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Samson Occom, journal, date unknown

ms-number: 771101.2

abstract: Occom describes his travels around the East coast and in Philadelphia.

handwriting: Handwriting is clear and legible.

paper: Several small sheets folded together into a booklet and bound with twine or thread are in poor conditon, with significant fading, staining and wear that leads to a significant loss of text. The tops of six verso and seven recto, and 10 verso and 11 recto, are uncut and thus impossible to scan. There are no images for these pages; however, they are blank.

noteworthy: An editor, likely 19th-century, has overwritten portions of faded text; in instances where Occom’s original hand is impossible to discern, these edits have been transcribed. This editor appears to be the originator of the date listed for the document in the Dartmouth archives. Although the year is likely, the actual date is uncertain. There are red and grey pencil marks on one recto.

ink: Brown ink is heavily faded in spots.


Modernized Version -- deletions removed; additions added in; modern spelling and capitalization added; unfamiliar abbreviations expanded.


[gap: stain] and we lodged
at the Same house again

Tuesday December 18

[gap: faded] got up
early and to took Victuals
and then took leave of the
Family and went on our way

Sabbath 24

was at Quakson

Sabbath March 2

at Burdentown

Sabbath march 9:

Newark Mountains

Sabbath March 16

New York

Sabbath March 13

New York

Sabbath march 16:

New York

Sabbath March 13

Elizabeth

Sabbath March 30:

Sailed from New York

Sabbath April 6:

at Mohegan

Tuesday January 1:

got up
early and went on our
way and got to Mr. Balwins
towards Night, in And Lodged
there — —

Wednesday January 2:

was
here all Day, in the
evening had a meeting
in the Place, and there
was great Number of
People and I Spoke
from and the People at
tended well, Lodged
at the Same house — —

Thursday January 3:

went
to Mr. grovers in Parsippany
and in the evening Preach
in Mr. Beaverrout's, and
Lodged there — —

Friday January 4

after
breakfast we set off and
called at the Rev. Mr. greens
and from there passed on to
Newark Mountans, got
to Mr. Chapman's a [illegible: [guess: little]] past
12: and took Dinner there,
and Soon after we went on
to Crain Town,— and in the
evening had a meeting in
a schoolhouse, and there
was a large number of
People, and I Spoke from
1 John V: 10: and the People
were very Solemn many were
much affected — Lodgd at
one Mr. Crains. — —

Saturday January 5:

after
eating we went on to Horse
Neck
, and we put up at
Esq. Crains
very Cold weather —
Sabbath January 6
Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.

Tuesday January 22:

we arrived
to Philadelphia, and we went
to Dr. Sprout's, and divulged
our business to him, and he
appeared very Friendly to us, and
So went on to visit, ministers of all
Denominations, and they were
all very Friendly, dined with
Gentlemen almost every Day
we Lodged 2 Nights at Mr.
Bushel
s, and then we were
invited by Mr. Innes a Brewer
a Scotchman and a good man
and the whole Family is very
agreeable we were treated with
great kindness. — —

Sabbath January 27

in the afternoon
preached in Dr. Duffields meeting
in the evening preached in Dr.
Sprout
s meeting, and they
made Collections for me. — —
This week visited every
Day and found kindness
by all Sorts of People— —

February 3:

on Sabbath in the
morning preached at Dr.
Duffield
s, in the afternoon
preached in a Baptist meeting
and there was a large number
of People. — — —

Friday February 8


This evening a number of Ladies
and gentlemen, and we, went
to take Tea with Capt. Dehose
in his Ship, he is a Dutch [illegible]
and had a genteel entertain
ment — and after Tea the
Company played, a little man
which died very often — stayed
'til near 9: and we Indians
took good leave of the Company
and returned to our quarters —

Sabbath February 10:

preached in
in the morning, in Dr. Duffields
meeting house,— in the Evening
preached in Dr. Ewings meeting
and they made me a Collection —
This week went on in our visits
amongst all Denominations; and
were kindly treated by all: — —

Sabbath February 17

I went in the morn
ing to Dr. Sprouts and it was a
Sacrament Day Mr. Green preached
and I partook the ordinance
with them and it was a Solemn
Day with me, and I believe with
others. in the afternoon, I went
to Baptist Meeting, and heard
Mr. Enstick one of the Baptist
ministers in the City and we were
now getting ready to leave the
City. and it was hard work to
take leave of the People. for all
Denominations were exceeding
kind to us. use us with great
friendship, and had good suc
cess in our applications: and
the Friends or Quakers were
Friends indeed to us they Com
municated their substance to
us more than any People
in this great City, we ate
and Drank with them from
Day to Day —

Friday February 22:

About 10
we left Philadelphia, and
it was bad crossing the
Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.
Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Beaverrout
Duffield, George

George Duffield was a Presbyterian minister who served as pastor to the famous "Church of the Patriots" in Philadelphia, a missionary, and a faithful supporter of Occom and the Brothertown movement. He was born in Lancaster County, PA in 1732, and educated at Newark Academy in Delaware and the College of New Jersey (now Princeton), a Presbyterian stronghold. Graduating in 1752, he served as tutor there for two years and was ordained in 1759. Duffield married Elizabeth Blair in 1756, but after her early death in 1757, he remarried Margaret Armstrong in 1759. That same year, Duffield was appointed minister to Presbyterian churches on the Pennsylvania frontier in Carlisle, Big Spring (now Newville) and Monaghan (now Dillsburg). In the summer and fall of 1766, he and Reverend Charles Clinton Beatty conducted a missionary tour through the western valleys of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, establishing churches, converting Indians, and ministering to the scattered settlers. Duffield published an account of this tour in 1766. In 1771, he was offered the pulpit of the Pine Street (now Third) Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, which he almost did not take because Old Side (Old Light) members objected to his adherence to New Side (New Light) revivalist ideas. Weathering the controversy, Duffield served at Pine Street until his death in 1790, preaching American independence from the pulpit with fervor and eloquence, and leaving during the War to serve as both Chaplain of the Pennsylvania Militia and co-Chaplain of the Continental Congress. Sixty of his parishoners followed him, and the British put a price on his head. After the war, Pine Street Church became known as "The Church of the Patriots."

Ewing, John

John Ewing was an influential Presbyterian minister in Philadelphia, a professor, and a noted mathematician. He and a twin brother, James, were born on June 22, 1732 in Nottingham, Maryland to Nathaniel and Rachel (Porter), who had emigrated from Ireland. He received his early education with Francis Alison, a noted Presbyterian clergyman, and remained at Alison's academy for three years as a tutor in Latin, Greek and mathematics, in which he excelled; he graduated the year he matriculated at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton) in 1754. He served as tutor at the College for two years and was licensed to preach. In 1759, he was called to pastor at the First Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, where he served as a popular and eloquent preacher until his death in 1802. He also joined the faculty of the College of Philadelphia as Professor of Ethics from 1758 to 1762 and Professor of Natural Philosophy from 1762 to 1778. Joining the American Philosophical Society in 1768, he contributed to several noted scientific experiments (charting the transit of Venus) and public works (surveying the boundary with Delaware). In 1773, he was commissioned to travel to Great Britain to solicit funds for the Academy of Newark, in Delaware, where he received an honorary Doctorate of Divinity from University of Edinburgh and met with promiment figures (including Lord North, the prime minister, and Samuel Johnson) to advance the cause of American independence. When the College of Philadelphia was reorganized as the University of Pennsylvania, Ewing became its first provost in 1780. Occom preached and collected funds in Ewing's Church on his tour of Philadelphia in 1771. While in London, Ewing likely met members of the Trust for Wheelock's Indian School, because Occom reports to John Thornton in 1777 that he learned about the exhaustion of the Trust from Ewing (manuscript 761290), one of the influential ministers who collected money for Occom and Brothertown in 1771.

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