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Samson Occom, journal, 1787 September 20 to December 5

ms-number: 787520.1

abstract: Occom describes his activities as an intinerant preacher and community leader in the fall and early winter of 1787.

handwriting: Handwriting is largely clear and legible. There are uncrossed t's and crossed l's that have been corrected by the transcriber.

paper: Small sheets folded together into a booklet and bound with thread or twine are in fair-to-poor condition, with moderate-to-heavy yellowing and wear. The outer pages are especially worn, resulting in some loss of text. Repair work has been done on these outer pages.

ink: Brown ink varies in intensity throughout.

noteworthy: An editor, likely 19th-century, has overwritten Occom's hand in spots, and added the note “ Sep. 20, 1787 Thursday to Dec. 5, 1787 Weday” to one recto. These edits have not been transcribed.


Modernized Version -- deletions removed; additions added in; modern spelling and capitalization added; unfamiliar abbreviations expanded.


Kings XVII. 33
Isaiah 43: 21
Matthew VIII: 36. 37
John Conell New Town
James Tuck of
Albany
Blank page

Thursday September 20. 1787

Just at Night had a meeting
at widow Fowlers, and there
was not many People, and
I gave them a few words of
of Exhortation, from Luke
VI. 8 and the People attended
with great Solemnity, and
Some affection — after meeting
I went to Brother Davids and
Lodged there — —

Friday September 21

Some Time
in the morning, went to
Stockbridge, David
Fowler Jr.
went with me,
we got there about 2, Call
on Mr. Sargeant, and he ap
peared good conditioned, and
So to Sir Peters, and direct[gap: tear]
from there, we went to m[gap: tear][guess: eet]
ing and there was conside
rable number of People,
and I Spoke from Mark V. 9
and there was very good at
tention, This meeting was
designed, Chiefly for the young
People,— Soon after meeting
went back to Sir Peter's, and
took Some refreshment, and
Soon after sunset, went
to meeting again, and there
was great Number of People
and there was Several, that
related their exercises of
mind; three men, three wo
men, relate their exercises, a
Young man, and a married
woman, manifested their de‐
sire of being baptized, and
Some Children, were to be Bap
tized all also,— Mr. Sargeant
[gap: tear][guess: m]ade Some objection, against
two Being baptized, but
the Professors, gave their fel
lowship, to their desire, — and
So we broke up our meeting
Some late in the Evening, I
to Peter's and there I lodged,
and had good rest — —

Saturday September 22

was all
Day at the Place, — —

Sabbath September 23:

about 10 we
went to meeting, and there was
a large number of People,
many of our People from
Brothertown Came also, and
Some White were there, and
Mr. Sargeant, read a discourse
to the Indians, in their Tongu[gap: worn_edge][guess: e]
and read it also in English,
he read his Prayer also in
Indian, and he prayed part
ly in English — — — —
In the afternoon I tried
to Preach, I Spoke from
Acts X. 34. 35 and there was
very great Solemnity, Some
were much affected,— and
I Baptized, at this Time
Eight persons two adults and
the rest Children; The Name
of the Young is Solomon
and the woman [gap: omitted]
Soon after meeting I went
to Sir Peters. — In the evening
we had another meeting, one
of the men rehearsed, what
had delivered in the Day,
after meeting went back
with Sir Peter and Lodged
there again — —

Monday September 24,

I took
breakfast with Mr. Sargeant
and Soon after breakfast
I returned to Brothertown, Betsey
Fowler
ride behind me and
got to the Place near Noon
stopped but few minutes at
Brother Davids, and passed
on to my Daughters — —

Tuesday September 25:

eleven
Stockbridgers Came to
our Place to help and
Some of our men Came
also. — —

wednesday

I had help a
gain 'til after Noon —

Thursday September 27

in
the Evening, had meeting
at Widow Fowler's, there
was but few People, and I
Spoke from [gap: omitted] and
there was a Solemn attention
after I had done Speaking
two of our People Spoke a
words one after another. and
when they had done a white
man got up and Spoke, and
he Spoke with a feeling sense
of Divine Concerns, he gave
an account of a remarka
ble Remarkable reforma
tion in Vergena — He
Came from Stockbridge
after meeting, I went up
to Brother David Fowler's and
Lodged there. — — —

Saturday September 29

about
1 in the afternoon, my
Son in Law; Anthony Paul
and Daughter Christiana
and Betsey Fowler; set off
for Whites Bourrow, but
we were overtaken with
Night at one Mr. Blanchets
and there we Lodged, and
were exceedingly well en‐
tertained, and we had a
a little exercise with a Chris
tian Card, — we went to Bed
in good Season, and I had
a Comfortable rest — —

Sabbath September 30

got up very
Early and Prayed together
and then we set off. we had
near four Miles to go and
it was extremely Bad riding
Dreadful miry,— we got
to the Place just as Esq.
White
was about taking
breakfast, and we sat
down with them — and Soon
after breakfast, we went
to meeting to another house
and there was a large number
of People, and I Spoke from
Isaiah 43: 21: and there was
great attention in the As
sembly I believe they felt
the weight of the word,—
after meeting, I went home
with Mr. Weatmore, and
took Dinner with them,
in the afternoon meeting
was removed to this house
on account of a funeral
that is to be attended in
this house, for an Infant
just Born died in this
house last Monday, it
lived about two Hours after
it was Born, and they
have kept the corpse to
this Day, for they expected
me here this Day, this
is the first Death that
happened in this Place.
Since it has been Settled
it has been Settling three
years, and it is now a
large settlement. this
afternoon I Spoke from
Isaiah 38: 1 and it was
a Solemn Time indeed
many were deeply affect
ted there was a Shower
of Tears, Soon after meet
ing we Carried the little
corpse to the grave it was
but a few Rods from
the house, after Burying
returned to the house,—
in the Evening went to Mr.
L[illegible][guess: e]vingworth
's and Spent the
evening there,— about 10 went
back to Mr. Weatmores and
Lodged there —

Monday October 1

got up
early took breakfast
with Family, after break
fast went to Esq. Whites, and
got ready, and about 9
we set off for Home, Lt.
White
and Mr. Leavett went
to our Place,— as we passed
along, took Notice of the
Settlement, and it is a
fine Spot of Land, and
a very large Spot too,
and the People has made
a rapid progress in Cul
tivating the Land, if the
People were as engaged
in Religion as they are. in
their Temporal Concerns.
this Settlement would be
very much like the garden of
Eden, which was the gar
den of god. the Lord be
with them and bless them
that they may indeed be
a Peculiar People unto
god, that they may be
Lights in this Wilderness —
We stopped a While at
Clinton,— and we got
Home just as the Sun
was Setting. — —

Thursday October 4:

in the
Evening had a meeting in
Widow Fowlers, and there
was but few People, and
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and we had a Comforta
ble season —–

Sabbath October 7:

had a mee
ting in Brother Davids
and there was not many
People, and I Spoke from
[gap: omitted] and we had a
Solemn meeting; lodged
at Brother Davids — —

Tuesday October 9:

about
1 in the afternoon, I set
off for Clinton, got there
Some Time before Night
stopped a little while at Mr.
Jones
s to See his wife
had been Sick Some Time
and She was very poorly,
and went from there to
Capt. Foot's and in the
Evening the People Collec
ted together and I Spoke
to them from John XXI: 22
and there was great So
lemnity amongst the People
I believe Some felt the weight
of the word,— the beginning
of last March there was
no house in this Place, a
perfect wild Wilderness,
Now there are 20 Families
and there were Seventy odd
persons in the meeting this
evening. and have made
great apperance in their
improvements. there are
Chiefly from New England
and youngerly People — —

Wednesday October 10

Stayed
here 'til after Dinner, and
then went to a Certain house
between this Place, and
Whitesbourough about half
way, the mans Name is Blan
chet
, I got there Some Time
before Night, and had
a meeting, and there was
a Considerable Number
of People, and I Spoke
from Psalm CVII. 31: and
the People attended exceed
ing well, this was all a
wild Wilderness in the
beginning of last Spring and
now the People are Settling
all along from Whitesbourgh
to Clinton — in few Years
this will be Settled thick
as any part of the globe
the Land is so good, it draws
all Sorts of People and
Nations are flocking
here Continually — —

Thursday October 11

Some
Time breakfast I set off
for home,-– stopped a while
at Capt. Foots in Clinton
and took Dinner there.
and Soon after Dinner
went on again, got to
my Daughters — and in
the evening we had a meet
ing Sister Esther, and
was not many People,
and I Spoke from Psalms
CVII. 31 and there was an
uncommon attention, many
were deeply affected. —

Friday October 12

Some
Time in the morning I
set off for Stockbridge
and had a meeting there
in the Evening, and I Spoke
from [gap: omitted] and there was
good attention, lodged at
Sir Peters — — —

Saturday October 13:

About
2 in the afternoon I went
to Deanville, got to the Place
about sunset Peter went with me found Mrs.
Dean
exceedingly distressed
with uncommon Difficulties
in her Pregnancy, and
Peter and I went to Mr. Jonathan
Dean
s and Lodged there,
and 2. o'clock in the Night
I was called up, to the other
house, and Bleed Mrs. Dean
and I went directly, and
found her much distressed
and took Blood from her
foot, and Bled exceeding
well,— and her distresses
begun to mitigate direct
ly, and I stayed the rest
of the Night and She was
Some what Comfortable —
I was called up again be‐
fore Day to write to doctor for
them, for they were Sending
to Albany for one, and were
Sending for Mr. Dean too
for he had been gone Some
Time to Spencertown — —

Sabbath October 14:

about 10
the People got together, and
there was a large number
of People, many white
People from other Places
and many Indians from
Both our Towns, I Spoke
from Matthew V. 20: and 5 and
there was a Solemn attention
all Day. Soon after meet
ing Peter and I went to Clinton
got there a little after sun
set, we put up at Capt. Foots
and the People Collected
directly and there was quite
a large number, and I Spoke
from [gap: omitted] we lodged
at the Same, house and
had Comfortable rest —

Monday October 15:

Soon
after breakfast went
to mill, and was there
Some Time, before we
we could get grinding —
we got to our Place about
1: and Sir Peter passed on
to his Place —

Thursday October 18:


Went to Stockbridge to a
wedding just before sun
set, attended upon Marriage
the young man was, one
the Sachem's Son and the
young woman was of noted
Family, and there was
a vast concourse of People
of many Nations, it was
Said, there were ten different
Languages among the people
and the People behaved de
cently, but the Oneidas be
gan to behave unseemly,
and in the Night the had
a terrible frolic even all
Night — — —

Friday

was all Day
at the Place,— in the e
vening we Collected together
at Capt. Hendricks I Spoke
from Matthew 6: 22:23 and there
was a Solemn attention, after
I had done Capt. Hendrick
rehearsed the Same, lodged
at the Same house — —

Saturday October 20:

Some
Time in the afternoon I returned
to Brothertown, Mr. Warmsly
went with me, we stopped at
Roger Waubys and there
took Dinner, Soon after dinner
I went on and Mr. Warmsly
went back, I got to Brother
David
s before Night and
I lodged at David's — —

Sabbath. October 21:

about 10
the People got together and
was a large Number of
People Some white People
and I Spoke from John XIII 17
[gap: omitted] and the People were
very Solemn and many
were affected, Lodged at
the Same house — —

Monday October 22,

in the
evening had a meeting in
Sister Fowlers, and there
was not many People and
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People attended well
lodged at the Same house

Tuesday October 23.

People
from Stockbridge Came to
help me. they were 5 of them
and they worked two Days

Thursday October 24:

we
were called suddenly to
appear before the Chiefs
of the Oneida, that had just
Come to our Place, — and
we eat our breakfast in
haste, and went directly to
widow Fowlers, and there
the chiefs meet with us,
and it was about our Lands
But there was Such Confu
sion, I would not Say a
word about it, it was a
party scheme, contrived by
a few of our People, they
been agreeing with the
the Oneidas for a Piece
of Land; without the know
ledge of the Headmen
of the Place, Some of the
Contrivers of this mischief
were much intoxicated
and they drove on the
business with all fury in
no order, it was like
Whirlwind, Sometime
towards Night we broke
up and every one went his
way: in great confusion
of mind,— I went to Brother
David
s and there lodged
with a Sorrowful mind. — —

Friday October 25

was
at our Places all Day

Saturday October 26

Towards Night just as
I was going away to Clinton,
Brother Crippen and Brother
Swane
Came to my Son
in Law
s and we had a
little conversation, these
Brethren are from a Place
called Springfield, Going
to Cherry valley; So I left
them and went on to Clinton
got there about sunset,
put up at Capt. Foots,
found them all well. —

Sabbath October 27

about
half after 10 we began
the exercise, and there was
a large Number of People
Some from other Places, and
Several Stockbridgers were
with us, and there was very
great attention, both be‐
fore noon and after noon
I Spoke from John, I know
you that the Love of god is
not in you, in the after
noon from Mark VIII. 36.37
as Soon as the meeting was
done, I went off to Brother
town
, the Stockbridgers went
with me, we got there a
bout sunset, we eat a
few mouthfuls and went
to meeting. at Sister Esthers
and there was not much
moving there Seemed to
be Some party Spirit in
the meeting.—

Sabbath November 4

Preached
at Stockbridge and
Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and there was very Se
rious attention all Day

Monday November 5:

went
back to Brothertown

Sabbath November 11:

Preached
at Brothertown once more
and Baptized Brother
David Fowler
's Children
Six of them, and we had
a Solemn Day of it, in
the evening we had a
nother meeting, and it
was a Comfortable meet
ing — —

Monday November 12

this
Day intended to Set out
for home but it began
in the morning, and So
stopped for the Day —

Tuesday November 13:

got
up very early and got
ready, and we set out
Sun about an Hour and
half high, Betsey
Fowler
Jerusha Wympe
and Henry Stansel a young
Dutch man went with me
we had exceeding fine
warm Day, got through the
woods before sunset I
put up at Conrad Folts
Jerusha and Betsey went
to Mr. Smiths about 2 miles
further. — —

Wednesday November 14

got up
very early and went on
stopped a little while at
Esq. Franks, and So passed
on, and stopped at Andrews
Field
and there we took
Dinner, and passed on, and
we got to Mr. Thomas Chreppens
just before sunset and we
Lodged there, and we had
a meeting this evening, and
there was a consideralble number
of People,— and it was a
refreshing Time I Spoke
from these words, Love is
the fulfilling of the Law,—

Thursday November 15:

we
were at the Place all
Day we went to See Some
friends — Lodged at Mr.
waulrods
— —

Friday November 16:

Some
Time in the afternoon
had a meeting in Mr. Pickards
and there was a large number
of People, and I Spoke from
Matthew, [gap: omitted] he doeth the will
of my Father the Same is
my Brother etc.: and the
People attended well. — —

Saturday November 17:

was
at the Place, Towards night
went to Brother Nicholas
Pickard
s, and in the even
ing a few People Came to
gether to sing, and we
Lodged there. — —

Sabbath. November 18

had a
meeting at Mr. Dyks and
there were So many People
we were obliged to meet out
in the Field, and it very
warm, I Spoke from Psalm
cxix. o how Love I thy Law etc.
and it was a Solemn meet
ing, — towards Night I marri
ed a couple, and it was a
Solemn wedding, conducted
very agreeable, Supped
with them — and Soon after
Supper, we went to old
Mr. Stansels, and there we
had a meeting, and there
was a large Collection of
People, and I Spoke from
[gap: omitted] and they attended
well we lodged at the Same
house — — —

Monday November 19:

took
leave of Some of my Friends
and So went out of the
Place, the girls rode along
with me a little ways and
took leave of them, They
went on with Tears, and
I went on my way stopped
at Brother Swans and
took breakfast with
them, and Soon after
eating I went on. and
was going on, but was obliged
to wait Some Time for a girl
that was going with me, but
they could not find the horse
that She was to ride, and so
I took her behind me, and
went a Little way, and a
young man overtook us
and I desired him to take
her behind him, and he
readily took her and we
went on, and Soon got to
Bowmans Creek, where I
was to preach, and the People
had been waiting Some Time
and So I began the worship
of god directly, and there
was but few People, I Spoke
from [gap: omitted] I Lodged
at Mr. Whites, — —

Tuesday November 20:

got me
up early, and went to Esq.
Kimball
s and there took
breakfast,— Towards Night
I went to Esq. Younglove's
and just in the evening
People began to Come in
and there was a large number
Collected, and I Spoke to
them from, Matthew 6: 33:
and there was a Solemn at
tention. I lodged at the Same
house but lay uncomforta
ble all Night. — —

Wednesday November 21:

got up
very early, and had my
horse brought, and I went
to Cherry Valley, and it was
rainy, and I on fast
and Soon got to the Place
called on Col. Camble, and
there took breakfast, and
about 10 went to meeting
at [illegible]one Mr. Rechee's and
there was a considerable
of People, and I Spoke
from Psalm CVII and the
People attended well, and
Soon after meeting went
to Col. Cambles again
and there Dined; and was
detained by a blacksmith
he was shoeing my horse,
and I could not get away
'til the Sun was going down
and then I went to Bowmans
Creek
got there Some Time
in the evening, it was very
bad riding, and Some few
People got together, at Mr.
White
s. and I Baptized a
Child for one Mr. Griswool
by the Name of Joenna,
and Lodge at the Same
house and rest well.—

Thursday November 22

got up
early, and went over to
to Esq. Kimball, and took
breakfast, and Soon after
eating, went off and, got
to Mr. Romines Some Time
in the afternoon, and stopped
there awhile and took Some
Victuals, and Soon after went
on again, got to one Mr.
[gap: omitted] and Lodged there
here I met with a woman
that was much in exercise
of mind and had Some Con
versation with her, and
found under great Concern
of Soul, and I gave her
advice and counsel — —

Friday November 23:

got up early
in the morning, and went
on, got to Capt. Greggs
about breakfast Time
and took breakfast with
him, and Soon after went
on again, and got to Mr.
Vedder
s before 10: and went
over the River, and stopped
at Mr. Bartlet's and there took
Dinner and Soon after got
up my horse. and went to
Yankee Hill, and Lodged
at Mr. Mudges the People
got together directly, and
I obliged to preach to them
before I went to Bed, and it
was a Solemn Time, the
Christians got quite warm
Some Spoke. — —

Saturday November 24:

Rose very
early, and I went to Esq.
Harper
's Mr. Mudge went
with me, Soon got there and
found them all well, there
took Breakfast, and stayed
'til after Dinner, and then
went back to Mr. Mudges and
was there but few minutes and
I passed by and went to Mr. [gap: omitted]
and just in the evening
People began to come in and
the house Soon filled, and
I was obliged to preach to
them, I spoke from the
words Set thy house etc.
and there was great Solemni
ty, and affection amongst
the People, I lodged at the
Same house, and rested
Comfortably. — —

Sabbath November 25

about 9
to the Place of meeting and
there was a prodigious number
of People and I Spoke from
Job: XXIII. 8: 1 John 1: 6: and there
was great Solemnity amongst
Soon after meeting I took dinner
with Mr. Frank, and then went
to Mr. Bartlet's by the River, and
had another meeting there. and
there was a large Number of
People. and attend well, but
just as the last Singing was
began, Mr. Bartlets Daughter
fainted, and we desisted singing
and I Lodged not at the Same
house, but I went over to
Mr. Vedder's east Side of the
River, and rested well.— —

Monday November 26:

got up
early, and after Break
fast, went over the other Side
of the River, and just called
at Mr. Bartlets and got my
up and took leave of them
called on Mr. Keenys a few
Minutes, and passed on, — in
the evening had a meeting
at Mr. Andrew Eliots and
was great many People.
and I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
visited a Young woman
that was very Sick, pray
with her,. — — —

Tuesday November 27:

got up
early and to visit the young
woman again, and She was
somewhat better, and then
took leave of them and o
ther Families, and to one
Mr. [gap: omitted] and there was
many People, and Lodged
there — —

wednesday November 28:

towards
Night went over the River
to one Mr. Groot and Preached
there in the Evening, and
there was great many people
and Lodged there, —

Thursday November 29:

went back
to west Side of the River, and
got up my horse at Mr.
Mertin Vanolenda
s; and
took leave of them, and just
as I got on my horse, I heard Some
one halloo and I looked to
the River, and behold I Saw
my Saw my Son Anthony
and his Family, and they
went Down the River they
a canoe. and I went on
to Schenectady, I got there
Some Time in the afternoon
and put up at Mr. John Posts
just before night Anthony
got there also: I visited Some
few Friends, Lodged at
old Mr. Post's my good old
Friend. — — —

Friday November 30

got up
early and Mr. John Posts
and got up my horse and
went down the river a little
and went over. and so on
Downwards, to a Place called
put at Mr. [gap: omitted]
here Lives Mr. Jonathan Mudge
a Baptist Preacher, in the
afternoon Preached, and
there was great many people
Spoke from what is thy Name
in the evening had another
meeting there was a large number
again. Lodge at the house where
the meeting was, — — —

Saturday December 1:

after Break
fast, went on towards Niskayuna
Church
, got to Mr. Fishers early
in the Day. and took Dinner
there, after Dinner went to See
Mr. Peters in the evening went
back to Mr. Fishers and Lodged
there and went to bed Soon — —

Sabbath: December 2:

after break
fast, went with the Family
in a large canoe to Church
over to Niskayuna. and there
was large gathering of people
and I Spoke to them from
[gap: omitted]
and as Soon as the meeting
was over, I went back to Mr.
Fisher
s and took Dinner with
them, and Soon after, went to
back in the woods, and preached
Twice, and lodged at the last
house I Preached in — —

Monday December 3

went to new
Town
and preached at Mr.
[gap: omitted] spoke from [gap: omitted]
and Soon after meeting went
to the Southward, and stopped
at Mr. Conell, and took Dinner
there, and then went to
another house and Preached
there, and Soon after meeting
went back to Mr. Conells and
Lodged there — — —

Tuesday December 4:

got up
early and went to one old
schoolmasters and there took
breakfast, and Soon aft[gap: tear][guess: er]
went to half Moon Church,[gap: tear]
stopped at one Mr. Clutes a[gap: tear][guess: nd]
from thence to Colo [gap: omitted]
and to Capt. Compstocks[gap: tear]
[gap: tear][guess: w]as there a while, and
[gap: tear][guess: J]ust as I was going away
Brother Peter Pauquunnuppeet
Came to me, and was glad
to See him, and then Came
also Mr. John Venderwarker
and we went with him to
his house, and Lodged there

Wednesday, December 5

in the afternoon
went to the Church and preached
there, but there was not man[gap: tear][guess: y]
People, I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
Soon after meeting went ba[gap: tear][guess: ck]
with Mr. Venderwarker a[gap: tear][guess: nd]
Lodged there —
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Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Aupaumut, Hendrick

Hendrick Aupaumut, most likely a descendant of the Mohawk chief Hendrick, was a Mahican Indian who was born in Stockbridge, Massachusetts in 1757. He was educated by the Moravians and became very involved in tribal affairs and relations with the United States. Along with other Stockbridge Indians, Aupaumut fought as part of Captain William Goodrich’s company in the Revolutionary War, rising to captain in 1778. In 1777, when Joseph Quanaukaunt became sachem, Aupaumut became a member of his council along with Peter Pohqunnoppeet and John Konkapot. He also became close friends with Samson Occom and would often host the preacher or translate his sermons when the latter visited New Stockbridge, to where the Stockbridges moved in the mid 1780s. In 1787 he was one of nine Indians to write to Occom declaring their faith and asking Occom to become their minster. He was also one of the Indians to sign the proclamation that Occom, Pohqunnooppeet, and David Fowler carried during their tour to raise funds to support Occom as their pastor. By the 1790s, Aupaumut was acting as an agent for the United States. He helped the government combat Tecumseh and his brother Elskwatawa, and he fought under General Harrison in the War of 1812. Both conflicts interrupted the various land deals between tribes, as well as treaties and other negotiations, in which he was involved. Although he encouraged Indians to convert to Christianity and learn English, Aupaumut opposed leasing land to whites. Occom and Aupaumut agreed that the Stockbridges must move west to escape the influence of outside cultures, and to preserve their Christianity. In the 1820s, Aupaumut led land deals with Wisconsin tribes, and he finally moved west in 1829 along with the remainder of the Stockbridge tribe.

Pauquunnuppeet, Peter

Sir Peter Pauquunnuppeet (there are several variant spellings), a son of an Indian deacon by the same name, was a Stockbridge Mohican Indian and student of Eleazar Wheelock, who studied at Moor’s Indian Charity School from 1771 until 1775, and graduated from Dartmouth College in 1780. Together with Daniel Simon, class of 1777, and Lewis Vincent, class of 1781, he was one of the three Indian students to graduate before the turn of the century, and they became the last native graduates until 1835. The “Sir” that precedes Pohquonnoppeet’s forename originated from his status as a senior in school, and remained a part of his name for the rest of his life. After graduating, Pauquunnuppeet returned to Stockbridge, where he taught school and was involved in tribal affairs. Joseph Quanaukaunt (Quinney) became sachem in 1777, and along with Hendrick Aupaumut and John Konkapot, Pauquunnuppeet was a member of the his council. Pauquunnuppeet was also influential in the Brothertown movement and the founding of New Stockbridge six miles from Brothertown, New York. In 1785, when Americans in New York were driving the Oneidas to cede land that bordered Pennsylvania, Pauquunnuppeet represented the Stockbridge Indians in what became the Treaty of Herkimer. Pauquunnuppeet had an influential friendship with Samson Occom. Occom recorded many occasions in his diary during his missionary tours of 1785-1787 when Peter hosted him, and noted a few instances when they traveled together. Often during Occom’s visits to New Stockbridge Captain Hendrick and Pauquunnuppeet would translate his sermons for those who could not understand English. The Stockbridge Indians favored Occom over the white missionary John Sergeant, Jr., and on August 29, 1787 Pauquunnuppeet was one of nine Indians to write to Occom declaring their devotion and inviting Occom to become their minister. However, the tribe had no means by which to pay Occom, and so, in the winter of 1787 Pauquunnuppeet, Occom, and David Fowler embarked on a fundraising journey through New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York. They were not, however, able to raise as much money as they had sought to collect. Pauquunnuppeet’s strong presence within the tribe may have led to his death, although the precise date and circumstances of his decease is unknown. Sectionalism within New Stockbridge was growing due to the friction between those who supported Occom and those who preferred Sergeant, Jr. as their minister. The politics of Brothertown as an independent entity contributed to the tension. Finally, when Hendrick Aupaumet rose to the position of chief, Pauquunnuppeet became the leader of a rival faction. It has been suggested that Pauquunnuppeet’s increasing authority provoked his enemies to poison him.

Sergeant, Jr., John

John Sergeant Jr., like his father, served as a minister in Stockbridge, MA. In 1773, Stephen West, the minister to the Stockbridge Indians since 1757, decided to leave his post and turned over ministering duties to John Sergeant Jr. Stockbridge, MA, which John Sergeant Sr. helped establish, failed as a Christian Indian town when the Stockbridge Indians lost ownership of their land. When the Oneida Tribe offered the Stockbridgers land in central New York after the American Revolution, many of them moved to the Brothertown and New Stockbridge settlements. The Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge funded Sergeant Jr. in 1787 to continue serving as a minister to the Stockbridge Indians who moved to New York. Sergeant travelled from Stockbridge, MA, to New Stockbridge every year to serve as their minister. In 1788, the Stockbridge Indians at New Stockbridge were divided in their support for Occom or John Sergeant as the town’s minister. Mohican sachem Hendrick Aupaumut led the community members who favored Occom. According to Sergeant, 30 members of the Tribe were in favor of Occom while 50 were in favor of him (later, half of Occom’s supporters defected to Sergeant). The relationship between Sergeant and Occom was contentious, with Occom disliking Sergeant’s manner of preaching. Occom moved to Munhegunnack or New Stockbridge in 1791 and suggests in a letter that many of Sergeant’s supporters were shifting support to Occom. In his sermons, Sergeant blamed the Indians’ loss of land on what he described as their drunkenness and idleness. He suggested that the whites’ encroachment on their lands was God’s punishment for their sins. Sergeant remained the New Stockbridge minister until his death in 1824.

Smith

Unidentified Smith.

Frank, Lawrence

Lawrence Frank, also identified in histories of Frankfort as "Lewis," was one of the earliest settlers of the town of Frankfort (originally Frank's Ford), located east of present-day Utica, which was named in his honor. He was the son of Henry Frank (c 1725-1790) and Maria Catharine. Henry immigrated to Pennsylvania from Germany, probably Bavaria, with his brother Christopher in 1740 and was a trader between the Mohawk and Lehigh Valleys in the 1740s and 50s. He settled in German Flatts, an area originally belonging to the Mohawk Nation but populated with German immigrants who bought up the fertile river lands. Lawrence married Mary Myers in 1769 and they helped found the new town of Frankfort on land originally bought from the Mohawks by Dutch settlers. The land was set off as a separate town from German Flatts by an act of the NY Legislature on February 5, 1796. Lawrence Frank owned a large tract of land, and town history reflects that he actively promoted the industrial and agricultural progress of Frankfort, which was severely damaged in the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars. In fact, Frank and a group of other patriots were taken as prisoners of war during the Revolution and housed in Quebec from August 31 1778 until May 15 1781, when he was released and made his way back home. His popularity is reflected in the fact that the village of Howard's Bush was renamed Frankfort Center and McGowansville was renamed East Frankfort. Later in life, Frank moved with some of his family to a new settlement called Busti in Chautauqua County, NY, which is where he died. On his first journey to the Oneidas in 1761, Occom records paying for lodging at Mr. Franks, a tavern keeper in German Flatts. Although there is no historical record of such a place, Occom returned to this tavern many times on his preaching tours of the area between 1786 and 1790. Frank's Tavern must have been a major establishment because in early July of 1761, Occom notes that William Johnson met him and David Fowler there, and that the next day Johnson met with chiefs of the Oneidas to work out an agreement about an Oneida who killed a Dutchman. In June 1789, Occom records preaching in Esquire Frank's barn to "a vast number of people."

Post, John
Paul, Anthony

Anthony Paul was born in Charlestown, Rhode Island, to Mary and James Paul. His family was a part of the Narragansett peoples who lived in Charlestown. There is not much information detailing Paul's early years, but he is believed to have attended Wheelock's school in Connecticut. It is through this connection that Paul is likely to have met Christiana Occom, daughter of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Paul married Christiana in 1777 and, after spending some time in Mohegan, the two settled in Brotherton in 1784. Paul worked as a preacher and helped raise at least six children with Christiana. Occom was fond of his son-in-law, and his journals tell of many happy times visiting the couple, including fishing trips and the day in 1787 when Samson baptized Paul and four of his children. As further indication of Occom's fondness for his son-in-law, he is believed to have left the books and papers that he kept in his New York home with Paul. In 1797, Paul and Christiana left Brotherton to live in Lake George, NY, where they spent the rest of their years.

Paul, Christiana (née Occom)

Christiana Occom was born in 1757 in Mohegan, CT as the ninth child of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Christiana spent her childhood in Mohegan, where she married the Reverend Anthony Paul in 1777. The couple eventually settled in Brotherton in 1784. There, they raised at least six children, four of which Samson Occom baptized. Occom's journals tell of many joyful visits he paid to his daughter and son-in-law while on his travels. Christiana and Anthony finally left Brotherton in 1797 to settle in Lake George, NY.

Folts, Conrad Jacob

Conrad Folts was the son of Jacob Melchert Folts (1710-1808) and Anna Catherine Petrie Folts (1714-1799), who settled in the area around Herkimer, near the Mohawk River in central New York. The Folts were probably part of the large German settlement concentrated around German Flatts. Conrad was a Captain, though the records do not indicate where or whom he served. In the 1780s, when Occom, David Fowler and others from Mohegan and Stockbridge began moving Christian Indians up to the Oneida lands they had been given to settle, Occom met and befriended Folts and his family, who lived close to the settlements of Brothertown and New Stockbridge. On October 21, 1785, Occom recorded the first time he lodged with "one Mr. Folts," a phrase he used to denote this as an initial meeting. By September 11, 1786, however, Occom noted, "put up at my good friends Mr Conrod Fols." He lodged and "tarried" with the family several times during 1787 after visits to and from Brothertown. Folts is buried in the Oakview Cemetery in Frankfort, Herkimer County, NY.

Kimball, Jesse

Jesse Kimball was a member of the extensive Kimball family, whose ancestors immigrated from England at the end of the 17th century and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. His father was John Kimball (b. December 12, 1731) of Preston, CT, and his mother was Ruhama Sanders of Lyme, CT; they married on September 21, 1752 and had three sons and 13 daughters. Jesse was the second son. John served in the Revolutionary war and Jesse, though quite young, took the place of his brother Samuel, who contracted measles on the eve of his enlistment. Jesse served three years under Captain Adam Chapley and was stationed in New London, CT. After his service, Jesse moved to the frontier settlement of Bowman's Creek, in the present-day town of Canajoharie in Oneida country, and joined the militia. There he entertained Occom several times on Occom's preaching tours of 1785-87; the two often fished in the creek, to Occom's delight. The date when Kimball's Bowman's Creek house burned down is uncertain, but real estate records have him buying and selling land in Bowman's Creek as late as 1790, and he is listed in the first US Census for New York in 1790 as being the head of a household. His first marriage ended in divorce and in 1793 he married Elizabeth Roelofson (d. 1843). By that time, he had moved to Kentucky, where he was a farmer and miller and started his family. Some records report that he also made whiskey, and when he would not sell it to the local Indians, he was driven from his home and settled in Posey County, Indiana, where he died in 1857.

Waupieh, Roger

Roger Waupieh was one of the founders of the Brothertown community. In early life, he lived in Stonington and served in the Revolutionary War. The maiden name of Occom's mother, Sarah, was Wauby, suggesting that Occom and Roger Waupieh may have been related. Some sources suggest "Woyboy" as an alternate spelling of Waupieh; Roger Waupieh may have been related to the Woyboy who was an early student at Moor's.

Bartlet, Mr. Bartlet's daughter
Fowler, David Jr.

David Fowler, Jr., was the son of David Fowler and Hannah Garrett Fowler. He was born in Brothertown, inherited property upon the death of his father, and served as town clerk in the early 1800s.

Chreppen, Thomas
Compstock
Conell, John
Eliot, Andrew
Fowler, Esther (née Poquiantup)

Esther Poquiantup was a Mushantuxet Pequot, the daughter of Samson Poquiantup (Pequot, 1725-1787) and Esther (Mohegan, 1725-1822) and sister of Prude Poquiantup Harry (1752-1828). The Poquiantups (also spelled Pouquenup, Pauhqunnup, Uppuiquiyantup) were a prominent family of Christian Indians with one branch living in Groton and the other at Niantic, CT. In 1766, Samson and Esther were living at Groton. Samson was a church deacon who occasionally hosted Occom's religious meetings. We don't know when Esther married Jacob Fowler, a Montaukett Indian, younger brother of David, and Samson Occom's brother-in-law, but we do know that by 1774, Esther and Jacob were living in Hanover, NH, in a Dartmouth College building down the hall from Elizabeth Walcutt and her daughter Lucy. Jacob, who attended Wheelock's School, had become a preceptor there. Esther and Jacob were part of the first group to emigrate from New England to Brothertown in Oneida country. By 1787, Occom refers to Esther as a widow, and lodges frequently at her house.

Field, Andrew
Foot, Foot
Fowler, Elizabeth

Elizabeth Fowler was the daughter of David Fowler, Occom's brother-in-law, and Hannah Garrett.

Fowler, David

David Fowler was Jacob Fowler's older brother, Samson Occom's brother-in-law, and an important leader of the Brothertown Tribe. He came to Moor's in 1759, at age 24, and studied there until 1765. While at school, he accompanied Occom on a mission to the Six Nations in 1761. He was licensed as a school master in the 1765 mass graduation, and immediately went to the Six Nations to keep school, first at Oneida and then at Kanawalohale. Fowler saw himself as very close to Wheelock, but their relationship fragmented over the course of Fowler's mission, primarily because Wheelock wrote back to Kirkland, with whom Fowler clashed, but not to Fowler, and because Wheelock refused to reimburse Fowler for some expenses on his mission (767667.4 provides the details most clearly). Fowler went on to teach school at Montauk, and played a major role in negotiations with the Oneidas for the lands that became Brothertown. He was among the first wave of immigrants to that town, and held several important posts there until his death in 1807.

Fowler, Sister
Fowler, Widow
Gregg, James

James Gregg was a member of the New York Continental Infantry during the Revolutionary War. He was appointed 2nd Lieutenant on June 28, 1775 and 1st Lieutenant on June 26, 1776. He was a captain when the remarkable incident that Occom records in his journal for June 29, 1786 occurred. According to the military journal of Dr. Thatcher at Fort Stanwix in central New York, on June 25, 1777, Captain Gregg left the Fort with Corporal Madison, both of Colonel Gansevoort's regiment, to shoot pigeons. About a mile and a half from the Fort, they where shot down by two Indians. Though never identified, the attackers could have been from any of the Haudenosaunee tribes allied with the British. Madison was killed and scalped. Gregg was shot, tomahawked in the head and back, and scalped. A dog with them alerted nearby soldiers who brought Gregg and Madison back to the Fort. Gregg survived under the care of Dr. Thatcher, and was taken to a hospital in Albany. Thatcher reports that after a year or so of recovery, Gregg was back on duty. Another muster list records Gregg transferred to the 1st Regiment of New York in 1783. In the 1780s, Gregg and his wife were living in central New York along the Mohawk River in the area east of Brothertown where Occom frequently preached. Occom records dining and lodging with the Greggs on numerous occasions.

William Harper was the oldest brother of the Harper family, prominent in the settlement of central New York and the Revolutionary War. His grandfather, James Harper, emigrated from county Derry in Ireland to Maine in 1720, but because of conflicts with the Indians there, moved the family to Boston. His youngest son, John (1705-1785), married Abigail Montgomery of Hopkinton, CT in 1728. They had eight children: William (b. 1729), James (b. 1731), Mary (b. 1733), John (b. 1734), Margaret (b. 1740), Joseph, Alexander and Abigail (b. between 1747 and 1749). John Sr. moved the family from Middletown to Windsor, CT and then to Cherry Valley, NY in 1754, where they purchased land, and began to clear and cultivate. In 1768, John Sr. signed a patent for land between the Delaware and Charlotte Rivers purchased from the local Indians where members of the family moved in 1771, establishing the town of Harpersfield, selling lots to emigrants from New England, and distinguishing themselves. William became a member of the Provincial Congress, a judge in Montgomery and then Otsego Counties, and a member of the State Assembly from Tryon in 1781, 1782, 1784, and from Montgomery from 1785-89. James died of smallpox in 1760. John Jr. attained the rank of Colonel and was appointed commander of the Fifth Regiment of the New York State Tryon County militia during the Revolution, in which his younger brothers, Joseph and Alexander served as Lieutenant and Captain of a company, respectively. Joseph served on the committee of safety of Harpersfield. Alexander kept the first tavern in Harpersfield after the war, the site of town meetings, and served as justice of the peace and treasurer. Abigail married William McFarland, who served as town clerk, and moved, in 1798 with Joseph and Alexander to Ohio where they founded Harpersfield in that state. A history of Harpersfield reveals that during his youth, John Jr. (and possibly William and Alexander) attended Wheelock's School in Lebanon, CT, where he became life-long friends with Joseph Brant, a Mohawk Indian who attended between 1761 and 1763, and became a leader of the Tribe and supporter of the British. This friendship, and the Harper brothers’ knowledge of the Mohawk language and customs, made them valuable leaders and even saved lives; when Harpersfield was destroyed by Indians and British soldiers in 1777, Brant sent John Jr. a secret warning, which allowed the settlers to flee to safety. Occom records visiting "Esquire Harper" in or near Fort Hunter in 1786 and 1787. While this could refer to any of the Harper brothers, it is most likely William, who had the best claim to the title of “Esquire” (whereas John and Alexander would have been titled with their military ranks) and who was the only brother to move to Montgomery county, in which Fort Hunter is located. The Harper family history illustrates how the connections forged at Wheelock's school had wide effects on the course of late eighteenth century political events.

Griswool, Joenna
Levingworth
Mudge, John
Pickard Family

A family in Cherry Valley, New York, whose members include, at least, Nicholas, Adolf, Jona and Susanna (spelling uncertain). Occom lodged with members of the Pickard family and preached at Nicholas Pickard's home during his travels in 1786 and 1787. There appear to be no published sources that verify this family. Some amateur genealogy sites suggest that a family by this name had been residing in Cherry Valley before and after the "Cherry Valley Massacre" in 1778, including one Nicholas Pickard who was killed in 1776.

Stansel, Henry
Tuck, James
Vanolenda, Mertin
Vasnderwarker, John
Wympe, Jerusha
Younglove
Vedder, Albert Jr.
Dean, Jonathan
Peters, Samuel
Romine, Domine
HomeSamson Occom, journal, 1787 September 20 to December 5
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