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Samson Occom, receipts and expenses, 1761

ms-number: 761290

abstract: Occom records various receipts and expenses collected and incurred in travel to and from Montauk and Oneida in the year 1761.

handwriting: Handwriting is largely clear and legible; however, the condition of the paper and ink make it difficult-to-impossible to decipher some of Occom's original hand.

paper: Several small sheets folded into a booklet and bound with thread (visible on 10 verso and 11 recto) are in good-to-poor condition, with light-to-heavy staining, fading and wear. Outer pages are in worse condition than inner pages, and one recto/verso is detached from the booklet. The pages that would be nine verso and 10 recto are uncut at the top and so have not been scanned. Damage to the paper has resulted in some loss of text.

ink: Brown ink varies in intensity.

noteworthy: An editor, likely 19th-century, has overwritten sections and/or added notes in black ink. These edits have not been transcribed. Names of people and places that are illegible or uncertain have been left untagged. In instances where Occom's intention regarding a word is uncertain, the word has been left unmodified in the modernized transcription. In several instances, it is uncertain as to whether a name refers to a person or place; these names have been left untagged. It is possible, however, that these uncertain names refer to inns or taverns and the names of their owners.

events: Occom's First Mission to the Oneidas.

Modernized Version -- deletions removed; additions added in; modern spelling and capitalization added; unfamiliar abbreviations expanded.

[gap: tear] rri [gap: tear]
[gap: tear] n [gap: tear] [gap: faded] [gap: tear]
[gap: tear] [gap: faded] [gap: tear] [gap: faded] [gap: tear]
[gap: tear] [gap: faded] 0: 1: [gap: faded]
by the Rev. [gap: omitted] 0: 3: [gap: faded]
Collection at the Rev. [gap: omitted]
Dr. Sprouts congregation 13. [gap: faded]
by Friend G: Per [illegible]erton 1: 17[gap: faded]
by the Rev. Mr. Blackwell: 1: 2:[gap: faded]
By the Rev. Dr. Helmuth. 1: 2: [gap: faded]
Collected at Dr. Duffield. 10: 3:[gap: faded]
Collected at Rev. Dr. Ewings 20: 3: 11
Bishop White — 1: 10: 0
Mr. David — — — 0: 7: [gap: faded]
Chief Justice — — 1 2: [gap: faded]
Rev. Colin — — — — 0: 3: [gap: faded]
Dr. Magaw — — — 0: 7. [gap: faded]
Friends of Baltimore — 0: 7. [gap: faded]
Mrs. Brown — — — — 0. 7. [gap: faded]
Blank page
Non-contemporary text not transcribed.
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Lebanon A[gap: hole][guess: pr]il 17[gap: hole][guess: 6]1
I received £5: 16: 0 La[gap: hole][guess: w]fu[gap: worn_edge][guess: l]
Money, by the Hand of the
Mr. Wheelock, Collected in
Boston, by friends unknown
— Received a Pair of Wo[gap: hole][guess: ol]
Stockings by Graney Ma[gap: worn_edge]
ford in Amagansett on Long
in the Month of May
Esther Talmadge of Mon-
Gave me a pair of
Yarn Stockings —
and another Pair of Stock
kings by Clemece Huntin[gap: worn_edge][guess: g]
— and a Shirt by Hannah
of East Hampton
June the [gap: hole] I r[gap: hole][guess: e]ceived £ 3: s10: 0
by the Hand of the Rev.
[gap: worn_edge][guess: S]a[gap: hole][guess: m]uel Buell
, Collected
by his Good People at
East Hampton, —
Lebanon June the 9 I receiv
ed £15: 14: 0 Lawful Money
by the Hand of the Rev.
Eleazar Wheelock, Collected
in Boston
June 11 at Hartford
Esq. Hopkins of Water.
Gave me a Dollar —
 New York June the 16
I received £2: 0: 2 Lawful
Money, by the Hand of Mrs.
and s 4/ by a School Mis
tress —
The Rev. Mr. Bareley
gave me £1: 4: 0.
S12 by Mr. Bostwick
from an unknown friend,
New York June the 22
I Received £73: 15: 7 by
the Hand of the Rev. Mr.
, two Collections
made in New York
 Albany June the 30
I received 16/ by the Hand
Mr. McCrackan
Blank page.
September the 15 Thomas gave
me a fawn Skin and Col.
gave a doe Skin
and Thomas gave me a B
October the 4 1761
I had £10: 2: 0 Collected for me
at Albany by the Presbyte
rian and Church Congrega-
tions —
Monday September the 5 I had
3 dollars for marrying a
couple —
October the [illegible][guess: and] I had at Poughkeepsie
Collected for me — £1: 15: 0
Mr. Bareley of New York
gave me a pistol
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Montauk May the 30: 1761
Set out on my Journey
to Oneida My Expenses
are — — —
to crossing the Sound . . 0: 9: 0
Nights entertainment Saybrook : 0: 1: 3
Ferrage Saybrook . 0: 0: 4
Ferrage Lyme . . . 0: 0: 2
to one Bridle — — — 0: 5: 0
to 2/ll Tea New London: 0: 3: 6
shoeing my Mare . . . 0: 7: 0
to one quart wine . . . 0: 2: 0
to oating and Victuals — — 0: 1: 2
Ferrage Hartford .0: 0: 2
to razor and Ink Powder: 0: 2: 0
to oating — — — 0: 0: 2
Blank page
Dinner at Robinson . . 0: 0: 9
Mess of oats and Rum . . . 0: 0: 4
Nights entertainment Milford: 0: 1: 9
Ferrage at Stratford: 0: 0: 4
Entertainment at Stratford 0: 1 5
Hay for horses — — 0: 0: 4
one quart Rum — 0: 1: 6
to dinner — — — 0: 1: 0
to Pam[illegible]let — — — 0: 0: 4
Entertainment at Stanford. .0: 1: 8
Victuals at Rye. 0: 1: 10
oating New Rochelle . . 0: 0: 4
Entertainment one [illegible] 2 Nights at
Mr. Goldsmith’s — — 0: 5: 10
from New York to Oneida
Breakfast Kings Bridge: 0: 1: 4
Refreshment at Martins 0: 1: 6
washing at Albany York
and Royal Block
— — 0: 6: 4
at Albany [illegible][guess: K]nife: 0: 2: 6
2 Dozen Primers for the
Indians — 0: 12: 0
Refreshment at Crotons 0: 0: 11
Entertainment at Peekskill — 0: 2: 0
Refreshment Rogers — 0: 0: 4
Breakfast at Fishkills. 0: 1: 6
Dinner at Poughkeepsie: 0: 3: 0
Victuals at Staatsborough 0: 1: 0
Entertainment at Rynbeck — 0: 1: 10
Dram and oats — — .0: 1: 5
Refreshment Kings Bridge: 0: 1: 4
at Livingston Manor: 0: 1: 4
Nights entertainment — — 0: 0. 9
one Day and one Nights
Entertainment Kinderhook— 0: 4: 0
Breakfast — — — 0: 1: 0
Refreshment and oats — — 0: 1: 0
Ferrage at Albany — 0: 1: 0
Keeping Santvoords 0: 13: 0
Blank page

At Albany
to Books Ink bottle and
Ink Stand — 1: 6: 6
a Pair of Stockings 0: 10: 0
above Albany — 0: 1: 6
Refreshment — — 0: [illegible]: 5
Schenectady — 0: 3: 6
Male Straps — 0 2: 0
Horse Keeping — — 0: 1: 6
Ferrage — — 0: 0: 6
at Grots — — 0: 2: 6
at fort Johnson Entertainment
one Night — 0: 2: 6
Entertainment 0: 6: 11
Dinner at Fort Hendrick. 0: 1: 6
Some Drink — — 0: 0 6
at Franks in the german Flatts
2 Days and 3 Nights — — 0: 19: 3
Blank page
at Fort Stanwix. 0: 5: 6
at Royal Block House 0: 4: 0
at Block House — 0: 2: 6
to one Blanket — 0: 18: 0
to one Hone — — 0: 7: 0
to half Tea Pots and Cups :0: 2: 6
 July 16
at the Royal Block House: 0: 9. 9
to Punch Bowl — — 0: 1: 6
at Royal Block House Sundries
at Royal Block House 0: 8: 0
Sundries — — — — 0: 9: 0
at the Royal Block House — — 0: 12: 0
above the german Flatts — 0: 2: 6
at the German Flatts — — 0: 13. 0
to 2/[illegible][guess: ,] Pint wine — — 0. 1. 0
to entertainment — — — 0: 5: 0
Enter Schenectady — — 0: 10: 3
to pint wine — — 0: 2: 0
Given to Edward
as a Part of reward
for his Interpreting — 1: 6: 0
to another Interpreter — 0: 8: 0
September 28 to October 5 at Albany
to £ 5: 1: 8 — — — £ 5: 1: 8
Entertainment at Coeymans — 0: 3: 6
Breakfast — — 0: 2— 0
Refreshment for us and horses—: 0: 3: 0
Ferrage — — 0: 3: 0
at the Kings Bridge — — 0: 6: 0
for breakfast and oating — — 0: 2: 0
for half a pint wine — 0: 0; 9
for dinner and horse feeding 0:3:0
hkeepsie . October the 8

Spout — — 0: 15: 0
Brand for horses — 0: 0: 4
Refreshment — — — 0: 1: 9
for dinner — — — 0: 2: 0
at the Bridge — — 0: 1: 0
Nights entertainment Rogers — — 0: 3: 0
Pecks — breakfast — — 0: 3: 0
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to mess of oats — — 0 : 0: 8
to ferrage — — — 0: 2: 6
Dinner and oats — 0: 3: 0
at Browns — — — 0: 3: 0
Dinner by White Stone: 0: 3: 8
Entertainment at Ferry — 0: 4: 0
on Long Island — — 0: 2: 0
oats at Flushing — — 0: 0: 4
at Jamaica — — 0: 3: 8
[illegible][guess: T]
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Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Duffield, George

George Duffield was a Presbyterian minister who served as pastor to the famous "Church of the Patriots" in Philadelphia, a missionary, and a faithful supporter of Occom and the Brothertown movement. He was born in Lancaster County, PA in 1732, and educated at Newark Academy in Delaware and the College of New Jersey (now Princeton), a Presbyterian stronghold. Graduating in 1752, he served as tutor there for two years and was ordained in 1759. Duffield married Elizabeth Blair in 1756, but after her early death in 1757, he remarried Margaret Armstrong in 1759. That same year, Duffield was appointed minister to Presbyterian churches on the Pennsylvania frontier in Carlisle, Big Spring (now Newville) and Monaghan (now Dillsburg). In the summer and fall of 1766, he and Reverend Charles Clinton Beatty conducted a missionary tour through the western valleys of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, establishing churches, converting Indians, and ministering to the scattered settlers. Duffield published an account of this tour in 1766. In 1771, he was offered the pulpit of the Pine Street (now Third) Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, which he almost did not take because Old Side (Old Light) members objected to his adherence to New Side (New Light) revivalist ideas. Weathering the controversy, Duffield served at Pine Street until his death in 1790, preaching American independence from the pulpit with fervor and eloquence, and leaving during the War to serve as both Chaplain of the Pennsylvania Militia and co-Chaplain of the Continental Congress. Sixty of his parishoners followed him, and the British put a price on his head. After the war, Pine Street Church became known as "The Church of the Patriots."

Ewing, John

John Ewing was an influential Presbyterian minister in Philadelphia, a professor, and a noted mathematician. He and a twin brother, James, were born on June 22, 1732 in Nottingham, Maryland to Nathaniel and Rachel (Porter), who had emigrated from Ireland. He received his early education with Francis Alison, a noted Presbyterian clergyman, and remained at Alison's academy for three years as a tutor in Latin, Greek and mathematics, in which he excelled; he graduated the year he matriculated at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton) in 1754. He served as tutor at the College for two years and was licensed to preach. In 1759, he was called to pastor at the First Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, where he served as a popular and eloquent preacher until his death in 1802. He also joined the faculty of the College of Philadelphia as Professor of Ethics from 1758 to 1762 and Professor of Natural Philosophy from 1762 to 1778. Joining the American Philosophical Society in 1768, he contributed to several noted scientific experiments (charting the transit of Venus) and public works (surveying the boundary with Delaware). In 1773, he was commissioned to travel to Great Britain to solicit funds for the Academy of Newark, in Delaware, where he received an honorary Doctorate of Divinity from University of Edinburgh and met with promiment figures (including Lord North, the prime minister, and Samuel Johnson) to advance the cause of American independence. When the College of Philadelphia was reorganized as the University of Pennsylvania, Ewing became its first provost in 1780. Occom preached and collected funds in Ewing's Church on his tour of Philadelphia in 1771. While in London, Ewing likely met members of the Trust for Wheelock's Indian School, because Occom reports to John Thornton in 1777 that he learned about the exhaustion of the Trust from Ewing (manuscript 761290), one of the influential ministers who collected money for Occom and Brothertown in 1771.

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Talmadge, Esther
Hodges, Hannah
Buell, Samuel

Buell was a popular Presbyterian minister during the second half of the 18th century in Long Island, as well as a close friend of Samson Occom. He was ordained in November 1743, and was a popular itinerant minister before settling at Easthampton. He preached at Occom's ordination, published the sermon in 1761 to raise funds for Occom (he also wrote the letter addressed to Bostwick prefacing his publication), and stayed in close contact with Occom even after Occom's public break from Wheelock. Occom's diary is full of references to visiting Buell and to their close friendship. During the Revolution, Buell was the only minister on Long Island for 40 miles, and was very active in assisting the American cause. He also founded Clinton Academy on Long Island in 1785, which was the first private school chartered by the New York Board of Regents. This academy was also remarkable in that it admitted women. Multiple historical sources have misconstrued Samuel Buell as Sol or Solomon Buell, likely because Buell sometimes signed his name Sa.l, a creative abbreviation of Samuel. However, there was no Reverend Solomon Buell in Easthampton, or, it seems, Long Island, in the second half of the 18th century: Samuel had no brothers, and were there to be two Reverend S. Buell's within 10 miles of one another during the same period, related or not, doubtlessly someone would have commented on it. In addition, the handwriting in letters ascribed to "Sol" and those assigned to Samuel is identical. Lastly, the only source besides collection manuscript 765530.3 describing a "Solomon Buell" is an anthology of letters from the Revolution, which contain letters from a Rev. Sol. Buell, or S. Buell, about aiding the American cause. These letters correspond well with descriptions of Samuel's life in an 1809 biography of his life, and, as he was the only Reverend but one for 40 miles during the Revolution, it is likely that these letters belong to him.

Van Santvoord, Staats
Frank, Lawrence

Lawrence Frank, also identified in histories of Frankfort as "Lewis," was one of the earliest settlers of the town of Frankfort (originally Frank's Ford), located east of present-day Utica, which was named in his honor. He was the son of Henry Frank (c 1725-1790) and Maria Catharine. Henry immigrated to Pennsylvania from Germany, probably Bavaria, with his brother Christopher in 1740 and was a trader between the Mohawk and Lehigh Valleys in the 1740s and 50s. He settled in German Flatts, an area originally belonging to the Mohawk Nation but populated with German immigrants who bought up the fertile river lands. Lawrence married Mary Myers in 1769 and they helped found the new town of Frankfort on land originally bought from the Mohawks by Dutch settlers. The land was set off as a separate town from German Flatts by an act of the NY Legislature on February 5, 1796. Lawrence Frank owned a large tract of land, and town history reflects that he actively promoted the industrial and agricultural progress of Frankfort, which was severely damaged in the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars. In fact, Frank and a group of other patriots were taken as prisoners of war during the Revolution and housed in Quebec from August 31 1778 until May 15 1781, when he was released and made his way back home. His popularity is reflected in the fact that the village of Howard's Bush was renamed Frankfort Center and McGowansville was renamed East Frankfort. Later in life, Frank moved with some of his family to a new settlement called Busti in Chautauqua County, NY, which is where he died. On his first journey to the Oneidas in 1761, Occom records paying for lodging at Mr. Franks, a tavern keeper in German Flatts. Although there is no historical record of such a place, Occom returned to this tavern many times on his preaching tours of the area between 1786 and 1790. Frank's Tavern must have been a major establishment because in early July of 1761, Occom notes that William Johnson met him and David Fowler there, and that the next day Johnson met with chiefs of the Oneidas to work out an agreement about an Oneida who killed a Dutchman. In June 1789, Occom records preaching in Esquire Frank's barn to "a vast number of people."

Bostwick, David

David Bostwick was a popular Presbyterian minister in New York—so popular, in fact, that two congregations fought over him and the New York Synod had to intervene. He was the president of the New York Board of Commissioners for the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowlege. Bostwick encouraged Occom's mission to the Oneidas; took up a collection at his church for Occom, which reached over 60 pounds; and lent his name to a recommendation for Occom to Sir William Johnson. When Samuel Buell published his sermon from Occom's ordination, it was prefixed with a letter addressed to David Bostwick outlining Occom's character.

Johnson, Edward
Occom's First Mission to the Oneidas.
HomeSamson Occom, receipts and expenses, 1761
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