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    Geology of Greenland

    Encyclopedia Arctica Volume 1: Geology and Allied Subjects

    Unpaginated      |      Vol_I-0405                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. (J. Tuzo Wilson; Arne Noe-Nygaard;

    Chr. Poulsen; Alfred Rosenkrantz)




    I. Geological History 1
    West Greenland 1
    North Greenland 2
    East Greenland 4
    II. The Pre-Cambrian 9
    Older Pre-Cambrian 9
    Younger Pre-Cambrian 11
    III. Paleozoic Formations 14
    North Greenland 14
    Cambrian 14
    Ordovician 14
    Silurian 16
    Carboniferous and Permian 17
    East Greenland 17
    Cambrian 17
    Ordovician 18
    Silurian 19
    Devonian 19
    Carboniferous 19
    Permian 20
    IV. Mesozoic and Cenozoic Formations 22
    West Greenland 22
    Cretaceous and Tertiary 22
    Paleocene 22
    Paleocene-Danian 23
    Danian 23
    Upper Senonian 23
    Lower Senonian 23
    Coniacian 24
    Igneous Rocks 24
    North Greenland 24
    Triassic 24
    Cretaceous or Tertiary 24-a
    East Greenland 25
    Triassic 25
    Jurassic 26
    Cretaceous 28
    Tertiary 30

    001      |      Vol_I-0406                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. (J. Tuzo Wilson)





            The greater part of Greenland is entirely covered by a great ice sheet

    which in places extends to within 300 kilometers of the sea coast and in

    many places reaches it in the form of great glaciers.

            Only v V ery little is known of the bedrock geology beneath this ice. A

    few seismic measurements in the western and central part of the sheet have

    suggested that the ice is thick, and it has accordingly been supposed by

    some that the interior surface is basin-shaped. On the other hand, explorers

    farther south and east have suggested that irregularities of the surface of

    the icecap reflect the presence of rock at no great depth. If both sets of

    observations are correct, it would follow that the interior has at least

    some mountains and valleys but nothing more definite can be said. The nature

    of the bedrock below the ice sheet can only be speculated upon, as knowledge of

    it is based solely on observations pertaining to erratic boulders.



            Of the rock exposed around the margins, those on the southern and

    western coasts that face the Atlantic Ocean and Davis Strait are largely of

    Archean types. These pre-Cambrian rocks have been included in the Canadian

    Shield by Suess, but any definite correlation with the rest of the shield is

    002      |      Vol_I-0407                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Wilson: Geology of Greenland

    prevented by our ignorance of the nature and direction of folding of the

    Archean rocks which underlie Baffin Island. A detailed description of the

    pre-Cambrian is given in Section II.

            The only younger bedrock formations in West Greenland are the flat-lying

    Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks occurring on theamong others on

    vicinity of Disko Island and N u û gssuaq Peninsula. These comprise conglomerates,

    sandstones, and shales of both terrestrial and marine facies not less than

    1 2 ,000 meters thick, which range from uppermost Lower Cretaceous to E Paleocene or

    younger. Tuffs occur interbedded with the youngest Cretaceous and Paleocene beds, and

    there was large-scale volcanic activity of post-Lower Paleocene age. Tuffs

    and pillow lavas are succeeded by plateau basalts with known thickness of

    several kilometers, which are cut by a variety of minor intrusions. Further

    details are given in Section IV.

            These beds enable several different periods of faulting in that region

    to be dated. Unconformities and conglomerates in the earlier sedimentary beds

    show that epeirogenic movements took place at intervals in Cretaceous and

    Paleocene time. Block faulting occurred in Danian time and on a much larger

    scale immediately before the formation of the basalt complex. A further

    period of block faulting, tilting, and folding, which may be of late Tertiary

    age , disturbed the basalts.



            Unlike South and West Greenland the northern and eastern coasts are each

    bordered by mountain ranges which consist largely of younger sedimentary rocks,

    folded and intruded in some place d s by igneous rocks.

    003      |      Vol_I-0408                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Wilson: Geology of Greenland

            The North Greenland mountains extend from Peary Land, in extreme north–

    east Greenland, where they reach heights of about 2,000 meters, to north–

    western Greenland, where they have maximum elevations of 1,300 meters.

    There they are divided by huge fjords into the peninsulas of Wulff, Nyeboe , and

    Hall , and Washington Lands. Only narrow straits separate them from Ellesmere

    Island in northern Canada, where there are high mountains, quite probably

    parts of the same range.

            On the basis of scanty field observations, Schuchert suggested that in

    late pre-Cambrian time a trough was formed, which he named the Franklinian

    geosynclines, trending northeast across the northwestern arctic islands and

    northern Greenland. He believe[d?] that its sediments were derived from an

    active rising land mass, which at that time lay to the north. Teichert, on

    the other hand, suggests that the sediments came from the south, in which

    case they may have been deposited on a marginal shelf.

            These rocks are now schists, slate, sandstones, and limestones, which

    have been intensely folded with axes striking northeast and southwest in a

    zone that extends from Peary Land to Hall Land. To the southeast, in

    Inglefield Land, these rocks pass into thinner, flat-lying formations.

    Successively older beds crop out until the Archean rocks of the shield are


            Late pre-Cambrian, Cambrian, Ordovician, and Silurian rocks have been

    identified with a total thickness of about 3,600 meters as measured in various


            The folding of these rocks and mountain building took place in post–

    Silurian time, tentatively correlated with the Caledonian disturbance; but

    this is not certain because overlying, younger Paleozoic rocks are unknown

    in northwest Greenland.

    004      |      Vol_I-0409                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Wilson: Geology of Greenland

            The Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary rocks of

    Peary Land and of Ellesmere Land have very recently been studie s d by J. Troelsen.

    Mesozoic fossils have been found only at one place in Northwest Greenland ,

    near Thule.

            A detailed description of Paleozoic sections is given in Section III of

    this article.



            The southern part of a range of high mountains along the east coast of

    Greenland has been carved from metamorphic and igneous rocks, but the

    northern part of these same mountains coincides with a wide belt of folded

    sedimentary rocks. Unlike the North Greenland mountains, this range is some–

    what accessible by sea and has been extensively explored.

            From Cape Farewell in the south (latitude 60° N.) to Kangerdlugs s uaq

    (68° N.), the narrow coastal fringe, where it is not covered by ice, is

    chiefly composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks which are considered to

    belong to the same petrographic provinces as the Canadian Shield. Small

    patches of Cretaceous sediments occur at several places. The whole coast is

    high, ranging from 2,000 to 2,600 meters, as far as Angmagssalik (66° N.)

    but reaching 3,800 meters at Mount Forel, a little farther north.

            Between Kangerdlugs s uaq and Scoresby Sound (70° N.) immense flows of

    plateau basalt extend from the coast to nunataks more than 150 kilometers

    inland. These reach altitudes of 4,000 meters in the Watkins Mountains,

    the highest in Greenland. Inland the flows are flat-lying but near the coast

    dip toward the sea at about 10°.

    005      |      Vol_I-0410                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Wilson: Geology of Greenland

            These extensive outpourings of Tertiary basalts and their counterpart

    on the opposite coast of Greenland on Disko Island and N u û gssuaq

    Svartenhuk peninsula r s are considered by Koch to mark the division of

    Greenland into two blocks. Wherever they are exposed, the southern one

    is composed almost exclusively of Archean rocks, whereas the northern is

    covered by extensive areas of late pre-Cambrian, Paleozoic, and some Mesozoic

    sedimentary strata. This is a convenient, empirical division, yet it must

    be remembered that it is impossible to prove any structural connection beneath

    the ice.

            The main basalt flow area terminates at Scoresby Sound, from whence there

    strikes in a northerly direction a wide belt of thick, folded Proterozoic,

    Paleozoic, and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks bounded on the west either by

    igneous and metamorphic rocks or by the Greenland Ice Sheet. One hundred

    miles farther north a second belt of older and less well-known sedimentary

    rocks, lying west of the metamorphic complex, emerges from under the ice

    sheet; thus the three belts, each some tens of meters wide, continue north,

    paralleling the coast to the northeastern part of Greenland, where they

    apparently strike out under the sea. The mountains that they form do not

    join the North Greenland mountains of Peary Land, for the axes of folding

    of the two ranges are at right angles and they are separated by the gulf

    at the mount of Independence Fjord in the extreme northeast corner of

    Greenland. Furthermore, the succession and faunal relationships of the

    strata deposited in the two geosynclines are not always identical.

            The East Greenland mountains formed from these folded belts reach

    altitudes of nearly 3,300 meters at intervals as far north as 76° N. latitude,

    beyond which they do not exceed 1,600 meters. This whole east coast range is

    cut at intervals by many large fjords and by glaciers which cross the range

    near its north and south ends to reach the sea.

    006      |      Vol_I-0411                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Wilson: Geology of Greenland

            These East Greenland belts are believed to have originated in late

    pre-Cambrian time as a single wide geosyncline or trough in which was

    deposited a great thickness of quartzite grading upward through shales into limestone

    and dolomite. Near the coast and inland, these rocks are known, respectively,

    as the Eleonore Bay and Peterman formations. They are separated from the

    thinner and less disturbed Thule beds of West North Greenland by the inland ice.

    The close of the pre-Cambrian was marked in East Greenland by basic intrusions

    and extensive glaciations but not by orogenic movements.

            Above the Eleonore Bay formation and the tillite that overlies it,

    Cambrian and Ordovician formations with a maximum total thickness of 2,300

    meters are found in a narrow coastal strip along the East Greenland geosyncline.

    They were involved in intense Caledonian movements which are considered to

    have formed a chain of high mountains extending from Dronning Louise Land to

    the vicinity of Scoresby Sound. All available observations favor referring

    this to the Taconic phase of the Caledonian orogeny, but Silurian strata

    400 meters thick have been found only at one locality and the Lower Devonian

    is not represented.

            A thick and widespread series of clastic rocks of Middle Devonian to

    U u pper Permian age follow. Sections totaling more than 8,000 meters have

    been measured, the greater part being of Upper Devonian age. Slight folding

    within the Devonian is regarded as posthumous Caledonian deformation. There

    was also slight folding and much faulting at the close of Carboniferous time,

    representing the Asturian phase of the Hercynian orogeny. Faulting of less

    intensity took place during the Permian period.

            The only igneous rocks of Paleozoic age now recognized in Greenland are

    restricted to East Greenland. On Ella Island, Ordovician diabase cuts

    007      |      Vol_I-0412                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Wilson: Geology of Greenland

    pre-Devonian sedimentary rocks. Devonian extrusive rocks, including

    keratophyre, quartz-porphyry, spilite, and tuff, occur in association with

    Devonian sandstone in Moskusokse Fjord, Ymer Island, and in the Canning

    Land-Wegener Peninsula area. The volcanic rocks of the northern localities

    have been referred to the Upper Devonian, but those of the Canning Land-Weagener

    Peninsula are only known to be older than Middle Devonian. In the latter

    region there are important intrusions of granitic and granodioritic plutonic

    rocks, which may be of Caledonian age.

            The Mesozoic era is represented fairly completely, but only by compara–

    tively small overlaps of thin sediments which occur chiefly in the coastal

    region. A composite section is described in some detail in Section IV.

            Between Kangerdlugssuaq and Scoresby Sound, an area of at least 75,000 square

    kilometers is underlain covered by plateau basalts several kilometers in thickness.

    North of Scoresby Sound the plateau basalts proper cover only smaller areas

    but large sills and inclined sheets penetrate the Mesozoic sediments over a

    large area between Davy Sound and Dove Bay. The rock types that have been

    described include olivine trachybasalt, plagioclase basalt, olivine basalt,

    and basalt proper. Rhyolites are known to occur at Cape Franklin. Although

    sedimentary beds containing either a Tertiary flora or a marine fauna are

    interbedded with the lavas at some places, the chronological sequences are

    known only in part.

            Plutonic centers younger than part of the basalts occur along the whole

    coast. They consist of gabbros, (e.g., the Skaergaard en intrusive), granite,

    and syenite.

            It will thus be understood that knowledge of the geology of Greenland

    is necessarily somewhat fragmentary. Nothing is known of the rocks that

    008      |      Vol_I-0413                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Wilson: Geology of Greenland

    occupy four-fifths of the country beneath the great interior ice sheet,

    and little is known concerning the coasts facing the Arctic Sea. At many

    places on the other coasts careful detailed work has been done. Since

    these localities form only a narrow strip and since many formations are

    known only from isolated occurrences, it is an encouraging achievement to

    have discovered as much about the geology of a land so large and difficult

    of access.

    009      |      Vol_I-0414                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. (Arne Noe-Nygaard)




    Older Pre-Cambrian

            Through geological investigations carried on during the last few decades,

    remnants of three old mountain chains have been discovered in Greenland. The

    first occurs in southwest Greenland, the Ketilids; the second in central

    West Greenland, the Nagsugtoqids; and the third in northwest Greenland, the

    Agpatids. Presumably the succession is given in order of age, but the

    studies have not progressed sufficiently to establish this with certainty.

            Ketilids . The Ketilidian cycle begins with the formation of a geosyn–

    clinal series which can be divided into: ( a ) a lower sedimentary series, the

    so-called Sermilik group, and ( b ) an upper, mainly volcanic series, the

    so-called Arsuk group. These two series have been folded together, and the

    resulting structure has been largely granitized. The result is the Julianehaab

    granite and its different varieties. An extensive period of erosion followed,

    which denuded the mountain chain down to the migmatites and granites. A

    hypsogenous movement seems to have accompanied and succeeded the granitization.

    The above analysis of the Ketilids has been based mainly on structural studies

    made between 60° and 62° N. latitude by Wegmann.

            Nagsugtoqids . Farther north in West Greenland between 66° and 69° N.

    two old chains of folded mountains have been recognized. They are separated

    010      |      Vol_I-0415                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Noe-Nygaard: Geology of Greenland

    by a period of dike injection. The older chain, designated the “Kangamiut

    complex,” probably belongs to the Ketilids just described; however, a younger

    complex, termed the Nagsugtoq u ids by Ramberg, also occurs here. From what is

    known of this younger chain, it may be divided into three main zones according

    to degree of regional metamorphism: ( a ) a southern gneiss zone, comprising an

    amphibolite and epidote-amphibolite facies, the “Ikertoq complex,” ( b ) a

    central zone, comprising a granulite facies, the “Isortoq complex,” and ( c )

    a northern zone , also belonging to an amphibolite and epidote-amphibolite facies,

    the “Egedesminde complex.” The analysis of the Nageugtoq u ids is mainly based

    on investigations of mineral facies and thermodynamics.

            Agpatids . Between approximately 70° and 72° N., Steenstrup divided the

    [ ?] pre-Cambrian of the Umanak Fjord district into three sections:

    ( a ) a southerly section of gneiss with banded amphibolite, marble, and dolomites;

    ( b ) north of this, a nd presumably overlying it, a phyllite series several thousand

    feet thick; and ( c ) still farther north a section where the phyllite passes into

    gneiss and which Steenstrup regards as younger than the phyllite, and conse–

    quently also younger than the southern gneiss section. Krüeger later studied

    the southernmost of these three complexes, which he renamed the “Agpat forma–

    tion.” He considered a conglomerate at Majortarsuatsiak to form the base of

    this formation.

            More recently, Noe-Nygaard has studied the phyllite division. For the time

    being, [ ?] it can only be said with certainty that at least one orogenic period

    has put its stamp on this region, and that the complex after the folding processes was

    not eroded to such depths as were the mountain ranges of the Nagsugtoqu u ids or the

    Ketilids, thus rocks showing evidence of a rather low degree of metamorphism

    are abundant and the folds are more flat and open.

    011      |      Vol_I-0416                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Noe-Nygaard: Geology of Greenland

            Pre-Cambrian gneisses underlie the coastal areas north of Svartenhuk

    Peninsula, including the narrow strip of Melville Bay.

            In East Greenland the whole coast land from Cape Farewell to

    Kangerdlugssuaq, north of Angmag a ssalik, consists of folded pre-Cambrian

    rocks; according to Wager, the axial strike between Angmagssalik and

    Kangerdlugssuaq is WNW.-ESE., but more to the south it varies good deal.

    Considerable field work has been carried on in southeast Greenland but only

    preliminary reports are as yet available, and co o r relation with known orogenic

    movements on the west coast cannot, therefore, be made with certainty. It is

    likely, however, that the southern part of the southeast coast was folded

    during the Ketilidian orogeny.


    Younger Pre-Cambrian

            In southwest Greenland a new accumulation began on the deeply cut

    post-Ketilidian peneplain. This has been called the “cycle of the Gardar

    formation,” and it consists of the following main divisions ; : ( a ) the Igaliko

    sandstone, associated with a lower volcanic portion of an explosive

    character, with a decreasing gaseous content toward ( b ) the porphyry forma–

    tion, comprised of an almost purely volcanic formation of great thickness.

    These formations were intruded by the “essexite series,” a series of plutonic

    rocks consisting of essexite gabbro passing into nordmerkite and arfvedsonite

    granite. Beyond the Tunugdliarfik area this series is probably represented

    by diabases. These were succeeded by a series of syenitic intrusive rocks,

    which are surrounded by a shell of younger granites and “Rapakiwi” rocks.

    They form a large number of massifs all over South Greenland. In the

    Tunugdliarfik area the whole edifice, the basement rocks (Ketilidian), the

    012      |      Vol_I-0417                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Noe-Nygaard: Geology of Greenland

    Igaliko sandstone, the porphyry formation, and also the essexite series

    were transformed into the alkaline rocks or the nepheline syenites (Naujaites,

    Lujav ir ri tes, and Kakortokites) as originally described by N. V. Ussing. The

    Gardar cycle was apparently not terminated by a mountain building revolution.

            A sedimentary “Thule formation” has been traced along the north coast

    of Greenland from Thule in the west to the region around Independence Fjord

    in the east. Its substratum consists of older pre-Cambrian rocks of which

    very little is known. The thickness of the Thule formation is about 200 meters

    at its farthest west section, but amounts to at least 1,000 meters in the

    east; it begins with coarse conglomerates and red and yellow sandstones. In

    the upper part of the sandstone series tillites have recently been found by

    J. Troelsen (verbal information); the sandstones are followed by dolomite

    and rather coarse shales. Fossils proper have not been found, but Cryptozoon

    reefs were discovered. The strata of the Thule formation are cut by numerous

    dykes which are probably older than the overlying lower Cambrian sediments.

            In East Greenland, owing to later Caledonian folding, younger pre-Cambrian

    strata are found mainly in two zones. The first is in the Franz Josef Fjord

    region, named the Eleonore Bay formation; the other is in and behind the

    inner f r amifications of the fjords, the Petermann series. Although now separated,

    the two zones are still similar and are supposed to have been part of the same

    unit originally.

            The Ele o nore Bay formation is typically developed between 72° and 74° N.

    latitude. Its thickness exceeds that of the Thule Fformation and amounts to

    about 4,000-5,000 meters. The basement on which it was deposited is not known.

    Its lower part consists of quartzites often containing ripple marks; the

    quartzites gradually pass into shales and thin bedded calcareous and dolo–

    mitic layers with varying, bright colors; “the multicolored series.”

    The uppermost 600-800 meters, less colored, consists of dolomites, limestones,

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    EA-I. Noe-Nygaard: Geology of Greenland

    and dark shales. Cryptozoon reefs are common in some of the dolomite e s, but

    no [ ?] fossils have been found in the dark bituminous shales.

            The Peterman series extends as a discontinuous belt from about 72° N. to

    north of 80° N. in the nunatak zone. Considerable parts of these rocks are

    at present covered by the icecap. The visible rocks are similar to the

    Eleonore Bay formation and consist of quartzites, shales, c d olomites, and

    limestones. Neither the thickness nor the details of the succession of

    these strata have been established.

            In East Greenland, old tillites (Cape Oswald formation) have been

    recognized on top of the Eleonore Bay formation in the fjord zone for a

    distance of 150 kilometers, between the Strindberg Peninsula to the north

    and Lyell Land to the south. The thickness of the old morainic sediments

    varies from a little over 100 meters to more than 500 meters. At Cape Oswald

    on Ella Island, where detailed studies have been made by C. Poulsen, the

    tillites are divided into a lower moraine carrying erratics derived mainly

    from the limestone-dolomite members of the Eleonore Bay formation, and an

    upper moraine containing some granite and gneiss boulders but mainly volcanic

    and porphyritic rock types, the geographical source of which is not known.

    Between these two glacial horizon o s there are beds of sandstone and sandy shales,

    indicating perhaps an interglacial period. The glacial deposits are followed

    by very finely stratified sediments, and these may represent a sedimentation

    facies comparable to late-glacial or postglacial “varves” of Pleistocene time.

    014      |      Vol_I-0419                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. (Chr. Poulsen)







            In northern Greenland the Cambrian is known only from the north coast

    of Inglefield Land, the southeastern part of Washington Land, and Peary Land.

            The sequence of strata is as follows:

            Lower Cambrian . ( 1 ) Wulff River formation (thickness 30m.): conglomerates,

    glauconitiferous, calcareous sandstones, and limestones with Botsfordia ,

    Kutorgina , Salterella , Strenuella , Olenellus , and Wanneria . Pebbles in the

    basal conglomerate contain species of an older fauna, Acrothele and Micromitra .

    On top of this formation follows: ( 2 ) Cape Kent limestone (thickness 10-20 m.);

    oölitic limestone with Olenellus , Dolichometopsis , Kochiella , Inglefieldia ,

    and Poulsenia . ( 3 ) Brønlund Fjord dolomite in Peary Land (thickness 156 m.):

    with Botafordia? , Obolella , Fordilla , Hyolithes , and Bonnia ; in northeastern

    Peary Land the dolomite is replaced by shales. (From a note by J. Troelsen.)

            Middle Cambrian . Cape Wood formation: ( 1 ) Cape Russell member (thickness

    45-85 m.): conglomerates, sandstones, and limestones with Glossopleura ,

    Acro s c ephalops , Glyphaspis , Kootenia , Prosymphysurus , Clavaspidella , and

    Elrathiella . These strata are overlain by: ( 2 ) Blomsterback limestone

    member (thickness 2-5 m.): basal conglomerate and limestone with Blainiopsis .



            Ordovician strata occupy the greater part of Washington Land and probably

    extend through Hall Land, Nyeboe Land, Wulff Land, etc., to southern Peary

    Land where Ordovician sediments are exposed. Only the occurrences in Washington

    Land, especially those along the south coast, and in Peary Land, have been

    studied; the sequence of strata is as follows:

            Lower Canadian . Cass Fjord formation (thickness about 400 m.): limestone

    conglomerates alternating with shaly limestone. Fauna: Macrocystella ,

    015      |      Vol_I-0420                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Poulsen: Geology of Greenland.

    Lingulepis , Eoorthis , Sinuopea , and Hystricurus . These beds were overlain by:

    ( 2 ) Cape Clay limestone (thickness 30-50 m.); limestone with intraformational

    limestone conglomerates. Fauna: Shizambon , Ophileta , Ozarkispira , Helicotoma ,

    cf. Clarkoceras , Hystricurus , and Symphysurina .

            Upper Canadian . ( 1 ) Poulsen Cliff shale (thickness exceeds 40 m.):

    unfossiliferous shale with a few thin layers of limestone conglomerates. The

    shale passes gradually into the overlaying: ( 2 ) Nygaard Bay limestone (thickness

    about 10 m.): limestone with chert nodules and a few limestone conglomerates.

    The only identifiable fossil is a Protocycloceras . ( 3 ) Cape Weber limestone

    (thickness about 10 m.): fauna: Petigurus groenlandicus , Bathyurellus teicherti ,

    Pseudomera dactylifera , and Bolbocephalus seelyi . This stratum is identical

    with the Cape Weber formation of East Greenland. On top of it follows: ( 4 )

    Nunatami formation (thickness about 140 m.): ( a ) bifidus horizon: shale with

    Didymograptus bifidus ; ( b ) angustifolius horizon; limestone with Phyllograptus

    angustifolius , Raphistomina , and Isoteloides ; ( c ) gastropod and ostracod horizon:

    limestone with gastropods and species of Pomatotrema , Syntrophia , Goniotelus ,

    Bathyurellus , Bolbocephalus , Cybelopsis , Pseudomera , Protop l iomerops , and Isochillina .

    ( 5 ) Wandel Valley limestone in Peary Land (thickness 350 m.): with Ceratopea .

    (From a note by J. Troelsen.)

            Chazyan? . Cape Webster formation (thickness 290 m.): limestone alternating

    with shale and mudstone. Fauna: crinoid stems and a questionable Spyroceres .

            Trenton-Richmond . ( 1 ) Gonioceras Bay limestone (thickness about 50 m.)

    containing among other things Bathostoma magnopora , species of Gonioceras and

    Leuorthoceras , and the trilobite Bumastus milleri . ( 2 ) Cape Calhoun limestone

    (thickness about 250 m.) with a very rich fauna, containing many American forms

    from the Trenton-Richmond series and species of Receptaculites , Streptelasma ,

    Columnaria , Plasmopora , Calapaecia , Halysites , Rhynchotrema , Strophomena ,

    Rafinesquina , Sowerbyella , Hesperorthis , Platystrophia , Trochonema ,

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    Maclurites , Vaginoceras , Endoceras , Charactoceras , Apsidoceras , Lambeoceras ,

    Actinoceras , Huronia , Kochoceras , Isotelus , Homotelus , Vogdesia , Ill s a enus ,

    Bumastus , Calymene , Ceraurus , Ceraurinus , and Pterygometopus . (3) Børglum

    River limestone in Peary Land ; ( thickness about 800 m.): the rich fauna has not

    yet been identified but seems to be related to that of the Gonioceras Bay and

    Cape Calhoun limesones. (From a note by J. Troelsen.)



            Silurian deposits occupy a narrow zone, which extends northeastward from

    southwestern Washington Land along the south coast of Kennedy Channel through

    Hall and Warming Land to Peary Land.

            Middle Clinton . ( 1 ) Cape Schuchert formation (thickness 100-200 m.): basal

    conglomerate, bituminous shale, and limestone with Climacograptus scalaris

    normalis , Monograptus convolutes , M. leptotheca , M. lobiferus , Rastrites

    peregrines socialis , and species of Favosites , Diplotrypa , Lingula , Onniella ,

    Leptaena , Sowerbyella , Clorinda , Atrypa , Eospirifer , Harpes , Pseudoproetus ,

    Leonaspis , Dicranurus , Bumastus , Illaenus , Scutellum , Cheirurus , Encrinurus ,

    Phacops , and Ceratocypris. On top of this formation follows: (2) Offley Island

    formation (thickness about 500-800 m.): basal conglomerate and shale, but

    mainly limestone with Amplexus, Columnaria , Cystiphyllum , Propora , Proheliolites , ✓ underline

    Favosites, Paleofavosites , Nyctopora , Halysites , Clathrodictyon , Stromatopora ,

    Platystrophia , Barbarorthis , Fascicostella , Sowerbyella , Leptaens , Schuchertella ,

    Streptis , Clorinda , Sieberella , Harpidium , Camarotoecia , Atrypa , Atrypopsis ,

    Nalivkinia , Eospirifer , Crispella , Merista , Tryblidium , Salpingostoma ,

    Bellerophon , Lophospira , Liospira , Coelocaulus , Platyceras , Strophostylus ,

    Cyclonema , Orthoceras , Geisonocerina , Kionoceras , Protokionoceras , Polygrammoceras ,

    Phragmoceras , Illaenus , Scutellum , and Cheirurus .

    017      |      Vol_I-0422                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Poulsen: Geology of Greenland

            Upper Clinton-Lockport-Lower Cayugan . Cape Tyson formation (thickness

    about 500m.) conglomerates, shales, and limestones. Fauna: Monograptus

    turriculatus , M. Priodon , M. bohemicus , Retiolites geninitzianus , Cyrtograptus

    murchisoni , and underscribed graptolites, branchiopods, mollusca, and trilobites.

            Cayugan? Polaris Bay formation (thickness about 500m.): coarse sandstone ✓ underline

    with shaly beds and micaceous laminae. No fossils are known. A boulder

    possibly originating from this formation contains a new species of Dicranogmus .

            In Peary Land the Silurian system is represented by shaly micaceous sand–

    stone with undescribed Monograptus spp . (thickness at least 30 m.). (Note by

    J. Troelsen.)


    Carboniferous and Per i mian

            Pennsylvanian . Eastern Peary Land (thickness at least 50 m.): impure

    limestone with Triticites , corals, and brachiopods. (Note by J. Troelsen.) ✓ underline

            Lower (?) Permian . Greely Fjord Group (?) Eastern Peary Land (thickness

    about 300 m.). Cherty limestone with corals and brachiopods. May be comparable

    to the Permian beds of Ellesmere Island. (Note by J. Troelsen.)





            Cambrian deposits are found in the Franz Josef Fjord and King Oscar Fjord

    regions, where they form a narrow strip of isolated areas extending southward

    from Hudson Land through southeastern Strindberg Land, the Cape Weber

    Peninsula, western part of Ymer Island, eastern Suess Land, and [ ?] Ella

    Island to southeastern Lyell Land.

            Lower Cambrian . ( 1 ) Bastion formation (thickenss about 200 m.):

    quartzite followed by arenaceous, partly glauconitiferous shale with minor

    017a      |      Vol_I-0423                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Poulsen: Geology of Greenland

    beds of sandstone and limestone. Fauna: Lingulepis , Obolella , Botsfordia ,

    Hyolithellus , Fordilla , Hyolithes , and Olenellus . ( 2 ) Ella Island formation

    (thickness about 50 m.): fine-grained, calcareous, cross-bedded sandstone,

    and finely crystalline limestone with intraformational limestone conglomerates.

    018      |      Vol_I-0424                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Poulsen: Geology of Greenland

    Faune: Psammosphaera , Archaeocyathus , Paterina , Kutorgina , Billingsella? ,

    Hyolithellus , Salterella , Stenothecoides , Olenellus , Wanneria , Paedeumia ,

    Proliostracus , and Bonnia .

            Middle and/or Upper Cambrian . ( 1 ) Hyolithes Creek dolomite (thickness

    about 200 m.): massive-bedded, somewhat arenaceous, more or less cross - bedded

    dolomite without fossils. ( 2 2 ) Dolomite Point dolomite (thickness about 300 m.):

    thinly bedded, fine-grained dolomite and intraformational dolomite breccias

    with stromatolites and nodules and bands of chert.



            The Ordovician formations occur in the same localities as the Cambrian


            Lower Canadian . Cass Fjord formation (thickness about 300 m.):

    intraformation limestone conglomerates and limestone alternating with

    shales. Faune: Ophiograptus, Clonograptus, Lingulepis, Eoorthis , cf. Macrocystella , cf.

    Rhachopea, Sinnopea, Hystriourus , and Symphysurina .

            Upper Canadian . ( 1 ) Cape Weber formation (thickness about 600 m.):

    more or les dolomitic limestone and intraformational limestone breccias.

    Fauna: Archaeorthis , Polytoscia , Ectomaria , Gyronema , Helicotoma , Hormotoma ,

    Lophospira , Maclurites , Pagodispira , Raphistomina , Roubiduxia , Solenospira ,

    Turritoma , Protocycloceras , Proterocameroceras , Bathyurellus , Bathyurina ,

    Bolbocephalus , Ceratopeltis , Hystricurus , Petigurus , and Niobe ? ( 2 ) Narwhal Sound

    formation (thickness about 600m.): crystalline dolomite s with Eccy l iopterus,

    Lophospira , Pagodispira , Trochonema , Trocholitoceras , and Bathyurus? , followed

    by more or less dolomitic limestone with Bathyurellus? and Heterochilina .

    019      |      Vol_I-0425                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Poulsen: Geology of Greenland



            Middle Clinton . More than 400 meters of limestone of the Offlay Island

    formation, containing among other things Amplexus , Favosites , Halysites , Heliolites , Stromatopora ,

    Pentanerideo , and Eogmochilina , occur in Crown Prince Christian Land,

    20 kilometers west of Ingolf Fjord.



            Middle Devonian. Old Red Sandstone facies (thickness more than 900 m.).

    The Middle Devonian is known with certainty only from the Wegener Peninsula

    and Canning Land on the south coast of Davy Sound. ( 1 ) Heterostius strata

    (thickness about 50 m.): basal conglomerate and arkose with Heterostius ,

    Homostius , and Thursophyton . ( 2 ) Asterolepis strata: ( a ) Sandstone with

    Asterolepis , Crossopterygii , and Psilophyton (about 350 m.); ( b ) sandstone — take out underline

    with Canningius (more than 500 m.).

            Upper Devonian . Old Red Sandstone facies (thickness more than 7,000 m.).

    The Upper Devonian covers a considerable areas embracing southern and western

    Hudson Land, the Gauss Peninsula, southeastern Strindberg Land, eastern half

    of Ymor s Island, western part of Geographical Society Island, western part of

    Traill Island, and the southeastern part of Ella Island ( 1 ) Basal conglomerate

    (locally more than 1,000 m.). The exact stratigraphical position of the basal

    conglomerate is uncertain; a Middle Devonian age is conceivable; ( 2 ) Phyllolepie

    series (maximum thickness 6,400 m.); ( 3 ) Remigolepis series (100-800 m.);

    ( 4 ) Arthrodire sandstone (200-500 m.); ( 5 5 ) Upper sandstone complex (60-160 m.).



            Lower Carboniferous (Mississippian) . Continental deposits of Dinantian

    age, mainly sandstone of varying thickness and/or shale with minor coal seems,

    020      |      Vol_I-0426                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Poulsen: Geology of Greenland

    occur in the following localities: A n m drup Land, Holm Land, Loch Fine, Hudson

    Land, Gauss Peninsula, Haslum Islands, southwestern Traill Island, and the

    south coast of Davy Sound. Flora: Asterocalamites strobiculatus , Telangium

    bifidum, Adiantites cf. bellidulus , species of Lepidodendron , and Strigmaria


            Upper Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) . ( 1 ) Continental deposits of Namurian

    age, mainly sandstone of varying thickness with dark shale and minor coal seems,

    occur in southwestern Clavering Island, northern Hudson Land, southwestern

    Traill Island, and estern Scoresby Land. Flora: Calamites suckowi , C. haueri ,

    species of Lepidodendron and Sigillaria , Stigmaria ficoides , and Cordaites .

    ( 2 ) Marine deposits, mainly limestone, merl, and shale (thickness about 400 m.),

    occur in Amdrup Land and Holm Land. The rick fauna contains Productus longispinus ,

    P. simensis , P. punctatus , and Choristites supramosquensis , and (according to

    Troelsen) fusulines belonging to Des Moinesian types.



            Upper Permian . On top of the upper Carboniferous in A n m drup Land and Holm

    Land 300 meters of limestone follows with a rich fauna containing Productus

    (Horridonia) timanicus , P. (Buxtonia) porrectus, and others. The occurrence of

    Pseudoschwagerina indicates an early Permian age of these beds (note by J. Troelsen).

            In the fjord region between about 71°30′ and 74°30′ N. latitude, the Permian

    beds form a 200-meter-thick series of highly varying sediments, which replace

    each other in the great many localities to such a degree that a standard section

    cannot be given. These facies include: ( 1 ) a basal conglomerate in the area between the mouth

    of Franz Josef Fjord and Gael Hamke Bay, ( 2 ) gypsum, ( 3 ) limestone and dolomite

    with typical Zechstein fossils: Productus ( Horridonia) horridus var. Initialis

    and var. hoppeianus , Streptorhynchus pelargonatus , Spiriferina cristata var.

    multiplicata , Dielasma elongatum , Schizodus truncates , S. obscures ,

    S. schlotheimi , Bakevellia antiqua , B. ceratophaga , Pseudomonotis

    021      |      Vol_I-0427                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Poulsen: Geology of Greenland

    speluncarea , and Libea hausmanni , (4) black shale and Posidonomya sp.,

    Permoteuthis groenlandica , Paleonisous freie a s lebeni , and others, ( 5 ) limestone

    with Martinia triquetra , Chonetes aff. capitolinus , Medlicottia malmquisti ,

    Cyclolobus kulingi , and species of Arctacanthus , Fadenia , Campodus , and

    others, ( 6 ) limestone with Productus (Horridonia) timanicus , P. ( Buxtonia)

    porrectus , and several others species of Productus associated with species of

    Marginifera , Strophalosia , Spirifer , Spiriferella , and Streptorhynchus , and

    finally ( 7 ) red, arenaceous strata with an impoverished fauna of Linoproductus ,

    Sanguinolites , Bellerophon , and others; the Palaeonthological and stratigraphical

    data indicate that this Zechstein series must be fairly complete.

            (The information concerning the Middle Cambrian Cape Wood Formation, the

    Lower Ordovician Poulsen Cliff Shale and Nygaard Bay Limestone, and the

    position of the Cape Weber Limestone in the North Greenland series of strata

    originates from a manuscript by Dr. J. Troelsen and is published with his

    kind permission.)

    022      |      Vol_I-0428                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. (Aflred Rosenkrantz)






    Cretaceous and Tertiary

            Covering the young pre-Cambrian crystalline rocks, a series, at least

    800 meters thick, of limnic conglomerates, sandstones, and shales contain–

    in v g very rich floras has been found in the Svartenhuk-N u û gssuaq-Disko area.

    The oldest is the Kome flora, probably of Albian age. Somewhat younger beds

    contain another rich flora, the Atane flora, possible belonging to the


            Other limnic beds, younger than the Kome-Atane series, are found in the

    same area, for example, the Paut u û t flora belonging to the Senonian and the

    Atanikerdluk flora of possibly Danian age and overlain by plant-bearing

    strata just below the basalt formation, belonging to the Paleocene. Further–

    more, some inter r b asaltic floras have been discovered, presumably Eocene or


            In Svartenhuk and especially on the N u û gssua q k Peninsula, several marine

    horizons younger than the Cenomanian-Atane beds have been found, ranging

    from the Coniacian to and including the Paleocene. They are more than 1,000

    meters thick and have developed as bituminous shales with subordinate sand–

    stones and conglomerates. Also fossiliferous, marine basaltic tuffs have been




            Sandstones and conglomerates in bituminous shales passing gradually into

    tuffs and pillow lavas of the basalt formation and containing a rich fauna

    have been found in the interior of the N u û g s sua q k Peninsula. The fauna

    023      |      Vol_I-0429                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Rosenkrantz: Geology of Greenland

    comprises a Stegoconcha , a big Cucullaea (Latiarca) , a big Glycimeris , a

    big Venericor and many more pelecypods, a big Turritellas of the Mortoni

    group, Polynices and other Naticids , Tylostoma , Ficopsis , Fulguroficus ,

    Sassia , Pseudoliva aff. prima and fissurata , Sycum , div. Levifusus , Mayeria ,

    Clavilithes , Volutocorbis , Ancilla , several Pleurotomids , Gilbertina and

    many other gastropods. The age is presumably L l ower Paleocene.



            From N u û gs s ua q k bituminous shales with calcareous concretions and a rich

    fauna have been found situated between the true Paleocene and Danian beds.

    The fauna consist of a Propeamussium , Nucula , Myrtea , big Dentaliums ,

    Naticids , Perisoptera , Fusids , Tudicla , Volunthilites , Pleurotomids , etc.

    Tuff horizons occur in this series.



            Below the Perisoptera beds, just mentioned, a series of bituminous shales,

    sandstones, and fossiliferous tuffs is found to contain a fairly rich fauns:

    div. corals, Tylocidaris , Echinocorys , Hemiaster , Terebratulina striata ,

    Solemya , Thyasira conradi , Lucinids , Pleurotomaria , Palaeocypraea aff. spirata ,

    and other gastropods, Hercoglossa and Eutrephoceras . No ammonites, belemnites,

    or inocerams have been met with.


    Upper Senonian

            About 600 meters below the Danian level, bituminous shales with

    Acanthoscaphites roemeri occur at N u ûgssuaq .


    Lower Senonia

            Bituminous shales with Inoceramus patootensis are found at N u ûgssuaq .

    024      |      Vol_I-0430                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Rosenkrantz: Geology of Greenland.



            Bituminous shaoes with Scaphites ventricosus stanoni have been found in

    the Svartenhuk Peninsula.


    Igneous Rocks

            As mentioned, the oldest basaltic ash layers (tuffs) are found in marine

    strata of Danian age and contain Danian fossils; subsequent tuffs are found

    in the Danian-Paleocene strata. Surface volcanism on a large scale is post-lower

    Paleocene; it began with the deposition of tuffs containing Paleocene fossils

    followed by an extrusion of subaquatic breccias (pillow lavas).

            The subaquatic phase was followed by the plateau basalts proper of several

    kilometers thickness known especially from Svartenhuk, N u û gssuaq, and Disko.

    The lava succession in Svartenhuk started with picritic types. The olivine

    content diminishes upward in the plateau, the last basalts being olivine-free.

    On top of the plateau small domes of anorthoclase trachyte are found. In

    Ubekendt Island a granophyric intrusion center has been recorded. Two special

    groups of basaltic intrusive are met with in N u û gssuaq: an ultrabasic suite

    (peridoties) and a system of quartz-gabbroic sills, the latter apparently

    connected with large-scale faulting in N u û gssuaq as well as in Svartenhuk.





            From the Thule district some fossils, for example, Monotis cf. subscircularis ,

    have been brought back suggesting an Upper Triassic (Nori s c ) age. Moreover

    Dr. Troelsen has quite recently discovered lower Triassic marine sandstones

    and shales in eastern Peary Land. These strata are younger than the Eotriassic

    beds of East Greenland and seem to be comparable with the lower Triassic strata of Spitsbergen .

    024a      |      Vol_I-0431                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Rosenkrantz: Geology of Greenland


    Cretaceous or Tertiary

            In eastern Peary Land Dr. Troelsen has found shales and coarse sandstone

    with petrified wood and leaves of dicotyledones .

            The above mentioned discoveries of Dr. Troelsen have been published with

    his kind permission.

    025      |      Vol_I-0432                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Rosenkrantz: Geology of Greenland





            Lower Eotriassi oc . Marine strata are known from the fjord region

    between Davy Sound and Young Sound, comprising conglomerates, sandstones,

    and clays (Table I).

    Table I.

    Triassic Faunal Zones of East Greenland.
    Substage Zone Beds with:
    Eotriassic? Anodontophora Andontophora fassaensis

    Myalina kochi

    Anodontophora breviformis
    Gyronitan Proptychites Prophychites rosenkrantz i
    Vishnuites Ophiceras dubium

    Vishnuites decipiens
    Otoceratan Ophiceras Ophiceras commune and [?] subacuntala

    Metophiceras praecursor

    Glyptophiceras serpentinum
    Glyptophiceras Glyptophiceras minor

    Glyptophiceras trivial s e

            Among the ammonites from the lower beds, the genus Otoceras is represented.

    Of special interest is the rich and well-preserved fauna of fossil fishes and

    stegocephalians found throughout the whole series belonging to the genera

    Polyacrodus, Birgeria, Glaucolepis, Australosomus, Bobasatrania, Laugia,

    Perleidus, Ospia, Broughia, Helmolepis, Lyrocephalus, Stochiosaurus and Wetlugasaurs .

            Between the Lower Eotriassic and the Rhaetic, a brackish or limnic series

    of sandstones, gypsum, and red marls has been deposited in the southern part of

    026      |      Vol_I-0433                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Rosenkrantz: Geology of Greenland

    the area, the uppermost part commonly referred to the Keuper. In Jameson

    Land, the Keuper marl is unconformably overlain by the Rhaetic, consisting

    of limnic sandstones and shales with coals and a rich Lepidopteris flora.



            Lower Jurassic . In Jameson Land, the Rhaetic Lepidopteris beds are

    followed by the L l ower Liassic cola-bearing Thaumatopteris beds also contain–

    ing a very rich flora. In the same area the Rhasto-Liassic limnic complex is

    overlain by marine L l ower and U u pper Liassic strata (Table II). — —

    Table II

    Lower Jurassic Faunal Zones of East Greenland.
    Substages Zones Beds with:
    Aalenian Aalensis Pseudolioceras beyrichi
    Yeovillian Striatulum Pseudolioceras compactile
    Whitbian Bifrons Pseudolioceras lythense

    Pseudolioceras dumortieri


    Domerian Marine ex parte, no guide fossils
    Carixian Ibex Beaniceras
    Jamesoni Uptonia

            The marine Liassic strata consist of conglomerates, sandstones, and shales.

    Especially from the Bifrons and Jamesoni zones, large faunas of pelecypo l ds have

    been secured.

            Skeletal remains of Ichthyosaurus and Plesiosaurus have been found in the

    U u pper Liassic.

    027      |      Vol_I-0434                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Rosenkrantz: Geology of Greenland

            Middle Jurassic Middle Jurassic is known from marie sandstones, arenaceous shales, and underline

    clays in the area between Scoresby Sound and Koldewey Island. Bajocian,

    L l ower Bathonian, and U u pper Callovian are not represented (Table III).

    Table III.

    Middle Jurassic Faunal Zones of East Greenland.
    Substage s Zones Beds with:
    Middle Callovian Kepplerites Kosmoceras pauper Helen

    Kepplerites tychonis

    Cadoceras victor Cardioceras
    Lower Callovian Arcticoceras Cardioceras pseudishmae

    Arcticoceras kochi

    Lingula Lingula
    Upper Bathonian Arctocephalites Natica

    Arctocephalites ornatus
    Helen Cr e a nocephalites Cranocephalites pompeckji

    Cranocephalites subbulatus

            P L arge ammonite faunas, including many pelecypods, gastropods, etc., have

    been collected in the different horizons.

            Upper Jurassic is represented by marine conglomerates, sandstones, and

    shales and in the north also by limnic coal-bearing beds transitional to the

    Middle Jurassic. They occur in the fjord region between Scoresby Sound and

    Koldewey Island. The most complete section has been measured in Milne Land

    (Scoresby Sound) (Table IV).

    028      |      Vol_I-0435                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Rosenkrantz: Geology of Greenland

    Table IV.

    Upper Jurassic Faunal Zones of East Greenland.
    Substage s Beds with:
    Purbeckian Craspedites Craspedites and Iitanites Titanites ? T ✓
    Portlandian Laugeites groenlandica Laugeites groenlandica

    Crendonites lesliei Crendonites lesliei and div. sp.

    Behemoth groenlandicus Behemoth groenlandicus

    Epipallasiceras praecox Epipallasiceras praecox and div. sp.
    Upper Kim m eridgian Pallasiceras jubilans Pallasiceras jubilans and div. sp.

    Pectinatites groenlandicus Pectinatites groenlandicus and div. sp.
    Middle Kim m eridgian Subdichotomoceras?


    Virgatosphinctoides? Virgatosphinctoides?
    Lower Kim m eridgian Hoplocardioceras decipiens Hoplocardioceras decipiens

    Eurionoceras kochi Eurionoceras kochi

    Rasenia borealis Rasenia borealis

    Rasenia orbignyi Rasenia orbignyi

    Rigsteadia sp Rigsteadia sp .
    Upper Oxfordian Prionodoceras rosenkrantzi Prionodoceras rosenkrantzi and div. sp.

    Cardioceras Cardioceras aff. zenaidae zenaidae

            From the Heden L l ower Kim m eridgian, a plesiosaurian ( Cryptoclidus ) and a fish

    ( Caturus ) have been collected. Moreover, large quantities of ammonites,

    pelecypods (e.g., Aucellas ) ha s ve been collected from the different levels.



            Lithologically very similar to the Jurassic, Cretaceous deposits are

    known from the Kangerdlugssuaq region in the south, in the fjord region between word missing

    Scoresby Sound and Germania Land, and possibly from the Northeast Foreland

    at Independence Fjord.

    029      |      Vol_I-0436                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Rosenkrantz: Geology of Greenland

            Lower Cretaceous is know from the fjord region only (Table V).

    Table V.

    Lower Cretaceous Faunal Zones of East Greenland.
    Substage s Beds with:
    Albian Upper Hystricoceras? Hystricoceras? , Beudanticeras Beudanticeras , Puzosia Puzosia
    Middle Gastroplites div. sp., Inoceramus anglicus

    Lower Euhoplites , Dipoloceras , Dimorphoplites

    Leymeriella div. sp., Arcthoplites

    Beudanticeras .
    Aptian Upper Sanmartinoceras groenlandioum

    Tropaeum arcticum?
    Lower Deshayesites div. sp.
    Ba rremian Missing
    Hauter i vian
    Valanginian Upper Lyticoceras
    Middle Polyptychidtids , Neocraspedites
    Lower Missing
    Infravalanginian Tollia payeri

    Subcraspedites div. sp.

    Hectoroceras sp .

    030      |      Vol_I-0437                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Rosenkrantz: Geology of Greenland

            Upper Cretaceous covers rather small areas in the Kangerdlugssuaq region,

    the fjor e d region (Knud’s Head and other localities), and probably at the

    Northeast Foreland (Table VI).

    Table VI.

    Upper Cretaceous Faunal Zones of East Greenland.
    Substage s Beds with:
    Helen Se n onian Upper Not known
    Lower Inoceramus geltingi , Parapachydiscus? Inoceramus geltingi , Parapachydiscus?
    Turonian Upper Scaphites Scaphites aff. Lamberti , Prionotropis Lamberti , Prionotropis cf.

    volgari volgari
    Lower Not known
    Cenomania Schloenbachia Schloenbachia div. sp.

            In the Kangerdlugssuaq area, marine Senonian beds containing Actinocamax Actinocamax

    cf. blackmori blackmori and A. A. cf. plenus plenus have been found.

            From all Cretaceous levels in East Greenland, apart from the ammonites,

    many species of pelecypods, gastropods, etc., have been found. The Valagninian

    is rich in Aucellas Aucellas .



            The Kangerdlugssuaq sedimentary series comprises beds following the marine

    Senonian, and inclosing an early Tertiary or Danian flora.

            Marine interbasaltic strata are known from Cape Dalton south of Scoresby

    Sound, consisting of a Coeloma Coeloma bed overlying a Cyrena gravesi Cyrena gravesi - bed. The age

    has been estimated to be either L l ower Eocene or Oligocene-Miocene. Other

    presumed marine Tertiary deposits have been reported from Cape Gustav Holm

    031      |      Vol_I-0438                                                                                                                  
    EA-I. Rosenkrantz: Geology of Greenland

    south of Kangerdlugssuaq, Little Pendulum Island, and other northern


            Limnic interbasaltic strata containing a fairly rich Paleocene-Eocene

    flora have been met with in the northern as well as in the southern basalt



    J. Tuzo Wilson (Geological History)


    Arne Noe-Nygaard (The Pre-Cambrian)


    Chr. Poulsen (Paleozoic Formations)


    Alfred Rozenkrantz (Mesozoic and

    C h enozoic Formations)

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