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Samson Occom, sermon, Habakkuk 2:15.
Unidentified author, notes for sermon.

ms-number: 003219

abstract: Occom’s undated sermon, “Woe unto him who gives his neighbor drink,” is accompanied by notes for a sermon in an unidentified hand.

handwriting: Occom's handwriting is clear and legible. The unidentified hand is looser and less formal, but largely clear and legible.

paper: Several small sheets are folded into a booklet that was, at one time, bound with thread or twine. Paper is heavily worn, with significant loss of text.

ink: Brown ink is heavily faded in spots.

noteworthy: Beginning on seven recto, the document is written in a different, unidentified hand. There is a small pin in the inside seam holding the booklet together. An editor, likely 19th-century, has added notes on several pages in black ink. These notes have not been transcribed.


Modernized Version -- deletions removed; additions added in; modern spelling and capitalization added; unfamiliar abbreviations expanded.


[gap: worn_edge][guess: c]k [gap: faded]
[gap: worn_edge]Woe unto him that gives [gap: worn_edge]
Neighbour Drink! that [gap: worn_edge][guess: p]
thy Bottle to him, and makest
him Drunken also, that thou
may look on their nakedness!
Isaiah V. 11. Woe unto them, that
rise up early in the Morning, that
they may follow Strong Drink,
that Continue until Night, 'til
Wine inflame them. — verse. 22
Woe unto them that are mighty to
drink wine, and men of Strength
to mingle Strong Drink. — —
God, the Eternal beneficent
Father of all — Saw fit to Cre
ate this World, and he filled it
with variety of everything, both
Animate and Inanimate Creatures
The moving Creatures upon the
Face of the earth are innu[gap: worn_edge][guess: me]
rable and various, both great
and Small, — And the feathered are
Without Number, and of all sort
and the productions of the earth
amazing in their variety, both [gap: faded]
[gap: worn_edge] the just, [gap: worn_edge]
[gap: worn_edge]efferent virtues [gap: worn_edge]
[gap: worn_edge] in the things to grow o[gap: worn_edge]
[gap: worn_edge] Earth — And variety of Fruits
upon the Face of the Earth, — And
the Lord, made a Garden also, and
we must Conclude that it contained
the Very Choice and the most excel
lent things in the World. — And the
Sea the Lakes and all Streams were
all full of every kind of fish,
great and Small. — and the lumi
naries also were fixed in the Hea
vens, Like lanterns, The Sun the
Moon and the Stars, were made
to give Light to this World. —
and when the Lord God, had Boun
tifully and Richly furnished, this
World, with every necessary of Life —
Then last of all, he made man
for whom he made this World, —
he was the Crown, the Glory,
the Excellency and the Beauty
of the whole Creation. For God
made him in his own Image
and likeness, Breathed into
him the Breath of Life and he
became a living and immortal
Soul, — and the Lord formed
Wo[gap: hole][guess: ma]n also out of the [gap: worn_edge] Neig[illegible]
[gap: hole]d they two were th[gap: hole]
[gap: hole]ir that ever was, they w[gap: worn_edge][guess: er]e
little lower the Angels — and
the Lord gave the whole World —, placed in the garden
and freely gave it to them, and
every ꞈ in it except one Tree
which was in the midst of the
garden, they were not to
eat of that, for in the Day, that
they should of it they should die —
and we must Conclude, that whilst
they stood in their innocency, they
they used every Creature Comfort
agreeable to gods mind, they
Glorified god in all things —
and they fully engaged God, and
that was their supreme hap
piness, — and had they Continued
in that State of holiness, they
might hence been happy to endless
ages — But alas we find a me
lancholy account, of them; when
the Tempter Came to our Mother
with a lie; She put forth her Hand
stole the forbidden Fruit and
eat of it, and gave unto her
husband also, and he eat of it
[gap: worn_edge][guess: w]hich they lost all, they lost
[gap: worn_edge]blessed Enjoyment of god, [gap: hole][guess: t]hey
lost the Image of god, and all
their holiness and innocency, all
Light and Comfort, — They plunged
themselves and all their posterity
into Sin and darkness, and all
manner of misery, To Death. Tempo
ral Spiritual and Eternal —
This is the miserable Situation of
mankind, he is now prone to all
manner of Sin, — alas, where is man
and what is man? The most Noble
Creature is become the most Igno
ble Creature. from being almost
an Angel, is become a Devil. —
He is now practicing all manner
of Sins, — and amongst the vari
ous committed, drunkenness is one
of the worst, yet it is growing a
mongst all Nations. — — —
I Shall now Say Something from
the Texts I have read; Some may
think it Strange, that I should take
so many Texts to make one discourse
upon; I aim to Speak to two sorts
of People in particular —
I shall now take notice of the
first —
Woe unto him that giveth his Neigh
[gap: hole][guess: bo]ur Drink etc. — There is [gap: hole]
ful use of all Creature Comforts,
they were made for our Support
and Comfort in Life — but when
we use them beyond the bounds
of Temperance we use them un
lawfully, and Sin against God
the Giver of all these Comforts —
and there is Sin, both in Commu
nicating and receiving those Com
forts, as we See in our Text. —
A dreadful is denounced, against
him that gives Drink to his Neigh
bour, a bad intention —
Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.Blank page.
2nd Directions how to come [gap: worn_edge]
as helpless Creatures.
Hosea. 13. 9. Psalms. 89. 19. we must
go to Christ as the only way. John. 14. 6.
we must go to Christ as the only Saviour.
Acts. 4. 12.
we must go to Christ as the all Sufficia[illegible]
Saviour. — Hebrews 7. 25.
we must go to Jesus to save us from our
Sins. Matthew 1. 21. —
we must go to Christ to free us from the curse
of the Law. Galatians 3. 10. — 13.
we must go to Christ to obtain Pardon.
Saint Luke. 24. 46. 47. Acts. 10. 40. 43.
we must go to Christ to give us grace.
Saint John. 1. 19. 17. 2 Corinthians 12. 9.
we must go to Christ to obtain eternal Life
John. 10. 10. John. 20. 31. John
3. 19. lastly we must go to Christ
casting our Burdens on him, and
receive him o[illegible] our Prince of Peace and King
yea our all. —
3rdly. the privileges. etc..
the Sons of god. John. 1. 12. [illegible]
if sons then heirs. etc.: Galatians 4. [gap: worn_edge][guess: 7]
Romans 8. 14. 17. to what they [gap: worn_edge]
heirs to. 1. 2. Timothy 4. 8. 1 Pet[gap: worn_edge]
[gap: worn_edge] Chronicles verses. fulfilled
[gap: worn_edge] 61. 1 — 3 Luke. 4. 16 - 2[gap: worn_edge]
the [gap: worn_edge][guess: T]ext. Matthew 11. 28. 1fulfilled.
Method of discourse. [illegible][guess: from] the Text.
1st Place. I shall endeavour to describe
those persons, to whom this gracious
call, or invitation is addressed. —
2nd place. I shall give few directions
how they must Come.
3rdly I shall put the com[illegible][guess: pl]iers of
this invitation in mind of the great
privilege they entitle themselves to.
4thly address myself to the despisers
of this call or invitation of Jesus
Christ the Eternal son of god.
5thly conclude the whole with
few words of Exhortation. —
1st. Place. the Call is to the sons of
men. not devils. to those that are
now in the Land of the Living. not the
Damned Spirits. — the call is to the
wonders, that are going post-haste
to endless misery. —
[gap: worn_edge][guess: b]ut more particularly. to those that [illegible]
[gap: worn_edge]abous. and are heavy laden. [illegible][guess: Sent]]
[gap: worn_edge] invitation is to those that pull themselves
[gap: worn_edge] Matthew 18. 11. the invitation is to
[gap: worn_edge] Matthew 9. . 13. yea the Chief of
[gap: worn_edge] Timothy 1. 15. and the call is gen[illegible]
[gap: worn_edge] [illegible][guess: Sert] of the Children of men!
[gap: worn_edge][guess: 2]6. 27. 28. etc..
Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

HomeSamson Occom, sermon, Habakkuk 2:15. Unidentified author, notes for sermon.
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