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    Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects

    Former Glaciation of the Arctic Region

    Unpaginated      |      Vol_I-0616                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. (Richard Foster Flint)




    Introduction: Existing Glaciation 1
    Former Glaciation: Historical Resume 3
    Erosional Effects of Glaciers 5
    Glacial Deposits 10
    Repeated Glaciation 13
    Extent and Thickness of Former Glaciers in North America 14
    Extent, Thickness, and History of Former Glaciers in

    Northern Eurasia
    Sea Ice During the Glacial Ages 21
    Glacial Lakes 22
    Perennially Frozen Ground 23
    Crustal Warping 26
    Fluctuation of Sea Level 28
    Chronology 29
    Effects of Glaciation on Life 30
    Causes of the Climatic Fluctuations 33
    Conclusion 34
    Bibliography 35

    Unpaginated      |      Vol_I-0617                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. (Richard Foster Flint)

    Former Glaciation of the Arctic Region

            This manuscript was accompanied by one Northern Hemisphere map

    (2 colors). Because of the high price of reproducing such maps, only

    a few submitted will be used in Volume I. The selection of the number

    of these maps will be determined by the publisher, and the choice of

    those used should be made in conjunction with a representative of the

    publisher. All maps are, therefore, being held at the Stefansson Library

    until a selection can be made.

    001      |      Vol_I-0618                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. (Richard Foster Flint)





            During the last million years or more — the time embrace s d by what

    geologists call the Pleistocene epoch — the earth has been affected by

    repeated fluctuations of climate. These fluctuations have left a strong

    impress on the terrain, the soil, the level of the sea, and the character

    and distribution of plants and animals, including man. Over large areas

    of the temperate regions, the most conspicuous result of the climatic changes

    was the growth and spread of glaciers both large and small. Glacier growth

    took place during several glacial ages; during intervening interglacial

    ages the ice melted and perhaps largely disappeared. Altogether, at one

    time or another, more than 30 per cent of the earth’s land area was covered

    with glacier ice.

            In the warmer climates of the present time, glaciers are so reduced in

    area that they cover little more than 10 per cent of the lands. They have

    melted away from the temperate regions except on mountains high enough to

    reach above the existing regional snow line. In high latitudes, also, the

    glaciers have abandoned most lowland areas, but they persist on many mountains

    and plateaus. In regions having moist maritime climate, some of the glaciers

    exist at comparatively low altitudes because in both the north and south polar

    002      |      Vol_I-0619                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    regions the regional snow line descends markedly toward sea level. The

    persistence of glaciers in the arctic region is largely the result of

    relatively low mean temperatures coupled with the abundant snowfall assoc–

    ciated with maritime climates. The low temperatures may be, at least in

    part, the result of the presence of the ice itself. It has been suggested

    that, if the existing glaciers in the arctic region could be done away with,

    many of them would not be reconstituted under existing climatic conditions (2) .

            The present-day glaciers of the Arctic are described in a separate

    article (see “Glaciers in the Arctic”). However, a general statement about

    them is necessary here as a basis for understanding the glaciers that formerly

    covered much of the arctic region. The glaciers of today fall into three

    general classes: valley glaciers, piedmont glaciers, and ice sheets. The

    last mentioned are broad blanket-like glaciers through which little or none

    of the underlying rocky surface projects. The Greenland Ice Sheet, 637,000

    square miles in area, is by far the largest in the Northern Hemisphere. Much

    smaller ice sheets exist on Ellesmere, Devon, Bylot, and Baffin Islands, as

    well as in Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zeml y a, and Severnaya Zemlya.

    Valley glaciers are generally much smaller than ice sheets. They are tongue–

    like in shape because they conform to the valleys they occupy. Piedmont

    glaciers are the bulblike, expanded terminal parts of valley glaciers that

    spread out on relatively flat surfaces at the bases of highlands. They are

    less common than valley glaciers because the topographic conditions that

    control them are somewhat specialized.

            It is noteworthy that the glaciers now existing in the arctic region

    lie on relatively high land and in regions of maritime or submaritime climate.

    This is true, for example, of the glaciers on the Eurasian Islands in the

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    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    Arctic Sea. But the same relationship is more strikingly illustrated by

    the glaciers of the arctic North America. (6, p.58B). These glaciers are

    concentrated in the northeastern arctic islands and in the cordilleran

    region, and are absent from the intervening central region. The north–

    eastern and western regions, where the glaciers are concentrated, are high

    and relatively maritime. The intervening, glacier-free region is low and

    continental. These facts are important to an understanding of the former

    glaciers, the distribution of which was strikingly analogous to the present

    distribution of land ice.



            Although much of the glacier ice that formerly overspread the lands

    originated in the arctic region, it spread extensively into lower latitudes.

    Therefore, it is not possible to describe the former glaciations of the Arctic

    independently of that of other parts of the Northern Hemisphere. Hence this

    discussion treats the glaciations as a whole, but emphasizes the glacial

    features of the arctic region.

            The fact of extensive former glaciations was recognized before the middle

    of the nineteenth century, first in Europe and later in North America, on a

    basis of evidence in middle latitudes. Scratches on exposed surfaces of

    bedrock and transported boulders of northern origin soon made it clear that

    the glacial invasions had come from the north. At first the ice was ascribed

    to a vaguely polar origin; not until geologists had begun to explor e far northern

    regions did it gradually become clear that the glaciers had not originated at

    or near the Pole, which, indeed, lies near the center of an extensive sea and

    is hardly a likely source of land ice. Instead, it was perceived that the

    004      |      Vol_I-0621                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    largest glaciers had spread outward from lands that fringed the Arctic Sea

    and the waters of the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans. This meant

    that the northern parts of the spreading ice had flowed toward the Pole

    while the southern parts were flowing away from the Pole. Although this

    realization was surprising to many at the time, modern meteorologic studies

    have made it abundantly clear why the glaciers originated where they did.

    For relatively high lands and a source of moisture are now understood to be

    essential to the creation of large glaciers. It was precisely in those

    highlands which were in a position to receive snowfall, that the former

    glaciers formed and grew.

            For many years Dawson (7) , a vigorous student of the glaciations of

    Canada, held the view that, whereas eastern and central Canada had been

    covered by an ice sheet, the Canadian Great Plains at the same time had

    been the site of a vast sea dotted with floating icebergs. He had observed

    that boulders, originating in the bedrocks immediately west of Hudson Bay

    at altitudes of less than 1,000 feet, now occur abundantly on the Great Plains

    at various altitudes up to more than 5,000 feet. With the rudimentary under–

    standing of the mechanics of flow of an ice sheet that existed then, we need

    not wonder that Dawson failed to see how a glacier could transport a boulder

    4,000 feet uphill, nor that he fell back, in consequence, on the concept of

    floating ice that had been popular in Europe before the importance of glaciers

    had become evident.

            Since 1890, knowledge of the glaciation of the arctic region has grown

    through the researches of many geologists in several countries. The region

    is so vast that, although mu st ch has been accomplished, hardly more than a

    beginning has been made at a detailed understanding of the complex relations

    that actually exist. A part of the concept of arctic glaciations now held by

    005      |      Vol_I-0622                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    geologists is necessarily based, not on the scanty evidence from the arctic

    region itself, but on analogy with the conditions inferred from evidence

    in temperate latitudes, where many more fa z c ts are available.



            The effects of glacial erosion vary from one district to another. The

    variation depends primarily on three factors. The r s e are ( 1 ) topography,

    ( 2 ) character of the rock material present, and ( 3 ) the form and rate of flow

    of the glaciers.

            Of these three factors, topography is probably the most important. Pro–

    found erosional effects of former glaciers is are evident only in Mmountains and plateaus ✓ ✓

    that had already been deeply trenched by pre-existing stream valleys before the

    advent of glaciers. Such valleys, especially those with steep gradients,

    afforded channels for the rapid discharge of ice from its highland sources.

    Valley glaciers flowed swiftly down these valleys, deepened and widened them,

    and converted them into ample troughs, some of which are now partly submerged

    beneath the sea to form fjords. Spectacular glaciated valleys of this kind

    are common in the majority of the arctic highlands. Conspicuous among them

    are the mountains of Alaska, the islands of the eastern Canadian Arctic and

    Greenland, the mountains of northern Scandinavia, and the highlands of Svalbard

    and Novaya Zemlya. In these highlands, valley glaciers deepened the pre-existing

    valleys by amounts varying up to more than 2,000 feet.

            In contra x s t, the lower lands with slight relief offered no such well-

    defined channels with steep gradients. In consequence, probably the glacier

    ice flowed less rapidly, and certainly its flow was less concentrated, than in

    the highlands. Erosion was far less effective, for it is measurable in tens

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    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    of feet rather than in hundreds or in thousands. The slight depth of erosion

    is recorded both by the preservation of preglacial topographic features and

    by the preservation of atmospherically decomposed parts of the bedrock —

    essentially subsoil — that are believed to have been very close to the

    surface before glaciations.

            The character of the bedrock also plays a significant part in glacial

    erosion, influencing both the volume of the material eroded, and the sizes

    of the individual pieces.

            The bedrocks exposed in the arctic region include three principal areas

    of very old (pre-Cambrian) igneous and metamorphic rocks that are generally

    harder and more resistant to the processes of erosion than are the larger

    areas of younger, mostly sedimentary rocks that surround them. In regions

    that have not be d e n glaciated these hard, resistant rocks are generally covered

    with a mantle of soil and other loose material derived from long-continued

    superficial weathering of these rocks themselves. In the glaciated regions,

    on the other hand, the areas of pre-Cambrian rocks stand out distinctly

    because the action of the glaciers has removed their soil cover and has cut

    into the fresh bedrock beneath it. The hard rock, laid widely bare by glacial

    erosion, contrasts strongly with the surrounding weaker rocks, some areas of

    which have acquired a thin covering or loose mantle through weathering since

    the disappearance of the glaciers. The three principal areas of bar hard

    rocks are the Hudson Bay region, the Finland Gulf of Bothnia region, and

    the region of extreme northwestern Siberia. Most of the remaining arctic

    land areas are underlai d n by weaker rocks.

            As explained in a later section, the action of moving glacier ice upon

    weak rocks is chiefly to break off pieces and grind them up into a mass of

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    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    fine particles, which is then spread over the ground. In contrast, ice

    moving over resistant rock such as granite breaks out large pieces, whose

    diameters are controlled by the widely spaced joints and fissures in the

    bedrock. These strong boulders resist grinding up in the glacial mill, and,

    although many are deposited locally, others are carried long distances — up

    to many hundreds of miles — before they are laid down. Hence, strong-rock

    areas are likely to have a thin, patchy cover of relatively coarse glacial

    deposits, whereas weak-rock areas are more likely to have thicker and more

    continuous covers of finer-grained deposits. This contrast is exemplified

    by the difference between the regions respectively east and west of Great

    Bear and Great Slave lakes in northwestern Canada.

            The form and rate of flow of the former glaciers also played a part in

    the erosion they performed. Glaciers whose thickness was measured in thousands

    of feet, and which occupied areas of abundant snowfall, flowed more swiftly

    and eroded the ground more effectively than did glaciers in dry, cold area s .

    These differences are evident in temperate latitudes and doubtless existed

    also in the Arctic.

            In the highlands as well as on the lower lands the chief process of

    glacial erosion was a quarrying or plucking action that lifted out blocks

    of the bedrock along joints, fractures, and stratification planes. A

    secondary process was a grinding or abrasive action that scratched, grooved,

    smoothed, or polished the subglacial surface.

            The development of scratches and small grooves (striations) on strong,

    hard rocks such as granite is much more clearly evident than on soft, weak

    rocks such as shale. Accordingly, the distribution of such features is not

    a true indication of the distribution or intensity of former glaciations.

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    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    Thus, striations, which are abundant in the hard rocks east of Great Slave

    and Great Bear lakes, are rare in the weak-rock country west and w s outh of

    them, although there is abundant evidence of other kinds that the latter

    territory, as well as the former, was glaciated.

            It is well understood that most of the striations now visible were

    made underneath the outer margins of the glaciers during their shrinkage,

    that, followed concentrically, they represent successively later events,

    and that earlier-made striations were erased by movements that made the later

    markings. Hence the striations in any district are an indication, not of the

    direction of flow of a glacier while it spread over the district, but of the

    flow at its margin while it was shrinking away. The earlier, spreading phase

    is more reliably recorded by the giant grooves described hereafter.

            In territory, such as much of northern Canada, that has been temporarily

    submerged beneath the sea or beneath large lakes since the time of glaciations,

    exposed rock surfaces were scratched by stones carried on the undersides of

    masses of floating ice. These scratches are likely to be less continuous

    and less nearly parallel with each other than are striations of true glacial

    origin, and on this basis are distinguished from them.

            In general, smoothing and grooving affected flat surfaces and inclined

    surfaces opposed to the direction of flow of the glacier ice. Quarrying, on

    the other hand, was more likely to take place on steep slopes facing the

    direction toward which the ice was flowing. As a result of this difference,

    the glacier ice produced, in some districts, a strong accentuation of asymmetric

    features of the landscape, so that minor hills and protuberances of bedrock

    are gently sloping and smooth in one direction, while exhibiting roughness

    and even cliffs in the opposite direction.

    009      |      Vol_I-0626                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

            Although bedrock surfaces smoothed and polished by glacier ice are common

    in many regions, they have been widely destroyed in some areas through the

    wedging and splitting effect of moisture freezing just below the surface of

    the rock. Hence, the fact that such features are not observed in some dis–

    tricts does not prove that that district has not been glaciated.

            In some regions grooves cut or molded by the glaciers on the floors

    over which they flowed are of giant size. Successions of straight, parallel

    grooves as much as 100 feet deep, 300 feet wide, and one to several miles

    long, in weak bedrock, occur in the Mackenzie River basin west of Great

    Bear Lake in northwestern Canada (23) , and in the Petsamo district in Finnish

    Lapland (26, p.453). Somewhat similar grooves, many of them even larger,

    occur in masses of clayey material deposited by the glaciers themselves in

    northern British Columbia (1) .

            One of the striking effects of glacial erosion along sea coasts is the

    presence of fjords. These are stream valleys that were converted by glaciers

    into deep, steep-sided troughs and were later partly submerged beneath sea

    water. They characterize most of the high mountainous and plateau-like

    coasts that fringe the northern seas. Thus fjords are common in Labrador,

    Greenland, the islands of the eastern Canadian archipelago, Pacific Alaska,

    Norway, the Eurasian arctic islands, and parts of eastern Siberia. Their

    great depths, reaching as much as 4,000 feet from rim to submerged floor,

    reflect the rapid erosion by the valley glaciers that occupied them, made

    possible by steep gradients and confining valley walls that prevented the

    ice from spreading laterally.

    010      |      Vol_I-0627                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation



            The glaciers left, in the districts they covered, deposits of distinctive

    character and with a wide variety of surface form. A common type of deposit

    is till — nonstratified mixture of rock fragments of all sizes, ranging

    from clay particles up to large boulders. Many of the larger fragments

    exhibit flat faces with scratches upon them, which were made by abrasion

    against the ground while the fragments were in transport, frozen into the

    base of the glacier ice. The till ranges from a few inches up to 100, and,

    rarely, even 500 feet in thickness, which is greatest in districts underlain

    by weak rocks that yield readily to glacial erosion. In such districts till

    is not only thick but continuous; whereas in hard-rock districts it is likely

    to be thin and patchy, with wide areas in which no till at all is visible.

    This close relation of till to bedrock is reflected also in the composition

    of the till, which approximates that of the bedrocks in the vicinity. From

    these facts it is inferred that the average distance of transport of rock

    fragments by glaciers is not great. The far-traveled erratic boulders and

    stones mentioned earlier, although conspicuous because foreign to the local–

    ities where they now lie, actually constitute a very small proportion of the

    rock matter transported by glaciers.

            In some places the till has been built up, at former positions of glacier

    margins, into elongated ridges that may reach many miles in length and 100 feet

    or more in height. Such ridges are known as end moraine d s ; they are useful

    records of positions held by glacier margins for periods of many years. Such

    features are widely known, and have been mapped in detail, in the southern

    sectors of the glaciated regions of both North America and Europe. However,

    little is known of their distribution in far northern North America, Europe,

    011      |      Vol_I-0628                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    and Siberia, partly because of lack of exploration and party because the

    dense subarctic forest makes identification and tracing very difficult.

    Isolated localities at which e b n d nirsubes moraines g h ave been reported are shown on

    the Glacial Map of North America (11) ; if complete information on the dis–

    tribution of these ridges in the North were available, a large amount of

    additional inference could be drawn concerning the later history of the

    glaciers in that region.

            Less widespread than the till, but yet conspicuous, is stratified

    drift. This consists of sediments, ranging from boulders down through

    cobbles, pebbles, sand, and silt to clay, that have been released from

    glacier ice by melting, carried by water, sorted and deposited in stratified

    beds. Stratified drift is subdivided into two principal types, according

    to the conditions of its deposition.

            The first of these types is ice-contact stratified drift, so called

    because it accumulates in actual contact with the melting ice. Laid down

    in flowing water or in temporarily ponded water, upon the ice, against an

    ice wall, or in an opening within the ice, such deposits are disturbed

    and deformed when the supporting ice walls or floors melt away. In con–

    sequence, their surface form is likely to exhibit knolls, hummocks, and

    closed depressions. These forms occur both isolated and in groups, and,

    although commonly only a few tens of feet in height, they stand, in

    exceptional instances, several hundred feet (29, p. 51-53) above their


            A group of forms built of ice-contact stratified drift, distinctive

    because of their great length, are the eskers. These are ridges, usually

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    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    narrow and commonly somewhat sinuous in ground-plan pattern, consisting

    of stream-deposited sand and gravel, most of which are believed to have

    accumulated in tunnels at the base of the glacier ice during its final

    melting away. The trends of the eskers when compared with the trends of

    grooves and other features made by the flowing ice show that these long

    ridges were built essentially along radii of the glaciers, or, in other

    words, about a s t right angles to the outer margins of the glacial masses.

    The heights of individual eskers range up to 200 feet, and the lengths of

    some of them exceed 100 miles. They occur in many parts of the arctic

    region, notably on the northern mainland of Canada both east and west of

    Hudson Bay, on Victoria Island, and in northern Fennoscandia. They are

    present also in northern British Columbia. Little information on eskers

    in Siberia is available, though it is probable that they are present in

    glaciated districts where the rocks are such as to yield debris of sand

    and pebble size. Eskers are not common in areas of shales and other rocks

    that break down into smaller-size fragments.

            The eskers in northern Canada tend to lie in at least two great radial

    groups, suggesting that during the late stages of melting, when the eskers

    were being built, one ice sheet centered in the Hudson Bay region and another,

    possible in part coalescent with it, covered the highlands of eastern Quebec

    and Labrador. In many parts of these regions, eskers constitute the most

    conspicuous feature of the landscape.

            The second type of stratified drift, termed outwash , is the result of

    deposition by meltwater streams flowing outward away from the margin of a

    glacier. Lacking the features described as peculiar to ice-contact strati–

    fied drift, outwash possesses the characters common to all deposits made by

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    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    streams fully loaded with gravel and sand. It is confined to valleys and

    broad plains, and is notable in quantity only in those districts which

    sloped outward, away from the ice, during the melting of the glaciers.

    Thus outwash is not generally abundant along valleys in the country between

    Hudson Bay and the Rocky Mountains, because much of that country sloped

    toward the ice rather than away from it. The close relation of outwash to

    valleys is clearly shown in a glacial map of Lapland, embracing parts of

    northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia, by Tanner . (28, pl. 1).



            In various parts of the glaciated regions, particularly the southern

    sectors, where study has been intensive, there is abundant evidence that

    the glaciers formed and reached a wide extent during at least four episodes,

    each of the order of 100,000 years in length. The evidence indicates

    further that during the intervening times, each of the order of 200,000 to

    300,000 years in length, glaciers were no more extensive than they are now,

    and the climate was no cooler than it is at present. Thus far, evidence of

    this kind within the arctic and subarctic regions is poor and scanty. The

    nature of the evidence is indicated in the occurrences mentioned below.

            In North America, for example, at many localities in the region south

    and west of James Bay, peat containing a coniferous-forest flora lies between

    thick layers of glacial deposits . (17, p. 131). At two localities within the

    same region fossil-bearing marine clay is overlai d n by glacial deposits. In

    the Carmacks district, Yukon Territory , (3, p. 47) , and in central Alaska ,

    (5, p. 8), two sheets of glacial deposits are present, the older deposit

    decomposed and the younger one fresh. Analogous relations occur in the South

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    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    Nahanni River region . (21, p. 27-28). In the Y i u kon Basin, in central Alaska,

    interval of thaw intervening between two periods when the ground was frozen .

    (25). Father east, in East Greenland, several lines of evidence suggest

    that glaciations has occurred repeatedly . (8, p. 153-56). The scanty evidence

    from the vast arctic region is the result, in considerable measure, of lack

    of study and even of exploration. Future research will undoubtedly add much

    to the few bits of information that constitute our present knowledge.

            In Eurasia information is even more scanty. On the Bothnian coast of

    Sweden, near latitude 65°30′ N., are lake sediments containing plants and

    insects that record a nonglacial climate, overlain by glacial deposits. On

    the Kola Peninsula and also near the mouth of the Pechora River are fossil–

    bearing marine deposits overlain by sediments of glacial origin. In western

    Siberia, sediments containing a fossil flora and fauna indicative of a mild

    climate are said to occur between sediments of glacial origin. In several

    localities in arctic Siberia, evidence of two glaciations has been reported,

    and in the Verkhoiansk Mountains three glaciations are said to have been




            The extent of former glaciations in northern North America, according to

    data available up to 1943, is shown in greater detail on the Glacial Map of

    North America (11) to which the reader is referred. Glaciers covered nearly

    all of this vast region, to an extent of approximately 7 million square miles .

    (9, p. 434). The principal land areas not glaciated are in central and

    western Alaska and the extreme northern part of Greenland. Failure of glacier

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    ice to cover these areas is attributed to deficient precipitation, which

    failed to balance the loss of glacier ice by evaporation. It is possible

    also that areas in the northernmost Canadian Arctic Islands were not glaciated

    for a similar reason. The region is little known and the exact limit of glacia–

    tion there has not yet been fixed . (29, p. 57-59).

            As already stated, North America was glaciated more than once. But,

    although it is probable that the earlier glaciers had much the same distri–

    bution as the later ones, the description that follows is based on the latest

    glaciations, to which nearly all the evidence in the arctic region pertains.

            Comparison of rock types in the glacial deposits with the bedrock areas

    from which they apparently came, coupled with other evidence, indicates that

    the glaciers had two principal sources: the highlands of the eastern arctic

    region (including Greenland) and the cordilleran mountains of western North

    America. Glaciers from these two sources met and coalesced not far east of

    the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains.

            The cordilleran ice formed from a snowfall precipitated on the high

    Coast Ranges, from the Aleutians southward through Alaska and British Columbia

    into the United States, and derived from warm, moist maritime air masses from

    off the Pacific. To a much smaller extent, glaciers accumulated from the

    same source in the Rocky Mountains farther east and north. Valley glaciers,

    n h igh in the mountains, formed first. By downward and outward flow, and by

    coalescence at the bases of the mountains, these combined into piedmont

    glaciers. With continued snowfall the latter thickened and spread until they

    submerged the vast territory between the Coast Ranges and the Rockies and

    buried many of the mountain tops themselves, forming an ice sheet. In this

    coalescence the Coast Range ice played the major role, the Rocky Mountains

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    glaciers contributing lesser amounts of ice to the ice sheet. From this

    great confluent reservoir, 1,800 miles long d a nd in places 6,000 feet or

    more in thickness, outlet glaciers flowed westward through major valleys

    transecting the Coast Ranges, into the Pacific. There they may have

    coalesced into a floating shelf similar to the Ross Shelf Ice off the Ross

    Sea sector of the Antarctic Continent, and certainly discharged icebergs

    into deep water. The maximum area of this cordilleran ice is believed to

    have approached one million square miles.

            The Alaska Range, the Alaska Peninsula, and the higher parts of the

    Aleutian chain supported glaciers that were virtually continuous with the

    cordilleran ice just described. The glaciers were large and thick, for

    they lay on very high ground under a maritime climate. Farther north,

    however, because of the much drier continental climate, only the highest

    mountains bear the marks of glaciations, and their former glaciers appear

    to have been relatively thin. Among these separate glaciated areas were

    the Brooks Range, the Kuskokwim Mountains, and the higher mountain groups

    on the Seward Peninsula and in the Yukon Basin.

            Although several of the higher Aleutian islands are known to have been

    glaciated, the record of glaciations is somewhat obscured by recent volcanic -

    activity. Not only has volcanism probably covered some glaciated areas, but

    also some islands may have been too low to have formed glaciers even as

    recently as the latest glacial age, having reached their present altitudes

    since that time.

            The ice in eastern North America is believed to have formed in much the

    same manner as the cordilleran ice , (10), through snowfall precipitated upon

    the highlands of eastern Quebec and Labrador, Baffin, Ellesmere, Devon and

    017      |      Vol_I-0634                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    other islands, and Greenland. The sources of moisture are believed to have

    been relatively warm moist Gulf and Atlantic air masses. Valley glaciers

    in these highlands are thought to have coalesced into piedmont glaciers

    west of the belt of mountains. These, by inducing further precipitation of

    snowfall upon themselves, are believed to have thickened and spread, reaching

    the condition of a single coalescent ice sheet, and largely burying the

    mountains in which they originated. The Greenland Ice Sheet (with an area

    of 935,000 square miles when at its maximum) may have been confluent with

    the ice on the lands to the west, across Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. How–

    ever, the ice reaching the sea along the coasts of East Greenland, Labrador,

    Newfoundland, the Maritime Provinces of Canada, and New England probably

    formed a floating shelf or shelves, discharged icebergs, and was prevented

    by deep water from spreading farther eastward.

            The western side of the main ice sheet, however, was encouraged to spread

    westward by continued snowfall brought to it from the south and west. This

    was the chief glacier mass in North America, and, following Dawson (7, p. 162)

    is known as the Laurentide Ice Sheet. It became coalescent with the cor c d illeran

    ice along a 1,500-mile front, reached northward to the Arctic Sea, and southward

    nearly to the mouth of the Ohio River. Its total area was about five million

    square miles. The thickness of the Laurentide Ice Sheet is believed to have

    been 5,000 to 10,000 feet in its well-nourished southeastern part, 1,000 feet

    in its southwestern part, 1,500 feet in the northern Mackenzie Valley region,

    and perhaps 2,000 feet in its northern part, fronting the Arctic Sea.

            As long as the accumulating ice formed valley glaciers and piedmont glaciers,

    the mountain ranges and other chief highlands continued to be the centers from

    which the ice flowed outward. But when the ice-sheet phase was reached, the

    017a      |      Vol_I-0635                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    ice induced snowfall independently of mountain ranges. Thus in the cordilleran

    region, in British Columbia at least, the center of outflow shifted from the

    Coast Ranges eastward to the lower mountains farther inland, as the glacier

    ice in that region was built up to the level of the mountain tops. In the

    Laurentide Ice Sheet the orientation of striations and other indications

    suggest that radial outflow occurred from shifting centers situated well to

    the west of the east-coast mountains. During the waning of the ice sheet,

    a major center seems to have persisted in the Hudson Bay region, and striations

    suggest the persistence of other centers in the central part of the Ungava

    Peninsula, Labrador, Newfoundland, southern Baffin Island, northern Baffin

    Island, Melville Peninsula, Melville Island, and Victoria Island, as well as

    in several highland districts south of the St. Lawrence River. If independent

    glacial centers did exist in the more northerly situations enumerated, probably

    the y antedated by only a short time the dominance of the icecaps existing today

    on Baffin, Bylot, Devon, and Ellesmere Islands and Greenland, which can hardly

    be other than persistent, though reduced, centers of the same kind.

            The Laurenfide Ice Sheet reached its greatest westward extent near the

    eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, along a front extending from latitude 49°

    northward for more than 1,500 miles to the mouth of the Mackenzie River. This

    is recorded by the western limit, within the glacial deposits, of rock types

    derived from the Hudson Bay region. North of latitude 62° the glacier crossed

    the Mackenzie River and reached the Canyon Ranges and Mackenzie Mountains west

    of it. Although very little information is available, it is probable that the

    margin of the ice crossed the present shore line of the Arctic Sea a short

    distance west of the mouth of the Mackenzie.

    018      |      Vol_I-0636                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

            Throughout most or all of its vast western edge, the Laurentide Ice

    Sheet was confluent with cordilleran ice in the form either of outlet

    glaciers of the Cor c d illeran Ice Sheet or of ice flowing eastward from inde–

    pendent mountain centers. This coalescence is shown by interbedding of

    glacial deposits derived from the east and from the west, respectively, as

    well as by other features.



            The glaciers of northern Eurasia were counterparts, in many respects,

    of those in northern North America, and the glaciations of the two continents

    are believed to have been essentially contemporaneous. The principal ice

    bodies were the Scandinavian Ice Sheet and the Siberian Ice Sheet. These

    two large masses, when at their maxima, were confluent. On the mainland

    east and south of these major ice sheets were large groups of glaciers on

    the Central Siberian Plateau, the Altai Mountains, the Baikal highlands,

    and various high mountain masses in northeastern Sibeeria. In addition,

    separate icecaps or glacier systems existed on the British Isl ands es , the

    Faeroes, Iceland, Jan Mayen Island, Svalbard, Franz Jose ph f Land, the New

    Siberian Islands, and Wrangel Island.

            All these glaciers, like those in North America, either were situated

    on highlands or originated in mountains from which they later expanded by

    migration. The Scandinavian Ice Sheet had a maximum area of about 2,150,000

    square miles, while the area of the Siberian Ice Sheet was about 1,620,000

    square miles. The other glaciers mentioned above (generally speaking, those

    that lay north of latitude 50°) had an estimated combined area of about

    975,000 square miles. Adding the figures for all the former Eurasian glaciers

    019      |      Vol_I-0637                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    north of about latitude 50°, we get a total of 4,750,000 square miles.

    This area is considerably less than the 7,000,000-square mile area of

    former continuous glaciers in North America, despite the fact that Eurasia

    is the large st r continent, chiefly because larger quantities of warm moist

    air could reach the North American region than could reach the Eurasian,

    to nourish the growing glaciers.

            The Scandinavian Ice Sheet originated in the snow precipitated

    abundantly on the Scandinavian mountains by Atlantic air masses. The

    glaciers were prevented from extending westward by the presence, immediately

    off the Norwegian coast, of deep water on which developed a floating shelf

    of ice that doubtless discharged large numbers of bergs. East of the moun–

    tains, however, the glaciers expanded and coalesced to form the ice sheet,

    which attained a thickness of about 10,000 feet over the Bothnian lowlands.

    This great mass spread northward and eastward, thinning in those directions,

    and reaching, on the average, to 50° E. longitude. There it became coalescent

    with the Siberian ice. To the southwest it extended across the floor of the

    shallow North Sea and at times merged with the glaciers that had formed on

    the British Isl ands es .

            The Siberian Ice Sheet originated in a group of highlands consisting of

    the Ural Mountains, Novaya Zemlya, and the Putorana, Byrranga, and Severnaya

    Zemlya highlands, and formed a coalescent mass of ice that never succeeded

    in burying entirely the highland summits. According to the evidence it left

    upon the flanks of the Urals, it was 2,300 feet thick in that region. Its

    relative thinness is explained by its relatively unfavorable position with

    respect to the receipt of snowfall from maritime air masses. Indeed, as the

    Scandinavian Ice Sheet expanded toward the Urals the Siberian ice was thereby

    020      |      Vol_I-0638                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    deprived of a part of its snowfall from western sources, and it began to

    wane. This is shown by the relations of glacial deposits derived from

    eastern and western sources, respectively, near the White Sea coast. Toward

    the north this ice mass extended outward through an unknown distance over

    what are now the shallow floors of the Arctic and Barents seas.

            In northeastern Siberia, high ranges such as the Verkhoiansk, Cherski,

    Kongin, Gydan, Aniui, and Anadyr nourished glaciers that are believed to

    have coalesced, at their maximum, into a complex system of valley, piedmont,

    and icecap glaciers 1,800 miles in length, and not unlike the cordilleran

    system in western North America, although measurably thinner. In addition,

    the Koriak Mountains on the Bering Sea coast, the mountains on the Kamchatka

    Peninsula, and other ranges farther south, harbored independent glacier systems.

            The glaciated island areas mentioned earlier were covered principally by

    ice sheets. Glacier ice on the Faeroes reached an altitude of at least 1,600

    feet and covered all but the mountain tops. About nine-tenths of the area of

    Iceland was similarly covered with ice that is believed to have averaged more

    than 2,000 feet in thickness.

            Jan Mayen Island, 300 miles northeast of Iceland, has a volcanic cone

    reaching to 7,680 feet above sea level. This cone supports glaciers at present,

    but the record of former glaciations is obscured by recent volcanic activity.

    However, if Jan Mayen had sufficient altitude when Iceland was glaciated, it

    is probable that it, too, was glaciated.

            From the evidence on record it is highly probable that the various islands

    of the Svalbard archipelago, as well as Bear Island, 150 miles to the south,

    were fully glaciated; indeed, nearly 90 per cent of their combined area is

    still glacier-covered. Possibly the Bear Island ice was confluent with the

    Svalbard ice at the time of maximum glacial extent.

    021      |      Vol_I-0639                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

            Both the Franz Jose ph f Land archipelago, and the two isolated islands

    (White and Victoria) that lie between it and the Svalbard group, are today

    almost completely covered with glaciers of the thin icecap type. Since

    it is generally true that areas now ice-covered were more extensively

    covered during the former glacial ages, it is believed that a confluent

    ice sheet probably covered Franz Jose ph f Land at the times when Svalbard

    was so covered. Both areas receive maritime precipitation from the southwest.

            The New Siberian Islands are inferred to have been the center of a

    relatively small, thin ice sheet that spread to the mainland coast, as indi–

    cated by geologic evidence on this coast. It is probable that the De Long

    Islands, northeast of the New Siberian group, were glaciated, and Wrangel

    Island, likewise, was completely blanketed by an ice sheet.



            The Arctic Sea today is extensively covered with floating ice, which,

    as recently as the late nineteenth century, was even more extensive. There

    seems to be little basis for doubt that, when the great ice sheets occupied

    northern lands, the Arctic Sea was completely covered with ice. Moreover,

    that ice probably was substantially thicker than it is today.

            The southern limit of continuous sea ice, when at its maximum, probably

    stretched across the North Atlantic in a great are from Newfoundland past

    southern Greenland and Iceland to Ireland. Its position can only be

    conjectured. However, core sampling of the North Atlantic sea floor has

    revealed abundant stones and grit occurring in layers interbedded with

    fine-grained warm-water sediments. The stones and grit are attributed to

    deposition by melting sea ice as it floated southward during one or more

    glacial ages . (4) .

    022      |      Vol_I-0640                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

            As discussed in a later section, the level of the sea, during the

    glaciations, stood as much as 300 feet lower than its present level. In

    consequence, the Bering Sea must have been separated from the Arctic Sea

    by an isthmus several hundred miles in width. South of this isthmus, in

    the shrunken Bering Sea, there may have been little floating ice other

    than bergs broken off from the small number of glaciers that may have reached

    tidewater along the northern shores of some of the Aleutian Islands.

            The parts of Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, and the Labrador Sea that were

    not occupied by glacier ice either aground or as floating shelves probably

    had a continuously frozen surface.



            The gradual shrinkage of the great glaciers was accompanied in many

    regions by the temporary impounding of meltwater between ground sloping toward

    the ice, and the ice itself. As these temporary basins filled to overflowing,

    spillways were formed and streams, often large, poured away from the newly

    created lakes. Gradual melting of the glaciers progressively uncovered newer

    and lower outlets; this resulted in repeated sudden changes in configuration

    of the lakes. With final disappearance of the ice, many lakes were completely

    drained away; others, however, occupied basins so deep that they have persisted

    down to the present time.

            Among the larger lakes of this kind in North America are the glacial

    Great Lakes (far more extensive than the existing lakes), and Lake Agassiz,

    an enormous water body of which Lake Winnipeg is a present-day survivor.

    Farther northwest, abandoned shore lines and lake sediments surrounding the

    existing Reindeer, Wollaston, Cree, Athabaska, Lesser Slave, Great Slave,

    023      |      Vol_I-0641                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    and Great Bear Lakes testify to the presence of former glacial ancestors.

    Farther east in North America the only large water body thus recorded is

    Lake Barlow-Ojibway, whose floor sediments of silt and clay occupy a belt

    500 miles long south of James Bay. Many small glacial lakes were formed,

    but the large ones are confined chiefly to the southern and western sectors,

    where the margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet retreated down very long, very

    gentle slopes.

            In Eurasia a similar lake of large size, the Baltic Ice Lake, occupied

    the Baltic region, southern Finland, and adjacent parts of Russia. Other,

    smaller lakes formed in northern European Russia. In general, however, the

    relation of the directions of deglaciation to the slopes of the land were

    less favorable for the creation of large glacial lakes in Eurasia than in

    North America.

            In addition to the usual cliffs, beaches, bars, and other shore features,

    some of the smaller glacial lakes are fringed, in favorable sectors, with

    stony ridges up to several feet in height, made by the shoreward shove of

    ice floes impelled by winds and currents.



            The solid rock of the earth’s crust is covered with a discontinuous

    mantle of loose rock material of various kinds, whose thickness ranges from

    a very thin veneer up to many hundreds of feet. In some places the mantle

    is the product of the disruption, by weathering, of the bedrock immediately

    beneath. In others it is a deposit brought in by streams, waves and currents,

    glaciers, or the wind. In districts having a mean annual temperature of less

    than 0° C. the mantle freezes and remains frozen perennially, thawing only

    024      |      Vol_I-0642                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    to very shallow depths during the summer season. Such perennially frozen

    ground (also termed permafrost) may extend vertically throughout the full

    thickness of the mantle and even include part of the underlying bedrock.

    Laterally, in the Northern Hemisphere, it forms a circumpolar belt of

    irregular width extending south to about latitude 62° in Alaska and to

    52-55° in the region of Hudson Bay and Labrador. In Eurasia its southern

    limit trends southward from the White Sea coast to less than 50° N. in

    cold southeastern Siberia. (See articles on Permafrost.)

            Three aspects of perennially frozen ground are related to the problems

    of arctic glaciation: ( 1 ) the relation of the distribution of frozen ground

    to the glaciated regions, ( 2 ) the stratigraphy of the frozen ground, and

    ( 3 ) the geomorphic effects of frozen ground. Each of these aspects will

    be briefly considered.

            It has been held that areas of frozen ground are complementary to the

    formerly glaciated areas. This view is based largely on the deduction that

    ground protected beneath a covering of glacier ice would not freeze. However,

    a comparison of the distribution of the two phenomena (cf. 18, fig. 1) yields

    little evidence of a complementary relationship. There is a growing belief

    among authorities on frozen ground that its areal distribution has changed

    materially since the maximum of the latest glaciation and now represents,

    to a large degree, a response to present-day climatic conditions.

            In places where the frozen zone is both thick and artificially exposed

    to view, its stratigraphy yields valuable data on its history. In the Yukon

    Basin in central Alaska are thick accumulations of silt deposited under a

    milder climate but now perennially frozen. Mining operations have exposed

    features in the silt that indicate a former interval of deep thaw, accompanied

    025      |      Vol_I-0643                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    by extensive erosion . (25). This interval, which clearly occurred between

    two times when a deep frozen condition prevailed, undoubtedly records a

    less rigorous climate. Unfortunately, the time of thaw has not been fixed;

    so this climatic fluctuation has not yet been dated. The central Alaskan

    occurrence, however, indicates that frozen ground may be a source of important

    information upon the glacial ages.

            The geomorphic effects of frozen ground are the result of surface

    activities during summer thaw. The frozen substratum inhibits the normal

    downward percolation of the subsurface water created by thawing of the ground.

    As a result the superficial zone becomes saturated and flows down slope, or,

    on flat areas, sorts the stones from the finer materials and pushes them

    into characteristic geometric patterns. Thus are formed the often-described

    solifluction features, soil polygons, stone stripes, and the like. The

    significance of such features to the problems of glaciation is that their

    occurrence in areas of nonfrozen ground is proof of former frozen conditions,

    and therefore records former colder climates, presumably those associated

    with the latest glacial maximum. In both North America and Eurasia this

    assemblage of features occurs throughout an irregular belt extending beyond

    the limits of the latest glaciation.

            In very high latitudes, the geomorphic effects of frozen ground are

    clearly postglacial, and therefore reflect present-day low mean temperatures.

    Similar phenomena in middle latitudes are generally “fossils,” constructed

    at an earlier time when temperatures were lower, and now inactive.

    026      |      Vol_I-0644                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation



            Emergence of coastal parts of the arctic region from beneath the sea is

    widely evident in the presence of fossil-bearing marine sediments, as well

    as wave-out cliffs, beaches, bars, and the like, at altitudes as great as

    several hundred feet above sea level. The distribution of such features in

    North America is shown on the Glacial Map of North America (11) and therefore

    need not be described in detail. The marine deposits generally overlie those

    of glacial origin; hence it is inferred that the date of emergence is mainly

    postglacial. However, in the Far North the altitudes of individual features

    are not yet known in sufficient detail to permit a definite inference as to

    the cause of emergence. Recourse to the much better-known altitude data

    from middle latitudes, however, shows that the upper limit of marine features

    decreases radially outward from the Hudson Bay region as a broad center, and

    passes below present sea level near the limit of the glaciated region (see

    map, 9. Fig. 81, in ref. 9 ). This implies that domelike upwarping has occurred

    within the area formerly covered by the Laurentide Ice Sheet, and that the

    center of the dome coincides in a general way with the geographical center

    of the former ice sheet. Similarly, along the Pacific Coast, evidence of

    postglacial emergence is widely present, and altitudes of marine features

    seem to bear a general relationship to the inferred thickness of the former

    glaciers. On the Bering Sea coast, for example, where glaciers were thin or

    absent, there is little or no evidence of emergence dating from this same time.

            A similar relationship exists in Fennoscandia, where the facts are known

    in greater detail than in North America. The emerged marine features reach

    their greatest altitudes in the region of the Gulf of Bothnia, where the

    geologic evidence suggests that the Scandinavian Ice Sheet was thickest.

    027      |      Vol_I-0645                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

            Emerged marine features have been identified in Iceland, Greenland,

    Spit z s bergen, Novaya, Zemlya, and the New Siberian Islands. They are reported

    along the arctic coast of Eurasia within the area of the former Scandinavian

    and Siberian ice sheets but not east of the latter.

            These facts of distribution indicate a close connection between the

    former glaciers and warping of the crust. It is widely believed that these

    extraordinary masses of ice constituted extra loads upon the crust, which

    was depressed beneath these loads by amounts equal to something like one-third

    the thickness of the over-lying ice. As the glaciers melted, the crust

    slowly recovered its preglacial position, but with a considerable lag in time,

    during which the sea submerged many areas formerly ice-covered, and left

    shore features and floor deposits to be later warped up above sea level.

            Measurements in northern Europe and eastern North America (15) show

    that upwarping is still in progress. Scattered observations in northern

    North America (29, p. 69-71) indicate that emergence there is likewise still

    in progress, though detailed measurements are not available to indicate

    whether warping is involved, or to what extent any contemporary warping is

    the result of the melting away of glacial loads upon the earth’s crust.

            Not until such detailed systematic measurements have been undertaken

    can an adequate idea of the postglacial warping of the arctic region be formed.

    From the fact of present-day emergence, however, it is clear that the next

    few centuries should witness substantial changes in the configuration of

    arctic coasts from this cause alone. Calculations based on certain assumptions

    as to the nature of the warping have led to the prediction that the movement

    still to be expected will convert virtually all Hudson Bay into dry land and

    will turn the Gulf of Bothnia into a minor lake.

    028      |      Vol_I-0646                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation



            Although the preceding discussion brings out a close relationship between

    emergence and crustal warping, it can not be inferred that the presence of

    emerged marine features is wholly the result of crustal warping. Again, lack

    of much evidence from the f F ar n N orth compels us to seek evidence in the much

    better-known middle latitudes.

            It has long been understood that the tremendous quantities of water

    substance locked up on the lands during the glacial ages in the form of

    glacier ice were derived ultimately from the sea. It has been realized

    further that the abstraction of this water (by evaporation) lowered the

    sea level by amounts that have been variously estimated but that may be

    conservatively placed at 300 feet below the present level. Correspondingly,

    during the interglacial ages when there is reason to believe that complete or

    nearly complete deglaciation of the polar regions occurred, it is thought

    that the sea level stood some 100 feet above its present position. Evidence

    of sea levels both higher and lower than the present level, and apparently

    unrelated to crustal warping, occurs in many nonglaciated regions and

    rarely in the glaciated regions. Thus, on the nonglaciated arctic coast

    of Alaska, fossil-bearing marine deposits no older than the earliest glacia–

    tion occur far above present sea level . (24, p. 238-241). On the northeast

    coast of the Kola Peninsula, facing the Barents Sea, there are reported

    marine sediments containing a fossil fauna that records a warmer climate

    than that which now affects that region . (13, p. 448). Finally, on the

    coastal plain of southwestern Kamchatka, facing the Sea of Okhotsk, two

    marine strand lines are reported, with respective altitudes of 30 feet and

    100 feet above present sea level . (9, p. 443).

    029      |      Vol_I-0647                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

            These scattered occurrences make it seem likely that the arctic region

    contains a good deal of information on sea level fluctuation dependent on

    the building and melting of glaciers. In those parts of the Arctic that

    were formerly covered by thick glaciers the changes in shore lines that

    occurred during the glacial ages must have been extremely complex. During

    the growth of the glaciers, the sea level would have subsided, but local

    sagging of the earth’s crust under the weight of the ice would, in some

    districts, have been even greater in amount. Conversely, during deglacia–

    tion, the rise of the crust as the ice melted away would have been greater

    than the contemporaneous rise of sea level in some district, and less in

    others. Only systematic, detailed, and long-continued observations and

    measurements will reveal what actually happened.



            No discussion of arctic glaciation would be complete without mention

    of the actual dates of the glacial events. Little or no evidence of actual

    dates has yet been obtained from the Far North, and, despite extensive

    effort in research, the evidence from middle latitudes does not yield definite

    figures. (For a discussion of the available information up to 1946 see 9,

    p. 379-406.) The best dates available are based only on controlled estimates.

    They indicate, in addition to the figures cited in an earlier part of the

    present discussion, that the latest glaciation may have had its inception

    about 100,000 years ago and may have reached its maximum extent about 60,000

    years ago, and finally that the deglaciation of most of the eastern half

    of glaciaged North America may have been accomplished during the last 25,000

    years. These figures are only estimates, and are subject to adjustment as

    better data become available.

    030      |      Vol_I-0648                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation



            The record of fossil plants and animals in the deposits made during

    the glacial and interglacial ages indicates that the chief effect of the

    repeatedly changing climates was to cause large-scale changes of range.

    Both plants and animals, adapted to definite habitats, moved equatorward

    or poleward as the climatic belts were slowly shifted. These movements

    of groups of organisms were not migrations in the strict sense. They were

    gradual changes of range, wherein no one individual moved far, the majority

    of individuals probably not moving at all beyond the radius of movement

    normal to their kind.

            In the Northern Hemisphere two directions of changes are evident in

    the fossil record: a shift of organisms toward the equator, during the glacial

    ages, and a shift toward the poles during interglacial times. The evidence

    is fragmentary, but it distinctly shows these trends.

            As most of northern North America and much of northern Eurasi s a were

    obliterated beneath glacier ice at the maxima of the glacial ages, large

    areas were removed from the list of habitable places. In far no r thern North

    America, only interior and western Alaska and adjacent areas in Yukon Territory

    escaped inundation. Here many arctic plants survived the glaciation, as well,

    no doubt, as some animals; but the climatic conditions can hardly have been

    hospitable. During such times boreal plants and animals found their way far

    to the south, both in North America and in Eurasia, though the lesser extent

    of glaciers in Asia compelled less drastic changes of range.

            More remarkable is the occurrence, as fossils in alluvium in central

    Alaska, of a richer mammal fauna than inhabits the region today. This fauna

    includes a big bear ( Arctodus ), the dire wolf, a lion ( Panthera atrox ), two

    031      |      Vol_I-0649                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    genera of ground sloths, a cameloid, two genera of musk oxen, a horse

    a woolly mammoth, and mastodon. All the foregoing mammals are extinct,

    but many kinds still living occur as fossils in the same deposit, including

    peccary, reindeer, moose, bighorn sheep, Saiga antelope, Rocky Mountain

    goat, and musk ox. Although the character of this assemblage does not

    prove that it dates from an interglacial time, it seems likely that this

    was so.

            That both woolly mammoth and mastodon followed the shrinking Laurentide

    Ice Sheet into the Hudson Bay region is shown by fossil finds. In Eurasi s a ,

    likewise, not only the woolly mammoth but also the woolly rhinoceros and

    its distant relative Elasmotherium , reoccupied the areas vacated by the

    melting ice sheets

            Very few new species of animals seem to have developed through adaptive

    evolution resulting from the appearance of glacial climates; the woolly

    mammoth and the woolly rhinoceros may have evolved in this way, though their

    specific relationships are still uncertain. Among marine invertebrates,

    likewise, the record seems to be one of repeated migrations rather than one

    of marked evolutionary changes.

            As for the land plants, their present distribution throughout the northern

    part of the Northern Hemisphere indicates that they have reached their present

    positions in postglacial time through dispersal from refuges in northwestern

    North America and northeastern Asia. This evidence fits well the evidence of

    glaciation itself, for the refuges were situated in the only extensive far

    northern areas not covered by glacier ice. It is believed that in preglacial

    time northern plants had a more or less uniform distribution throughout a

    circumpolar belt. The development of glaciers repeatedly split up this

    032      |      Vol_I-0650                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    preglacial arrangement. Only recently have the plants repopulated the

    glaciated areas for the latest time, but they have not yet succeeded in

    reestablishing their former circumpolar distribution.

            Apparently among the plants, as among the animals, there is little

    evidence of evolution during the time embraced by the several glaciations . (16).

            It has been urged that the present-day distribution of certain arctic–

    alpine plants on and near the summits of arctic highlands and their absence

    from their lower slopes indicate that such highlands projected above the

    glaciers and constituted local refuges upon which these plants survived the

    latest glaciation. However, geologic evidence of glaciation in a number of

    such summit areas is plan; aside from this it seems probable that the plants

    in question migrated to their present sites during deglaciation, and that

    they have since been eliminated from the slopes and bases of the highlands

    through gradual warming of the climate.

            The present distribution of circumpolar plants (16) and animals (22)

    finds adequate explanation in the present distribution of land and sea, with

    one exception: a land bridge across Bering Strait, connecting North America

    with Eurasia, must have existed at times, in order to provide a path for

    the interchange of plants, for the migration of a few North American mammals

    to Eurasia, and for the introduction of a spectacular assemblage of Asiatic

    mammals into North America. Barely 50 miles wide and very shallow, Bering

    Strait could have been converted into an isthmus through a change of level

    amounting to only 150 feet — either a fall of sea level or a local upwarping

    of the crust. When we recall that glacier-building is believed to have lowered

    the sea surface by as much as 300 feet, we experience little difficulty in

    visualizing a broad isthmus, perhaps several hundred miles in width, connecting

    033      |      Vol_I-0651                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    the two continents during each of the glacial ages. Glaciers were not

    abundant on the adjacent highlands, and, although the climate at those times

    must have been cold, the fossil record shows that only those migrants which

    could survive a rigorous climate succeeded in making the journey . (22, p. 651).

            The results of modern research, therefore, do away with the necessity

    of a transatlantic land bridge such as has been invoked by some writers on

    this subject, and, indeed, with the necessity for any conspicuous change in

    the configuration of the arctic lands, other than those mentioned, during the

    glacial and interglacial ages.



            The causes of the glacial and interglacial climatic fluctuations, although

    a fascinating subject of inquiry, do not fall specifically within the scope of

    the present discussion. The status of research and speculation in this field

    has been summarized recently (9, p. 501-520) and need only be mentioned here.

    The hypothesis that seems best to meet the facts known at present appeals to

    two events. The first was a worldwide uplift of the lands shortly before the

    earliest glaciation — an uplift in which arctic lands took an important part.

    This uplift is a fact of historical geology. The second event is a pure

    assumption. It is assumed that radiation is emitted by the sun (and received

    by the earth) at a rate that is variable rather than constant. To this

    assumed variation are ascribed the fluctuations of the earth’s climates. To

    the presence of high lands is ascribed the fact that responses to these

    fluctuations consisted of the growth of glaciers.

            It is noteworthy that throughout fifty million years, or more, of pre–

    glacial time, arctic lands were comparatively low, and the fossil record of

    034      |      Vol_I-0652                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    T t hose times implies, not glaciation, but widespread cool-temperate climates.

    The glacial ages constituted a very unusual group of events throughout the

    world, but nowhere were they accompanied by changes as profound as in the

    circumpolar regions.



            Further changes are taking place within the arctic region at present.

    Within the last hundred years glaciers have shrunk at a rapid rate, sea ice

    in the Arctic Sea has been notably reduced in both area and thickness, the

    area of perennially frozen ground has been diminishing, and in places the

    subarctic forest has been creeping forward at the expense of the tundra.

    All these changes are apparently consequent upon a worldwide increase in

    mean annual temperatures — an increase of which there is reliable evidence

    in the results of direct meteorologic observations. In other words, the

    repeated and extraordinary changes that have characterized the last million

    years are still in progress. The trend in the immediate future can not be

    predicted because no past rhythm or periodicity in the climatic swings has

    been detected. Therefore we have no reliable basis for extrapolation into

    the future.

            However, what is abundantly clear is the need for ever-increasing

    scientific exploration of the arctic region. The great era of primary

    exploration has drawn nearly to a close, but the field for intensive scien–

    tific investigation of these little-known regions has only just been laid

    open. This constitutes a splendid challenge to future workers.


    Richard Foster Flint

    035      |      Vol_I-0653                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation


    1. Armstrong, J.E., and Tipper, H.W. “Glaciation in north central British

    Columbia,” Amer.J.Sci . vol.246, pp.283-310, 1948.

    2. Bonacina, L.C.W. “Climatic change and the retreat of glaciers,” Roy. Met.

    Soc., Quart.J . vol.73, pp.85-95, 1947.

    3. Bostock, H.S. Carmacks District, Yukon . Ottawa, 1936. Can.Geol.Surv.,

    Mem . 189.

    4. Bradley, W.H., and others. Geology and Biology of North Atlantic Deep-Sea

    Cores between Newfoundland and Ireland . Washington, D.C., G.P.O.,

    1942. U.S.Geol.Surv., Prof.Pap . 196.

    5. Capps, S.R. “Glaciation in Alaska,” U.S.Geol.Surv., Prof.Pap . 170. Wash.,

    D.C., G.P.O., 1931, pp.1-8.

    6. Dawson, G.M. “Notes to accompany a geological map of the northern portion of

    the Dominion of Canada,” Can.Geol.Surv., Ann.Rep . Ottawa, 1886, vol.2,


    7. ----. “On the glaciati i o n of the northern part of the Cordillera,” Amer.Geol .

    vol.6, pp.153-62, 1890.

    8. Flint, F.R. “Glacial geology and d g eomorphology (of parts of East Greenland),”

    Amer.Geogr.Soc., Spec.Publ . no.30. N.Y., 1948, pp.90-210.

    9. ----. Glacial Geology and the Pleistoce [?] n e Epoch . N.Y., Wiley, 1947.

    10. ----. “Growth of the North American ice sheet during the Wisconsin age,”

    Geol.Soc.Amer., Bull . vol.54, pp.325-62, 1943.

    11. ----, and others. Glacial Map of North America . N.Y., 1945. Geol.Soc.Amer.,

    Spec.Pap . 60. Pt.1: Map; Pt.2: Bibliography and Explanatory Notes.

    12. ----, and Dorsey, H.G., Jr. “Glaciation of Siberia,” Geol.Soc.Amer., Bull .

    vol.56, pp.89-106, 1945.

    13. Gerasimov, I.P., and Markov, K.K. Lednikovye Period na Ter t r itorii USSR .

    (The Glacial Period in the Territory of USSR.) Akad.Nauk, Inst.Geogr.,

    Trudy vol.33, 1939. (Russian with English summary.)

    14. Grønlie, O.T. Contributions to the Quaternary Geology of Novaya Zemlya .

    Kristiania, Brøgger, 1924. Norwegian Expedition to Novaya Zemlya, 1921.

    Report of the Scientific Results . N n o.21.

    036      |      Vol_I-0654                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Flint: Former Glaciation

    15. Gutenberg, Beno. “Changes in sea level, postglacial uplift, and mobilit y of

    the earth’s interior,” Geol.Soc.Amer., Bull . vol.52, pp.721-72, 1941.

    16. Hult e é n, Eric. Outline of the History of Arctic and Boreal Biota during

    the Quaternary Period . Stockholm, Bokförlags Aktiebolaget Thule, 1937.

    17. McLearn, F.H. “The Mesozoic and Pleistocene deposits of the Lower Missinaibi,

    Opazatika, and Mattagami Rivers, Ontario,” Can.Geol.Surv., Summ.Rep .

    Ottawa, 1926, pt.C, pp.16-47.

    18. Muller, S.W. Permafrost or Permanently Frozen Ground and Related Engineering

    Problems . Ann Arbor, Mich., Edwards, 1947.

    19. Nordenskjöld, Otto, and Mecking, Ludwig. The Geography of the Polar Regions .

    N.Y., 1928. Amer.Geogr.Soc., Spec.Publ . 8.

    20. Obruchev, V.A. Geologiia Sibiri . (Geology of Siberia.) Moscow, Leningrad,

    Akademiia Nauk, 1935-38. 2 3 vol.

    21. Raup, H.M. “The botany of southwestern Mackenzie,” Sargentia no.6, pp.1-275,


    22. Simpson, G.G. “Holar a c tic mammalian faunas and continental relationships

    during the Cenozoic,” Geol.Soc.Amer., Bull . vol.58, pp.613-88, 1947.

    23. Smith, H.T.U. “Giant glacial grooves in northwest Canada,” Amer.J.Sci .

    vol.246, pp.503-14, 1948.

    24. Smith, P.S., and Mertie, Jr., H.B. Geology and Mineral Resources of North-

    western Alaska . Wash.,D.C., G.P.O., 1930. U.S.Geol.Surv., Bull . 815.

    25. Taber, Stephen. “Perennially frozen ground in Alaska; its origin and

    history,” [ ?] Geol.Soc.Amer., Bull . vol.54,

    pp.1433-1548, 1943.

    26. Tanner, Vaino. “Die Oberflächengestaltung Finnlands,” Bidrag till Kännedom

    of [on?] Finlands Natur och Folk vol.86, 1938.

    27. ----. Outlines of the Geography, Life and Customs of Newfoundland-Labrador

    (the Eastern Part of the Labrador Peninsula) . Helsinki, Tilgman, 1944.

    Acta Geogr ., Helsingf. 8, no.1

    28. ----. Studier öfver Kvartärsystemet i Fennoskandias nordliga delar. Part III:

    Om landisense rörelser och afamältning i Finska Lappland och angränsande

    trakter . Helsingfors, 1915. Finland. Bulletin Geologinen Tutkimuslaitos . Bull .

    Helsingf. 38. (Swedish with French summary.)

    29. Washburn, A.L. Reconnaissance Geology of Portions of Victoria Island and

    Adjacent Regions, Arctic Canada . N.Y., 1947. Geol.Soc.Amer., Mem . 22.


    Richard Foster Flint

    Glaciers in the Arctic

    Unpaginated      |      Vol_I-0655                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. (Robert F P . Sharp)




    Introduction 1
    Classification of Glaciers 1
    Distribution, Area, and Volume 5
    Present Regime 7
    Greenland 8
    Iceland 16
    Jan Mayen 21
    Svalbard 23
    Novaya Zemlya 29
    Franz Josef Land 31
    Severnaya Zemlya 32
    Other Siberian Islands 33
    Scandinavia 34
    Urals 41
    Siberia 42
    Canada 42-b
    Alaska and Adjoining Parts of Canada 45
    Ellesmere Island 55
    Baffin and Bylot Islands 58
    Other Canadian Arctic Islands 61
    Bibliography 63

    Unpaginated      |      Vol_I-0656                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers in the Arctic



            With the manuscript of this article, the author submitted one

    photograph for possible was as an illustration. Because of the high

    cost of reproducing them as halftones in the printed volume, only a small

    proportion of the photographs submitted by contributors to Volume I,

    Encyclopedia Arctica , can be used, at most one or two with each paper;

    in some cases none. The number and selection must be determined later

    by the publisher and editors of Encyclopedia Arctica . Meantime all

    photographs are being held at The Stefansson Library.

    001      |      Vol_I-0657                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. (Robert F P . Sharp)





            Arctic and subarctic glaciers constitute prominent features of the

    landscape, exert considerable influence on meteorological conditions, and

    have economic significance. Their size, nature, distribution, and behavior

    are treated briefly.

            Any armchair compilation must necessarily be based on the writings and

    observations of others. Practically every statement written herein has

    been made before; nothing is original. Although references to the litera–

    ture are sprinkled liberally through the text, it is not possible to ac–

    knowledge every word and thought. This debt to the works and writings of

    others is fully appreciated. Unfortunately, the short time available for

    compilation and limited library facilities precluded reference to all of

    the literature on arctic glaciers.



            Glacier classifications are nearly as numerous as glaciologists. Each

    classification benefits from its predecessors, so attention is directed to the

    latest. A morphological arrangement has the greatest use for this article,

    and Ahlmann’s classification is one of the most comprehensive . (6) .

    002      |      Vol_I-0658                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers


    Morphological Classification of Glaciers

            A. Glaciers extending in a continuous, sheet, the ice moving outward in all


            1. Continental Glaciers or Inland Ices : covering very large areas (e.g.,

    Greenland and the Antarctic).

            2. Glacier Caps or Icecaps : covering smaller areas than Continental Gla–

    ciers (e.g., Vatnajökull in Iceland, Jostedalsbreen and most other

    large Norwegian glaciers; this group includes what by other authors

    are called Plateau Glaciers, Island Ices, Highland Ices, Icecaps).

            3. Highland Glaciers : covering the highest or central portions of a moun–

    tain district, from which ice streams issue through the valleys (e.g.,

    in the interior of Spitsbergen, particularly New Friesland).

            B. Glaciers confined to a more or less marked path, which directs its main

    movement. This group includes both independent glaciers and outlets

    of ice from glaciers of group A.

            1. Valley Glaciers (of alpine type): occupy only the deeper portions of

    the principal valleys and obtain their supply from the heads of the

    valley system (e.g., the alpine glaciers).

            2. Transection Glaciers : the whole valley system is more or less filled

    by ice, which overflows the passes between the valleys (e.g., the

    Yakutat Glacier in Alaska, most of the glaciers in the interior of

    Spitsbergen, and in the Alps during the last glacial period; called

    Eisstromnetz by Drygalski and by O Nordenskjöld, the Spitsbergen

    type; include both the Reticular and Dendritic Glaciers of Tyrrell).

            3. Circus (Cirque) Glaciers : localized to separate niches on a mountain

    side, or to the uppermost part of a valley (e.g., large numbers of

    small glaciers in the Alps and other mountain ranges, as well as in

    Norway; called cwm glaciers by Hobbs and others).

            4. Wall-sided Glaciers : covering the side of a valley or some part of it

    which is not furrowed by any marked niche or ravine. (In Spitsbergen

    these are called Stufenvereisung by Drygalski and Flankenvereisung by


            5. Glacier Tongues Afloat : an ice stream more or less afloat at the shore of

    the ice-covered land.

    003      |      Vol_I-0659                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            C. Glacier ice spreading in large or small cakelike sheets over the level

    ground at the foot of high-glaciated regions.

            1. Piedmont Glaciers : formed by a fusion of the lower parts of two or

    more independent glaciers of types B1, B2, or B4 (e.g., the Mala–

    spina Glacier in Alaska; this group also includes Priestley’s Confluent


            2. Foot Glaciers : from the lower and more extended portions of glaciers

    of types B1, B2, and B4.

            3. Shelf Ice : connected to a glaciated inland, but receiving most of its

    supply from snow accumulating on it and recrystallized into a firn–

    like mass. It either floats on the sea or covers coastal shallows,

    in the latter case largely resting on the bottom (e.g., the Ross


    004      |      Vol_I-0660                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Refinements and further subdivision of these classes are possible

    but not necessary here. Matthes’ (72) intermontane glacier, an ice mass

    occupying a spacious trough between separate mountain ranges or mountain

    groups, might be added, for they are well represented in Alaska.

            Glaciers may also be distinguished on a dynamical basis as active,

    inactive, or dead (12, p. 63), or on the basis of their mode of flowage

    as pressure-controlled or gravity-controlled (30, pp. 365-73; 72, pp.

    150-53). A geophysical classification (12, p. 66) can be made on internal

    temperature, meltwater behavior, and firn condition. Temperate glaciers are at

    the pressure-melting temperature throughout except in winter when a thin

    surficial layer is chilled below 0°C. The temperature in polar glaciers

    is negative even in summer down to a considerable but unspecified depth.

    In high-polar glaciers no meltwater forms even in summer, but in subpolar

    glaciers surface melting and percolation of some meltwater do occur.

    005      |      Vol_I-0661                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers



            The greatest ice mass outside the Antarctic is the justly famed

    Greenland Ice Sheet. Neighboring islands of the Canadian Arctic west of

    Greenland also have sizable ice masses. East of Greenland are such well–

    known glacier-bearing islands as Iceland, Jan Mayen, Svalbard, Novaya

    Zemlya, and the lesser known Franz Josef land and Severnaya Zemlya archi–

    pelagos. Of these island groups, Franz Josef Land is the most completely

    covered by ice. Of the continental areas treated, southern Alaska and

    adjacent parts of Canada are by far the most heavily covered. Scandinavian

    glaciers, although the largest in Europe, are relatively small by compare–

    son, and scattered glaciers in the Urals, Siberia, and the interior and

    eastern parts of Canada are much smaller still.

            The ma [?] j or glacier-bearing areas of the Arctic and Subarctic center

    primarily around the North Atlantic and secondarily in southern Alaska and

    Canada near the Gulf of Alaska. In both areas the sea is relatively free

    of floe ice for part or all the year. In the North Atlantic, glaciers

    border the great re-entrant eaten into the arctic ice pack by the Gulf

    Stream. Although topography is an obvious factor in glacier development,

    equally important is an abundant supply of moisture derived primarily from

    an open sea and carried to the ice-bearing areas along favorable storm

    paths. The present glaciers in the Arctic clearly show a close relation

    to sources of moisture, storm paths, and suitable topography.

    006      |      Vol_I-0662                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            The following compilation of arctic and subarctic ice-covered

    areas is derived principally from Hess (54, p. 121), Thorarinsson (108,

    p. 136), and Flint (42, p. 39). It is supplemented locally by plani–

    metric measurements made on latest issues of U.S. Air Force World Acronau–

    tical Charts based mostly on recent air photography. Throughout this

    article these planimetric measurements are marked with asterisks.


    Aerial Distribution of Arctic and Some subarctic Glaciers

    Region Area in square miles
    Inland Ice Sheet 637,000
    Independent ice bodies 63,000
    Total 700,000
    Iceland 4,655
    Jan Mayen 45*
    Northeast Land 4,340
    Other islands, chiefly

    West Spitsbergen
    Total 22,400
    Franz Josef Land 6,560
    Novaya Zemlya 5,800
    Severnaya Zemlya 6,400*
    Canadian Arctic Archipelago
    Ellesmere Island 31,400*
    Axol Heiberg Island 3,740*
    Devon Island 6,250*
    Bylot Island 2,000*
    Baffin Island 12,000*
    Other small islands 200
    Total 55,590*
    Scandinavia 2,400
    Continental North America 30,890
    Grand Total 834,740

    007      |      Vol_I-0663                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            This 834,740 square miles constitutes approximately 14.3 per cent

    by area of the present ice cover on our planet. Thicknesses of ice have

    been determined at only a few places, and even these determinations are

    fraught with uncertainties. If we follow Daly (28, p. 12) and assume an

    average thickness of 3,280 feet for the Greenland Ice Sheet and an

    average of 985 feet for all other ice bodies, the total volume of the

    ice tabulated above is approximately 432,750 cubic miles. In light of

    modern estimates of thickness, this is probably too great.



            With minor exceptions, glaciers in arctic and subarctic regions

    are receding at an ever-increasing rate (108). In areas bordering the

    North Atlantic, the present accelerated recession is the modern phase

    of a general retreat which started in some areas as much as 200 years

    ago and in others 50 to 60 years ago (12, p. 74). About the same

    history is recorded around the Gulf of Alaska, although some Alaskan

    glaciers are now at their most advanced positions in centuries.

            The present rapid recession is ascribed largely to the so-called

    “recent climatic improvement,” which has produced a rise in winter, spring,

    and autumn temperatures in at least the North Atlantic area (11, p. 24).

    Climatic amelioration is also indicated by the decrease in average thick–

    ness of the arctic ice peak from 144 inches to 86 inches between 1893-95 and

    1937-40 (11, p. 23). The length of the navigation season to Svalbard has

    also increased; birds and fish are now found farther north than formerly;

    and frozen ground is deteriorating in many areas.

    008      |      Vol_I-0664                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            This climatic improvement is thought to be the result of increased

    northward circulation of warm air brought about by changes in atmospheric

    pressure gradients. The low-pressure area of the North Atlantic, and

    perhaps also of the North Pacific, has moved farther north to give rise

    to these conditions. A rise in temperature rather than a change in pre–

    cipitation appears to be the major result, and temperature is the factor

    most strongly affecting glacier behavior (6, p. 190).



            The greatest ice mass of the Northern Hemisphere is the Greenland

    Ice Sheet. Since the first crossing by Nansen in 1888, it has become our

    best explored and most studied continental sheet. Greenland is also richly

    endowed with a wide variety of additional glacier types including indepen–

    dent icecaps, highland glaciers, the greatest outlet glaciers of the

    Arctic, valley and cirque glaciers, wall-sided glaciers, expanded foot

    glaciers, tidal glaciers, floating glaciers, and even in places an ice

    foot. Of all the glacier types listed in Ahlmann’s morphological classi–

    fication (6, pp. 192-93), it at one time appeared that only piedmont

    and transaction glaciers might be lacking in Greenland. However, at

    least one piedmont has now been reported (43, p. 134), and transaction

    glaciers ar e also described from high mountainous areas on the east

    coast (31, p. 184).

    009      |      Vol_I-0665                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Many figures have been given for the area of the Greenland Ice

    Sheet, but the 637,000 square miles determined from planimetric measure–

    ments by L o ö we (71, p. 317) is probably the best. An ice mass of this

    size covers about 76 per cent of the land. The total ice cover on Green–

    land, including independent glaciers and ice on islands, is estimated at

    700 0 ,000 to 715,000 square miles by Matthes (72, p. 159) and 733,000 square

    miles by Hess (54, p. 12). This amount of ice would cover close to

    85 per cent of the land (72, p. 159). The length of the sheet is about

    1,570 miles, and the maximum width is close to 600 miles. The greatest

    elevation on the sheet may still be a moot question. Latest maps show

    an elevation of 10,325 feet at 69° 49′ N., 37° 52′ W. The British Trans–

    Greenland Expedition (67, pp. 402,406) reported 10,400 feet (uncorrected)

    on the ice sheet 20 miles north of Mount Forel, and stated that the high

    center attains 10,500 feet. Flint (42, p. 40) speculates that the highest

    point may exceed 11,000 feet. The mean height is said to be about 6,900

    feet (71, p. 317). The highest point in Greenland, so far as known, is

    a rocky peak of 12,139 feet in the Watkins Mountains at 68° 54′ N., 29°

    49′ W. (27, p. 202).

            The W a e gener expedition made seismic soundings through the ice at

    various points up to 250 miles inland from the west coast (97, p. 335).

    Thicknesses ranging from 150 to 6,000 feet, and possibly more, were

    supposedly indicated by this work. However, the reliability of these

    results has been seriously questioned (31, p. 29; 30, pp. 383-86; 8,

    p. 157), and the conclusion that Greenland is like a gigantic saucer filled

    with ice is not highly regarded in many quarters. However, the seismic

    soundings do appear to indicate that terrain beneath the ice has a considera–

    ble relief with steep slopes.

    010      |      Vol_I-0666                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            The crestal ridge of the ice sheet is much nearer the east side

    and consists of three independent summits. The longest and highest summit

    in the east-central region rises above 10,000 feet, and the two smaller

    summits farther sou g t h attain more than 9,000 feet (42, p. 38, Fig. 9).

    The origin of this crestal ridge has been long debated. One view main–

    tains that it marks the location of the thickest ice (111, p. 154). If

    this were true, the ridge would be a relic feature, for the area of maxi–

    mum accumulation is now much farther west (54, p. 115; 97, p. 335). The opposite

    view, vigorously defended recently by Demorest (30, pp. 378-86), holds

    that the crest reflects a high upland in the underlying bedrock topo–

    graphy. Reliable determinations of ice thickness would, of course, re–

    solve this problem. Another major topographic feature of the Greenland

    Ice Sheet is a broad depression extending east-west across it at about

    69°N. (63, pp. 47, 55). This depression terminates at both ends in

    some of the greatest and most active outlet glaciers of Greenland.

    011      |      Vol_I-0667                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            The surface of the ice sheet slopes gently away from the central

    ridge at 5 to 50 feet per mile. Near the edges the slope steepens appre–

    ciably, and a more varied relief develops. On the west side, heads of

    great outlet glaciers are marked by depressed or drawn-down areas termed

    “basins of exudation” by Peary. These extend at least 85 miles inland

    from the edge of the sheet, and crevasses indicating flowage into the

    basins are found 125 to 185 miles inland. Basins of exudation are rare

    along the east coast, but depressions at the head of the great Kangerd–

    lugssuak Glacier (69° N.) and at the head of Waltershausen Glacier in the

    Franz Josef Fjord region may be of this nature. In general, the ice along

    the east coast piles up behind the high coastal mountains and spills over

    through high passes (111, pp. 149-150; 67, p. 407). However, even here

    there are great hollows 500-1,000 feet deep, steep-sided, flat-floored,

    5 to 10 miles across, and separated by rounded ice ridges and summits

    67, p. 400). These are thought to reflect the underlying bedrock to–

    pography. On both edges where the ice thins, nunataks stick through.

            In addition to marginal steepening, the ice sheet exhibits a series

    of terrace-like steps, five with 50- to 100-meter separation on the west

    side, and four on the east (54, p. 112). These have been interpreted

    as reflecting the configuration of the bedrock floor (55, p. 129; 73,

    p. 252), and as the product of large-scale sliding and slumping

    (30, p. 394).

    012      |      Vol_I-0668                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            The inland ice reaches the sea at Melville Bay on a 240-mile front

    and in two places along the northeast coast between 78° and 80°N. for a

    total of 130 miles. Humboldt Glacier emptying into Kane Basin is usually

    described as a gigantic outlet glacier with a front of 60 to 70 miles, but

    it might almost as well be interpreted as a part of the inland ice which

    reaches the sea directly.

            Greenland provides the finest display of outlet glaciers to be

    seen in the Arctic. Some are truly huge; Petermann Glacier draining to

    Hall Basin is 15 miles wide and at least 60 miles long. Waltershausen

    Glacier draining to Franz Josef Fjord is about 10 miles wide at maximum

    and fully 75 miles long. Teichert (105) mentions other lengthy Green–

    land outlet glaciers. Most of these are tidal, and many are afloat.

    Outlet glaciers centering in the Disko-Umanak-Upernivik area of the west

    coast and the Scoresby Sound region on the east coast are among the

    greatest berg-producing glaciers in the world. Berg production is truly

    tremendous, and from some glaciers occurs as great cataclysms about every

    fortnight which give off as much as 18,000 million cubic feet of ice and

    choke the f i j ords. Total annual output of bergs in West Greenland is es–

    timated at 7 to 10 cubic nautical miles (42, p. 45). The major berg–

    producing glaciers are also those with consistently high velocities, for

    which the description “running glaciers” is appropriate. Velocities up

    to 124 feet in 24 hours have been recorded on Upernivik Glacier (22, pp.

    244-45), one of the most active on the west coast. Maximum movements of

    60 feet per day are more usual (70, p. 267; 22, p. 247). This compares

    with movements of fractions of an inch per day on the inland ice (55, p.

    135). Great daily variations in rates of flow are also recorded on

    Greenland glaciers (100, p. 45).

    013      |      Vol_I-0669                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            The largest areas of land not covered by inland ice are at the

    north, in Peary Land (62), on the west coast between 66° and 68°N. where

    the sheet lies as much as 100 miles inland (80, p. 313), and along the

    east coast south from 78°N. where the ice sheet is a maximum of 80 to .

    180 miles inland (18 , ) p. 159. Within areas not covered by inland ice

    are highland glaciers, independent icecaps like Sukkertoppen, outlet

    glaciers, transection glaciers, and cirque and valley glaciers numbered

    in the hundreds. Some of the outlying caps may not be remnants of the

    Pleistocene ice sheet but features reborn after the great shrinkage of

    the postglacial warm-dry period (72, p. 208). In support of this possi–

    bility, Demorest (29, pp. 54-55) reports névé fields on Nugssuak Penin–

    sula that are probably postglacial.

            Among the minor features associated with Greenland glaciers are

    abundant dust wells and dust basins, and the Chinese Wall aspect of

    steep to overhanging ice faces (23, p. 565). This condition has been

    attributed to differential ablation related to the low angle of the

    sun and to the large amount of debris in the lower ice layers (23, p.

    566; 18, pp. 180, 197). In other instances it is ascribed to differ–

    ential overriding by the upper ice layers (84, pp. 115-16). Most

    writers, including those cited above, recognize both methods as

    possible. The thrust, sheared, and fractured condition of ice in the

    basal layers of many Greenland glaciers (23, pp. 676-77; 18, pp. 180-

    82) is thought to be due in part to low temperature of the ice . (70,

    p. 268; 84, p. 124).

    014      |      Vol_I-0670                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            On a geophysical basis, the ice bodies or Greenland are classified

    as polar and subpolar. Thermal observations in the firn at Eismitte

    (97, pp. 339, 341) and subsequent calculations (54, p. 113; 116, p. 171)

    indicate that the central part of the Greenland Ice Sheet is polar, but

    air temperatures are not low enough to prevent basal melting by the heat

    flux of the earth. The Fröya and other low-level glaciers in north–

    eastern Greenland are subpolar (11, p. 21). Thermal studies of Sukker–

    toppen Icecap (100, 1940, p. 47) would seem to indicate that it is almost


            Matthes (72, p. 156) offers the interesting speculation that ice now

    appearing at the edge of the Greenland Ice Sheet may be 10,000 years old.

    Wager (111, pp. 154-55) suggests that the Greenland Ice Sheet may have

    first developed as far back as the Miocene.

            The inland ice seems to be about in a state of balance (71, pp. 317-

    29; 30, p. 398). Koch (64, p. 105) observes that the ice sheet in north–

    ern Greenland has varied little, and Reid (90, p. 474) reports a descript–

    tion of the inland ice prepared in A.D. 1200 , which would apply rather

    well to modern conditions. It also appears from the present rise of sea

    level that the inland ice is not melting as rapidly as other smaller

    bodies in the Northern Hemisphere (12, p. 75).

    015      |      Vol_I-0671                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            The situation with regard to the margins of the icecap, some outlet

    glaciers, and the independent ice bodies is wholly different. Considerable

    shrinkage of the ice in Greenland probably occurred during the postglacial

    warm-dry period (9, p.198; 72, p.208), and moraines now a short distance

    beyond present glacier snouts are thought to represent the greatest Hochstands

    of the postglacial period. These probably occurred sometime between the

    middle eighteenth and the middle nineteenth centuries (9, pp.199-202).

    Flint (43, pp.139-140, 147, 159) records evidence in northeastern Greenland

    indicating two glacier advances separated by a considerable deglaciation,

    with the youngest readvance possibly having occurred during the nineteenth

    century. Advances of other Greenland glaciers in about 1850 and 1890 are

    recorded (108, p. 146; 72, p. 194), but since 1890 recession seems to have

    rules. Fröya Glacier, on Clavering Island, was 22 per cent larger by area

    and 60 per cent larger by volume during its Hochstand than now (9, p. 203).

    Upernivik Glacier receded an average of 3,000 feet and a maximum of 5,000 feet

    between 1887 and 1931. Jakobshavn Glacier receded 6 to 8 miles between 1851

    and 1902, with interruptions by short-lived advances (22, pp. 249-54).

    Glaciers in the Umanak area have undergone recession for 40 years (69).

    During the 68 years between 1869 and 1937, Pasterze Glacier in northeastern

    Greenland probably receded 3.85 miles (43, p. 125). Another glacier in this

    area disappeared completely during this interval. Considerable recession

    has also been recorded in other parts of eastern Greenland (18, pp. 159-60,183;

    47, p.40; 76, p. 388).

    016      |      Vol_I-0672                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Thorarinsson (108, p. 147) states that glaciers of Greenland,

    apart from the ice sheet, have experienced recession and thinning for

    some decades and with minor interruptions this has been going on since

    the middle or latter half of the nineteenth century. However, northwest

    in the Cape York (76°N.) district many glaciers advanced until 1920 and

    since then have receded (64, p. 107). In North Greenland the

    edge of the ice sheet showed no appreciable change in 100 years, and in

    this region in the 1920's were 15 advancing, 8 stationary, and 9 receding

    glaciers. Even though recession is the rule, erratic advances of glaciers

    continue to be recorded; Taterat Glacier of West Greenland, for instance,

    showed a lateral expansion of 100 feet in one month during the summer of

    1938 (100, p. 51).

            Detailed studies of radiation and the meteorological factors in–

    fluencing glacier wastage have been made in both East (10) and West

    Greenland (34; 100). The amount of convective heat and the relatively

    minor role of radiation (8.2 per cent of total heat) supplied to Fröya

    Glacier in August is surprising (33, p. 39). Ablation also proved to

    be greater during cloudy weather in this area.



            Iceland is strictly a subarctic area, but consideration of its

    glaciers here is justified by the scope of Encyclopedia Arctica Encyclopedia Arctica and by

    the special interest attached to these ice bodies.

    017      |      Vol_I-0673                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            One-eighth of Iceland is glacier-covered (42, p. 52). The total area

    of ice on Iceland and Jan Mayen is 4,700 square miles (54, p. 121), of

    which about 45* square miles is on Jan Mayen. Iceland is pre-eminently

    a land of icecaps, of which the largest , Vatnajökull, covers 3,050 square

    miles (54, p. 99). This is more than the combined area of all other

    glaciers on the island. The other principal caps are Hofsjökull (502 square

    miles), Langjökull (464 square miles), Myrdalsjökull (386 square miles), and

    Drangajökull (60 to 70 square miles) (35, p. 121). Many smaller caps lie

    periferal to the major caps; Langjökull has at least 4 satellites, and

    Myrdalsjökull and Vafnajökull have 2 or 3 apiece. Snaefellsjökull is a

    small isolated cap of 10* square miles in far western Iceland near Cape

    Öndver t d (Öndverdarnes).

            Ice tongues and outlet glaciers project from the larger caps. Vatnajökull

    alone having some 18, but none reaches the sea. The largest and most active

    outlets are on the southeast flank of Vatnajökull. Cirque and valley glaciers

    are rare in Iceland, except in the north between Skaga and Eyja fjords where

    the rough mountainous terrain harbors a number of small caps, and valley and

    cirque glaciers. Icelandic glaciers are relatively thin, the largest having

    an estimated thickness of not more than 750 feet (42, p. 52). This permits

    the underlying topography to exert considerable influence on the relief and

    shape of the icecaps. Elevations on Vatnajökull range from 6,952 feet almost

    down to sea level. High points of other icecaps are between 3,035 and 5,581

    feet, but none extends as low as Vatnajökull.

    018      |      Vol_I-0674                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            A phenomenon of particular interest associated with the Icelandic

    glaciers is the periodic eruption of subglacial volcanos. Principal

    centers of eruption are the Grimsvötn area in western Vatnajökull, and

    the Katla area in south-southeastern Myrdalsjökull. In recent times

    eruptions have occurred in Grimsvötn at intervals of about 10 years, the

    latest in 1922 and 1934. The Katla area has erupted twice every century

    since 1580, the latest in 1918 (110). Nielsen (81, p. 11) recognizes

    several eruptional phases from studies of the Grimsvötn activity in

    March and April of 1934. The first phase appears to be the formation of

    a great subglacial lake through extensive melting by volcanic heat. Melt–

    ing may go on independently of actual volcanic outbursts (110, p. 66).

    When this subglacial lake exceeds a certain level or reaches the edge

    of the icecap, a great flood or jökulhlaup rushes forth, carrying huge

    quantities of water, debris, and ice out over the sandy outwash areas

    or sandurs periferal to the ice. The second phase occurs when the erup–

    tion breaks through the icecap and ejects a huge column of ash and steam

    - high into the air. When the eruption subsides, a steaming crater lake

    remains, but in a year or two it is covered over by ice and snow. The

    outbursts of meltwater sometimes create great collapse craters or “ice–

    caldera,” a spectacular example of which was photographed from the air

    in the fall of 1945 (110, p. 64). This caldera, 2,600 feet in diameter

    and 260 feet deep, had a striking series of concentric boundary fractures.

    Ash, erupted from Grimsvötn in 1934, served as a valuable marker bed in

    studies of nourishment and wastage on Vatnajö [?] Vatnajökull (14, p. 39).

    019      |      Vol_I-0675                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            The moist maritime environment of Iceland gives its glaciers, par–

    ticularly those in the south, an extremely high rate of metabolism,

    featuring large accumulation and great ablation (5, pp. 171-88). Outlet

    glaciers such as Hoffellsjökull are extremely active even though

    they are receding and have a strong negative regime.

            Studies of Hoffellsjökull and Heinabergsjökull, outlets from the

    southeast margin of Vatnajökull, indicate that meteorological factors are

    more important than radiation as a cause of ablation in this area in a

    ratio of 60 to 40 (13, p. 228). It also appears that these glaciers are

    more susceptible to variations of temperature than to changes of precipi–

    tation (6, pp. 188-205). Great differences in ablation and accumulation

    over a 3-year period (1936-38) are recorded on Hoffellsjökull, but the

    net sum is a deficiency of about 3.3 billion cubic feet of water.

    Hoffellsjökull also has a relatively rapid rate of flow, the maximum

    recorded being 2,070 feet a year (107, p. 202).

    020      |      Vol_I-0676                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Fluctuations of Icelandic glaciers during historical time are relatively

    well documented. From the time of colonization, about A.D. 900, to at least

    the fourteenth century, glaciers in Iceland were less extensive than after

    1700 (108 p. 144). An advance, started in the early 1700’s, attained its

    climax about 1750. This was followed by alternate periods of stagnation or

    recessin, and advance (35, p. 134; 109, pp. 49-50). Two principal Hochstands

    can be distinguished, one in 1750-60 and one in 1840-50. Three lesser Hoch–

    are also recognized in the 1710’s, in the 1810’s, and about 1890,

    and further tendencies toward advance are distinguished about 1870, 1910,

    and at the beginning of the 1920’s and the 1930’s. Not all glaciers reached

    their most advanced position during the same climax. Some were most extended

    in 1750, some in 1850, and still others in 1890 (106, p. 194). These maxima

    are the greatest attained within historical time and possibly within the entire

    period subsequent to the great recession of the postglacial dry-warm period

    (4, pp. 198-200).

    021      |      Vol_I-0677                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            The recession that set in about 1890 has, with minor interruptions, gradually

    become accentuated until the 1930’s when it became almost catastrophic for many

    glaciers. Hoffellsjökull is estimated to have lost at least one-third of its

    volume by shrinkage alone in 45 years between 1890 and 1935 (106, p. 189).

    Recessions of glacier snouts of 3,000 to 10,000 feet between 1890 and 1936

    are reported (72, p. 193). However, as in many parts of the world, this re–

    cession has been punctuated by local aberrant advances of individual glaciers.

    o O utlet glaciers from Drangajökull have long been famous in this respect. The

    G g lacier of Kaldalon advanced 635 feet in 1935-40, that of Reykjar Fjord ad–

    vanced 2,460 feet in 1933-36, and that of Leiru Fjord 3,240 feet in 1938-42

    (36, p. 250). At Skeidararjökull conditions are abnormal owing to frequent vol–

    canic activities. Between 1904 and 1932 this ice front fluctuated con–

    siderably but showed an over - all advance. In 1929, it advanced suddenly,

    breaking newly erected telephone poles. Short-lived advances have also been

    reported for ice tongues of Vatnajökull (119, p. 228), and differential be–

    havior of ice fronts on the west rim of Hofsjökull and the southeast rim of

    Langjökull have been recorded (86, p. 49).



            The glaciological significance of Jan Mayen far outweighs its small size.

    Its location (71° N., 8° 30′ W.) 375 miles north-northeast of Iceland makes

    Jan Mayen a significant reference point in the vast Norwegian Sea.

    022      |      Vol_I-0678                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Glaciers on Jan Mayen are limited to a high volcanic peak, Mount Beerenberg

    (7,680 feet), at the northeast end of the island. Fifteen tongues protrude from

    the mantle of ice and snow covering the upper parts of this cone (59, p p. 168-78), and

    the total ice-covered area is about 45* square miles. Some of the tongues, par–

    ticularly those on the northeast, lie in valleys or shallow depressions, but

    others rest unconfined on the slopes of the cone as wall-sided glaciers (58, p.128).

    Kjerul k f , Svend Foyn, and Weyprecht glaciers, all draining the northeast slope,

    are tidal. Other glaciers, such as Wille, Grieg, and Friele, extend almost to

    sea level but apparently do not discharge bergs. Glaciers on the northeast slope

    are the most active, and of these Weyprecht, draining the inner crater of

    Beerenberg, is the largest and most active.

            Jan Mayen, like Iceland, appears to be an area of high glacier metabolism

    with high rates of accumulation and ablation (58, pp. 128-30). From 5,000 feet

    upward, rime appears to be an important form of nourishment, as might be antici–

    pated from the maritime environment.

            All glaciers except Svend Foyn and Kjerulf have morained abandoned by recent

    recession, and most glaciers appeared to be retreating in 1938. This recession

    probably took place from an advanced position attained during the Hochstand of

    the middle eighteenth century (108, p. 148), and two phases are distinguished.

    The earliest phase was a slow retreat which occurred prior to 1882-83 and left

    a massive outer moraine in front of Kerokhoff and other glaciers (59, p.180).

    The second phase is represented by a twofold set of terminal and laferal

    moraines, probably indicating some readvance (43, p. 106), at the snouts of

    South, Fotherby, and other glaciers. The whole of this later recession occurred

    after 1882-83 and probably followed the Hochstand of the middle or latter half

    of the nineteenth century (108, p. 148). Fresh moraines of this recession still

    have cores of ice (7 2 , p. 194). South Glacier receded 2,340 feet between 1882

    and 1938, and its surface was lowered 160 to 200 feet by ablation between

    1883 and 1937 (43, p. 107).

    023      |      Vol_I-0679                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers



            The islands of Svalbard have an extensive covering of ice, long a

    favored subject of glaciological studies and relatively well known through

    numerous explorations. Ice covers about 22,000 square miles (54, p. 109)

    or 80 to 85 per cent of the land.

            The largest island, West Spitsbergen, has three principal areas of high–

    land ice, one in Torell Land in the south, one in the northwest, and the most

    extensive in New Friesland to the northeast. The last mass is cited as a type

    specimen highland glacier (6, p. 192). The configuration and surface expres-

    sion of major highland glaciers in West Spitsbergen are influenced by the roll–

    ing relief of the dissected plateaus upon which they rest at elevations be–

    tween 2,000 and 3,000 feet. Peaks of 4,000-5,000 feet rise above the high–

    land glaciers, particularly along the west coast. Periferal to the major ice

    masses are numerous small independent icecaps and valley glaciers. Outlet

    glaciers flow as much as 28 miles outward from the inland ice through deep

    valleys, and many ultimately reach the sea. Others spread out on lowlands as

    expanded foot glaciers or merge with their neighbors to form piedmont sheets.

    Two exceptionally fine piedmont glaciers are reported from the Prince Charles

    Foreland, just west of West Spitsbergen (6, p. 199), and Svalbard provides the

    finest examples of these glaciers outsides of Alaska, the type area.

            The west coast of West Spitsbergen, particularly the northern part, has

    a s strong alpine aspect with sharp peaks and ridges and deep glacier-filled

    valleys. This is the area of “spitzen Berge” (54, p. 108). Independent valley

    and cirque glaciers are abundant in this and other mountainous area. In

    some districts, the heavy ice cover leads to development of transaction

    glaciers, which rival those of Alaska.

    024      |      Vol_I-0680                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Northeast Land, the second largest island, has been the site of

    considerable glaciological study, and its relatively simple ice bodies

    are among the best known in the Arctic. This is primarily an area of

    thin icecaps and highland glaciers resting on dissected plateaus. Three

    major ice bodies are distinguished and named , : West Ice, East Ice, and

    South Ice. East Ice is much the largest and is separated from West Ice

    by an ice-free valley joining the heads of Rijps and Wahlenberg bays.

    South Ice is separated from East Ice by a ling, ice-filled depression,

    but each mass has a separate crestal dome (1, p. 164). A mong the

    smaller separate caps, Glittne, Vega, Forsius, Backa, De Geer, and

    Ahlmann ices are commonly mentioned (50, p. 6). The larger inland

    ices all have outlet glaciers, many reaching the sea. Laponia

    Peninsula harbors a number of small cirque glaciers (50, p. 14), and

    in places along the coast is a well-developed ice foot (1, p. 164).

            West Ice covers 1,080 square miles and has a gently undulating sur–

    face with a succession of domes and hollows and some nunataks (49, p.

    202). It attains 2,000 to 2,100 feet elevation in its highest part.

    The ice is thin, and the influence of underlying bedrock topography is

    so apparent that Glen (49, pp. 207-208) considers West Ice a typical

    highland glacier dis t integrating into what may later become a number

    of small separate domes. The center thickness of West Ice is estimated at

    not more than 400 feet (50, p. 8). In many places the ice is probably

    only 5 65 to 250 feet thick, and even in valleys the thickness probably

    does not exceed 1,000 feet (51, pp. 67-69). The inland ice ends on

    land in many places with a feather edge (94, p. 455; 1, p. 165).

    025      |      Vol_I-0681                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Lady Franklin Glacier, draining westward, is the largest outlet from

    West Ice, Sabine and Rijps glaciers are notable outlets to the north and

    a number of glaciers pour over th e south rim of the plateau into Wahlen–

    berg Bay. In summer, melting on West Ice produces a succession of stages,

    ranging from a slushy firn mantle to a complex of superglacial ponds and

    streams on bare ice (51, pp. 139-40).

            East Ice, the largest mass on Northeast Land, covers 2,150 square

    miles (1, p. 168) . and flows in all directions from a nearly level

    central part at 2,000 to 2,400 feet elevation (50, p. 10). Its surface

    relief is more subdued than that of West Ice, and it appears to be more

    truly an icecap then a h gi ig hland glacier. It meets the sea in an ice

    cliff up to 165 feet high (50, pp. 10-11) and fully 80 miles long, in–

    terrupted only briefly at Isis Point (1, p. 168). This , the Dickson

    Ice Cliff, is said to be the largest feature of its kind outside Ant–

    arctica. Eton Glacier, draining west into Wahlenberg Bay, and Dove

    Glacier, draining northward, are two of the largest outlets of East

    Ice. Eton Glacier creates a large depression or draw-down similar

    to the exudation besins of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The central part

    of East Ice has an estimated thickness of 325 to 825 feet (50, p. 11).

    The great “canals” described by Nordenskiöld (55, p. 115), cutting

    across the southern part of East Ice, are now interpreted as large crevasses

    (94, p. 463; 1, pp. 169-70).

            South Ice covers 910 square miles with a central dome at 2,000 to

    2,300 feet elevation, and it appears to be true icecap. Six outlet

    glaciers project from South Ice over the steep edge of the plateau north

    tow e ard Wahlenberg Bay, but only four reach tidewater. On the south, the

    icecap itself reaches the sea and composes part of the 80-mile Dickson

    Ice Cliff.

    026      |      Vol_I-0682                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Vega Ice is a small plateau cap of 80* square miles, separated from

    South Ice by Erica Valley. It discharges northward through Palander

    Glacier into Palander Bay and southward by Rosenthal Glacier to Ulve Bay.

    Glittne, the largest of the small independent caps, covers 85* square

    miles, lies just west of Vega Ice, and discharges outlet glaciers north–

    ward into Palander Bay. The remaining independent caps are all smaller,

    and, insofar as known, none discharges to tidewater.

            Other glacier-bearing inlands of Svalbard are Barents and Edge,

    southeast of West Spitsbergen. Both have interior icecaps of 600 to

    1,200 square miles, which reach the sea directly and through outlet

    glaciers. Prince Charles foreland, west of West Spitsbergen, has two

    highland ice masses from which glaciers flow eastward to the sea or spread

    out on coastal lowlands as piedmont sheets. Great Island off the north–

    east corner of Northeast Land has an icecap rising in a flat dome on the

    higher, southern part of the island (1, p. 171). This ice reaches the sea

    in a cliff along its southern margin. Much the greater part of White Island,

    farther east, is covered by a domed icecap. Victoria Island, about mid–

    way between Svalbard and Franz Josef Land, has only a narrow strip of

    ice-free land along its north shore (1, p. 1 8 7 ). In the King Charles Land

    group, southeast of Northeast Land, small icecaps are shown on maps of

    Sven and King Islands. Other Svalbard islands may be ice-bearing, but

    specific information on this point has not been found.

    027      |      Vol_I-0683                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            The ice masses on Northeast Land have been classified on a geo–

    physical basis as subarctic (subpolar) ( 1, p. 291; 51, p. 145), although

    the large amount of meltwater and the isothermal condition of the firn

    during summer (79, pp. 225-27; 51, pp. 71-143) on West Ice suggest

    that it, at least, is not too far removed from a temperate condition.

    Thermal conditions in the firn of Isachsen Plateau on West Spitsbergen

    (101, pp. 53-88) indicate a similar condition for the highland glaciers

    of that island. The Fourteenth of July Glacier in West Spitsbergen is

    temperate throughout (3, p. 169), and this condition probably attains

    in other valley and outlet glaciers in Svalbard.

            Dynamically, the larger ice masses of Svalbard, and particularly

    of Northeast Land, are inactive or stagnant (1, p. 180). The conditions

    on Northeast Land are those of recession, passiveness, and stagnation.

    The small independent icecaps are said to be mostly stagnant and wasting

    away in situ (1, p. 166; 49, p. 298). Parts of West Ice are also ab–

    solutely stagnant (49, p. 204).

            Outlet glaciers and some valley glaciers are the only ice bodies

    showing much activity, and even these do not display exceptional veloci–

    ties. Maximum movement recorded on Fourteenth of July Glacier is 6.5

    inches per day (12, p. 57). Nordenskiöld Glacier moved 1.9 feet per

    day in August 1921 (95, p. 436), and King Fjord Goacier has attain–

    ed a peak rate of 6.5 feet per day (87).

    028      |      Vol_I-0684                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Throughout Svalbard, glaciers are experiencing a recession from

    their stage of maximum advance during the first half of middle of the

    nineteenth century (108, p. 145). In West Spitsbergen, most glaciers

    terminating in fjords appear to have attained this maximum position

    about 50 years earlier than those terminating on land (1, p. 186).

    Moraines left by the Hochstand of 1890 are reported at the snout of

    Fourteenth of July Glacier (3 3 , p. 206.) Recession has been more

    pronounced since about 1920, and almost catastrophic in some instances

    since about 1930. As usual, recession has not been uniform from place

    to place or from time to time, and it has not proceeded without inter–

    ruption (1, pp. 180-85; 1935b 3 , p. 204). Lady Franklin Glacier, for ex–

    ample, receded about 1.75 miles from 1899 to 1936, but part of its

    front experienced a notable advance between 1931 and 1938.

            Studies of thermal conditions in the firn of Isachsen Plateau,

    West Spitsbergen, showed that early summer temperatures in the firn were

    markedly different from place to place and that changes were likewise

    highly erratic (101). The winter’s cold front penetrated to a depth

    of 10 meters, but by the end of July the firn was isothermal at 0°C.

    Most warming of the firn is produced by freezing of downward percola–

    ting meltwater, which adds to the thickness of ice bands in the firn.

    029      |      Vol_I-0685                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Through analyses of ablation (2, pp. 43-52) and its controlling

    factors were made by the Norwegian-Swedish Spitsbergen expedition of

    1934 (102). Unfortunately, space does not permit a detailed accounting

    of all results from this work. It was shown that between June 26 and

    August 15, 1934, on Isachsen Plateau, 56 per cent of the total ablation

    was due to radiation and 44 per cent to meteorological factors such as

    conduction, convection, and condensation. Only 3.5 per cent of the

    ablation was by evaporation. For the entire Fourteenth of July Glacier,

    ablation proved to be 45 per cent by radiation and 55 per cent by

    meteorological factors.



            Novaya Zemlya is bisected transversely by Matochkin Shar. The south–

    ern island, low and featureless in its south part, rises northward to

    heights of 2,8000 feet. The high northwestern part harbors a few small

    glaciers, the only ice on the southern island.

            North of Matachkin Shar, more rugged country rises to 3,500 feet and

    contains a number of alpine glaciers. North of 74°N. the ice cover be–

    comes heavier and takes on the characteristics of a highland glacier

    (73, p. 157). Outlet glaciers from this inland ice reach tidewater on

    both coasts. One of the greatest outlets, 35 miles in length, empties

    into Glazova Bay on the west coast.

    030      |      Vol_I-0686                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            North of 75°N., the inland ice becomes a cap lying on a dissected

    plateau at elevations between 2,000 and 3,000 feet. Several crossings

    of this can have been made and its surface is described as only slightly

    undulating (56, p. 374). Here, much the larger part of the land is

    covered, and large, broad outlet glaciers extend to the sea on both

    sides. Some of these glaciers end in spectacular ice cliffs, 130 to

    165 feet high and 8 to 9 miles long. However, at the northern end of

    the island the cap is separated from the sea by a strip of land several

    miles wide (32, p. 74). In the northwest, outlet glaciers descend

    steeply to the sea from rugged country of nearly 3,500 feet elevation.

            The total area of ice and Novaya Zemlya is 5,800 square miles, cover–

    ing approximately one-sixth the land (54, p. 121). This ice is thought

    to be thin, averaging less than 800 feet and not exceeding 1,400 feet

    (42, p. 59).

            Evidences of glacier recession are widespread as ice fronts lie a

    mile or more behind old and moraines (73, p. 158; 65, p. 131). Accord–

    ing to Thorarinsson (108, p. 145), the present glaciers are receding,

    thinning, stationary, and, in some inst r a nces, dead. However, a report

    of the International Committee on Glaciers in 1896 (89, p. 379) noted

    that glaciers of Novaya Zemlya were increasing. Perhaps, they were

    then nearing their maxima of the 1890 Hochstand . Lavrova (65, p. 131)

    has data indicating that Novaya Zemlyan glaciers experienced intense

    melting and reduction within postglacial time prior to advances of

    recent centuries.

    031      |      Vol_I-0687                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers



            Franz Josef Land consists of at least 75 separate islands nearly all

    of which have extensive, and in at least 12 instances complete, covers of

    ice (32, pp. 66-67). Most islands have only a few capes or a narrow

    coastal strip free of ice, although some of the smallest islands are

    shown on recent maps as wholly devoid of ice. Ice is said to cover 87

    per cent of Hooker and 93 per cent of Leigh Smith, two of the larger

    islands (54, p. 109). The largest single icecap with 1,150* square miles

    is on George Land, the next with 775* square miles occupies Wilczek Land,

    and the third with 663* square miles lies on Graham Bell Island. For

    the most part Franz Josep Land island have elevations a few hundred to

    2,000 feet above sea level. Wilczek Land has the highest point (2,411

    feet) and seemingly the most rugged topography.

            The glaciers are pre-eminently icecaps with only a few outlet ice

    streams, but every cap appears to reach the sea directly. The total area

    of ice is 6,560 square miles (54, p. 121), and if the total area of land

    is the 7,000 square miles cited by Flint (42, p. 58) or the 7,720 square

    miles given by Mecking (73, p. 151), the land is 85 to 93 per cent

    covered. This is said to be the most polar-appearing area outside of

    Greenland (73, p. 153). Thickness of the ice probably does not exceed

    500 to 600 feet (42, p. 59), and motion within the glaciers is slow

    (55, p. 106). Movement of Jury Glacier has been measured at 5 to 7

    inches per day (54, p. 109). The glaciers of Franz Josef Land are

    stationary (108, p. 145), or receding (72, p. 194).

    032      |      Vol_I-0688                                                                                                                  
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            Komsomolets, Pioneer, October Revolution, and Bolshevik, the four

    principal islands composing this archipelago, all have extensive icecaps,

    but no ice is shown or reported on smaller islands. The ice masses appear

    to be true caps lying on low, broad, somewhat dissected plateaus at ele–

    vations up to 2,300 feet. Local relief is not great and outlet glaciers

    are sparse, the west coast of Bolshevik Island id di splaying the best

    examples. Caps on October Revolution and to a smaller extent on

    Komsomolets Island reach the sea directly along broad fronts. At some

    places the land is so low that glacier ice is distinguished from the

    arctic pack with difficulty (32, p. 70). The caps are thought to be

    no more than 600 to 800 feet thick ( Flint, 1947 42 , p. 60).

            About 6,400* square miles of ice covers 42 per cent of the land

    (42, p. 59) with the following distribution: on Komsomolets Island a

    large cap of 2,310* square miles and a small cap of 158* square miles,

    total 2,468* square miles; on Pioneer Island a single small cap of 150*

    square miles; on October Revolution Island four rather large caps of

    740* square miles (southwest), 628* square miles (east), 625* square

    miles (south ), and 650* square miles (north), total 2,643* square miles;

    on Bolshevik Island a western icecap of 785* square miles and an east–

    ern cap of 348* square miles, total 1,133* square miles. October Revolu–

    tion Island has the greatest area of ice, but the central cap of

    Komsomolets Island is by far the largest single ice body.

    033      |      Vol_I-0689                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            The percentage ice coverage on the three largest islands is 21

    per cent on Bolshevik, 45 per cent on October Revolution, and 65 per

    cent on Komsomolets. This increase in total ice coverage from southeast

    to northwest is attributed more to proximity of the northwestern island s to

    the open ocean of the North A tlantic than to topography or latitude

    (44, p. 92). Decrease in degree of glacial coverage from west to

    east in the Siberian Arctic is due chiefly to a decreasing supply

    of moisture. The glaciers of Severnaya Zemlya were receding, stagnant,

    or dead in 1930-32 (108, p. 145; 31, p. 179).



            The New Siberian Islands are generally considered to be free of glaciers

    (73, pp. 177-81; 44, p. 92). The fossil stone ice mentioned by Drygalski

    and Machatschek (31, p. 179) is probably ground ice. Lack of glaciers is

    partly a product of low elevation but more the result of isolation from

    a suitable source of moisture (44, p. 93).

            The small islands of Semenovski and Vasilevski lie east of the New

    Siberian group in the Laptev Sea at 74° 17′ N., 133° 30′ E. In 1823,

    both were covered by ice, but by 1936, the ice on Semenovski had shrunk

    to one-eighth its former size and had entirely disappeared from

    Vasilevski. (108, p. 146).

            Bennett Island, east-northeast of the New Siberian group at 76° 40'

    N., 149 N., 149° E. has an icecap on its 1,000-foot-high basalt plateau from which

    several small glaciers descend to the coast (31, p. 179; 42, p. 60).

    034      |      Vol_I-0690                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Farther east, islands of the De Long group are said to have caps of

    ice from some of which small tongues project almost to the shore (73, p.

    181; 31, p. 179). Still farther east, Wrangell Island is said to carry

    ice (31, p. 179), but this is contradicted by maps and by other state–

    ments (44, p. 92).

            Nothing is known concerning glacier regimes on these various islands,

    but the shrinkage of ice masses on Semenovski and Vasilevski Islands

    suggests that they have all diminished considerably in the past few




            Scandinavian glaciers are the largest of the European Continent.

    They cover about 2,416 square miles (42, p. 60), some 310 square miles

    of which are in Sweden. The principal ice bodies are flat to dome–

    shaped caps resting on broad plateaus. The largest, Jostedalsbrae,

    occupies a broad Miocene peneplain remnant (99, p. 20). These are

    type e m x amples of Nordenskjöld’s (82, p. 25) plateau glaciers. Outlet

    glaciers and tongues project to lower levels from the principal caps,

    but none reaches tidewater. Most glacier fields also contain inde–

    pendent valley and cirque glaciers.

    035      |      Vol_I-0691                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            The ice of Scandinavia shows a preference for high areas and coastal

    environments. The two most heavily covered areas are in the southern,

    highest part of Scandinavia, and in the northern highlands. The southern–

    most ice mass appears to be Folgefonna Icecap of 108 square miles (31, p. 154)

    on an upland at 5,423 feet maximum elevation south of Hardanger Fjord

    (60° N., 6° 20′ E.). Two large outlet glaciers flow from this cap. About

    60 miles farther northeast, inland from the head of Hardanger Fjord, are

    smaller caps including Hardanger Icecap of about 52 square miles at 6,109

    feet maximum elevation (60° 35′ N., 7° 25′ E.). Small icecaps dot the upland

    north to Sogne Fjord, and farther north, at 61° 40′ N., 7° E., is the great

    Jostedal glacier field including Jostedalsbrae, the largest icecap in

    Scandinavia. This cap covers 365 square miles and has 25 outlet glaciers

    and tongues extending to lower elevations from its maximum height of 5,653 feet.

    Tungbergdalsbrae, the largest outlet, is 8.7 miles long by 0.6 to 1.25 miles

    wide and extends down to 1,335 feet elevation. Numerous smaller satelletic

    icecaps and independent glaciers, some with elevations of 7,000 feet, cluster

    around Jostedalsbrae and raise the total ice-covered area to at least 646

    square miles and possibly 785 square miles. To the west on the coast at

    about the same latitude is the [?] alfot Cap of 48 square miles, and 40 miles

    to the east are the cirque and valley glaciers of the famed Jotunheim district,

    including the highest peak of Scandinavia, 8,097 feet.

    036      |      Vol_I-0692                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Between 62° and 65° N. is a great stretch of ice-free land, and at

    65° 20′ N., 13° 45′ E. are small icecaps and cirque and valley glaciers

    at about 5,500 feet in the Børge Mountains. The much larger glacier

    field at Okstinder (66° N., 14° 10′ E.) covers 29 square miles with

    three separate caps, several outlet glaciers, and many independent

    valley, cirque, and hanging glaciers * ( 31, p. 156). Farther north is the

    Svartisen glacier field (66° 40′ N., 14° E.), at maximum elevation

    5,246 feet, the most extensive ice-bearing area of northern Scandina–

    via. Several large outlet glaciers flow from the two major icecaps

    of this field, and one outlet, Engabrae, extends almost to sea level.

    Many small satellitic caps and independent glaciers augment the total

    ice coverage reported as 175 square miles (31, p. 156) to 385 square

    miles (54, p. 98). Rough planimetric measurements indicate that the

    smaller figure is probably more nearly correct.

    037      |      Vol_I-0693                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Along the Norwe i gian-Swedish border, between 67° and 67° 30′ N., are

    several icecaps such as Sulitelma, Blamandsisen, and other smaller caps

    and independent glaciers at 5,000 to 6,000 feet elevation. Some of

    these extend into Sweden or lie largely in that country. About 40

    miles farther east in Sweden at this latitude are the Partef and Sarekt

    Mountains, both bearing small alpine glaciers at elevations between

    6,700 and 7,000 feet. Glaciers of the Sarekt Mountains, numbering more

    than 200, have long been subjects of glaciological study (54, p. 98).

    Glimajalos Glacier of about 9 square miles is the largest; Mikka Glacier

    is about 3 miles long. Farther north on Kebnekaise Mountain (7,005

    feet), at 67° 54′ N., 18° 30′ E., is a cluster of small alpine glaciers

    including Stor Glacier, 2.2 miles long by 2,600 feet wide (53). The

    northernmost glaciers of Sweden appear to be small alpine glaciers on

    Mount Marmat (6,565 feet) and on the high ridge to the north, south of

    Torne-Träsk, at 68° 8′ to 68° 12′ N. Among these is the well-known

    Kårsa Glacier west of Abisko (12, p. 4).


    038      |      Vol_I-0694                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Westward in Norway at about the same latitude are several small icecaps,

    notably on Storsl i lins Mountain (5,722 feet) and neighboring peaks at 5,000

    to 6,000 feet. This region is also dotted with many small alpine glaciers.

    At the head of Ofot Fjord is the Frostisen Massif with 12 square miles of

    ice, including steep ice tongues and a reconstructed glacier. Islands of

    the Lofoten group at this same latitude are said to have many small cirque

    glaciers (31, p. 156). Northward, the Norwegian mainland is sprinkled with

    small icecaps and alpine glaciers. Two of the larger caps are those on

    Jaegge Mountain (6,286 feet), at 69° 28′ N., 19° 50′ E., and Oksfjord Glacier

    on a plateau at 3,871 feet close to the coast, 70° 10′ N., 220 E. This glacier

    is said to have an area of about 73 square miles (54, p. 98), which would make

    it easily one of the largest icecaps in northern Scandinavia. Measurements

    on the latest maps indicate an area of not more than 15 square miles, so per–

    haps the earlier figure is in error. The northernmost Scandinavian glaciers

    appear to be two icecaps, at 5,218 feet and 3,527 feet, covering a combined

    area of 15 to 20 miles on the island of Seiland at 70° 25′ N., 23° 5-15′ E.

            The available data indicate that Scandinavian glaciers are not especially

    active or fa [?] t-flowing. Maximum average movements of 3.15 inches per day on

    Styggedal and of 2.84 inches per day on Kåarsa glaciers have been recorded

    (12, p. 57). These are both small glaciers; some of the large outlet

    glaciers from Jostedalsbrae undoubtedly have higher velocities.

    039      |      Vol_I-0695                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Study of fluctuations in Scandinavian glaciers has established a

    pattern for investigating and evaluating glacier behavior in North

    Atlantic regions (12, pp. 67-68). It was here that the so-called

    “climatic improvement” and its deteriorating effects on glaciers was

    first analyzed in detail. It should also be noted that the Scandina–

    vian area was the first to give birth to the idea that small alpine

    glaciers have been regenerated following the postglacial warm-dry

    period. This concept was put forth as early as 1896 by Hamberg as

    a result of his studies in the Kvikkjokk district of Sweden (72,

    p. 207).

    040      |      Vol_I-0696                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Principal oscillations of Norwegian glaciers have been summarized by

    Thorarinsson (108, p. 139). Following a minimal stand about 1700 (37), a

    strong advance occurred in the first half of the eighteenth century and

    reached its maximum about 1750. This Hochstand has generally not been

    reached by subsequent advances which took place in the 1810’s, in the

    period from the late 1830’s to 1850, and about 1890. This is well illus–

    trated by end moraines near the snout of Styggedal Glacier where an inner,

    unvegetated series was formed at the end of the eighteenth or beginning

    of the nineteenth century (11, p. 11).

    040a      |      Vol_I-0697                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Some Swedish glaciers advanced slightly or were stationary in 1897

    (90, p. 473), but before and since that time seem to have had a history

    paralleling that in Norway (11, p. 69). Detailed study of outlets from

    Jostedal s brae shows that the recession and shrinkage which set in subsequent

    to 1890 have been interrupted by advances in 1905-1906 and 1924 (11, p. 12).

    The periodic variations of these glaciers match the meteorological record

    (37; 38). The late history of other Norwegian glaciers is a slight advance

    in 1901-1902, with subsequent slow recession increasing to about 1912, and

    with stagnation developing in some instances about 1906-1907. Oscillations

    occurred between 1912 and 1932 but with recession maintaining the upper hand.

    Since 1932, recession and shrinkage have been accelerated, and if continued will

    prove catastrophic for Norwegian glaciers (7, p. 122). Exposure of old arrows

    buried in firn fields suggests that the present melting exceeds any since

    Roman times (108, p. 139). Modern deterioration is emphasized by rapid

    recession of glacier snouts from 100 to more than 2,000 feet per year (38).

    Styggedal Glacier on the Horung Massif, in Jotunheim, lost 189.2 million

    cubic feet of ice between 1919 and 1935 (7, p. 111). It is concluded that

    this recent deterioration is due largely to a rise in temperature causing

    an increase in ablation primarily by lengthening the ablation season.

    041      |      Vol_I-0698                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers



            Prior to 1929, the Ural Mountains were assumed to be ice-free, but

    in that year small cirque glaciers were discovered in protected spots on

    the eastern and northeastern slopes of Sablia Mountains, in which the

    highest point is Sablia Peak (5,407 feet) at 64° 50′ N. (15, p. 57).

    About a dozen additional small cirque glaciers have since been discov–

    ered in this region (16), and latest reports give the total number as

    15 (31, p. 179). These are located principally on slopes of the

    Sablia Mountains between 64° and 65° N., and on Narodnaia Peak (6,184

    feet), 31 miles to the northeast, the highest point in the Urals.

    Hofmann Glacier on Sablia Peak with a length of 0.6 mile is one of

    the largest. It has a typical banded internal structure and consists

    of ice at least 220 years old (15, pp. 58-61). The snout at 2,300

    feet elevation had, in 1929, an abandoned moraine 25 to 35 feet high

    and 50 to 60 feet beyond the ice front. Wind drifting and favorable

    northeast exposure are considered important factors in the formation

    and preservation of these glaciers.

    042      |      Vol_I-0699                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers



            The glaciers of continental Siberia have been described as small in

    number and size in spite of the cold climate and many highlands. Recent

    Russian explorations and reports indicate that Siberian glaciers are in c d eed

    small but more numerous than thought heretofore. The known glaciers, all

    of alpine variety, are restricted to the following highlands at the approxi–

    mate altitudes noted (44, p. 92): Saian Mountains (52° N., 95° E.) at

    10,000 feet; Verkhoianek Mountains (62° N., 142° E.) at 7,000 to 8,000

    feet; several localities in the Cherski i Mountains at 8,500 feet and possibly

    lower; Koriak Mountains (62° N., 173° E.) at 2,700 to 4,000 feet; Anadyr

    Mountains (62° N., 177° E.) at 3,000 feet in the eastern and 4,000 feet in

    the south-central part; and the high volcanic peaks of Kamchatka Peninsula

    (56° N., 160° E.).

            Explorations in the 1940’s along headwaters of Indigirka River in

    the Cherski i and Verkhoiansk ranges have revealed many new glaciers (87b).

    Approximately 46 valley and hanging glaciers plus 36 minor firn fields are

    reported on Buordskh Mountain Ridge (65° N., 146° E.), a part of the Cherski i

    range rising to 9,515 feet and lying each of Moma River. The total area

    covered by glaciers, omitting firn fields, is about 30 square miles (87a).

    Farther west in the Cherski i Range, Mount Chon, 10,215 feet, the highest

    peak in the northeastern Siberia and known for some time to be glacier–

    bearing, is now reported to harbor considerable group of small glaciers


    042a      |      Vol_I-0700                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Explorations and mapping of the newly discovered Suantar Khaiata

    Mountain Ridge (62° N., 142° E.), a southern spur of the Verkhoiansk Range

    rising to 9,000 feet, have located at least 114 small cirque and valley

    glaciers (17b; 87a). The largest of these is a valley glacier, 6 miles long,

    2.5 miles wide, and estimated to be 500 to 650 feet thick, at the head of

    Kongor and Setania rivers. The total area of ice here is said to be about

    36 square miles, although one publication reports more than 250 glaciers

    and an ice-covered area in excess of 200 square miles (5 5 1 a; 87a). The

    highest peak in Siberia, Kliuchevsk a i a i at 15,912 feet on Kamchatka Peninsula,

    is a good example of an intermittently active volcano with glacier-clad slopes

    (31, p. 170).

            It seems likely that further explorations will add substantially to

    the number of known Siberian glaciers and to the ice-covered area which may

    now be conservatively estimated at perhaps 200 square miles. Siberian

    glaciers appear to be remnants of more extensive alpine glaciers and all are

    said to be shrinking and disappearing (87b). The relatively small size of

    these glaciers and their geographical limitation of highland areas are

    attributed largely to the great distance from suitable sources of moisture

    (44, p. 93).

    042b      |      Vol_I-0701                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers



            The areas treated here are the mountains of northeastern Labrador

    and the ranges of the Canadian cor c d illera north of latitude 60°. The

    well-known glaciers of the Canadian Rockies and the smaller ice masses

    of the central plateau and mountain area (19, pp. 43-45) west of the

    Rockies and south of 60° N. are not considered. Extensive ice bodies in

    the Coast Mountains and the St. Elias Range are described in conjunction

    with Alaskan glaciers. Like Siberia, most of the continental Canada has

    only a few small glaciers, even though much of it is cold and many parts

    are relatively high. Lack of sufficient moisture is again a principal


    043      |      Vol_I-0702                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            The Torngat and Kaumajet Mountains of northeastern Labrador with

    peaks in excess of 5,000 feet (Cirque Peak, 5,500 feet) contain the only

    glaciers of continental eastern North America. These “glacierettes”

    lie in deep cirques on northern, eastern, or northeastern slopes. The

    best known is Bryant Glacier on the northern slope of Mount Tetragona

    (4,511 feet, 59° 18′ N., 63° 54′ W.) first described in detail by E. S. Bry–

    ant (45, pp. 34-35). Other glacierettes are reported on Mount Razor–

    back, the Four Peaks (4,140 to 4,416 feet), and other Torngat peaks

    to the south and east (85, p. 212). The ice body on Razorback descends

    to 1,200 feet and is one-third to one-half mile long (45, p. 47). A

    small perennial ice mass on the northeast side of Brave Mountain (4, 200

    200 to 4,400 feet) in the Kaumajet Mountains (57° 45′ N.) is cited

    as probably the southernmost glacier in eastern North America. If

    current maps are correct, the Kaumajet Mountains lie on Cod Island,

    so this glacier is not continental.

            Bryant Glacier receded 250 to 300 feet between 1908 and 1931. In

    that year it was judged to be in a state of recession and only one step

    removed from stagnation (83, pp. 205-206). The accelerated west–

    age of recent times has probably caused further deterioration of these

    glaciers and perhaps the destruction of some.

            The principal glacier-bearing areas of the Canadian cordillera,

    as limited above, are the Selwyn and Mackenzie mountain ranges. The

    rugged Logan Mountains composing the southern part of the Selwyns con–

    tain numerous small alpine glaciers and ice fields in an area centering

    around Brintnell Lake and Mount Sir James MacBrien (9,049 feet, 62° 10′ N.,

    N., 127° 45′ W.). Some of the ice fields are more than 3 miles long

    (19, pp. 53-58).

    044      |      Vol_I-0703                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Keele (60, p. 46) early described a small glacier in the Itsi Range

    on Upper Ross River in the central Selwyn Mountains. The Wernecke Moun–

    tains composing the northern part of the Selwyns contain a few small

    glaciers and ice fields among peaks 6,000 to 7 . , 500 feet high at 64°

    40′ N., 135° W. (19, p. 58).

            The Backbone Ranges of the Mackenzie Mountains constitute the

    higher more rugged part of this chain between 62° and 65° N. The rela–

    tively dry northeast flank is devoid of glaciers, but the moister south–

    west slope has a number of small slpine glaciers (19, p. 28). Late

    maps also show a valley glacier in the westernmost part of the Mackenzie

    Mountains (65° 17′ N., 140° W.) near the Alaska border.

            Nothing is known con v c erning the current state of health of these

    Canadian cordilleran glaciers, but it is likely they have receded in

    recent years.

    045      |      Vol_I-0704                                                                                                                  
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            The glaciers of this region have been glowingly described as among

    the largest outside of polar regions (48, p. 9; 103, p. 1). Although

    this may be an overly enthusiastic description, it is true that southern

    Alaska and contiguous parts of Canada bordering the Gulf of Alaska

    provide an exceptionally fine display of valley, transaction, inter–

    montane, and piedmont glaciers. One should note that the most heavily

    glaciated parts of this area are neither are northernmost nor the high–

    est. Rather, those areas which combine a modestly high elevation with

    copious supplies of moisture contain the greatest glaciers. This in–

    cludes the Coast Mountains as far south as 56° 30′ N., the St. Elias

    Mountains, the Chugach Range, and the Kenai Mountains. The snow line

    rises rapidly inland so that interior ranges such as the Wrangell,

    Talkeetna, Aleutian, and the Alaska, although in many instances higher

    in altitude and latitude than coastal ranges, have less extensive

    covers of ice.

    046      |      Vol_I-0705                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            The area of most intense glacier development centers around the

    high peaks of the St. Elias Mountains and the Fairweather Range, which

    rise abruptly 10,000 to 15,000 feet above the Pacific e and culminate in

    Mount Logan at 19,850 feet. It is here that great storms sweeping in

    from the Gulf of Alaska leave their heaviest snows. This area contains

    long valley glaciers such as the Hubbard, 80 to 90 miles, great inter–

    montane glaciers such as the Seward and Brady (72, p. 152), many tran–

    section glaciers, and type examples of piedmont sheets in the Bering

    and Malaspina glaciers (93, p. 176). This is also a region per excel–

    lence for tidal glaciers. The ice coverage tapers off southward in

    the Coast Mountains where cirque and valley glaciers are the rule,

    although even here some ice streams are fed from highland ices, like

    that north of Juneau, and many extend to tidewater as far south as 57° N.

    N. Westward, the Chugach Mountains and other high areas around Prince

    William Sound have extensive glacier coverage. In parts of the Kenai

    Mountains, the ice practically attains the state of highland glaciers.

    047      |      Vol_I-0706                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            The Aleutian Range, although bordering Cook Inlet on the west, is

    relatively distant from major sources of moisture, and its environment

    is more continental. Its glaciers, although wholly creditable in the

    higher parts between Iliamna Volcano and Mount Gerdine, are more restrict–

    ed. Alpine glaciers and small icecaps are the principal types. Talkeetna

    Mountains (62° N., 149° W.) are distinctly continental and contain rela–

    tively small cirque and valley glaciers. Wrangell Mountains have one of

    the most compact glacier systems in Alaska. This is partly due to a

    topography that permits development of an extensive cover of upland ice.

    A lofty elevation, in excess of 16,000 feet, and somewhat lower coastal

    mountains to the south and southwest are also significant factors. The

    Alaska Range fails to produce glaciers in keeping with its pre-eminent

    elevation on the North American Continent (Mount McKinley, 20,300 feet).

    Glaciers are clustered chiefly around Mount McKinley in the western,

    Mount Hayes in the central, and Mount Kimball in the eastern parts of

    this range. Cirque and relatively long valley glaciers are the common


    048      |      Vol_I-0707                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Glaciers are scattered among high peaks along the Alaska Peninsula with

    Veniaminof Volcano (8,400 feee) having the greatest cover of ice in the form of

    a small cap with outlet tongues. High peaks of the Aleutian Islands are also

    ice-bearing. Most Aleutian glaciers are on the three large eastern islands of

    Unimak, Unalaska, and Umnak. Mount Shishaldin on Unimak, at 9,372 feet, the

    highest peak in the Aleutians, has a permanent mantle of ice and snow, but it

    may not be glacier-bearing in the strictest sense, for the ice may have slumped

    rather than flowed. However, Isanotski Peak just to the east has a number of

    small glaciers, and Roundtop nearby is also glacier-bearing. Pogromni, a smok–

    ing volcanic cone, at the west end of Unimak has at least two large valley

    glaciers. Unalaska Island, although not as lofty as its neighbors, has an

    extremely rugged terrain favorable to the protection and growth of cirque and

    valley glaciers, and it has the heaviest ice cover in the Aleutian chain.

            High peaks at the west end of Umnak Island, including Recheschnoi Volcano

    (6,920 feet) and Mount Vsevidof, have small glaciers on their north sides. In

    1945, volcanic eruptions and a lava g f low caused melting of a glacier on Okmok

    Volcano at the east end of Umnak (92, p.514). Westward in the Aleutians, glaciers

    are fewer as the peaks are generally lower. Korovin Volcano o n Atka, at about

    174° 10 W., is said to have glaciers (103, p.18), and five glacie r s are reported

    (94a, pp.59-65) on Great Sitkin Island (52° 5′ N., 176° 8′ W.). Tanaga Volcano

    (6,975 feet) on Tanaga Island (51° 55′ N., 178° W.) is certainly high enough to

    bear glaciers, but no specific reports on the nature of its ice mantle have been


            Gareloi Island (5,334 feet) with two ice streams is the westernmost

    (178° 54′ W.) Aleutian island yet reported to be glacier-bearing (23a, p.98).

    049      |      Vol_I-0708                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            In the interior of Alaska, small glaciers persist in the central

    part of the Tikchik Mountains north of Bristol Bay (60° N., 159° 30′ W.)

    among peaks of 5,000 feet elevation (75, p. 14). Glaciers are also

    reported on Mount Oratia (5,400 feet) in the Kilbuck Mountains a bit

    farther north, and on the Seward Peninsula (103, p. 19).

            The Brooks Range of northern Alaska is a massive range rising to

    elevations above 9,000 feet, but containing only a few small glaciers be–

    cause of a deficiency in moisture. At its west end, small cirque glaciers

    are reported in the Beird end Endicott Mountains at the heads of the Noatak

    and Koyukuk rivers (96, p. 32). The principal glacier-bearing area in

    the Brooks Range is farther east on the north slope of the Romanzof

    Mountains. Here, one valley glacier attains a length of 10 miles,

    dozens are up to 3 miles long, and there are scores of cliff and cirque glaciers

    (66, p. 156). These ice bodies cluster around Mounts Chamberlin (9,131

    feet) and Michelson (9,239 feet), and in the high country at the head

    of the Canning, Sadlerochit, Hulahula, Okpilak, Jago, and Aichillik

    rivers. The largest in Okpilak Glacier at the head of the west fork

    of Okpilak River with an area of about 10 square miles and a thickness

    of at least 200 feet. Mount Chamberlin and Mount Salisbury may also

    have small icecaps.

            In total, Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada contain thousands

    of glaciers. Those of Alaska cover an estimated 20,000 square miles or

    slightly more than 3 per cent of the Territory(21, p. 1). The con–

    tiguous parts of Canada contain at least another 5,000 square miles

    of ice, so it is readily apparent that the major part of the 30,890

    square miles of ice on the North American continent lies in this area.

    050      |      Vol_I-0709                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            The coastal glaciers of southern and southeastern Alaska are re–

    latively easy of access and have been extensively studied, particularly

    in Glacier, Lituya, and Yakutat bays, Prince William Sound, and lower

    Copper River. Fortunately, early explorations by Bering, Cook, Vancouver,

    La Perouse, and others left records, which permit relatively accurate re–

    counting of glacier behaviors for the past 15 9 0 to 200 years. This is

    also a region in which extensive shrinkage and recession during the post–

    glacial warm-dry period were early recognized (48, p. 103), and later

    more firmly established (26, pp. 18,21). Glaciers in Prince William

    Sound, Glacier Bay, and other parts of southern Alaska (48, p. 103;

    117, pp. 888,891; 40, p. 78; 25, pp. 38-39) are uncovering by their

    present recession the stumps and remains of forests, which grew far

    up the valleys when ice masses were much reduced during the warm-dry

    period (24, pp. 88-93). Readvances, probably within the last 4,000

    years (72, p. 210-11), brought these glaciers to their maximum posi–

    tions within postglacial time.

    051      |      Vol_I-0710                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            The climax of advance has been attained at various places at

    different times. It seems to have culminated in Glacier Bay about 150

    to 200 years ago (25, p. 47), as recession of only 3 to 6 miles had

    occurred at the time of Vancouver’s visit in 1794. In parts of Prince

    William Sound and on the western slopes of the Fairweather Range, the

    glaciers are now at their most advanced position in centuries or have

    but recently receded from such maxima (39, p. 371; 40, pp. 69, 72;

    26, pp. 4, 17). Other glaciers have culminated their advances at in–

    termediate times. La Perouse Glacier was at its maximum in 1899

    (48, p. 103), having advanced since La Perouse’s visit in 1786 (61,

    p. 526; 74, p. 122). The glaciers of Port Wells attained their peak

    about 50 to 100 years ago. The coastal glaciers of Alaska appear to

    have attained their postglacial Hochstands at various times within the

    last 200 years. In view of this irregularity, one may be permitted

    to wonder how successful attempts will be in Alaska to distinguish

    the Hochstands of 1850 and 1890 so widely recognized in other parts

    of the world.

    052      |      Vol_I-0711                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Even at present, behaviors of individual Alaskan glaciers are no–

    toriously out of phase. Since attaining their maximum postglacial posi–

    tions, many Alaskan glaciers have been in r e a pid retreat. One of the

    most noteworthy recessions is the 60-mile retreat of Muir Glacier in

    Glacier Bay since 1794 (72, pp. 198-99). Field (41, p. 369) calculates

    that the ice-covered area draining to Muir Inlet has been reduced about

    35 per cent, or 175 square miles, during the last two-thirds of a

    century. The Muir Glacier of the 1890’s has been disme n m bered into

    12 separate glaciers by this recession. Shrinkage and recession of

    equal proportions have undoubtedly occurred in other parts of Alaska,

    and great shrinkage of interior Alaskan-Canadian glaciers is recorded

    by H. B. Washburn (113, pp. 220-22).

            The earliest detailed study of Alaskan coastal glaciers (48,

    p. 104) recognized and emphasized that closely associated glaciers

    display markedly dissimilar behaviors. In the century between 1794

    and 1894, a glacier in Glacier Bay receded 45 miles while another

    only 20 miles away advanced 5 miles. In Lituya Bay, two glaciers

    advanced an average of 3 miles in 108 years while a third glacier

    lying geographically between them receded (74, p. 123). This dis–

    cordant behavior continues today at many places along the coast (40;

    26, p. 41). One of the most consist a e ntly advancing glaciers in Taku

    (58° 26′ N., 134° 3′ W.), the snout of which moved forward 7,600

    feet between 1909 and 1931 (117, p. 892), and continues to advance.

    Its neighboring glaciers, some of which drain from the same snow

    fields, are receding.

    053      |      Vol_I-0712                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            One of the most erratic behaviors recorded in recent times is that

    of Black Rapids Glacier, draining from the southeast slope of Mount

    Hayes in the Alaska Range (63° 32′ N., 145° 55′ W). This glacier had

    been receding consistently for 2 or 3 decades when suddenly, in late

    September or early October 1936, it started a vigorous advance (52,

    p. 778). By early March 1937, it had reached about its point of maximum

    advance, the front having moved forward approximately 4 miles (78,

    p. 152) at an average rate of 115 feet per day. The daily rate between

    December 3, 1936, and March 7, 1937, approached 200 feet and perhaps

    at times attained 250 feet. By September 1937, movement had ceased,

    and the glacier has since receded.

            These erratic behaviors are attributed largely to climatic varia–

    tions, local meteorological conditions, relations between snow line and

    maximum snowfall (40, p. 81), orographic factors (25, p. 61; 48, p. 109),

    reservoir lag (104, p. 137), the threshold resistance of glaciers (78,

    pp. 155-56), and various combinations of any or all of the above

    (88, pp. 278-82).

    054      |      Vol_I-0713                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            At times it appears that earthquakes may also cause glaciers to

    behave erratically. The earthquake at Yukutat Bay, in 1899, was one of the

    most severe of modern times. Prior to 1899 and up to 1906, the glaciers

    of Yakutat Bay and vicinity had been stagnant or receding. Starting in

    1906 and continuing to 1913, many glaciers in this area experienced a

    rapid, short-lived rejuvenation and advance. Fortunately, this occurred

    at a time when a comprehensive study of Alaskan coastal glaciers was

    being made, so the details are relatively well known (103, pp. 168-97).

    Some glaciers advanced as much as 4,000 feet in a few months, and one

    moved forward 10,000 feet in less than a year. The advances in

    different glaciers occurred at different times, being later in direct

    proportion to the length of the glacier. The rejuvenation is attributed

    to great quantities of snow avalanched down onto the nourishment areas

    by the earthquake. This supposedly caused a wave of accelerated flowage

    to move down the glacier in the interior viscous ice eventually producing

    an advance of the snout. Erratic advances of A laskan glaciers at

    other times and places may have been caused by other earthquakes (103,

    p. 193), but none is as well documented as the Yakutat Bay occurrence.

    However, it seem likely that most irregular glacier behaviors find

    their cause in climatic variations as complicated and influenced by

    the host of other factors listed above.

    055      |      Vol_I-0714                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers



            Ellesmere, the second largest and most northerly of the Canadian

    Arctic Islands, is also probably the highest and most rugged. Peaks in

    the northern part reach at least 10,000 feet (57, p. 425), and Flint

    (42, p. 54) cities a speculative 13,000 feet. The eastern part of

    Ellesmere is much higher and more rugged than the gently sloping,

    slightly dissected, low plateaus in the west. The island is 540

    miles long by 250 miles wide at maximu m , and contains about 80,000

    square miles. Its glaciers are the most extensive of the Canadian

    islands with a total of 31,400* square miles of ice covering 39 per

    cent of the land.

            Ellesmere Island is divided into four principal sections by long

    opposing fjords indenting the east and west coasts. From north to south

    these sections have been named Grant Land, Grinnell Land, Ellesmere

    Land, and North Lincoln Land, respectively (57, p. 387). More

    recently “Sverdrup Land” has been proposed as a name for North

    Lincoln Land (17, p. 36). All four sections have independent

    caps of ice, but some caps in the south are so thin that the in–

    fluence of underlying topography is clearly evident, and they are

    perhaps better classified as highland glaciers (17, pp. 43-44).

    Much of the low western parts of Grinnell and Ellesmere lands are


    056      |      Vol_I-0715                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Grant Land has a major icecap covering the highlands of the

    United States Range and contiguous mountains from which long outlet

    glaciers extend to the sea, mostly on the northwest. A number of much

    smaller periferal caps lie to the west-northwest. The major cap attains

    at least 9,000 feet elevation at Mount Oxford and covers about 9,500*

    square miles. The total ice coverage on Grant Land is approximately

    10,200* square miles.

            The icecap on Grinnell Land is second largest, 9,175* square miles,

    and it covers a larger percentage of the land than on any other section

    of the island. Much of this cap lies at 2,000 to 3,000 feet, and the

    highest point is about 5,000 feet. A few long outlet glaciers extend

    northwest into arms of Greely Fjord, and many more reach tidewater in

    Kane Basin to the east and southeast. Smaller periferal caps lie to

    the west between Ca n ñ on and Bay fjords. The country north of Princess

    Marie Bay is distinctly alpine, and the ice has much the nature of a

    highland glacier with numerous outlets. The total ice cover on Grinnell

    Land is 9,500* square miles.

            Ellesmere Land has a single, relatively simple icecap with many

    outlets reaching tidewater on the north, east, and south, but not to the

    west. This ice mass attains a maximum elevation of 6,550 feet and

    covers a total of 7,860* square miles. In places along the east coast

    the topography is high and rugged with a strong alpine aspect.

    057      |      Vol_I-0716                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            North Lincoln, or Sverdrup Land, has two major icecaps or highland

    glaciers, and several smaller caps. The largest cap, 2,200* square miles,

    is at the eastern end and has numerous outlet glaciers (17, pp. 43-44).

    Small icecaps occupy highlands on both sides of Starnes Fjord a bit farther

    west. The second largest cap, 1,235* square miles, centers north of Heim

    Peninsula at about 76° 55′ N., 85° W., and sends several outlet glaciers

    south to tidewater. Farther west in Sverdrup Land are much smaller caps

    on the upland between Muskox and Goose fjords, 100* square miles, and on

    Simmons Peninsula west of Goose Fjord, 40* square miles. The total area

    of ice in Sverdrup Land is 3,835* square miles.

            In addition to these icecaps, highland glaciers, and outlets, there

    are independent valley and cirque glaciers in the more alpine areas of the

    east coast, particularly southeastern Grinnell Land. Outlet glaciers and

    valley glaciers which fail to reach the sea form expanded foot glaciers, and

    some unite as peidmont sheets in the Smith Bay area (73, p. 231; 17, p.44).

    Cascading glaciers also tumble down over steep cliffs at edges of ice-capped

    plateaus. Some outlet glaciers form spectacular cliffs in the sea (114,

    pp. 136c-137c). Much of the low western parts of Grinnell and Ellesmore

    lands is ice-free.

            Little glaciological work has been done on Ellesmere Island, and

    practically nothing is known of past behavior or present regime of the

    glaciers. Those in Sverdrup Land are said to be stationary, or in slight

    recession (17, p. 44). The larger of two glaciers at Craig Harbour retreated

    6 feet between 1936 and 1938. It s snout is less than a quarter of a mile

    from an old moraine, and end moraines are found some distance from the

    snouts of expanded foot glaciers in other parts of Sverdrup Land. These

    moraines were probably formed in one of the Hochstands between 1750 and

    1890, recognized in other regions.

    058      |      Vol_I-0717                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            According to the International Committee on Glaciers (91, p. 220),

    the glaciers of Grinnell Land appear to have attained a maximum shortly

    before 1883. As usual, at least one glacier is out of step with the

    general recession of the present. In 1935, Sven Hedin Glacier, at Woodward

    Bay in southeastern Grinnell Land, appeared to be advancing (57, p. 412).



            Baffin is the largest island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and,

    next to Ellesmere Island, the highest and most rugged. Bylot Island is

    so closely related geographically that it is logically included for treat–

    ment here. The highest part of Baffin Island is the Penny Highland on

    Cumberland Peninsula where elevations up to 10,000 feet have been estimated

    (115, p. 88c), but are shown on late maps as 8,200 to 8,500 feet. Much of

    eastern Baffin Island attains elevations of 4,000 to 5,000 feet, but the

    western part is low and flat. In the northwest and north-central sections,

    plateaus predominate. Bylot Island is a high plateau with Mount Thule on

    its south coast rising to 6,600 feet. Bylot Island is about 40 per cent

    covered by a plateau icecap of 2,000* square miles. Large outlet glaciers

    extend down steep valleys and through spectacular ice falls to the sea

    (46, p. 554), particularly on the south along Pond Inlet. They increase

    the ice coverage on Bylot to a total of perhaps 43 to 45 per cent.

            Baffin Island has at least 30 small separate icecaps, some of which

    in the south, at least, are better described as highland glaciers. Its

    total ice coverage is about 12,000* square miles. This includes 11,572

    square miles as determined by planimeter measurements and an estimated

    400+ square miles of valley and transection glaciers in southern Cumberland

    Peninsula. The icecap of Byl e o t Island is not included.

    059      |      Vol_I-0718                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            In the north, a long narrow icecap covers 290* square miles on

    Brodeur Peninsula, and the high, northern part of Borden Peninsula has

    two small caps totaling 1,000* square miles. An elongate icecap of 540*

    square miles lies on the highland south of Fond Inlet (46, p. 554), and

    sends outlet glaciers through steep valleys to the sea. Between Cape

    Bowen and Cap d e Adair in northeastern Baffin Island is high rugged alpine

    country with probably a dozen small caps or highland ices and many valley

    and cirque glaciers (118, pp. 310-11). Most of this ice lies close to

    the east coast at 2,500 to 3,500 feet elevation. Corrie glaciers on peaks

    of 4,000 to 5,000 feet are also reported. The largest icecap on Baffin

    Island lies about 50 miles inland from the east coast between Capes Hunter

    and Eglinton. This cap, 85 miles long and 30 miles wide, lies on a high

    plateau at 4,000 to 5,000 feet and covers approximately 2,440* square miles.

    Closer to the coast between Gibbs and Dexterity fjords and including the

    Bruce Mountains is an icecap of 1,125* square miles, and a smaller, nearly

    circular icecap of 930* square miles lies south of McBeth Fjord at 4,000

    to 5,000 feet elevation. This region contains other small caps south of

    River Clyde, on Henry Kater Peninsula, inland from the head of Home Bay

    and elsewhere. These have an accumulated area of 315* square miles.

    Another icecap of 1,050* square miles is located on a 5,000-foot plateau

    near the center of the island at 68° N. Farther southeast is the Penny

    Highland Cap attaining maximum elevation of 8,200 to 8,500 feet and

    covering about 1,800* square miles. Many outlet glaciers from this cap

    reach the sea at heads of long fjords.

    060      |      Vol_I-0719                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            South of Penny Highland on Cumberland Peninsula is rugged alpine

    country with peaks of 3,000 to 5,000 feet. On many maps this area is

    shown as free of ice despite early reports of valley glaciers, small

    icecaps, and “glacier-infested terrain” (115, p. 90c; 77, pp. 45-46 . ; 69 ( ) .

    The latest maps based on air photographs show this region to be truly

    infested with small icecaps, valley glaciers, and a complex of trans–

    section glaciers rivaling those of West Spitzbergen and Alaska. Many of

    the valley glaciers reach tidewater. Late maps also show a “snow field”

    (probably an icecap) of 118* square miles near the east coast of Hall

    Peninsula, 10 to 15 miles inland from Popham Bay, and other small caps

    or snow fields appear farther south. The southernmost glaciers are close

    to the southwest shore of Frobisher Bay (120, p. 2; 20, pp. 4-5). Here

    the Grinnell Icecap at maximum elevation of 3,000 feet covers 150* square

    miles, and the Southeast Icecap at 2,800 feet elevation covers 112* square

    miles. Outlet glaciers from the Grinnell Cap reach tidewater.

            Nothing is known concerning the present state of health of these

    glaciers or their immediate past history. There is no reason to believe

    that it would differ markedly from the recent history of glaciers in

    other arctic areas.

    061      |      Vol_I-0720                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers



            Among the remaining glacier-bearing islands of the Canadian Arctic,

    Devon, midway between Ellesmere and Baffin, has considerable ice (68, p. 236)

    Eastern Devon Island has an icecap of 5,650* square miles on a 3,000-foot

    plateau. The margin of this cap is strongly digitated and frayed, and a

    number of small periferal caps lie to the south and southwest. Many large

    outlet glaciers descend steep slopes from the central plateau to the sea.

    Southwest of the main cap and its fringing satel l ites is a small independent

    cap of 70* square miles on the upland west of Maxwell Bay. In northern

    Devon Island, three caps totaling 300* square miles occupy Colin A rher Archer

    Peninsula. Latest maps show at least one outlet glacier extending to the

    sea on the north side from the eastern cap. Total ice cover is 6,250*

    square miles.

            North Kent Island, between north Devon and the southwest tip of

    Ellesmere, bears a small icecap of 68* square miles with an outlet to

    tidewater on the west.

            About 15 miles northeast of Devon Island across Lady Ann Strait is

    Coburg Island with two small caps and a number of outlet glaciers to the

    sea, on the northeast and southwest coasts especially. Coburg may also

    have some independent valley glaciers. This island with 85 to 90* square

    miles of ice and a total land area of 140* square miles is 60 to 65 per

    cent covered.

    062      |      Vol_I-0721                                                                                                                  
    Ea-I. Sharp: Glaciers

            Axel Heiberg Island has long been known to bear glaciers, but most

    maps have heretofore shown only a dozen small valley or outlet glaciers

    in the southernmost part. Latest World Aeronautical Charts (April 1948)

    of the U.S. Air Force, presumably based on air photographs, show an

    extensive ice cover on Axel Heiberg. An icecap about 145 miles long

    covers 2,770* square miles in the central part of the island with a smaller,

    kidney-shaped cap of 810* square miles in the southernmost part. These are

    supplemented by many smaller fringing caps and by large outlet glaciers,

    at least four of which reach tidewater from the central cap. The total

    area of ice on Axel Heiberg is 3,737* square miles. The highest part of

    the central cap may reach 8,000 feet, and the southern cap attains 5,000

    to 5,400 feet elevation.

            Meighen Island, west of Axel Heiberg, has long been thought to have

    a small icecap (98, pp. 518-19). This has been confirmed by recent aerial

    observation (112, p. 44), but the size and nature of this cap have not

    been reported. Small glaciers on Somerset Island are also recorded

    (68, p. 124-25), but the glaciers reported from other Canadian arctic

    islands are probably only perennial snowbanks (112, p. 44). Lack of glaciers

    on most islands in the central and western part of the Arctic Archipelago

    is attributed to low elevation and low precipitation (73, p. 221).

    063      |      Vol_I-0722                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers


    1. Ahlmann, H.W. “Scientific results of the Swedish-Norwegian arctic expedition

    in the summer of 1931,” Geografiska Ann ., Stockh. vol.15, pp.161-216,

    261-95, 1933.

    2. ----. “Scientific results of the Norwegian-Swedish Spitsbergen expedition in

    1934,” Ibid . vol.17, pp.22-52, 1935.

    3. ----. “The Fourteenth of July Glacier,” Ibid . vol.17, pp.167-218, 1935.

    4. ----. “Oscillations of the other outlet glaciers from W V atnajökull,” Ibid .

    vol.19, pp.195-200, 1937.

    5. ----. “The regime of Hoffellsjökull,” Ibid . vol.21, pp.171-88, 1939.

    6. ----. “The relative influence of precipitation and temperature on glacier

    regime,” Ibid . vol.22, pp.188-205, 1940.

    7. ----. “The Styggedal Glacier in Jotunheim, Norway,” Ibid . vol.22, pp.95-130,


    8. ----. “The main morphological features of north-east Greenland,” Ibid . vol.23,

    pp.148-82, 1941.

    9. ----. “Glacial conditions in north-east Greenland in general and on Clavering

    Island in particular,” Ibid . vol.23, pp.183-209, 1941.

    10. ----. “Accumulation and ablation on the Fröya Glacier; its regime in 1938-

    39 and 1939-40,” Ibid . vol.24, pp.1-22, 1942.

    11. ----. “Researches on snow and ice, 1918-40,” Geogr.J . vol.107, pp.11-25, 1946.

    12. ----. Glaciological Research on the North Atlantic Coasts . London, Royal

    Geographical Society, 1948. Research Series no.1.

    13. ----, and Thorarinsson, Sigurdur. “The ablation,” Geografiska Ann ., Stockh.

    vol.20, pp.171-233, 1938.

    14. ----, ----. “The accumulation,” Ibid . vol.21, pp.39-66, 1939.

    515. Aleschkow, A.N. “Ein rezenter Gletscher im nördlichen Ural,” Zeitschrift für

    Gletscherk vol.18, pp.57-62, 1930.

    16. ----. “The glaciers of the northern Urals,” Scottish Geogr.Mag . vol.49,

    pp.359-62, 1933.

    17. Bentham, Robert. “Structure and glaciers of southern Ellesmere Island,”

    Geogr.J. vol.97, pp.36-45, 1941.

    17a. Berman, L.L. “O sovremennom oledenenii severo-vostoka Azii v sviazi s Prob–

    lemoi drevnego oledenenia.” (Contemporary glaciation in the upper

    reaches of the Indigirka River.) Voprosy Geografii , Moscow, no.4,

    p.33, 1947.

    064      |      Vol_I-0723                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

    17b. ----. “Zagadka belykh Gor.” (The mystery of the White Mountains.) Vokrug

    Sveta , Moscow, no.4, p.45, April, 1947.

    18. Bretz, J.H. “Physiographic studies in East Greenland,” Amer.Geogr.Soc. Spec.

    Publ. 18. N.Y., 1935, pp.159-245.

    19. Bostock, H.S. Physiography of the Canadian Cordillera with Special Reference

    to the Area North of the Fifty-Fifth Parallel . Ottawa, 1948.

    Ca n .Geol.Suv. Mem . 247.

    20. Buerger, M.J. “Spectacular Frobisher Bay,” Canad.Geogr.J . vol.17, pp.1-18, 1938.

    21. Capps, S.R. Glaciation in Alaska . Wash.,D.C., 1931. U.S.Geol.Surv. Prof.Pap .


    22. Carlson, W.S. “Movement of some Greenland glaciers,” Geol.Soc.Amer. Bull .

    vol.50, pp.239-56, 1939.

    23. Chamberlin, T.C. “Glacial studies in Greenland,” J.Geol . vol.3, pp.61-69,

    198-216, 469-80, 565-82, 668-81, 833-43, 1895.

    23a. Coats, R.R. “Reconnaissance geology of some western Aleutian islands,”

    U.S.Geol.Surv. Alaskan Volcano Investigations, Report no.2. Wash.,D.C.,

    G.P.O., 1947, pt.7, pp.97-105.

    24. Cooper, W.S. “A third expedition to Glacier Bay, Alaska,” Ecology , vol.12,

    pp.61-95, 1931.

    25. ----. “The problem of Glacier Bay, Alaska; a study of glacier variations,”

    Geogr.Rev . vol.27, pp.37-62, 1937.

    26. ----. “Vegetation of the Prince William Sound region, A a l aska, with a brief

    excurs l ion into post-Pleistocene climatic history,” Ecological Monogr .

    vol.12, no.1, pp.1-22, 1942.

    27. Courtauld, Augustine. “A journey in Rasmussen Land,” Geogr.J . vol.88,

    pp.193-208, 1936.

    28. Daly, R.A. The Changing World of the Ice Age . New Haven, Conn., Yale Univ.

    Press, 1934.

    29. Demorest, Max. “Glaciation of the upper Nugssuak Peninsula, West Greenland,”

    Zeitschrift für Gletscherk . vol.25, pp.36-56, 1937.

    30. ----. “Ice sheets,” Geol.Soc.Amer. Bull . vol.54, pp.363-400, 1943.

    31. Drygalski, Erich v., and Machatschek, Fritz. “Gletscherkunde,” Enzyklopädie

    der Erdkunde . Leipzig, Deutiche, 1942, pp.1-261.

    32. Ellsworth, Lincoln, and Smith, E.H. “Report of the preliminary results of the

    Aeroarctic Expedition with ‘Graf Zeppelin,’ 1931,” Geogr.Rev . vol.22,

    pp.61-82, 1932.

    33. Eriksson, B.E. “Meteorological records and the ablation on the Fröya glacier

    in relation to radiation and meteorological conditions,” Geografiska

    Ann ., Stockh. vol.24, pp.23-50, 1942.

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    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

    34. Etienne, Erich. “Expeditionsbericht der Grönland--Expedition der Univer–

    sität Oxford 1938,” Leipzig. Univ. Geophys. Inst. Veröff. Ser .2, vol.

    13. (Reviewed by H.W. Ahlmann, Geografiska Ann ., Stockh. vol.22,

    pp.243-46, 1940.)

    35. ✓ ✓ Eyth o ó rsson, J o ó n. “On the variations of glaciers in Iceland,” Ibid. vol.17,

    pp.121-36, 1935.

    36. ----. “Variations of glaciers in Iceland, 1930-47,” J.Glaciol . vol.1,

    pp.250-52, 1949.

    37. Faegri, Knut. “Über die Längenvariation einige Gletscher des Jostedalsbrae

    und die dadurch bedingten Planzensukzessionen,” Bergens Mus. Årbok

    1933, Natur.Rekke , Nr.7, pp.1-255. (Abst. in Geol [?] ogisches Zentralblatt

    vol.59, p.257, 1937.)

    38. ----. “Forandringer ved norske breer 1933-1934,” Bergens Mus. Årbok N o r .11,

    pp.1-8, 1934. (Abst. in Geologisches Zentralblatt vol.55, pp.246,


    39. Field, W.O. “The glaciers of the northern part of Prince William Sound,

    Alaska,” Geogr.Rev . vol.22, pp.361-88, 1932.

    40. ----. “Observations on Alaskan coastal glaciers in 1935,” Ibid . vol.27,

    pp.63-81, 1937.

    41. ----. “Glacier recession in Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay, Alaska,” Ibid . vol.37,

    pp.369-99, 1947.

    42. Flint, R.F. Glacial Geology and the Pleistocene Epoch . N.Y., Wiley, 1947.

    43. ----. “Glacial geology and geomorphology (of parts of Northeast Greenland),”

    Amer.Geogr.Soc. Spec.Publ . 30. N.Y., 1948, pp.91-210.

    44. ----, and Dorsey, H.G. “Glaciation of Siberia,” Geol.Soc.Amer. Bull . vol.56,

    pp.89-106, 1945.

    45. Forbes, Alexander. “Surveying in northern Labrador,” Geogr.Rev . vol.22,

    pp.30-60, 1932.

    46. Freuchen, Peter, and Mathiassen, Therkel. “Contributions to the physical

    geography of the region north of Hudson Bay,” Ibid . vol.15,

    pp.XXX 549-62, 1925.

    47. Gabel-Jørgensen. “Dr. Knud Rasmussen’s contribution to the exploration of the

    south-east coast of Greenland, 1931-35,” Geogr.J . vol.86, pp.32-49,


    48. Gilbert, G.K. Glaciers and Glaciation . Wash.,D.C., 1910. Smithsonian

    Institution. Harriman Alaska Series , vol.III. ( Publication 1992)

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    49. Glen, A.R. “The Oxford University arctic expedition, North East Land,

    1935- [ ?] 36,” Geogr.J . vol.90, pp.192-222, 289-310, 1937.

    50. ----. “The glaciology of North East Land,” Geografiska Ann ., Stockh. vol.21,

    pp.1-38, 1939.

    51. ----. “A sub-arctic glacier cap: the West Ice of North East Land,” Geogr.J .

    vol.98, pp.65-76, 1 9 35-146, 1941.

    51a. Grigoriev, A.A. “Die Fo n r tschritte des Sowjetischen Physischen Geographie in

    den letzten 30 Jahren,” Petermanns Mitt . Jahrg.92, H.1, p.19, 1948.

    52. Hance, J.H. “The recent advance of Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska,” J.Geol .

    vol.45, pp.775-83, 1937.

    53. Herrmann, Ernst. “Gletscherstudien im Kebnekaise-- B G ebiet (Schwed-Lappland),”

    Zeitschrift für Gletscherk . vol.19, pp.263-84, 1931.

    54. Hess, H. “ S D as Eis der Erde,” Handbuch der Geophysik , vol.7, pp.1-121, 1933.

    55. Hobbs, W.H. Characteristics of Existing Glaciers . N.Y., Macmillan, 1911.

    56. Holtedahl, Olaf. “A crossing of Novaya Zemlya,” Geogr.J . vol.59, pp.370-75,


    57. Humphreys, Noel, C S hackleton, Edward, and Moore, A.W. “Oxford University

    Ellesmere Land expedition,” [?] Ibid . vol.37, pp.385-441, 1936.

    58. Jennings, J.N. “ C T he glaciers of Jan Mayen,” Ibid . vol.94, pp.128-31, 1939.

    59. ----. “Glacier retreat in Jan Mayen,” J.Glaciol . vol.1, pp.167-81, 1948.

    60. Keele, Joseph. A F R econnaissance Across the Mackenzie Mountains on the Pelly,

    Ross, and Gravel Rivers. Yukon and North West Territories . Ottawa,

    1910. Can. Geol. Surv. ( Publ .) 1097.

    61. Klotz, O.J. “Notes on glaciers of south-eastern Alaska and adjoining territory,”

    Geogr.J. vol.14, pp.523-34, 1899.

    62. Koch, Lauge. “Preliminary report on the results of the Danish bicentenary

    expedition to north Greenland,” Ibid . vol.62, pp.103-17, 1923.

    63. ----. “Some new features in the physiography and geology of Greenland,”

    J.Geol . vol.31, pp.42-65, 1923.

    64. ----. “Ice cap and sea ice in north Greenland,” Geogr.Rev . vol.16, pp.98-107,


    65. Lavrova, Maria. “Notes on the valley glaciers of the Rusanov Valley and

    Krestovaya Fiord in Novaya Zemlya,” Akad.Nauk Geol. Inst. Trudy vol.1,

    pp.95-1932. (Russian with English summary)

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    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

    66. Leffingwell, E. de K. The Canning River Region, Northern Alaska . Wash.,

    D.C., 1919. U.S.Geol.Surv. Prof.Pap . 109.

    67. Lindsay, Martin. “The British Trans-Greenland expedition, 1934,” Geogr.J.

    vol.85, pp.393-408, 1935.

    68. Low, A.P. Report of the Dominion Government Expedition to Hudson Bay and the

    Arctic Islands on Board the D.G.S. Neptune. 1903-1904. Ottawa, 1906.

    69. Löwe, Ftiz Fritz . “Einige ‘Gletscherbeobachtungen in Umanagbezirk Westgrönlands

    1932,’” Zeitschrift für Gletscherk . vol.21, pp.358-65, 1934. (Abst.

    in Geologisches Zentralblatt vol.54, p.209, 1935.)

    70. ----. “Central western Greenland; the country and its inhabitants,” Geogr.J.

    vol.86, pp.263-75, 1935.

    71. ----. “Höhenverhältnisse und Massenhaushalt des grönlandischen Inlandeisses,”

    Beiträge zur Angew.Geophys. (Gerlands) vol.46, pp.317-330, 1936.

    72. Matthes, F.E. “Glaciers,” National Research Council. Committee on Physics

    of the Earth. Physics of the Earth . N.Y., McGraw-Hill, 1942, vol.9,

    chapt.5, pp.149-219.

    73. Mecking, Ludwig. “The polar regions; a regional geography,” Amer.Geogr.Soc.

    Spec.Publ . 8. N.Y., 1928, pp.93-338.

    74. Mertie, Jr., J.B. “Notes on the geography and geology of Lituya Bay, Alaska,”

    U.S.Geol.Surv. Bull . 838-B. Wash., D.C., 1931, pp.117-35.

    75. ----. The Nushagak District, Alaska . Wash.,D.C., 1938. U.S.Geol.Surv.

    Bull . 903.

    76. Mikkelsen, Ejnar. “The Blosseville Coast of East Greenland,” Geogr.J . vol.81,

    pp.385-402, 1933.

    77. Millward, A.E., ed. Southern Baffin Island . Ottawa, Canada. Dept. of

    Interior. Northwest Territories and Yukon Branch, 1930.

    78. Moffit, F.H. “Black Rapids glacier, Alaska,” U.S.Geol.Surv. Bull . 926-B.

    Wash.,D.C., 1942, pp.146-57.

    79. Moss, R. “Physics of an ice-cap,” Geogr.J . vol.92, pp.211-27, 1938.

    80. Mott, Peter. “The Oxford University Greenland expedition, West Greenland,

    1936,” Geogr.J . vol.90, pp.313-32, 1937.

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    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

    81. Nielsen, Niels. “A volcano under an ice-cap, Vatnajökull, Iceland, 1934-

    1936,” Geogr.J . vol.90, pp.6-20, 1937.

    82. Nordenskjöld, Otto. “Geography of the polar regions,” trans. by Ernest

    Antevs. Amer.Geogr.Soc. Spec.Publ . 8. N.Y., 1928, pt.1, pp.1-89.

    83. Odell, N.E. “The mountains of northern Labrador,” Geogr.J . vol.82,

    pp.193-210, 1933.

    84. ----. The glaciers and morphology of the Franz Josef Fiord region of north–

    east F G reenland,” Ibid . vol.90, pp.111 + + 25, 1937.

    85. ----. “T j h e glaciers and physiography of northernmost Labrador,” Amer.Geogr.

    Soc. Spec.Publ . 22. N.Y., 1938, pp.187-215.

    86. Oetting, Wolfgang. “Beobachtungen am Rande des Hofsjökull und Langjökull in

    Zentralisland,” Zeitschrift für Gletscherk . vol.18, pp.43-51, 1930.

    87. Pillewizer, Wolf. Die Kartographischen und Gletscherkundlichen Ergebnisse der

    Deutschen Spitsbergen-Expedition 1938. Gotha, Perthes, 1939.

    Petermanns Mitt.Ergänzungsch . 238. (Reviewed by W.H. Ahlmann,

    Geografiska Ann ., Stockh. vol.22, pp.246-47, 1940.)

    87a. Popov, I.N. “Ploshchad sovremennogo oledenenia na Severo-Vostoke S.S.S.R.”

    (The surface of contemporary glaciation in northeastern U.S.S.R.)

    Vsesoiuznoe Geogr. obshch. Izvestia vol.80, no.2, p.182, Mar.-Apr. 1948.

    87b. ----. “Sovremennye Ledniki v basseine Indigirki.” ( Contemporary glaciers in

    ✓ ✓ ✓ the Indigirka River basin. ) Priroda , Moscow, no.4, p.41, April, 1947.

    88. Reid, H.F. “The variations of glaciers,” J.Geol . vol.3, pp.278-88, 1895.

    89. ----. “The variations of glaciers,” Ibid . vol.5, pp.378-83, 1897.

    90. ----. “The variations of glaciers,” Ibid . vol.6, pp.473-76, 1898.

    91. ----. “The variations of glaciers,” Ibid . vol.7, pp.217-25, 1899.

    92. Robinson, G.D. “Exploring Aleutian volcanoes,” Nat.Geogr.Mag . vol.94,

    pp.509-28, 1948.

    93. Russell, I.C. “An expedition to Mount St. Elias, Alaska,” Ibid . vol.3, pp.53-204,


    94. Sandford, K.S. “The glacial conditions and quarternary history of North-East

    Land,” Geogr.J . vol.74, pp.451-70, 543-52, 1929.

    94a. Simons, F.S., and Mathewson, D.E. “Geology of Great Sitkin Island,” U.S.Geol.

    Surv. Alaskan Volcano Investigations, Report no.2. Wash., D.C., G.P.O.,

    1947, pt.4, pp.57-69.

    95. Slater, George. “Observations on the Nordenskiöld and neighboring glaciers

    of Spitsbergen, 1921,” J.Geol . vol.33, pp.408-46, 1925.

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    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

    96. Smith, P.S. The Noatak-Kobuk Region, A a l aska . Wash.,D.C., 1913. U.S.Geol.

    Surv. Bull . 536.

    97. Sorge, Ernst. “The scientific results of the Wegener expeditions to Greenland,”

    Geogr.J . vol.81, pp.333-44, 1933.

    98. Stefansson, Vilhjalmur. The Friendly Arctic; the Story of Five Years in the

    P o lar Regions . N.Y., Macmillan, 1921.

    99. Strøm, K.M. “The geomorphology of Norway,” Geogr.J . vol.112, pp.12-23, 1949.

    100. Sugden, J.C., and Mott, P.G. “Oxford University Greenland expedition, 1938,”

    Ibid . vol.95, pp.43-51, 1940.

    100a. Suslov, S.P. Fizibheskaia Geografia S.S.S.R . (Physical Geography of the

    U.S.S.R.) Moscow, Uchpedgiz, 1947.

    101. Sverdrup, H.U. “The temperature of the firn of Isachsen’s Plateau, and

    general conclusions regarding the temperature of the glaciers on West

    Spitsbergen,” Geografiska Ann ., Stockh. vol.17, pp.53-88, 1935.

    102. ----. “The ablation on Isachsen’s Plateau and on the Fourteenth of July

    Glacier in relation to radiation and meteorological conditions,” Ibid .

    vol.17, pp.145-66, 1935.

    103. Tarr, R.S., and Martin, Lawrence. Alaskan Glacier Studies . Wash.,D.C.,

    National Geographic Society, 1914.

    104. ----, and Engeln, O.D. von. “Experimental studies of ice with reference to

    glacial structure and motion,” Zeitschrift für Gletscherk . vol.9, pp.81-

    139, 1915.

    105. Teichert, C. “Inlandeis und Gletschers Ostgrönlands,” Natur und Volk vol.64,

    pp.140-51, 1934. (Abst. in Geologisches Zentralblatt vol.54, pp.111,


    106. Thorarinsson, Sigurdur. “Preliminary account of the oscillations of the

    Hoffellsjökull,” Geografiska Ann ., Stockh. vol.19, pp.189-95, 1937.

    107. ----. “[?]Hoffellsjökull, its movement and drainage,” Ibid . vol.21, pp.189-214,


    108. ----. “Present glacier shrinkage and eustatic changes of sea level,” Ibid .

    vol.22, pp.131-59, 1940.

    109. ----. “Oscillations of the Iceland glaciers in the last 250 years,” Ibid .

    vol.25, pp.1-54, 1943.

    110. ----, and Sigurdsson, Steinthor. “Volcano-Glaciological investigations in

    Iceland during the last decade,” Polar Re[?] . vol.5, pp.60-66, 1947.

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    EA-I. Sharp: Glaciers

    111. Wager, L.R. “The form and age of the Greenland ice cap,” Geol.Mag ., Lond.

    vol.20, pp.145-56, 1933.

    112. Washburn, A.L. Reconnaissance Geology of Portions of Victoria Island and

    Adjacent Regions, Arctic Canada . N.Y., 1947. Geol.Soc.Amer. Mem . 22.

    113. Washburn, H.B. “A preliminary report on studies of the mountains and

    glaciers of Alaska,” Geogr.J . vol.98, pp.219-27, 1941.

    114. Weeks, J.L. “The geology of parts of eastern arctic Canada,” Can.Geol.Surv.

    Summ.Rep . pt.C, 1925. Ottawa, 1927, pp.136c-41c.

    115. ----. “Cumberland Sound area, Baffin Island,” Ibid . pt.C, 1927. Ottawa,

    1928, pp.83c-95c.

    116. Wegener, Kurt. “Die Temperature am Boden des grönlandischen Inlandeis,”

    Zeitschrift für Gletscherk . vol.12, pp.166-72, 1936.

    117. Wentworth, C.K., and Ray, L.L. “Studies of certain Alaskan glaciers in

    1931,” Geol.Soc.Amer. Bull . vol.47, pp.879-934, 1936.

    118. Wordie, J.M. “An expedition to Melville Bay and northeast Baffin Land,”

    Geogr.J . vol.56, pp.297-313, 1935.

    119. Wright, John. “The Hagavatn Gorge,” Ibid . vol.86, pp.218-29, 1935.

    120. Wynne-Edwards, V.C. Report on the 1937 MacMillan Arctic Expedition . 1937.



    Robert F. P. Sharp

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