W.L., and Mellish, M.H. "Steam heated conduits--utilidors--protect

    service pipes from freezing," Civil Engng ., Easton, Pa. vol.19,

    pp.15-17, 61, Jan., 1949.

    54. Hardenbergh, W.A. "Arctic sanitation," Amer.J.Public Hlth . vol.39, no.2, Feb.,


    55. U.S. Navy Department. Bureau of Yards and Docks. Cold-Weather Engineering .

    Wash.,D.C., The Department, 1948-1949. Its Navdocks P-17.

    56. Hardenbergh, W.A. "Protection against freezing," Water Wks. e E ngng .

    Feb. 26, 1941, p.253.

    57. DuFreane, Frank. Mammals and Birds of Alaska . Wash., D.C., G.P.O., 1942.

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Circular 3.

    58. Alaska. Department of Health. Biennial Report July 1, 1944 to June 30, 1946 .

    Juneau, Alaska, 1947.

    59. Wak e s man, S.A., and Starkey, R.L. The Soil and the Microbe . N.Y., Wiley,


    60. Alaska. Department of Health. Biennial Report July 1, 1946 to June 30 ,

    1948 . Juneau, Alaska, 1949.

    61. Echelberger, E.E. "Waste disposal at 55° below," Alaska's Hlth . vol.5,

    no.3, Mar., 1947.

    62. Shelesnyak, M.C. Across the Top of the World . Wash., D.C., G.P.O., August,

    1947. U.S. Navy Department. Office of Naval Research. Navexos P-489.


    Amos J. Alter

    Arctic Insect Pests and Their Control

    001      |      Vol_IIB-0571                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. (Leo A. Jachowski, Jr.)




    Protection for the Individual 2
    Treatment of Fly Bites 5
    Protection of Quarters 6
    Area Insect Control 8
    Mosquitoes 9
    Mosquito Control 11
    Black Flies 13
    Black Fly Control 14
    Biting Midges 15
    Control of Midges 16
    Horseflies and Deer Flies 16
    Control of Horseflies 17
    Snipe Flies 17
    Bluebottle Flies and Flesh Flies 17
    Control of Filth Flies 18
    Bibliography 19

    002      |      Vol_IIB-0572                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Insect Posts

            Protection for the Individual . In many areas personal protection

    from the swarms of biting insects is a necessity. Adequate protection for

    most of the body can be obtained by a careful selection of clothing. It

    has been known for many years that white, khaki, and certain other light

    colors will attract fewer mosquitoes than will black and other dark colors.

    Research during World War II has shown that byrd cloth and several other

    tightly-woven fabrics provide excellent mechanical barriers to biting

    insects. Zippered or pull-over shirts are preferable to the buttoned

    type. The protection is increased further if the clothing fits loosely

    rather than tightly against the body. Ankles can be covered by tucking

    trousers into socks or by wearing leggings, and wrists can be protected

    to some extent by having the cuffs of the outer garment fitted tightly.

    Thus, by judicious selection and wearing of clothing, all but the hands

    and face can be covered sufficiently to prevent insects from biting.

    These exposed surfaces can be protected either by wearing headnets and

    gloves with gauntlets or by using one of the more efficient insect

    repell a e nts.

    003      |      Vol_IIB-0573                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Insect Pests

            When headnets are used, they should stand out from the fac t e so that

    they do not touch the skin. It is most practical to wear them over a hat

    with a brim. They can be sewed directly to the crown of the hat or attached

    with an elastic band that fits snugly to the crown. At the bottom there

    should be a strip of strong cloth encasing a drawstring for tying snugly

    at the collar. With a broad coil of lightweight flat steel wire fastened

    on the inside, the net will stand out from the face, and at the same time

    will allow it to be packed flat. The nets should be made of the best grade

    of fine-meshed bobbinet, having at least 18 meshes to the inch, for ordinary

    mosquito netting is too coarse and too easily torn. Visibility through nets

    is improved by dyeing them black. In wooded country, large r nets, which

    provide better ventilation, are cumbersome and are easily snagged. The most

    durable and airy headnets are made of wire screen with cloth and drawstring

    at the bottom.

            Gloves are necessary when the insect pests are really numerous. Old

    kid gloves with a six-inch cloth gauntlet closing the gap at the wrist, and

    ending with an elastic band halfway to the elbow, are best. Cotton work–

    gloves are better than no protection at all, but mosquitoes can bite through

    them. However, treating the gloves with insect repellent will increase the

    protection. For delicate work, kid gloves with the fingers out off are

    good. Use of insect repellent on the fingers is advocated.

    004      |      Vol_IIB-0574                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Insect Pests

            Insect repellents serve but one purpose - to keep the pests from

    biting. They may be applied either to the clothing or directly to the skin,

    preferably both. The application of repellent by hand to the outside of the

    clothing, especially across the shoulders, around the waist and on the seat

    of the trousers has definite protective value. The new synthetic chemicals

    now used as repellents are liquids which have been found safe for use on

    human skin. However, most of them have two disadvantages in that they irri–

    tate the mucous membrances of the eyes and lips on contact and that they

    dissolve plastics. The most satisfactory materials which are commercially

    available are dimethyl phthalate, 6-12 (2-ethyl hexanediol- 1,3), 6-2-2

    (a mixture containing dimethyl phthalate, 6-12, and Indalone), and 448

    (a mixture of 2-phenyl cyclohexanol and 2-cyclohexyl cyclohexanol).

            There is little apparent difference in the effectiveness against

    mosquitoes of the four standard repellents noted above under conditions of

    actual use. With a heavy and aggressive population of mosquitoes, and normal

    activity of the individual in field work, the best of the repellents may

    require renewal at least as often as once every hour. Under severe conditions

    --perspiration, working in water or through heavy vegetation, and with very

    heavy insect pressure--the period of adequate protection may be further


    005      |      Vol_IIB-0575                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Insect Pests

            Dimethyl phthalate appears to be the best repellent for protection

    against black flies. Experimentally, protection for 6½ hours was obtained,

    but under working conditions protection is reduced to an hour or less (7).

    Since black flies persist in getting inside clothing and biting there,

    repellents applied to the exposed skin and to the outside of clothing do

    not always give complete protection from bites.

            When these newer synthetic chemical repellents are not available,

    home remedies may be used. Oil of tar and oil of lavender protect against

    black flies; citronella against mosquitoes; and creosote, spirits of camphor,

    and oil of cedar against biting midges.

            Treatment of Fly Bites . The itching and pain of insect bites can be

    alleviate s d by use of Circa 42, a remedy developed by the U.S. Department of

    Agriculture (11) which contains :

    n n -butyl- p p -aminobenzoate ( "B b utesin " ) 100 gm. — —
    benzyl alcohol 170 cc.
    anhydrous lanolin (melted) 22 cc.
    cornstarch 640 gm.
    sodium lauryl sulfonate 64 gm.

            The material is applied in a moderately thick layer to skin moistened

    slightly with water. Relief should be obtained in less than 30 minutes.

    If this formula is not available, cold wet compresses made with baking soda

    or weak ammonia water, glycerine, alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, one percent

    solution of menthol in alcohol, and even moist toilet soap will offer some relief.

    006      |      Vol_IIB-0576                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Insect Posts

            Protection of Quarters . The insect problem in the Arctic and Subarctic

    can be reduced if quarters can be located on wind-swept ridges near the coast,

    or in widely cleared areas in timberlands. If such location is impossible,

    quarters should be protected either by screening or by frequent use of in–


            In permanent quarters, insect screens made of noncorrosive weather–

    resistant material (copper, bronze, aluminum, or plastic) having at least

    18 meshes to the inch should be provided. Standard 18-meah wire screen

    with a wire diameter of 0.009 to 0.010 inch and meshes 0.0456 inch across,

    will exclude most of the insect pests. If copper screen is used, the frames

    should be painted with lead - base paint and fastened with nongalvanized nails.

    Electrolytic reactions between copper screen and zinc - base paint and galvan–

    ized nails will cause the screens to separate from the frame (9). Screen

    doors should open outwardly. All rents and tears in screens should be repaired promptly.

            The entrance to tents can be screened by the addition of a bobbinet

    curtain weighted with shot or of a solid bobbinet panel pierced by a cir–

    cular opening which can be closed with a drawstring. Further protection is

    afforded by the addition of a complete floor or of cloth extensions,

    approximately 12 inches wide, extending inwardly from each wall and anchored

    to the ground.

    007      |      Vol_IIB-0577                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Insect Pests

            If screens are not available or if the quarters are temporary,

    insecticides should be used. Application of five percent DDF in kerosene

    to walls and ceilings as a residual spray for mosquitoes and non - biting

    flies is highly effective. DDT in diesel oil may be used where staining

    is not objectionable. When applied at the dosage of one quart of five

    percent DDT to 250 square feet, the residue is usually effective for the

    entire insect season. Tents and sleeping bags can be similarly treated.

    Three quarts of a five percent solution will properly treat a 16 by 16

    pyramidal tent. In applying a residual coating of DDT, the spray should

    thoroughly wet the surfaces but should not run off.

            Cylindrical sprayers (3-gallon capacity) equipped with fan nozzles

    are excellent for this purpose. Continuous pressure hand-sprayers (2-quart

    capacity) are second choice. Nozzles giving a coarse, wet spray are

    preferred. While spraying they should be held about a foot from the surface

    being sprayed. Air pressure should not exceed 40 pounds per square inch.

    Finely atomized sprays, such as those produced by aerosol dispensers

    ( a A erosol "bomb s ") and paint sprayers, are not suitable for this type of

    application but are recommended for the application of space sprays to

    kill insects while flying.

    008      |      Vol_IIB-0578                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Insect Pests

            The five percent solution of DDT used for residual spraying is pre–

    pared by adding ten pounds of DDT to each 25 gallons of kerosene. A

    general utility spray to be sprayed directly in the air or on the insects

    contains one percent DDT and 2.5 percent thiocyanate insecticide or 0.1

    percent pyrethrin e s in refined kerosene. Whenever those materials are used

    in enclosed spaces all flames should be extinguished and the quarters aired

    before fires are lighted.

            The ancient practice of burning pyrethrum or jimson weed will suffice

    if sprays are not available. As a last resort, smudges will repel insects

    but are usually irritating to the men as well. Built in a pail or pot, a

    bucket smudge is very useful since it can be moved if the wind shifts or

    can be taken inside quarters until the insect pests are driven out. Two

    inches of sand or soil should be placed in the bottom of the bucket before

    the fire is started. The smudge is completed by adding green vegetation,

    damp leaf mold, or rotten wood to a burning fire.

            Area Insect Control . Control of arctic and subarctic insect pests

    within a defined area has become feasible by the development in recent years

    of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and of new methods of dispersal.

    The methods and equipment necessary to achieve a reduction in the insect

    population are constantly being improved (10). Because of the difficulties

    involved in surface transportation, serial spraying appears to be most

    suitable, provided adequate landing strips for the planes are not too distant.

    A wide variety of aircraft and of spray equipment have been tried in experi–

    mental work (2), with the larger planes favored because of their greater

    load capacity.

    009      |      Vol_IIB-0579                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Insect Pests

            Control measures are based upon a knowledge of the biology of the

    pests. At present this basic information is incomplete for the arctic

    pests, and control measures are necessarily subject to improvement. Some

    experimental work in the Arctic and Subarctic, together with data on

    similar pests in other parts of the world form the basis for tentative


            Mosquitoes (Family Culicidse) . Over most of the land areas of the

    Arctic, mosquitoes are the most important problem. On the tundra all the

    known species of mosquitoes appear to belong to a single genus ( Aedes ),

    but in the forested areas several genera ( Aedes, Culex, Anopheles , and

    Culiseta ) comprise the mosquito fauna.

            Mosquitoes of the tundra have but a single generation annually and

    overwinter in the egg stage. Eggs are deposited in the summer in muck or

    on water. The following spring they hatch as soon as the water around them

    thaws. In northern Alaska, it has been observed that larvae are absent in

    large bodies of water which are subjected to continuous wind and wave action,

    and in the smaller pockets of water between hummocks which are slow to

    thaw (3). Since these types of water represent a large percentage of the

    total water surface, mosquito breeding is not ubiquitous, as formerly

    believed. The immature aquatic stages are completed in approximately 30 days,

    after which adult mosquitoes emerge. Consequently for a period of about one

    month after the thaw the tundra is free of mosquitoes. Emergence of all

    mosquitoes is completed within a period of two weeks, after which time no

    aquatic forms can be found.

    010      |      Vol_IIB-0580                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Insect Pests

            Wind velocity and temperature noticeably influence the activity of

    flying mosquitoes. They are most troublesome on clear, warm days when the

    wind velocity is less than five miles per hour, but they disappear when

    velocities exceed ten miles per hour and when the temperature is less than

    45 ° F. or greater than 80 ° F.

            The source of blood meals for the myriads of mosquitoes on the tundra

    has not been determined. If such meals are necessary to produce eggs, there

    is an abundant supply of birds and mammals to provide them.

            Mosquitoes of the subarctic regions are usually either arctic species

    or temperate species which have adapted themselves to a slightly different

    environment. As in the temperate zone, a wide variety of breeding sites are

    used, varying with the species. Some, such as Culiseta , Anopheles , and Culex ,

    apparently overwinter in sheltered places as adults. Consequently, they

    appear soon after the spring thaw and the biting season lasts from thaw until

    the first freeze. Eggs are laid early in the season and the larval and pupal

    stages are passed in a month or less. The resulting adjults overwinter again.

    The Aedes overwinter as larvae and follow the same life history as the arctic


    011      |      Vol_IIB-0581                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Insect Pests

            Mosquito Control . Until recently, mos q uito control in the arctic and

    subarctic regions was considered impossible, and the permanent measures,

    such as draining, filling, and flushing , are still impracticable. However,

    progress has been made in the development of temporary control measures.

    The most promising approach appears to be the prehatching application of

    DDT in the winter or early spring to the ice and snow covering mosquito

    covering mosquito breeding places. Highly effective control of mosquito

    breeding has been obtained with as little as 0.1 pound of DDT per acre

    applied in emulation and in water-dispersible forms and with 0.25 pound

    of DDT per acre applied in oil solution (7). In view of the difficulty

    attending ground movement after the spring thaw, this procedure appears

    more likely to achieve complete control than treat e ments made after larval

    development has begun. Aerial spraying is preferred, however, especially

    where large areas are involved.

            Larviciding, after the thaw, not only is more difficult to conduct

    but requires a heavier dosage of DDT. When applied from the ground, 0.2

    pound of DDT per acre, either as emulsion or fuel oil solution, gives

    complete kill of larvae in most areas, but 0.4 pound per acre is required

    when mosquito breeding occurs in the moss-heath associations of the tundra

    (10). Aerial spraying requires a minimum concentration of 0.5 pound of DDT

    per acre. Pure diesel oil, often used as a larvicide in the tropics, is

    not effective in the Arctic because the low temperature of the water

    prevents proper spreading of the oil film (3).

    012      |      Vol_IIB-0582                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Insect Pests

            In the arctic tundra regions, where all mosquitoes seem to have but

    a single brood annually, the prehatching larvicide should suffice, if a

    large enough area is treated. The extent of this area has not been

    determined, for the flight ranges of the mosquitoes are unknown. However,

    the available evidence indicates that the area will be in terms of square

    miles rather than acres. In the subarctic regions, secondary sprayings

    must be made to destroy the larvae of mosquitoes which overwintered as


            Sprays of DDT dispersed from planes will markedly reduce the adult

    mosquito population if the area sprayed is sufficiently large. Five percent

    solution of DDT in fuel oil applied aerially in a dosage of 0.2 pound of

    DDT per acre over a 2.5 square mile area has yielded a 75-80 percent

    reduction in the mosquito density for five days (3). After this interval,

    mosquitoes migrate into the treated area from outside. If the area is less

    than one square mile, the effects of spraying are lost in 24 hours.

            Black Flies (Family Simuliidae) . ("buffalo gnats", "humpbacks",

    "white-s i o x"). Various species of Simulium , Eusimulium , and Prosimulium

    commonly known as black flies occur in enormous swarms, causing great

    annoyance. While usually found near running water, these insects may be

    numerous a mile or two away, presumably in search of food. They are more

    serious as pests in the forested areas than on the open tundra. The females

    of many species are vicious biters during daylight or bright moonlight hours.

    While some species prefer to attack eyes, ears, and nostrils, most will bite

    any exposed skin surfaces. The bite is painlessly inflicted, but soon the

    site becomes painful and swollen, and itching sores may develop and persist

    for several days.

    013      |      Vol_IIB-0583                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Insect Pests

            Immature forms of black flies develop in running water. Some species

    prefer swift, cold streams, while others select more slowly - moving water.

    Eggs (usually about 400 per female) which are deposited in masses on aquatic

    plants, logs, and water-splashed rocks, hatch after an incubation period

    which varies from four to thirty days, depending on the temperature and

    activity of the water. The newly - hatched larvae then attach themselves

    by means of silken threads to submerged rocks and logs where they undergo

    both larval and pupal development.

            Some species have two or three overlapping generations annually,

    emerging from early spring until late fall, while others have but a single

    generation which emerges about a month after spring thaw. Adult flies

    persist in annoying numbers until frost (6). From the available information,

    black flies appear to overwinter in the egg and larval stages of development.

    014      |      Vol_IIB-0584                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Insect Pests

            Black Fly Control . Area spraying either from the ground or from the

    air to kill adult black flies has not proved very satisfactory, but destruc–

    tion of the aquatic larval forms is effective. Where only one breed of

    black flies emerges annually, a single treatment of the streams should

    markedly reduce the pest problem. More frequent treatments (probably

    monthly) are necessary when two or more generations emerge in a season.

    When black flies are the only important post, control work can be limited

    to the treatment of streams with insecticides. A five percent solution of

    DDT in kerosene or fuel oil applied to streams in concentrations of one part

    per million for 15 minutes has been effective against black fly larvae in

    Alaskan streams (1). The dosage must be very carefully controlled in waters

    where game fish are important, for ten parts per million of DDT will also

    kill fish (5). When area spraying is employed and DDT is applied at a rate

    of 0.5 pound per acre, sufficient insecticide will be deposited in black fly

    streams to kill larvae and keep the streams free of black flies for the

    season. Although not yet commercially available in large quantities, TDE

    (trichloro-diphonyl-ethane) has proved to be more toxic to the larvae and

    less toxic to fish than DDT (4).

    015      |      Vol_IIB-0585                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Insect Posts

            Biting m M idges (Family Heleidae) . ("punkies", "no-see-ums") . The blood-

    sucking species of Culicoides are the smallest of the biting flies. Although

    their distribution is usually limited to a two-mile range from breeding sites,

    within those areas they constitute a serious pest problem. The biology of

    arctic and subarctic Culicoides has not been studied in detail and very little

    is known of their taxonomy, distribution , or habits. In North America,

    Culicoides obsoletus, C. yukonensis , and C. tristriatulus are abundant and

    are serious pests (8). The former two species select inland fresh water

    marshes while the latter prefers salt marshes and tidal flats of the coastal

    areas. Eggs are laid and larvae develop in moist decaying humu e s . Th ye ey

    probably overwinter in immature stages of development (eggs or larvae), since

    the adults do not appear immediately after the thaw.

            As with the other biting flies, only the females of Culicoides are

    pests. When the air is calm, they will bite any part of the body to which

    they gain access; in a light breeze they collect on the legs, and in a

    strong breeze they are absent. Maximum activity of biting midges is between

    6 P.M. and 1 A.M. and seems to be correlated with reduced air movement, tem–

    perature, and light intensity, and increased relative humidity (8).

    016      |      Vol_IIB-0586                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Insect Pests

            Control of Midges. Culicoides can be controlled by serial spraying

    p o f DDT in fuel oil at the rate of 0.5 pound DDT per acres over a square

    mile area. Experimental spraying in New Hampshire against C. obsoletus

    has resulted in a 99.2 percent reduction in biting midges in 12 hours and

    an appreciable reduction in the population for 1.5 months (4). Spraying

    from the ground has not proved as successful, primarily because of trans–

    portation problems over difficult terrain. Appreciable reduction in the

    numbers of biting midges were observed for 24-hour periods after spraying

    in Alaska, but infiltration of insects from inaccessible areas was rapid.

            Horse F f lies and Deer Flies (Family Tabanidae) ("bulldogs ", ," "moose -

    flies ", ," "gadflies"). The small deer flies of the genus Chrysops and the

    massive horse flies of the genus Tabanus are very numerous over most of

    the arctic region, but they are not serious human posts. In certain

    subarctic areas, however, they do cause considerable annoyance and pain.

    Female flies silently inflict a painful bite and the large puncture may

    bleed for some time after the fly has completed its blood meal.

            Larval life of these flies is passed in the water or in wet soil.

    Eggs are glued in masses, usually in a single layer by species of Chrysops

    and in several layers by those of Tabanus , to rocks or vegetation over–

    hanging water. The egg stage is short, usually less than two weeks. Upon

    hatching, the larvae drop into the water or on the moist ground. Larvae

    are usually predaceous and require at least one and more probably two years

    to complete development. Nature L l arvae migrate to drier soil where they

    pupate, and after a week or two the adult fly emerges.

    017      |      Vol_IIB-0587                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Insect Pests

            Control of Horse F f lies and Deer Flies . No successful methods of

    controlling this group of flies has been developed. Drainage of swamps

    has proved valuable in reducing the numbers of Tabanidae in subarctic

    regions, and oiling of water surfaces, especially with kerosene, also

    has shown some promise.

            Snipe Flies (Family Rhagionidae ). Snipe flies are not commonly

    known because of their limited distribution. Aggressive, they inflict

    bites silently and suddenly on exposed parts of the body. Nothing is

    known of the breeding habits or life history of these pests, except that

    their predaceous larvae breed in mo i st soil. Consequently, until more

    biological data is available, control measures cannot be defined.

            Blue - bottle Flies (Family Calliphoridae) and Flesh Flies (Family

    Sarcophagidae). The large metallic blue - bottle flies and the equally

    distinctive flesh flies with gray and black "checker-board" appearance

    are considered together because of their breeding habits. Adults of both

    groups feed on filth and their larvae (maggots) develop in carrion and

    animal excrement. In the Arctic, overwintering apparently occurs in either

    the egg or early larval stages of development. Adults appear four to six

    weeks after the thaw. They tend to swarm near the breeding place e s until

    new sources of food are located. These flies can travel several miles

    from their breeding place in search of food. In subarctic areas these

    and several other forms of blow - flies and flesh flies with similar habits

    are abundant.

    018      |      Vol_IIB-0588                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Inspect Pests

            Control of Filth Flies . Prevention of fly breeding is the simples t

    and most effective manner of controlling fifth flies. Sanitary disposal

    of garbage and human ex c reta is not always possible in the Arctic. Mere

    removal of these waste s from the camp area is not sufficient, and burial

    of the materials is impractical. If camp is located near swiftly running

    water, they may be emptied there and quickly washed away. When store s d

    during the winter months, they should be dumped as soon as the thaw permits.

    If such disposal is impractical, sanitary wastes should be removed from the

    camp area and sprayed heavily with a five percent solution of DDT in kerosene

    or fuel oil. Drums used to transport garbage and excrement must be cleaned

    by washing or by burning them out at least at monthly intervals. Privies,

    particularly attractive to flies, should be treated with a residual spray–

    ing of a five percent solution of DDT in kerosene. One treatment will

    suffice for the entire season. The practice of urinating or defecating

    in the snow near quarters during the winter may be convenient, but it will

    attract swarms of flies in the spring.

            Foods, especially moats, should be stored in screened, fly - proof

    containers to prevent contamination by the flies.


    Leo A. Jachowski, Jr.

    019      |      Vol_IIB-0589                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Jachowski: Arctic Insect Pests


    1. Gjullin, C.M., Cope, O.B., Quisenberry, B.F., and DuChan l o is, F.R. "The

    effect of some insecticides on black fly larvae in Alaskan streams,"

    J.Econ.Ent . (In press)

    2. Husman, C.N., Longcoy, O.M., and Hensley, H.S. Equipment for the Dispersal

    of Insecticides by Means of Aircraft
    . National Research Council,

    Insect Control Committee. Report no. 151, Dec. 6, 1945.

    3. Jachowski, Jr., L.W., and Schultz, C. "Notes on the biology and control of

    mosquitoes of at Umiat, Alaska," Mosquito News . (In press)

    4. Kindler, J.B., and Regan, F.R. Black Fly Studies in New Hampshire during

    . Wash., D.C., 1948. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Interim Report

    no.0-134, May 3, 1948.

    5. Prevost, G. "DDT-effects on fish and control of black fly population,"

    Quebec. Fish and Game Department. Report for Year Ending March 31,

    , pt.5(c), pp.77-86.

    6. Twinn, C.R. "The black flies of eastern Canada (Simulidae, Diptera),"

    Canad.J.Res . D, vol.14, pp.97-150, 1936.

    7. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Joint United States-Canadian Biting Fly Survey

    and Experimental Control at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, 1947

    Wash.,D.C., 1947. Its Interim Report no.0-129, Dec. 24, 1947.

    8. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Progress Report of the Alaska Insect Control

    Project for 1947
    . Wash., D.C., 1947. Its Interim Report no. 0-128,

    Nov. 19, 1947.

    9. U.S. Dept. of the Army. Insect and Rodent Control, Repairs and Utility .

    Wash.,D.C., June, 1940. Its Technical Manual TM 5-632.

    10. U.S. Entomology and Plant Quarantine Bureau. DDT and other Insecticides

    and Repellents Developed for the Armed Forces
    . Wash.,D.C., August,

    1946. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Miscellaneous Publication


    11. Yeager, J.F., and Wilson, C.S. "Circa 42, a new itch remedy," J.Lab.Clin.Med .

    vol.29, pt.2, pp.177-78, 1944.


    L. A. Jachowski

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