abstract: Expenditures of, and donations to, the Indian Charity School in Lebanon, CT.
handwriting: Unknown hand is informal and occasionally difficult to decipher.
paper: Large sheet folded in half is in good condition, with light-to-moderate creasing, staining and wear.
layout: Although the paper is folded in half as if to make four separate pages, text is also written out across the span of each side of the entire paper. Text is also written in various orientations.
noteworthy: Due to ledger formatting, transcription line breaks and text orientations may not exactly match those of the document. In instances where the intention regarding an abbreviation is uncertain, the abbreviation has been left unexpanded in the modernized transcription. Given the amount of deletions and additions, this document appears to be a draft.
Modernized Version -- deletions removed; additions added in; modern spelling and capitalization added; unfamiliar abbreviations expanded.
|To sundry articles of clothing furni‐
‐ture etc. for the school and [guess: Mistresses] and schoolmasters — —
|To printing my
narrative AD 1762 omitted £27.2.0 3/4}
|To the support
and schoolmasters among the Indians
my son's mission
of 3 1/2 weeks with Augustine Hebard to
settle a school and open a door for a Missionary
at old Oneida and to defraying the Expences of
7 Indian Children from that Country
the of the members
of the male school schoolmaster etc. £}
the support of the female
School, Mistress etc.}"
|To Expences of occasional Journies etc.}||..12..11..8|
|To balance referred to C.r the new Acct — £16.15.6 3/4||62..14..7|
|"xBy balance of account adjusted May 6th, 1767 "||£76..6..1|
|xBy a piece of black broadcloth Mr. Whitaker
bought in England for the school — }
Robert Hodgson of London's
Exchange on Dr. Prince of Salem — }
|xBy Mr. Samuel Barminters
do on Mr.
James Pierce }
|By my bill on Mr. Robert Keen in favour
Messrs. Dan and Joshua Lathrop — — }
|By my bill on ditto in favour
Mr. Asahel Clark.
in this Colony by virtue of a brief granted by ye general Assembly }
|xBy interest of Subscriptions —||3..16..1|
|xBy public and private donations received in my Journey to Portsmouth
last August — }
|xBy a grant
of the London Commissioners
in Boston — — —}
|Balance —||50.5.7 1/2||Subs:||£2.10.11|
|Missionaries||£265.2.2 1/2||contribution||17.0.0 1/4|
|Miscellaneous||14.13.11 1/4||LM||£709..4..6 1/4|
|LM||£709..4..6 1/4||177..6.1 1/2|
|177..6- 1 3/4||Sterling —||531..10..4 3.4|
|Sterling —||£531-10.4 3/4|
|The Indian Charity|
|Quote of Donations|
|10—||4.7..4||7 —||11..6||1.17..11 1-4|
|1.15.3||6.6||16..0..4||2..2..1 — 47||1.5..1|
|14.6||2.6—||11..0..2||2..1..10 — 45||3..10.10|
|1.13—||8..2..10||1..0..9||2.6.8 — 57||1..19..4|
|7—||3.5.5 — 20||5.0||33.18.5 — 72||10—|
|4.19..9||11.1.2 1/2 — 47||1.1.0||1.1.6. 74||14..4|
|37..5.4-23||9..2..1 — 40||4..3..0||42..14..7||2..3..9|
|21..11.7 1/4-42||11.6— 55||2.7||3.6|
|90.10.9 1/4..63||179-5-11 1/2||36..11..0 1/2||14..13..11 3/4|
|7.5—||664.19.0||3.16.11 — 24|
|10—||227.3..2||8.12.0 — 20|
|0.5.1||120.1.0 3/4||1.16.6 — 29|
|10—} 65||70||7.10 — 30|
|52.10.9 1/2—||107.2..1 3/4||2.15.9 1/2 — 31|
|22..5.10 1/2||3.12.9 1/2 — 32|
|265..2..2 1/2||3.19.1 — 33|
|6.5.7 — 34|
|12.9.2 — 35|
|16.2 — 36|
|4.12.5 — 30|
|3.14.10 1/2 — 39|
|1.7.10 1/2 — 40|
|5.11.7 — 43|
|13.7.0 3/4 — 47|
|0.15.01/2 — 40|
|9.0.4 — 55|
|0.1.3 — 58|
|6.2.9 — 59|
|10..11.1 — 60|
|4..7..11 — 73|
|4.10.30 — 74|
Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.
Augustine Hebard (more often spelled Hibbard) was a charity scholar at Moor’s Indian Charity School. Compared to the likes of Samuel Kirkland or even David Avery, his career was entirely unremarkable. He accompanied Ralph Wheelock on his second journey to Oneida territory (1767) and, after graduating from Dartmouth in 1772 (unlike many of his compatriots, Hebard never attended Yale), went to the St. Johns tribes to solicit students in 1773. After his 1773 mission, Hebard chose to take the pulpit in Claremont, NH rather than engaging in further missionary activity (much to Wheelock’s displeasure). Claremont dismissed Hebard in 1785 and he emigrated to Stanstead, in Quebec, where he held a variety of official posts in the British government.
Nathaniel Whitaker was an outspoken Presbyterian minister with a long and wide-ranging career. Between his ordination in 1755 and his death in 1795, Whitaker ministered to five different congregations. His longest tenure was at Chelsea, CT (near Norwich), from 1761-1769, during which he joined Occom on his two-and-a-half-year fundraising tour of Britain. While in Chelsea, Whitaker was very involved in Wheelock's project. The two engaged in frequent correspondence, and Whitaker served on Eleazar Wheelock's Board of Correspondents in Connecticut, as well as on the Board of Trustees of Moor's Indian Charity School. At one time, he was Wheelock's presumed successor, but Dartmouth's Trustees demanded that Wheelock appoint another. Wheelock, in part due to his strongly-held belief that Native Americans were childlike and rash, was convinced that Occom needed an Anglo-American supervisor on his fundraising tour. After several candidates turned down the job, Wheelock selected Whitaker. He proved to be a poor choice; he was, by many accounts, a difficult man to get along with, and many of Wheelock’s British allies, including George Whitefield and the English Trust (the organization that took control of the money Occom raised in England) preferred to deal with Occom, although Whitaker insisted on handling the tour’s logistics. Furthermore, in Britain, Occom was the obvious star of the tour, and it was unclear to many why Whitaker asserted himself so prominently. Whitaker’s poor decisions seriously alienated the English Trust and increased their suspicion of Wheelock’s later dealings and treatment of Occom. He gave the English Trust the impression that they would have control over money raised in Scotland (which was in fact lodged with the parent organization of the SSPCK), and he was the executor of the “Eells Affair,” a plan initiated by the CT Board of the SSPCK to bring the money that Occom and Whitaker raised back to the colonies by investing it in trade goods and selling them at a profit (Eells was one of the merchants who was to help with the resale of goods). The English Trust learned about the plan by reading letters that Whitaker had given them permission to open in his absence, and were immediately shocked. The wording of certain letters made it appear that only a percentage of the profit from the resale of the goods would go towards Moor’s Indian Charity School, but beyond that detail, the English Trust was scandalized at the thought of money raised for charity being invested in trade. The English Trust blamed Whitaker entirely for these affairs, and issued specific instructions for Occom to notarize all documents requiring Whitaker’s signature. In short, they wanted Occom to supervise Whitaker, when Wheelock had envisioned the opposite relationship (both Occom and Whitaker seem to have ignored their instructions, preferring to have as little contact with one another as possible). In 1769, a year after his return to Connecticut in 1768, Whitaker found himself dismissed by his Chelsea congregation (likely because he had spent two and a half years away from them). He went on to serve several more congregations before his death in 1795. Whitaker was an outspoken Whig, and during the Revolution he published several pamphlets on his political opinions.
Ralph Rodulphus Wheelock was Wheelock's oldest son and heir apparent. While Wheelock believed that Ralph showed great aptitude for the "Indian business," others saw Ralph as arrogant and abrasive. He also suffered from epilepsy, which seriously impeded his ability to work. He died in Hanover as an invalid under almost constant care and guardianship. Wheelock's struggle to accept his son's illness and his son's struggle to overcome it provide an undercurrent for some of the stranger events in the history of Moor's Indian Charity School and Dartmouth College. Ralph grew up surrounded by and dedicated to Indian education, but also with an inflated sense of Wheelock's, and his own, importance, which stayed with him for much of his life. Joseph Brant recounts a telling anecdote: Ralph once ordered William Major, Sir William Johnson's son, to saddle his horse on the grounds that he was the son of a gentleman and William Major was not. Ralph was unable to finish coursework at the College of New Jersey, which he attended from 1761-1763, although he graduated from Yale in 1765. He made three tours of the Six Nations (in 1766, 1767, and 1768), assisting ministers in bringing back children and negotiating with tribes. He taught at Moor's for two years, and was briefly considered as a companion for Occom on the Fundraising Tour. Wheelock formally named him as his heir in the 1768 draft of his will. However, Wheelock's reliance on Ralph brought disastrous consequences for the school. In the spring of 1768, Wheelock sent Ralph to the Onondagas and Oneidas to negotiate about schoolmasters and missionaries. Once there, Ralph managed to offend the assembled chiefs beyond repair. Ralph blamed his failure on Kirkland, and it was not until 1772 that Wheelock learned the truth of the matter. It is likely that Ralph's conduct influenced the Oneidas' decision to pull their children out of Moor's later in 1768: Wheelock himself implied as much in his 1771 Journal. By the early 1770s, Wheelock had realized that Ralph was never going to take over Dartmouth College. In a later will, Wheelock provided Ralph with £50 per annum for his care, to be paid out by the College, and stipulated that his other heirs should look after his oldest son. Because Ralph was unable to serve as Wheelock's heir, the presidency of the College passed to John Wheelock, a soldier who had no theological training or desire to run a college.
Robert Keen was a London wool merchant and an ardent supporter of George Whitefield, the eminent evangelical. Although it is unclear when Keen and Whitefield first came into contact, by the 1760s Whitefield was writing to Keen frequently. In 1763, Keen, along with Daniel West, was given the task of managing Whitefield’s religious enterprises in London (specifically, his Tottenham Court Chapel and the Tabernacle, another London church), which they continued to do after Whitefield’s death. Keen was also one of the four executors of Whitefield’s affairs in England (along with West and Charles Hardy). As a result of his relationship with Whitefield, Keen was introduced to Occom and Whitaker upon their arrival in February 1766. He was a member of the informal committee that collected donations before October 1766 and provided Occom and Whitaker with advice on their route and strategies. Keen also became a member of the English Trust, the formal organization formed in October 1766 to safeguard donations. As secretary and deputy treasurer of the Trust, Keen played an important role in transmitting accounts and correspondence between the Trust and Wheelock during the tour and the long process of Wheelock’s relocation to New Hampshire. Along with fellow Trust members Samuel Savage and John Thornton, Keen continued to provide financial support to Wheelock after the Trust had been exhausted.
With his brother Joshua Lathrop, Daniel Lathrop was a prominent businessman who owned a mercantile and pharmacy in Norwich, Connecticut. Daniel Lathrop was also an early benefactor of Moor's Indian Charity School, and advanced fiscal support for Samson Occom's fundraising trip to Great Britain. Daniel Lathrop was a cousin of John Lathrop of Boston, minister of the Old North Church and husband to Mary Wheatley.
With his brother Daniel Lathrop, Joshua Lathrop owned a mercantile and pharmacy in Norwich, Connecticut. The Lathrops advanced fiscal support for Samson Occom's fundraising trip to Great Britain.