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Gershom Breed, account ledger, 1764

ms-number: 764900.1

abstract: Gershom Breed's bill against Wheelock for goods furnished to Occom and others.

handwriting: There are three different hands on the document; all are formal, clear and legible.

paper: Large sheet is in fair condition, with heavy creasing and wear.

ink: Brown ink varies in intensity.

noteworthy: Due to the format of ledger transcription, line breaks do not necessarily match those in the document. In instances where Breed's intention regarding a word or abbreviation is uncertain, the word or abbreviation has been left unmodified in the modernized transcription. The meaning of a symbol that appears as a small double l with a strike-through is uncertain, though it appears to be an abbreviation for weight, specifically poundage. The “per” symbol appears to have been used to signify both “per” and “pair.” An editor, likely 19th-century, added the note “G. Breed 1764” to two verso; this note has not been included in the transcription.

signature: There are two signatures.

events: Building of Occom's House


Modernized Version -- deletions removed; additions added in; modern spelling and capitalization added; unfamiliar abbreviations expanded.


Rev. Eleazer Wheelock Lebanon, To Gershom Breed D.r
To Sundries for the Use of the Rev. Samson Occom.
Viz: 1764.
August 25th To 1 1/2 gallon Rum — Mr. Occom — @4/ — £ 0 ,, 6 ,, 0
To 7 yards check linen — — ⅌ — Do — — @2/3 — ,, 15 ,, 9
To 1 kersey bag, D.d Mr. Occom 22nd June last — 4/6 — ,, 4,, 6
To 1 1/2 gallon Rum D.d D.o 14th instant — — @ 4/ — — ,, 6 ,,
27, To 1 ⅌ worsted hose £ 0 ,, 8 ,, 3 } D.d David Fowler — — ,, 9 ,, 10 1/2
To 1 1/2 yard Ribband @ 1/1 0 ,, 1 ,, 7 1/2
31, To 2 1/2 gallons Rum Mr. Whitney — — @4/ — — ,, 10 ,,
September 1, To 1 ⅌ Shoes — — — 0 ,, 7 ,, 6
To 4 yards Tow Cloth @ 2/1 0 ,, 8 ,, 0 } D.d John Cooper 1 ,, 5 ,, 3
To 3 yards check linen @ 1/9, 0 ,, 5 ,, 3
To 1 meal bag — — 0 ,, 4 ,, 6
To 1 Silk handkerchief — — D.d John Cooper Jr. ,, 6 ,, 3
To 1 Iron pot w.t 30 1/2, l̶l̶ 0 ,, 8 ,, 3 1/4
To 1 quart Rum — — 0 ,, 1 ,, 0
To 1 1/2 l̶l̶ Powder @ 2/9, 0 ,, 4 ,, 1 1/2 } D.d Christopher Squib ,, 17 ,, 4 3/4
To 1 ⅌yarn stockings 0 ,, 3 ,, 10
To 1 gimlet — — — 0 ,, 0 ,, 2
So 1 Silk handkerchief — 0 ,, 6 ,, 4 } D.d Solomon Cooper ,, 15 ,, 8
To 2 felt hats N.o 1&9: 2/4 &7/: 0 ,, 9 ,, 4
To 7 yards garlet — @ 3/6 — 1 ,, 4 ,, 6 } D.d Jonathan Occum 1 ,, 5 ,, 1 1/2
To 3 skeins thread @ 2d 1/2 — 0 ,, 0 ,, 7 1/2
3, To 1/2 l̶l̶ Powder @ 2/9 — 0 ,, 1 ,, 4 1/2 } D.d Jacob George ,, 3 ,,
To 3 1/4 l̶l̶ Lead — @6d 0 ,, 1 ,, 7 1/2
To 1 gallon Rum — — 0 ,, 4 ,, 0
To 2 1/2 m: 4.d Nails @ 4/6, 0 ,, 11 ,, 3 } D.d Mr. Peabody 1 ,, 13 ,, 3
To 1 1/2 m: 10.d D.o @ 12/ — 0 ,, 18 ,, 0
To 1 bb.l Cyder — — 0 ,, 6 ,, 6
To 1: m: Cedar Clapboard, 7 ,, 2 ,, 0
To 500. feet pine board, 2 ,, 1 ,, 0 } D.d Mr. Peabody 15 ,, 19 ,, 3
To 975 Do oak — Do — — 2 ,, 8 ,, 0
To 4 1/2: m: Cedar shingle, 4 ,, 1 ,, 0
5, To 3 box wood handle gimlets, 0 ,, 0 ,, 9
6, To 1 gallon Rum — 0 ,, 4 ,, 0 } D.d Mr. Whitney ,, 6 ,, 6
To 1 Cedar Pail — — 0 ,, 2 ,, 6
7, To 7 y.ds Tow Cloth @ 2/, 0 ,, 14 ,, 0
To 1 1/2 l̶l̶ Coffee — @ 1/6 — 0 ,, 2 ,, 3 } D.d Joseph Wiog — — 1 ,, 3 ,,
To 2 1/4 yards Check linen @ 3/— 0 ,, 6 ,, 9
8, To 2 gallons Rum — @ 1/.. 0 ,, 2 ,, 0 } D.d Mr. Peabody ,, 3 ,, 6
To 1 l̶l̶ Coffee — — 0 ,, 1 ,, 6
10, To 1 gallon Rum — ✓0 ,, 4 ,, 0
To 1 gimlet — — ✓0 ,, 0 ,, 3
To 3 yards check linen @ 2/3 — ✓0 ,, 6 ,, 9 } D.d Mr. Peabody for himself { =✓ ,, 13 ,, 6 1/4
11, To 1 broom — — — 0 ,, 0 ,, 10
To 1 ⅌ Sleeve buttons — ✓0 ,, 1 ,, 0
To 1/16 yard broad Cloth @ 11/— 0 ,, 0 ,, 8 1/4
13, To 1: C: 10.d Nails — — — for Mr. Peabody ✓,, 1 ,, 3
15, To 1 1/2 gallon Rum @ 4/— 0 ,, 6 ,, 0
To 6 l̶l̶ Sugar — @ 8d 0 ,, 4 ,, 0 } D.d Mr. Peabody ,, 12 ,,
To 1/2 gallon Rum — @ 4/— 0 ,, 2 ,, 0
To holland D.d Mr. Lamb Mr. Peabody's order — ✓,, 6 ,, 6
17, To 1 barrel cider (drawn off) — D.d Mr. Whitney ,, 7 ,,
Carried forward £28,, 10 ,, 7

Brought forward £28 ,, 10 ,, 7
1764
September 22.d To 5 l̶l̶ Sugar D.d Jacob Huscout — @ 8d ,, 3 ,, 4
To 2 l̶l̶ Coffee @ 1/6 ✓£0 ,, 3 ,, 0
24, To 1/4 m: 4.d Nails @ 4/6: 0 ,, 1 ,, 1 1/2 } D.d Mr. Peabody ,, 10 ,, 1 1/2
To 1 1/2 gallon Rum @ 4/, 0 ,, 6 ,, 0
27, To 24 l̶l̶ Pork — — D.d Mr. Peabody ,, 12 ,,
To 2 bushelsWheat D.dAsa Peabody Jr ,, 9 ,,
October 1. To 1 quart Rum — — ✓0 ,, 1 ,, 0
To 4 yards Dow lass @ 2/5 ✓0 ,, 9 ,, 8
3. To 1 skein Silk — ✓0 ,, 0 ,, 8 } D.d Mr. Peabody ✓,, 12 ,, 2
To 1 stick silk twist ✓ — 0 ,, 0 ,, 10
5. To Mr. Peabody's Order Jacob Huscout — — ,, 6 ,,
8. To 2 set Thumb Latches ✓0 ,, 2 ,, 4 } D.d Mr. Peabody ✓,, 4 ,,
To 1/2 l̶l̶ Pepper — @ 3/4 ✓ 0 ,, 1 ,, 8
To 1 ⅌ shoes ⅌ Mr. Peabody's order D.d Jacob Huscout Jr. ,, 7 ,, 6
10. To Mr. Peabody's order Jacob Huscout Jr. 1 ,, 15 ,, 3
13, To 1 l̶l̶ Coffee — —✓ ✓0 ,, 1 ,, 6
To 2 l̶l̶ Sugar @ 8d — — ✓0 ,, 1 ,, 4 } D.d Mr. Peabody ✓,, 3 ,, 4 1/2
To 1 dozen breast buttons 0 ,, 0 ,, 6 1/2
To Mr. Peabody's order Jonathan Occom— — 1 ,, 10 ,, 4 1/2
To D.o — D.o — D.o John Tantaquidgeon 2 ,, 6 ,, 3
To 3 linen handkerchiefs ✓ 0 ,, 7 ,, 0
To Rum and Spectacles ✓0 ,, 4 ,, 0 } D.d Mr. Peabody ✓,, 11 ,, 10
To 1 ⅌ Shears — — ✓0 ,, 0 ,, 10
15, To Mr. Peabody's Order Caleb Whitney 4 ,, 17 ,, 10
£ 42 ,, 19 ,, 7 1/2
N:B. The above goods are charged
at a price for 6 Months credit —— } Errors Excepted
 Gershom Breed
Norwich October 23rd 1764
Rev. Sir these may Certify that the above account as it is
hear Stated from the 31st of August
1764
hath Bin Dd
by my order; and Carefully Improved in the affair
of Building a house for the Rev. Mr. Samson Occom
and although some of the articles were Delivered by
Mr. Breed Since received your Letter by Mr. Occom
yet they were virtually Improved before attest ⅌ me Asa Peabody attorney to said Occom
Rev. Samson Occom, To Gershom Breed D.r
Oct.r 11th 1764 To 4 l̶l̶ Sugar — — @ 8.d £ ,, 2 ,, 8
To 1 gallon Rum — — — — — ,, 4 ,,
To 3/4 m: 4.d nails — — @ 4s/6 — — ,, 3 ,, 4 1/2
To 1: c: Cedar Clapboards — — — ,, 14 ,, 6
To 339 — Do Shingles — @ 2s/2 — — ,, 7 ,, 4
13. To 2 l̶l̶ Coffee @ 18.d — — ✓,, 3 ,, } for Christopher Squibb
To 2 linen handkerchiefs — — @ 2s/4 — — ✓,, 4 ,, 8
To 2 Do — — Do — — @ 16.d — — ✓,, 2 ,, 8
To 1 Jack knife — — — — — ✓,, ,, 6 1/2
22 To 1/4 m: 4.d nails — — @ 4s/6 ,, 1 ,, 1 1/2
£ 2 ,, 3 ,, 10 1/2
Non-contemporary text not transcribed.
Breed, Gershom

Breed was a vendor who traded with Occom and Wheelock. His wares included food, building materials, alcohol, clothing, and finished metal goods. He was a staunch Wheelock supporter, and helped hold and deliver mail for Wheelock, as well as sending his (possibly first-born) son, John McLaren Breed, to Wheelock's school (J. Breed went on to graduate from Yale in 1768). While Occom was abroad, he was more lenient in supplying goods to Mary Occom than other local vendors, such as Captain Shaw, but eventually, he too refused to sell to her on credit.

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Cooper, John Jr.
Tantaquidgeon, John

John Tantaquidgeon, son of Ester Uncas and John Tantaquidgeon, was a Mohegan Indian who acted as a counselor to Ben Uncas III. He married Samson Occom’s sister, Lucy, and they had at least three children. He is a forefather of the modern-day Tantaquidgeon family.

Fowler, David

David Fowler was Jacob Fowler's older brother, Samson Occom's brother-in-law, and an important leader of the Brothertown Tribe. He came to Moor's in 1759, at age 24, and studied there until 1765. While at school, he accompanied Occom on a mission to the Six Nations in 1761. He was licensed as a school master in the 1765 mass graduation, and immediately went to the Six Nations to keep school, first at Oneida and then at Kanawalohale. Fowler saw himself as very close to Wheelock, but their relationship fragmented over the course of Fowler's mission, primarily because Wheelock wrote back to Kirkland, with whom Fowler clashed, but not to Fowler, and because Wheelock refused to reimburse Fowler for some expenses on his mission (767667.4 provides the details most clearly). Fowler went on to teach school at Montauk, and played a major role in negotiations with the Oneidas for the lands that became Brothertown. He was among the first wave of immigrants to that town, and held several important posts there until his death in 1807.

Peabody, Asa Jr
Squib, Christopher
Whitney, Caleb
Cooper, Solomon
George, Jacob
Huscaut, Jacob Jr.
Occom, Jonathan
Wiog, Joseph
Building of Occom's House
HomeGershom Breed, account ledger, 1764
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