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Lichens: Encyclopedia Arctica 5: Plant Sciences (General)
Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962

Lichens

(EA-PS. Eilif Dahl)

LICHENS

CONTENTS
Page
Ecology and Biology 2
Lichen Vegetation in the Arctic 4
Exploration of Lichen Flora 6
Lichen Floras of the Arctic Countries 12
Economic Importance of Arctic Lichens 15
Bibliography 16

EA-Plant Sciences
(Eilif Dahl)

LICHENS
Lichens, which are compound organisms consisting of photosynthesizing
algal cells growing in a protective envelope of living fungous material, are
found everywhere in the Arctic where a suitable substratum exists. On the
northernmost point of Peary Land they occur in abundance. Indeed, even on the
Antarctic Continent, where only three species of vascular plants have been
found, at least 250 species of lichens are known to occur.
Lichens are conveniently divided into two major groupings; the macrolichens
and the microlichens or crustose lichens. The macrolichens are relatively large
plants of varying shape. Some genera have an erect, branched thallus, which may
be thread-shaped ( Alectoria , Neuropogon ), stout ( Cladonia , Sphaerophorus , and
Dactylina ), or more or less flattened ( Cetraria ). The thallus is often beset
with small squamules or granules ( Cladonia, Stereocaulon ). Other genera have a
foil-shaped thallus attached at the center to stones (Umbilicaris), or the
thallus may be closely adnate to the soil ( Peltigera , Solorina ). Still other
types have a branched, flattened thallus closely pressed to stone ( Parmelia ,
Physcia ).
The microlichens form crusts covering rock or soil, or grow upon moss or
old bones. Their most important genera in the Arctic are L i e cidea , Lecanora ,
Buellia, Rinodina , Rhizocarpon , and Caloplaca . The members of the genus Caloplaca

EA-PS. Dahl: Lichens

often have red to orange-red colors, and one of them, C. elegans , often gives
its color to the bird cliffs. Most species of microlichens are neglected by
collectors who are not especially aware of them.
It is to be emphasized that the division into macrolichens and micro–
lichens is no natural division but a practical one like the division of vascu–
lar plants into trees and herbs.
Ecology and Biology
Lichens play an important role in arctic vegetation and in the arctic
landscape. As the profuseness of other vegetation decreases toward the Poles,
the importance of lichen [: ] increases because the
lichens are among the hardiest of plants. As a rule, the microlichens are the
most hardy ones, and their relative importance increases with colder climates.
Lichen vegetation is influenced especially by the humidity of the air.
In southern West Greenland, the lichen vegetation is best developed along the
shore in the middle of the fjords; toward the seacoast and toward the innermost
ends of the fjords, it becomes less profuse. The same may be observed also in
Spitsbergen. In the inner parts of the fjords of East Greenland, e.g., Scoresby
Sound, the climate may become so dry that only a few species of lichens occur,
among them desert species.
The winter minimum temperature is a factor which does not govern the
distribution of lichens to the same extent as it may affect the distribution
of vascular plants. To be sure, many lichen species have their distinct northern
limits, but these seem to depend more upon summer warmth than winter cold. Thus,
many relatively southern species are met with in Scoresby Sound in East Greenland.
Scoresby Sound has for its latitude a high summer temperature, but the winters

EA-PS. Dahl: Lichens

may be cold. Many species of lichens are, however, often of a deformed and
frostbitten appearance in the Arctic, particularly Cladonia species, which
in such a state may be difficult to determine. The tips of the branches are
often destroyed, especially when they have been subject to the winter gales
without a snow cover.
Lichen vegetation flourishes both on acid and alkaline soils and on rocks.
Particularly on sandy soils, an almost pure lichen vegetation may develop,
probably because of the small competition with other plants. But there are
different species occurring an acid and alkaline soils; species of Solorina
and Peltigera venosa especially prefer alkaline soils.
About the biology of arctic lichens, hardly anything is known. It is
believed that they can carry out respiration and assimilation at some degrees
below zero centigrade, but definite proof is lacking.
Experiments to determine the rapidity of growth of lichens have been
carried out in Scandinavia in connection with problems of reindeer grazing.
The most important food lichen, Cladonia alpestris , which occurs also in most
parts of the low-arctic regions, needs more than thirty years to attain full
growth. Other species grow more rapidly, e.g., Cladonia rangiferina and
C. sylvatica , Cetraria nivalis and C. islandica , and especially Stereocaulon
pas c hale . In regions heavily grazed by reindeer, Cladonia alpestris becomes
subordinate in the vegetation, while Stereocaulon pas c hale becomes more important.
There are good reasons to believe that the rapidity of the growth of
lichens decreases with a colder climate. In Peary Land, Peter Freuchen found
the stone cairn built by Peary twenty years before. The stones had been moved
to make the cairn, some being placed upside down, yet not much difference in the
lichen vegetation or signs of new growth could be seen (according to a letter

EA-PS. Dahl: Lichens

from Freuchen to Lynge). On the other hand, in southern West Greenland, the
author has seen Eskimo graves certainly not more than thirty years old, the
stones of which were covered by large lichens.
The extreme slowness of lichen growth in the Arctic has been made use of
by Ahlmann (1). The glaciers around the North Atlantic Ocean had a maximum
about the year 1740. Ahlmann found a zone with only scanty lichen vegetation
along the “walls” bordering the glaciers in northern East Greenland for some
meters above the present surface of the glaciers. He was able to connect the
upper limit of this zone with side moraines most probably dating from the 1740
maximum. The lichen vegetation on the rock walls had thus not attained a mature
state in the time that had elapsed since 1740. Consequently, it may be stated
that specimens of lichens from the Arctic may attain a very great age.
The slowness of growth of arctic lichens makes them little resistant to
solifluction. For example, where only a slight movement of the boulders of
talus slopes occurs, the lichen vegetation is badly affected. Such parts of
the slopes have a light color in contradistinction to the stable parts which
may be dark gray because of lichens.
Lichen Vegetation in the Arctic
Vegetation types with lichens forming their chief component part are
characteristic of the Arctic. The arctic prairie contains an important element
of lichens, yet is rarely dominated by them. This may be due parly to the
solifluction which often interferes with lichen growth. Characteristic of
the prairie are the cup-shaped Cladonia pyxidata var. pocillum , C. coccifera ,
C. lepidota , Dactylina species, and Cetraria species. The dead parts of mosses
and vascular plants are beset with microlichen species of the genera L a e cidea ,

EA-PS. Dahl: Lichens

Caloplaca, and Rinodina.
The lichen health, with lichens dominating together with shrubs such as
Empetrum and Betula nana or B. glandulosa , is a vegetation type of the low–
arctic regions. This vegetation is probably of circumpolar occurrence and is
beautifully developed in Scandinavia and southern Greenland. The lichens form
a thick carpet which may be tens of centimeters thick. In places where a light
snow cover occurs in winter, Cladonia alpestris is often the dominant species;
in places that are more exposed to the wind, Cetraria nivalis and Alectoria
s ochroleuca are dominant, mixed with Cornicularia divergens , Stereocaulon species species ,
etc.
In the snow patches lichen vegetation becomes less profuse. Some character–
istic species are found, especially Solorina crocea , which is a foil-shaped,
adnate species with orange coloration of the underside.
The surface components of boulder fields in the mountains and talus slopes
are generally covered with lichens if the stones are stable. Most characteristic
are the Umbilicariaceae, with such species as Umbilicaria cylindrica , U. probos
cidea , and U. hyperborean , and Parmelias such as Parmelia pubescens , P. alpicola ,
and P. intestiniformis . Areas not occupied by macrolichens are generally covered
with microlichens, particularly species belonging to the genera Lecidea , Lecanora ,
and Rhizocarpon .
The bird cliffs have a lichen vegetation of their own. On them there is
an ample supply of nitrogen which stimulates a rich lichen growth on stones
and rock walls. Characteristic are the red Caloplaca eleg e a ns , which may give
color to the whole cliff, and some species of Umbilicaria Umbilicaria . Many species of
Physcia are found, together with the red Xanthoria candelaria , and, further,
Rinodina species, Lecanora melanophtalma Lecanora melanophtalma , and other species of microlichens.

EA-PS. Dahl: Lichens

If no bird cliffs are found within an area, fragments of this vegetation type
may be found in the birds’ resting places on top of prominent stones. The
Eskimo villages also stimulate the growth of lichens and other plants.
In or near brook s , a separate type of lichen vegetation occurs, con–
sisting of small microlichen species belonging to the genera Verrucaria,
Staurothel s e , and Lecanora . The seashore is practically always devoid of
lichen vegetation because of the winter ice which destroys plant life.
Exploration of Lichen Flora
Lichens have been collected in the Arctic for more than a century and a
half. The lichen floras of some parts of the Arctic are fairly well known,
whereas other parts are unexplored. Many arctic expeditions bring home
collections of lichens, but the size and quality varies according to the
ability of the collectors. Naturally the collection of a trained lichenologist
is far better than that of an amateur, or of a botanist who has not made lichen–
ology his specialty. In every area there are some common species dominating
the lichen s vegetation, and these are collected by everybody. Many species
occur as occasional specimens among the common ones which they may superfi–
cially resemble; these are naturally collected only by the trained lichenologist.
The collections not made by specialists may give interesting information about
lichen floras of areas not previously explored, but a representative collection
can be made only by a man who knows the lichens. A fairly representative
collection of macrolichens may be made by anyone who devotes some time and
interest to the task, but he will always miss many species of microlichens.
The procedure for collecting arctic lichens is very simple. The lichens,
or pieces of stones with attached lichens, are merely wrapped in a piece of

EA-PS. Dahl: Lichens

paper and dried. They must be carefully labeled. In this state they may
be kept for years until they can be unpacked at home, pressed if necessary,
and classified. The identification of the lichens must be left to the
lichenologist who has at his disposal the necessary literature and specimens
for comparison.
The last attempt to make a survey of the lichen flora of more than a
single major part of the Arctic was made by Fries (11). His Lichenes Arcto i
contains descriptions (in Latin) of the lichens considered, and is based on
collections from Scandinavia, Bear Island, Spitsbergen, Iceland, Greenland,
and Kola Peninsula. It is still of great value.
To give an account of our knowledge of the lichen flora of the Arctic,
it is necessary to treat the different areas separately. Extensive references
to literature on arctic lichens are given by Lynge (28, 29).
Northern Scandinavia and Kola Peninsula . Large collections have been made
in northern Norway, northern Sweden, and especially in northern Finland. The
results have been published in many papers by Nylander (35); Th. Fries (11, 12);;
his Lichenographia Scandinavica (13) also contains descriptions of the species,
but was unfortunately never completed); Wainio (37, 38; his Lichenographia
Fennica (39) contains descriptions of the lichen species in question, but was
likewise never completed); Lynge (15-32); Magnusson, Räsänen, and others.
Our knowledge of the lichen flora of Kola Peninsula is scanty.
Novaya Zemlya . Large collections were made by Lynge who visited the middle
part of the island and the western coast in 1921. Some minor collections have
been made by Swedish and Soviet expeditions. The results of the expedition of
1921 are published by Lynge (25), with references to older literature.
Arctic Siberia. Little is known of the lichen flora of the western and

EA-PS. Dahl: Lichens

central parts of arctic Siberia, and any additions are of interest. In 1876,
M r . Brenner collected lichens along the Yenisei River during an expedition
with A. E. Nordenskiold; he also found some specimens at the mouth of the
river. The collections are being studied by Magnusson, but the results have
thor: y recent publications? ck oughout rticle not yet been published. The Maud expedition collected a few lichens which have
been identified and described by Lynge (31).
On the famous Vega expedition, the surgeon E. Almquist collected lichens in
the few places visited. The visits were too short to permit extensive collecting,
but Almquist was an excellent observer who made the utmost of the opportunity. A
preliminary survey of the results is given by Almquist (3); later the collections
were studied and described by Malme (34). At Pitlekai in easternmost Siberia,
the Vega expedition was caught by the ice and forced to stay for the winter.
During this period Almquist had a good opportunity to collect lichens, although
snow covered the area during the greater part of the stay. These lichens have
been described by Wainio (38).
Soviet expeditions have perhaps collected lichens along the Siberian coast,
but nothing has been published as far as the author knows, apart from some stray
contributions by Savich and Oxner.
Bering Strait Area . After the winter in Pitlekai, the Vega expedition
proceeded to Bering Strait. Some places on both sides of the strait were
visited and Almquist made good collections, which were studied and described
by Nylander (35). Almquist (2) has also given a picture of the lichen vege–
tation of the area.
Kamchatka . In 1912-14, the Russian lichenologist Savich visited Kamchatka
and made large collections. Unfortunately only a few of the lichen genera l from
the area have been identified and the results published (36). A collection of

EA-PS. Dahl: Lichens

lichens containing 102 different species was brought home by Hult e é n from
Swedish Kamchatka expeditions; these have been described by Du Rietz (10).
Alaska and Canadian Western Arctic . Our main source by knowledge of the
Alaskan lichen flora is the work by Cummings (6); this work is based on
thor O.K? collections from many expeditions. Up until 1949 when George Flavo was in
Alaska, no trained lichenologist ever visited the area. The principles of
lichen systematics employed by Cummings are not in accordance with those now
followed, and a revision seems desirable. In any case most of the material
comes from the subarctic part of Alaska, not from the northern arctic part.
A number of stray contributions [: ] to the study of lichen flora of Alaska
and the Canadian Western Arctic have been published by different authors (Degelius,
Herre, Howe, Lynge, Magnusson, Merrill ) . Unpublished descriptions are probably
to be found in American herbaria.
Canadian Eastern Arctic . Several expeditions have collected lichens in the
Canadian Eastern Arctic, but no trained lichenologist has ever visited this
immense area, so our knowledge is still incomplete.
The Second Norwegian Arctic Expedition in the Fram brought home good
collections from Ellesmere Island and adjacent areas. The collections, which
contained approximately 160 species, have been described by Darbishire (9).
The classifications need a modern revision. The Danish Fifth Thule Expedition
of 1921-24 brought home many lichens from the Arctic Archipelago and the adjacent
mainland. The collections, containing approximately 100 different species, have
been studied by Lynge (18).
Prof. N. Polunin made good collections in Baffin Island and adjacent areas
in 1931, 1934, and 1936. The collections, which contained 166 species, have
been described by Lynge (17). The publication also contains numerous references

EA-PS. Dahl: Lichens

to previous finds. Farther Arth e è me Dutilly also has made collections within
the same area. The collections, which contained 88 species, were studied by
Lynge (15).
Labrador . Almost nothing is known about the lichen flora of most of
Labrador. Some records are found in Macoun (33). A small collection from
Hebron was brought home by Tanner, but its description has not yet been [: ]
published.
Greenland . We are fairly well informed about the lichen flora of most
parts of Greenland. The most extensive collections are found in the herbaria of
Copenhagen and Oslo, some collections being also in Stockholm. The last attempt
to make a complete survey of the lichen flora of Greenland was by Branth and
Grønland (5) and Branth (4), comprising material from the Danish expeditions
up to 1892. The classifications need a modern revision.
North Greenland was visited by Th. Wulff in 1917, and his collections,
which contained 64 species, have been described by Lynge (19). The Danish
Peary l L and Expedition (1948-49) also collected some lichens in this area.
West Greenland has been visited by many expeditions. Jens Vahl traveled
in West Greenland and also in the southernmost part of East Greenland during
1 9 8 28-36. His collections were made with great care and profound knowledge of
lichens, and still form an important basis for our information. In 1871, the
famous Swedish lichenologist Th. M. Fries visited the Disko area. His collections
have been studied and described by Lynge (27). In 1946, the Danish lichenologist
M. Skytte Christiansen visited the Holsteinsborg area and some other places
in West Greenland, but his collections are not yet described. In 1937, E. Dahl
traveled in the southern part of the Frederikshaab District and in Julianshaab
District in southernmost Greenland. The macrolichens have been studied (7), but

EA-PS. Dahl: Lichens

the microlichens have not so far been examined. Besides these major collections,
quite a number of minor collections have been made, mostly by Danish expeditions.
East Greenland has also been visited many times. Farthest to the north, the
Danmark Danmark Eexpedition collected lichens, and the results have been described by
Galløe (14). In 1929, Lynge, and in 1930, Scholander, visited northern East
Greenland. Reports have been published by Lynge and Scholander (32) and by Lynge
(24).
Minor collections have been made in the district between Scoresby Sound
and Angmagssalik and descriptions have been published by different authors (Wainio,
Lynge, Lamb). Southern East Greenland has been visited by Danish and Norwegian
expeditions. Scholander collected lichens in the district in 1932, and the results
have been described by Dahl, Lynge, and Scholander (8).
Jan Mayen was visited by the Norwegian botanist Johannes Lid, in 1930, and
by Lynge, briefly, in 1929. The results have been published by Lynge (23).
Iceland . Lichens have been collected for a long time in Iceland, in earlier
times chiefly by Danish expeditions. Good collections are kept in Copenhagen and
in Reykjavik. In 1937 and 1939, Lynge made extensive studies in Iceland. The
macrolichens from Lynge’s collections have been described by him (22), and here
references to older literature are also found. Unfortunately it was impossible
for him to revise older collections. The microlichens were mostly identified by
the time of Lynge’s death in 1942, but descriptions have not yet been published.
Spitsbergen . Spitsbergen has been visited by many expeditions which collected
lichens; in older times these were mostly Swedish, in recent times mostly
Norwegian. The results of the Swedish expeditions have been published by Th. Fries
(12). The western coast has been visited by Lynge, Lid, and H o ø eg; the northern
coast by Høeg’ Scholander, and Dahl; and the east coast by Dahl. The results

EA-PS. Dahl: Lichens

of these collections of the macrolichens of the west and north coasts have been
published by Lynge (26), where references to older publications and finds also
are to be found. In this work Lynge also gives an enumeration of the macrolichen
species known from Novaya Zemlya, Spitsbergen, and West and East Greenland. Large
collections of microlichens and considerable collections of macrolichens still
await study and publication.
Franz Josef Land was visited by a Norwegian expedition in 1930. The results
have been published by Lynge (20). Altogether 94 species are known from the
archipelago.
Bear Island was visited by Th. Fries in 1868, and his extensive collections
have been described by Lynge (21).
Lichen Floras of the Arctic Countries
The number of macrolichen and microlichen species at present known from
those arctic regions from which fairly good information is available is given in
Table I. The figures are only approximate. Different authors may have different
Table I.
Locality Number of
macrolichens
Number of
microlichens
Reference
Novaya Zemlya 140 316 (25, 26)
Pitlekai 76 162 (38)
Bering Strait 116 288 (35)
West Greenland 205 240 (7, 27)
East Greenland 142 270 (24, 32)
Jan Mayen 60 84 (23)
Iceland 151 -- (22)
Spitsbergen 145 -- (26)
Bear Island 54 131 (21)
concepts of the species and doubts concerning the reliability of older records may arise.
Naturally many of the figures will increase with future exploration.

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As a general rule one may state that in regions which have been fairly well
explored (Novaya Zemlya, East Greenland, Bear Island), somewhat more than twice
as many microlichens as macrolichens are found. West Greenland and Spitsbergen
are well explored, but considerable collections of microlichens have not so far
been examined. For comparison it can be stated that from the Nordic countries
(Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) approximately 460 species of macrolichens
and 1,300 species of microlichens are known.
If we try to make phytogeographical comparisons of the lichen floras of the
arctic countries, one difficulty is met with at once: the lichen floras of
Siberia, western North America, and the American mountain ranges are too insuffi–
ciently known. An investigation of, for example, the Bering Strait area by a
competent lichenologist is most desirable.
Despite this, our present knowledge of the macrolichen flora of many arctic
countries seems to be sufficient to permit some conclusions as to the character
of their lichen floras. Some of these problems have been treated by Lynge (16,
26, 30).
The arctic lichen flora doubtless contains elements of great age. Possibly
they lived in arctic regions before the Quaternary glaciations. As examples of
such types may be chosen Neuropogon sulphureus (see Fig. 2) and Dactylina arctica .
(see Fig. 3). Of these, N. sulphureus , which is a characteristic lichen readily
recognized even by the amateur, is of special interest. It has never been met
with in subarctic countries but exhibits a bipolar type of distribution, occurring
again in the Southern Hemisphere with many related species. Bipolar types of dis–
tribution are by no means rare among lichens.
The macrolichen species of arctic countries are generally of a wide distri–
bution and found within many countries. Circumpolar types of distribution are

EA-PS. Dahl: Lichens

common. Within each country the species may, however, be of a peculiar local
occurrence, suggesting that they may be interglacial relics (e.g., in Spitsbergen,
see 26).
The microlichen species within the arctic countries seem generally to have
a more restricted distribution than the macrolichens. There are more endemics of
various arctic countries among microlichens than among macrolichens (16).
An element characteristic of the Bering Strait area is spreading into
Siberia and Arctic America (examples are Cetraria richardsonii , C. chrysantha ,
Pilophoron aciculare , and Spereocaulon intermedia ).
There seems to be a close relationship between the macrolichen floras on
both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Thus there are very few species of macrolichens
in Spitsbergen which are not found in East Greenland, and more than 95% of the
macrolichen flora of southern West Greenland is also found in Scandinavia (7).
It is impossible to say that they do not occur in the Bering Strait area, as this
region is insufficiently known. But it may be stated that there is a closer
relationship between the southern West Greenland macrolichen flora and the
Scandinavian alpine lichen flora than there i is between the alpine lichen floras
of Scandinavia and the Alps.
It seems probable that even dominating elements of the lichen floras of
many arctic countries survived the last glaciation, possibly they lived there
also during earlier glaciations. This could be explained by the extreme hardiness
of lichens, which makes them able to survive unfavorable periods better than other
groups of plants. A closer study, especially of the distribution of the microlichen
species, may reveal old phytogeographical relationships of the different parts of
the Arctic.

EA-PS. Dahl: Lichens

Economic Importance of Arctic Lichens
Lichens have considerable economic importance especially in the low-arctic
regions, because they serve as a basic food for the reindeer, especially as
winter fodder. This is indicated by the manner in which, if an area is too
densely populated with reindeer, as ma [: ] happen in northern Scandinavia, the
lichen vegetation changes. The fodder lichens most important to reindeer are
Cladonia alpestris , Cetraria nivalis , and Stereocaulon paschale , besides some
related species. Cetraria nivalis have a particularly high percentage of digestible
carbohydrates. [: ]
Lichens may serve as emergency food for man. Most famous is Cetraria islandica
(Iceland moss, pig moss, food moss), which has served as a substitute for flour
during hard times in Scandinavia and Iceland. It has also served as food for pigs.
It, too, contains a high percentage of digestible carbohydrates.

EA- II P.S. . Dahl: Lichens

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Ahlmann, H.W. “Studies in North East Greenland, 1939-40,” Geografiska Ann .,
Stockh. pp.145-209, 1941.

2. Almquist, Ernst. “Die Lichenenvegetation der Küsten des Beringsmeeres,”
Nordenskiőld, A.E. Vega-Expeditionens Vetenskapliga Iakttagelser
Vol. 4. Stockholm, Beijer, 1887, pp.409-42.

3. ----. “Lichenologiska iakttagelser paa Sibiriens Nordkust,” Ibid . Vol. 1, Stockholm,
Beijer, 1882, pp.195-222.

4. Branth, J.S. Deichmann. “Tillaeg til Grønlands Lichen-Flora,” Medd .
Grønland vol.3, pp.750-62, 1892.

5. ----, and Grønland, Chr. “Grønlands Lichen-Flora,” Ibid . vol.3, pp.447-513,
1887.

6. Cummings, Clara E. “The lichens of Alaska,” Cardot, J., Cummings, C.E., and
others. Cryptogamic Botany . Wash., D.C., 1910, pp.65-149,
Harriman Alaska Ser. vol.5 .

7. Dahl, Eilif. “Studies in the macrolichen flora of South West Greenland,”
Medd. Grønland 1948. (In press)

8. ----, Lynge, B., and Scholander, P.F. Lichens from Southeast Greenland .
Oslo, Dybwad, 1937. Norsk Polarinstitutt Skrifter Nr. 70.

9. Darbishire, Otto V. Lichens Collected During the 2nd Norwegian Polar
Expedition in 1898-1902, and Determined by Otto V. Darbishire .
Kristiania, Brøgger, 1909. Report of the Second Norwegian
Arctic Expedition in the “Fram” 1898-1902, no.21.

10. Du Rietz, G.E. “The lichens of the Swedish Kamtchatka-Expeditions,”
Arkiv főr Bot . vol.22 A, no.13, pp.1-25, 1929.

11. Fries, Th.M. “Lichenes Arctoi Euroae Groenlandiaeque Hactenus cogniti,”
Vetenskaps-Soc.Upsala Nova Acta Ser. III, vol.3, pp.103–
398, 1861.

12. ----. “Lichenes Spitsbergenses,” Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl . vol.7, no.2,
pp.1-53, 1867.

13. ----. Lichenographia Scandinavica. Vol. I, Archilichenes Discocarpos Continens .
Upsala, Berling, 1871-74, 1 vol. in 2.

14. Galløe, Olaf. “Lichens from North-East Greenland (N. of 76° N.Lat.) collected
by the “Danmark-Expeditionen’ 1906-8,” Medd.Grønland
vol.43, no.9, pp.181-91, 1910.

EA- II P.S. . Dahl: Lichens

15. Lynge, Bernt. A Contribution to the Lichen è Flora of Canadian Arctic .
Collection of Father Artheme Dutilly e.m.i. naturalist
of the Arctic Missions
. Wash., D.C., Catholic University
of America, 1939.

16. ----. “General results of recent Norwegian research work on arctic
lichens,” Rhodora vol.36, pp.133-71, 1934.

17. ----. “Lichenes,” Polunin, Nicholas, comp. Botany of Canadian Eastern
Arctic. Part II. Thallophyta and Bryophyta . ( Montreal, Ottawa,
194 6 8 ) Nat.Mus.Can. Bull . no.97. Biological Series no.26.

18. ----. Lichens Collected During the Danish Fifth Thule Expedition Through
Arctic Canada . Copenhagen, Gyldendalske, 1937. Thule
Expedition, 5th, Report 1921-24. Report vol.2, no. 3.

19. ----. “Lichens collected on the North Coast of Greenland by the late Dr.
Th. Wulff,” Medd.Grønland vol.64, pp.279 / - 88, 1923.

20. ----. Lichens Collected on the Norwegian Scientific Expedition to Franz
Josef Land 1930. Oslo, Dybwad, 1931. Norsk Polarinstitutt
Skrifter Nr. 38.

21. ----. Lichens from Bear Island (Bjørnøya) . Oslo, Dybwad, 1926. Norsk
Polarinstitutt Skrifter Nr. 9.

22. ----. Lichens from Iceland Collected by Norwegian Bo [: ] anists in 1937 and
1939 . Oslo, Dybwad, 1940. Norske Videnskaps-Akad. I.
Mat. -Nat.Kl. Skrifter vol.7 no.7, 1940.

23. ----. Lichens from Jan Mayen . Oslo, Dybwad, 1939. M N orsk Polarinstitutt
Skrifter Nr. 76.

24. ----. Lichens from North East Greenland . Oslo, Dybwad, 1940. Ibid . Nr.81.

25. ----. Lichens from Novaya Zemlja . Oslo, Brøgger, 1928. Norwegian Expedition
to Novaja Zemlya 1921. Report of the Scientific Results .
No.43.

26. ----. Lichens, from the West and North Coasts of Spitsbergen and the
North-East Land Collected by Numerous Expeditions. I. The
Macrolichens . Oslo, Dybwad, 1938. Norske Videnskaps–
Akad. I. Mat. -Nat. Kl. Skrifter no.6, 1938.

27. ----. Lichens from West Greenland Chiefly Collected by Th. M. Fries .
Copenhagen, Reitzel, 1937. Medd.Grønland vol.118, no.8.

28. ----. On Dufourea and Dactylina. Three Arctic Lichens . Oslo, Dybwad, 1933.
Norsk Polarinstitutt Skrifter Nr. 59.

EA- II P.S. . Dahl: Lichens

29. ----. On Neuropog on Sulphureus (Kőnig) Elenk., a Bipolar Lichen . Oslo,
Dybwad, 1941. Norske Vide sn ns kaps-Akad. I. Mat. –Nat.Kl.
Skrifter 1940, no.10.

30. ----. “On the survival of plants in the Arctic,” Norsk Geogr.Tidsskr .
B. 7, 1938/39, H.5-8, pp.233-41.

31. ----. Vascular Plants and Lichens . Bergen, Grieg, 1929. Maud-Ekspeditionen,
1918-1925. Scientific Results vol.5, no.1.

32. ----, and Scholander, P.F. Lichens from North East Greenland, I . Oslo,
Dybwad, 1932. Norsk Polarinstitutt Skrifter Nr. 41.

33. Macoun, John. Catalogue of Canadian Plants. Part VII. Lichens and
Hepaticeae . Ottawa, Govt.Printing Bur., 1902.

34. Malme, Gust.O.A:n. “Lichenes orae Sibiriae borealis inde ab insula Minin
usque ad promotorium Ryrkajpia in expedition Vegae lecti,”
Arkiv főr Bot . B.25 A, H.1, N:o 2, 1932.

35. Nylander, William. Enumeratio Lichenum Freti Behringii . Caen, 1888.

36. Savic z h , V.P. “Die Cladonien Kamtschatkas,” Feddes Repertorium [: ] vol.19,
pp.337-72, 1924.

37. Wainio, Edward A. “Adjumenta ad Lichenographiam Lapponiae fennicae atque
fenniae borealis,” Societas Fauna Flora Fenn. Medd . vol.6, pp.
77-230, 1881.

38. ----. “Lichenes in viciniis hibernae expeditionis Vegae prope pagum
Pitlekai in Siberia septentrionali a D:re E. Almquist
collecti,” Arkiv főr Bot . vol.8, no.4, 1909.

39. ----. “Lichenographia Fennica. I,” Societas Fauna Flora Fenn. Acta
vol.49, no.2; vol.53, no.1; vol. 4 5 7, no.1,2, 1921-34.

Eilif Dahl
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