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Samson Occom, journal, 1787 December 10 to 1788 August 10

ms-number: 787660.1

abstract: Occom details his activities as an intinerant preacher and tribal leader as he travels throughout Connecticut, New York, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.

handwriting: Handwriting is largely clear and legible. There are crossed uprights and uncrossed t’s, as well as undotted i’s and dotted e’s, which have been corrected by the transcriber.

paper: Several small sheets folded into a booklet and bound with thread or twine (binding is loose in most places) are in good condition, with light-to-moderate staining and wear.

ink: Black-brown.

noteworthy: This journal picks up shortly after manuscript 787520.1 leaves off. If the name of a person or place is uncertain, it has been left untagged. If Occom's intention regarding a word is uncertain, that word has been left unmodified in the modernized transcription. After entering events for January 1-14, 1788, Occom returns, on 10 recto, to the date January 1 and records events from that date forward. On 10 verso, fifth line, last word, the meaning of the abbreviation “m” is uncertain, although it is likely “money.” On 12 recto, it is uncertain to whom Rev. Canada’s daughter refers, and so she has been left untagged. On 26 verso, the identity of Betty is uncertain; however, it is possibly Betty Peter. On 34 verso and 35 recto, the name of the lake is uncertain, and so it has been left untagged. On 35 verso, it is uncertain to which of his daughters Occom refers, and so she has been left untagged. On 36 verso, eighth line from bottom, last word, it is uncertain for what “L” is an abbreviation, although it is likely “legal.” On 43 recto, and 43 and 44 verso, the name of the lake mentioned is uncertain; however, it is possibly Oneida Lake. Although Occom does not specify whether or not he means father or son when he refers to Elijah Wympy in this document, it is, given the context, likely that that Occom is referring to Elijah Wympy Jr. An editor, likely 19th-century, has added notes and overwrites in black ink throughout. These edits have not been transcribed.

quite large Number of Peop[gap: worn_edge][guess: l]
again and the People were
very Serious I Spoke from [gap: omitted]

Monday Decr 10

got up very
early, and took leave of the
Family and we went on to
Albany, got there about 12
and we lodgd at one Mr [gap: omitted]

Tueſday Decr 11:

we got up
Some what early, and went
over the River, and got to
Esqr Woodworths before Night
and we Lodged there, we were
receivd with all kindneſs
and Friendſhip.

Wedneſd Decr 12

Some Time
in the Morning, we went on to
New Bethleham and we Stopt at
one Mr [gap: omitted] and I preachd
in the evening, Spoke from
the words, But one thing is needful

and there was great many P
and they attended well, and
after meeting I went with one
Mr Mofat a Baptiſt Preacher
and there we Lodged. —

Thirdsday Decr 13

here this Day, and there was
a good Number of People, I
Spoke from [gap: omitted] as Soon
as the meeting was done we
went to another Place about
4 miles off, and there I preachd
to a Conſiderable Number of
People, and there Lodged, —

Fryday Decr 14

we went
to Phillips Town, and got to
Mr Cooks Some Time before
Noon, and there we put up,
and in the Evening we had
a meeting to another Houſe, &
it was extreem Cold yet there
was a large Number of People
and after meeting went back

to old Mr Cooks and there we
Lodgd and we Lodged Comfort
ably by the Fire — —

Sabb Decr 16:

Soon after Bre
akfaſt I went to meeting to one
Mr Adamss, I went a foot thro
the Woods, about 1 began the
Meeting, and there was a large
Number of People, and I Spoke
from [gap: omitted] The People
expected Mr Perry from Rich
, but he faild them, and
they deſired me to adminiſter the
ordernance and I Complied &
we had a Solemn Day of it —
in the Evening we had another
meeting in Young Mr Cooks
Houſe, and there was a large
number of People, I Spoke from
[gap: omitted] and I Baptized Six
Children for Mr [gap: omitted]
their Names were [gap: omitted]

after meeting went back to
old Mr Cooks again and there
we Lodgd. —

Monday Decr 17

got up very
early and went New Beth
and there I had a
meeting, and I Baptizd a Child
for one Mr Bunce, Soon after
meet went to green Buſh
and in the Evening we had
a meeting at Esqr Woodworths
and there was Conſiderable
number of People, and they
attended well, we Lodged
at the Same Houſe — —

Tueſday Decr 18:

got up early
and took Breakfaſt, and Soon
after took leave of the Family
and went on our way and
wrode about 30 miles and put
up at a Tervern —

Wedneſday Decr 19

got up very
early and went on our way
and got Staaſborough Some
Time in the after noon and
We Calld in at one Mr Straights
and there we had a meeting
in the Evening, and there was
a large number of People for
a Short Notice, and the People
attended with great Seriouſneſs
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
we Lodged at the Same Houſe
and were kindly entertaind
by the Family —

Thirdsday Decr 20:

got up
early, and took Breakfaſt
with the Family, and Soon
after eating we went on a
gain and got to Esqr Firmans
Some Time before Noon and
there we Stoptd, and in the
Evening we had a meeting in
a School Houſe a bout one m
of and there was a great

Number of People and there
was great Solemnity among
the People, after meeting
went back to Esqr Firman
and we Lodgd, — —

Fryday Decr 21:

Some Time
after Breakfaſt we went
into Nine Partners, and
Stopt at Mr Gaſleys, and
in the Eving we had a Mg
and there was a Prodigious
number of People, and ther
was great Seriouſneſs. I
Lodged at the Samſe Houſe
this Family is a Chistian
Family in deed. — —
Saturday Decr 22 we were
here abouts all Day —

Sabb, Decr 23

after Break
faſt we went to meeting to
a Place Calld the Hallow. I
went with Mrs Gaſley in their

Slay, and it was a Dread
ful Storm of Snow, Yet there
was good many People, and
they attended well. Soon after
Meeting, we went back, and
we Stopt at Collo [gap: omitted]
and took Dinner there, and
Soon after eating, we went
on again, and got to Mr
before Night, and
in the Evening the People
Came together, and I Spoſe
to them, and there was
great Solemnity in the
meeting, and after meetg
we had Exerciſe with Chriſtian
Cards and it was late be-
fore the People Diſpercd
and we lodgd at the Same
Houſe — —

Monday Decr 24:

got up
very early, and went to

Pleaſen Valley with Mr
Gaſley and her Daughter

in their Slay, got there be-
fore [illegible]meeting, and about
11: we went to meeting and
there was a large Number
of People, and with great
Solemnity the People attended
the word of god, directly af-
ter meeting we went to Mr
s, and there we had
another meeting, and there
was a great many People
Mr Caſe & Mr Grover were
there and I Spoke from
James IV. 17 and as Soon as
I had done Speaking Mr
began, and Spoke
Some Time with great fir
vency, and when he had
done, Mr Caſe got up and

he Spoke Some Time with
great earneſtneſs, and the
People the were greatly So
lemnizd, and it was a Power
ful meeting; the Lord has
been viſiting the People a
bout here with his Divine
Power many have been
Converted to God, and after
meeting we took leave one
of another and it was an
affectionate parting, — we
lodgd at the Same Houſe
and had quiet Sleep — —

Tueſday Decr 25:

Some Time
in the Morning, we went
on our way after we had
took leave of the Family, &
directed our Courſe to Pough-
, and So down the
River, a bout 4. miles and
there w went over the River

and we went into a Houſe
where one Mr Havens lives
and his Wife was upon point
of Death, I aſked her Some Quens
found her Comfortable in her
mind and was willing to lieve
the World, I pray with her &,
and then went on, got to
Major Deboiſes before night[illegible]
and there we put up, and
were kindly receivd. — —

Wedneſday Decr 26,

the Morning, a Certain
Man Came to the Houſe, and
gave information that Mrs
was Dead, and Mr
Deſired me to attend
upon his wife's Funeral
and accordingly as Soon
as the Breakfast was over
I went, and there was a
large Number of People

Collecting, and I preachd
from the words, Set thiy H–
in Horder &c. and as Soon
as the meeting was over, we
went back to Majors and
from the[illegible][guess: re] juſt at Night to
˄ meeting Houſe and there
was a great Concouce of
People and I Spoke from
Psalm CVII.31 and it was
a Solemn Aſembly, and as
Soon as the meeting was done
I went with one [gap: omitted]
about five miles of in a
Slay, and there Lodged, &
was kindly treated — —

Thirdsday Decr 27:

Time in the Day Peter &
Henry Came to me, and
towards Night, we went
towards the South part of

Newborough, and there
we had a meeting, and
there was a great many
People and I Spoke from
[gap: omitted] and the People be-
haved well, — here Brother
David Fowler
Came to the
meeting, Juſt over took
us, after meeting we
went with one Mr [gap: omitted]
and there I Lodgd and were
Friendly entertaind, — —

Fryday Decr 28:

Breakfaſt and Soon after
Sot off and went to New wind
juſt Call'd on Mr Cloſe
and So to Mr Woods 4 or 5
miles out the Town, and
we we[illegible]re very glad to See
one another, and we Con
cluded to have a meeting

in Esqr Clerks in the even
ing, and accordingly mett
and there was a great Nr
of People, and I Spoke from
[gap: omitted] and the People
attended with great Solemnety
after meeting went back
to Brother woods, and there
we Lodged. — — —

Saturday Decr 29

got up
very early and took leave
of the Family, and went
of, Call in at Esqr Clerk's
and took Breakfaſt there
and Soon after paſt on again
Stopt a while at Mr Brewſters
in Blooming Grove took Din
ner there, after caling went
on again, and Juſt in the
evening, we got to Florada
and put up at Mrs Robinſons,
a Tervern. — — —

Sabb: Decr 31

Had an In-
vetation to Preach, and I
Concented, and about 11 the
People got to gether, and
I went into the meeting Houſe
and there was a great Numr
of People, and I Spoke from
[gap: omitted] and the People at
tended with great attention —
as Soon as the Meeting was over
we took Dinner, and then we
went on Warwick, a bout 5
miles, and there I preach'd in
the Evening to a great mul
ti[illegible]tude of People and I Spoke
from Jonah III.5: and the P.
were very Solemn, after meet
ing, I went to a Certain Houſe
and there I Lodged and was
kindly treated. — — —

Monday Decr 31.

got up very
early, and we Sot of, and
Stopt at Colo Hathhorns and

there we took Breakfaſt, &
Soon after eating we went
on again, and Some Time
in the afternoon at Mr Smiths
a Publick Houſe; and the P
deſired me to Stopt and So have
a meeting in the Evening and
I Concented, and the People
got together in the evening
and there was a large numr
for the Cold Seaſon and Short
notice, and I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People behaved well
in the Room, but Some in the
other Room made much
Noiſe — we Lodg'd at the
Same Houſe — — —

Tuesday Janu 1. 1788

got up quite Early and
got ready Soon and went
on our way again, and

in the evening we got to Mill
, and Lodged at a Pub
lick Houſe. — — —

Wedneſday Janr 2:

Breakfaſt early and Soon
after went on again, and
got to Docr Weatherſpoons
in Prince Town Juſt a bout
12: took Dinner with him &
Soon after we paſt on, and
got to a Certain Tervern.
and there we Lodged, and
it was very Cold Night, —

Thirdsday Janr 3;

we got
up very early and went on
Some Time in the after noon
we got to Agepelack Quakſon an Indi
an Place we went into one
Houſe and was there a while
found them Extreamly Poor. —
and So we went to a Tavern
and there we Lodged. — —

Fryday Janr 4

after Break
faſt we went back to the
Indian Place, juſt Calld
in the Same Houſe, we Calld
in Yeſterday, and So paſt on
and we got to Agepelack
andother[illegible] Indian Place, Calld
at one Mytops and I Stayd
I was very poorly with a
Cold and Lodgd here the
Night following, and was
kindly treated. — — —

Saturday Janr 5:

was here
again all Day, Continued
much ill, and Lodgd here
again — —. — —

Sabb: Janr 6:

about 11 we
went to meeting at the meet
ing Houſe, and there was not
many People and it was now

pleaſent Day and I Spoke
from the words that which
is wanting Can not be num
bered. and after meeting
Daniel Simon invited us to
go home with him to his mother
in Laws Widow Calvin, and
there we were all this week
and I was much troubled with
Cold attended with Cough, — —

Sabb Janr 13

Preahd here
[illegible]again, from the words Set
thy Houſe in order &c preachd
here 4 times in the whole — —

Monday Janr 14

left the Place
and went on towards Phila-
, got to the River eaſt
Side againſt Philadelphia &
[illegible] there we Lodged in a Tervern
and reſted well. — —

Tueſday Janr 15

Tueſdad Janr 1. 1788.

we got up early and went on
our way, and get to ththe Revd
Mr Baldwin
of [gap: omitted]
and in the evening we went
to a Certain Houſe to See a Sick
m[illegible][guess: y]an — and afterward went
back to Mr Baldwins and there
I Lodged — —

Wedneſday Janr 2

Some Time
after Breakfaſt, we went to
Paſeppanny to Mr Grover's, &
towards night went back to
Mr Baldwin's, and So to a
nother Houſe a mile of two off
and there we had a meeting
and there was a number of
People, and I Spoke to them
from [gap: omitted] and I Lodgd
at the Same Houſe. — —

Thirdsday Janr 3:

we went
of early in the morning

and gone but a little way &
a Certain gentleman Calld us
and deſired us to go in and
we did, and took Breakfaſt
with him, and gave us Some m
beſides, Soon after eating we
paſt on, and Juſt Stopt at Mr
and So paſt on, and
and went to Mr grovers, and
towards noon we went to Mr
's. and in the even
ing we had a meeting, and
there was a great Number of
People and I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and there was great Serious
neſs among the People, and
Lodgd at the Same Houſe —

Fhiryrd day Janr 4

after we broke
ofur faſt we Sot of again &
Call at the Revd Mr Greens
and was there a few minutes
and So on, and wee got to Mr
at Newardk mount-
tains a little past 12 and we

took Dinner there, and Soon
afte[gap: stain][guess: r] Dinner, we went to
Crain Town and got there
a little before Sun-Sit, and
was word given o ut, for a
meeting and I put up at
Mr Crains, and in the eveng
went to meeting and there
was a great number of People
and I Spoke from 1 Joh V.10
and there was very great So
lemnity. after meeting went
back to mr Crain's and there
I Lodged & reſted well —

Saturdad Janr 5

Soon after
Breakfaſt, we Sot of for
Horſe Neck. and Soon ggobt
there, and it was extream
Cold, and we put up at Esqr
— — Janr 6:

about 11
we went to meeting, and it
was extreem Cold, Yet there

was a large Number of Peop
and I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People attended well,
Soon as the Service wa over
I went back to Esqr Crain, and
the we took Dinner, and as
Soon as we had Swallowd
our Dinner we went of to a
nother Place, three or four
miles, and there we had
an Evening meeting and
good many People and a
well behaved People we Lodg
at the Same Houſe — —

Monday Janr 7

went off
Some what early, and diret
ed our Courſe to Morris Town
we Stopt a while at Mr Grovers
and there we left Henry Sten
, we Calld alſo at Docr
s, and so on, we got

Morris Town Juſt before
Night, and we put up
the Revd Mr Johnes's, and
in the Evening went to the
Meeting Houſe, and I preachd
to a vaſt number of People
and I Spoke from the words
thy Heart is not [illegible]right &c —
and the People attended with
great Solemnity — after meet
ing went back with Docr
and Lodged, — —

Tueſday Janr 8:

after eating
I Sot off and went to Baſking
, Stopt at Deacon [gap: omitted]
where Peter and David Lodged
and it began to rain, and
we Sot of, and we got to the
Place Some Time before noon
and we Calld in to a Certain
Houſe, and about 11 we
went to attend upon a Fune
ral of one ˄ the Revd Canadas

Daughters, and it was very
uncomfortable Rainy Slop[illegible][guess: y][illegible]
Day and Yet there was a
large number of People, and
I Spoke from the words, But
the End of all things its at H
and Soon after, we followd
the Corps to the grave, and
went directly to the Houſe
where we firſt put up and
there we Lodgd, — —

Wedneſday Janr 9:

after we
Broke our faſt, we Sot off a
gain, and got So far as to
Mill-Stone and there we
put up at a T[illegible]avern, — —

Thirsday Janr 10:

got up very
early and took Breakfast
and Soon after went on our
way, and about 12 we
arrivd to Docr Whetherſpoon's
in Prince-Town, and took

Dinner with him — and Soon
after we went on again &
in the evening we put up
at Black Horſe Tervern, and
it was very Cold, Sot up Some
what late, — — —

Fryday Janr 11:

after eat
ing we went on again, &
got to Quahſon towards Nig
where there three or 4 Families
of Indians, we Calld in at
one, and they appeard ex
treemly Poor, So we went
to [gap: omitted] and put up at Ter
vern, and it was Cold yet
we Sot up long and I was ill
with a Cold & Cough'd — —

Saturday Janr 12:

Breakfaſt we Sot off again
and we arriv'd to Agepelack
Some Time before Night, and
we Stopt at Friend Mytop's
and I was very poor ˄ with

my Cold and Coughd much
and So I Stayd here over Night
and was kindly treated — —

Sabb. Janr 13

I felt a little
better, and about 11 went to
meeting, and there was not
many People they but little
Notice, and it was now a Plea-
ſent Day, I Spoke from the
words, that which is wanting &c
and the People attended well, after
Service I went home with Daniel
to his Mother in Laws Houſe
and Stay'd here all the week
Daniel Simon Loſt an [illegible]only Ch
this week and I preach a Funer
Diſcource, from the words Set
[illegible]thy[illegible] Houſe — & and we had Sing
ing meetings every Night
and prayd with them and
gave them a word of Exhorta
tions — — —

Sabb Janr 20

Preahd here
again and it was very bad

TTraviling. and there was
a Conſiderable number of
People Collected, and I Spoke
from [gap: omitted] and the
People attended well, and
after meeting went Back
to Widow Calvin's and in the
Evening People Came together
and we had exerciſe with
Christian Cards and we S[illegible]ung
and prayd, and it was a
Solemn Time many were
much affected and the People
were very loath to leave the
Place & they Stayd late — —

Monday Janr 21:

we were
up very early and got read[below]y
as Soon as we Cou'd, and we
took leave of the Family, and
others that Came to take leave
of [illegible]us, and So we directed
our Courſe to Philadelphia

and in the Evening we got
to the River againſt the City
and we put up in a Tervern
one Friend Coopper, — —

Tueſday Janr 22:

we got up
very early, and went over
in a Boat upon the Ice, &
a little after Sun Riſe we
were in the City, and we
went to See Docr Duffield a
Phyſition, and were kindly
receivd, and from thence we
to See Docr Sprout, and he
receivd us kindly, and we
went on to viſit Miniſters of all
Denominations, and they were
all very Friendly, and we
Dind with genetlemen al'
moſt every Day — We Lodgd
two or three Nights at Mr
s, and then we were

invited by Mr Innes a brewer
a Scotchman and a good man
and the whole Family is very
agreable we were treated
with all kindeſs — —

Sabb Janr 27

in the after
noon Preachd in Docr
's Meeting Houſe, in
the Evening Preachd in Docr
s Meeting, and they
made Collections for me —
This week viſited all week
and found kindneſs by all
Sorts of People — —

Febr 3:

on Sabb in the morn
ing Preachd at Duffield's
in the after noon preach'd in
a Baptiſt meeting and there
was a large number of People —

Fryday Febr 8:

this evening
we were invited, with a num

number of gentlemen and
Ladies to Drink Tea with
a Dutch Captain in his
Ship, his Name was De
— and we had a genteel
entertainment — and after
Tea the Company Plaid the
little man, which died very
often — Stayd till near 9 and
then we Indians took good
leave of the Company and
returnd to our Quarters —

Sabb Febr 10

Preach'd in
the Morning in Docr Duffields
Meeting, in the Evening preachd
in Ewning's and they made
me Collitions — —
This week went on in our Uſu
al viſits amongſt all Sorts
of People and were kindly
treated by all People — —

Sabb Febr 17

I went in the
morning to Docr Sprouts, and

it was a Sacrament Day Mr
Preach'd, and I par
took with them, and it was
a Solemn Day with me, and
I believe with o thers — In the
after Noon I went to Baptiſt
meeting, and heard Mr Enſtick
one of the Baptiſt miniſters in
the City — — —
and we were now geting
ready to leave the City and
it was hard work to take
leave of the People that have
been So kind to us Since we
have been here — —
the Quakers in particular
were exceeding kind to us
and Freely Commucated
their Subſtance to help our
People in the Wilderneſs —
Two Schools Communicated
Some thing to our Children in
the Wilderneſs — —

Fryday Febr 22

about 10
we left Philadelphia and it
was bad Croſing the River, we
went on Ice moſt all the way
over and it was Cold Day, and
in the Evening we got Mores Town
and Brother David was Sick, &
Peter went Agepelack, and D
and Lodgd in a Tervern —

Saturday Febr 23

I went to
Quakſon & left David very Sick and got there before
noon, and put up at a Public
Houſe, in the after noon went to
an Indian Houſe, towards Night
went a Public Houſe — —

Sabb. Febr 24:

about 11 went
to meeting to a meeting Houſe where˄
Mr John Brainard uſe to preach
to a Number of Indians, and there
was Conſideraber of People and
I Spoke from Acts XI:26 and
Some Time towards Night, Iwe
went to Mount Halley, got there
near S[illegible]un Sit and we put up at

Docr Roſss, and David was
very Sick, and here we Stayd
Some Days, and I preahd four
Times in this Place, — —

FryDay Febr 29:

I left Mount
and left David there he
was not well enough to Set out
and it was very Cold, I got to
Trinton in the evening, Calld
at Revd Mr Armſtrongs but
he was not at Home So I went
to a Public Houſe, and Lodged —

Saturday March 1:

went back
to Burden Town got there Some
Time before Night, and I Lodgd
Mr Wilſons a Baptiſt miniſters
Houſe, but was not at Home, but
the woman treated me with all
kindneſs. — —

Sabb. March 2:

and it was
extreem Cold, I preahd in a
large upper Room and there
a large number of People for
the Cold Seaſon, and Some

Time in the after Noon I left
the Place and went back to
Trinton and got there before
Night, and I was to preach
here this evening, but the Sea-
ſon was So Severe, they Conclud
ed defer it till the next Day
at 10 of the Clock in the morning
and So I went to my old Lodgings
and reſted Comfortably — —

Monday March 3:

about 10
we went into the meeting Houſe
and thre was Conſiderable Nr
of People and I Spoke from
Mark. V.4: and there was good
attention, after meeting went
home with Mr Armſtrong and
Dinned with, and Some Time
in the after noon I went back
to Draw Bridge and there I
had an Evening meeting and
there was a vaſt number of
People, and I Spoke from Sol,
Song VIII.5 and it was a Solemn
Time, —
I Lodgd at the Same Houſe. — — —

Tueſday March 4:

David &
I Sot off prety early, and
we got to [gap: omitted] and Lodgd
at a Ducth Tevern, — —

Wedneſday March 5:

we got
up early and got Victuals &
Soon after Sot of, and we got
almoſt to New Brunſwick
and David out he had forgot
his Bundle, and So he went
back and I went on, got to
N. Brunſweck before noon
and I put up at a Public H
and Soon went to See the Revd
Mr Munteeth
, and there I din'd
with him, after Dinner we
went to See Docr Scott, and I was
recevd with all kindneſs, and
here I found Peter, who had
been Stragling from us almoſt
a fortnit, and preſently after
David Came up with us, and

and in the evening there
was a Society, and we went
to it, and I Spoke a few
words by way of Exhortation
and after meeting we returnd
to Docr Scotts and there we
Lodged, — —

Thidrdsday March 6:

got up
early and went to Several
Houſes, a viſiting, and we
were treated kindly, Dined
with a Dutch Miniſter, and
was exceeding Friendly, —
in the Evening we had a meet
ing in the Preſbyterian meet
ing Houſe and there was a
large Number of People, and
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
I Lodged at Docr Scotts again
and David and Peter Lodged
in another Houſe — —

Fryday March 7

we got
up early and went to take

Breakfaſt with a Certain
gentleman and Soon after
Breakfaſt we went back
to Docr Scotts and get ready
about 8: we tooke leave of
Docr Scott and his Family
and others and went on
our way, and we Stopt at
the Revd Mr [gap: omitted] in
Woodbridge and took Dinner
there, and Soon after eating
wa paſt on, and we got
to Eliſabeth Town Juſt be-
fore Sun Sit, and we Calld
upon Esqr Woodroffs a few
Minutes, and went on to N.
, and we got there Some
Time in the evening and
we put at a Publick Houſe
I went to Docr Mcwartters &
but was not well and did not
See him, and So went back
to the Tervern — —

Saturdady March 8:

got up
very early, and got ready
and went on Our way to
Newark Mountains got there
about 9: and Call'd on Mr
and took Break
faſt there, and Mrs Capman
was very Sick and So we went
to Crain Town and I put up
a Deacon Crain's, and we
were moſt kindly entertaind
David and Peter Lodgd in another
Mr Crain's Houſe — —

Sabb March 9:

about 9 went
to Meeting got to the Place as the
People began to Collect, and
there was a very large Numbr
of People and I preahd all
Day from Mark V.4: [gap: omitted]
and the People attended with
great Solemnity, — The Revd Mr
went to Newark
to preach, — and in the evening

I had a meeting to attend
upon in Newark and there
was a vaſt Number of People
and I Spoke II Corin XVI:22
and the People were very Solemn
and we I went with Docr Burnet
and Lodged there and P & D
Lodged in the Publick Houſe
I went to Bed Soon. — —

Monday March 10

was at
the Place all Day, and in
the Evening I preahd again
to a multitude of People and
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People attended with
all gravity after meeting I
went home with Docter Burnet
again, and there Lodgd —

Tueſday March 11

in the morning we took leave
of our Friends and went on
our way towards New York
got over there Some Time in

the afternoon and we
put up at the North part
of the City with one Mr [gap: omitted]
a Tevern keeper —

Wedneſday March 12:

to waited on Docr Rodgers
and other gentlemen upon
our Buſineſs, but there was
no proſpect of doing much
The good Friends or Quaker[below]s
Did more than any they gave
David and Peter Six pounds
to bear their Expences to Onieda
and they gave Some other things
to our People in the Woods —

Fryday March 14

David Fowler
left me
at New York and theyre
turnd homward to Onieda

Saturday March 15:

in the
evening I preahd in Mr Ganos
meeting Houſe and there

was a large number of People
and I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People attended well
Some with affection — —

Sabb March 16:

in the morn
ing went to hear Docr Rodgers
but I was diſappointed, I heard
Mr Miller from Some part
of the New Jerſey — in the
after noon I went to hear the
Methodiſts, and I heard a young
man but was not extraordina
ry in the evening went to my
Lodgings — — —

Wedneſday March 19:

about 12 took a paſage in a
Boad to Eliſabeth Town, got
there Juſt Sun Sit, and I put
up at a Publick Houſe with
one Mr [gap: omitted] a Religious
man and was kindly Treated
by him & his Lady — —

Thirdsday March 20:

in the
morning Some Time, Mr [gap: omitted]

took me in his Carrage, and
we went to Newark, to See a
about my Money that was to be
Sent ˄ Docr Rodgers in New York
for me; we got there Soon, but
I Cou'd not hear about it I Calld
on Docr McWartter, in the even
ining went back but I Stopt
at one Mr Lyon, and Lodged
there we had a meeting this
evening in a Baptiſt meeting
Houſe, this Place is Calld
Lyons Farms. — —

Saturday March 22:

the Evening I heard Mr Ogden
in Eliſabeth Town Church and
he is a good Preacher of the
goſpel of Jeſus Christ. — Lodgd
at my old Quarters — —

Lords Day March 23

all Day in the Preſbyterean
meeting Houſe and there was
a large number of People
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]

in the evening I attended
a Society, gave a word of Exhor
tation — and Lodged at the
Same Houſe — — —

Monday 24:

early in the
morning went to a Certain
Place 5 or 6: miles Southward
and preachd in a Certain m[illegible]
Houſe, and the Revd Mr Ogden
was preſent, and there was
a great Number of People
tho' it was very Cold, and as
Soon as I had done Speaking
Mr Ogden gave a word of
Exhortation, and there was
great Solemnity amongſt
the People I Spoke from
Psalm CVII:31: Some Time
after meeting I went with
a Lady in her Carriage, to
her Houſe, and from thence
to another Houſe, and in
the evening went to another
and there I preachd to a large

Congregation and I Spok
from [gap: omitted] and the
People many of them were
much affected. I Lodged at
theſ Same Houſe, — —

Tueſday March 25

got up
very early, and got read, and
a Negro Carried me in a Car
riage to Eliſabeth Town, and
from there Esqr Woodroff Car
ried in his Carrage to the Point
and had a Paſsage directly.
and I went aboard, and was
at New York about 12: and
went directly to Docr Rodgers
to See whether my Money had
got there, but it was not, and
So immediately went to Pownal
Ferry Fand went over, and
took Stage Waggon, and was
at Newark before Sun Set
and there I found my money
at Mr Ogdens, and So I went

to Docr Macwartter and he
was not at Home, and I went
to bed Soon being much w[illegible]ried
the fatigues of the Day, and
[illegible][guess: "]Some Time in the Evening the
Docr Came Home, and he Came
in to the Room where I Lay
and he was much Surprizd
to See me a bed, he knew not
I was in the Houſe —

Wedneſday March 26:

up very early and went to
Mr Ogdens to Lay out my
money, for it was Chiefly in
Jerſey Bills and Coppers, &
I was to go in Stage Waggon
again, but I was too late,
and went to the Landing, and
happily found a Sloop going
to New York, and I with Joy
went a Board, and was at
New York before Newight, &
went to my Lodging once
more — —

Thirdsday March 27,

a paſage to London, and So
was getting. — —

Sabb: March 28:30

about 10
Sot Sail, and had good wind

Monday March 31:

had but
Small wind, till near noon &
then we had a fine wind &
and Juſt at Night we got
a ground on Oyster Bed, &
it was near my Home, and
So I went a Shore and the Capt
alſo, and we got Horſes, I had
a bout a mile to go, and the
Capt had about 5: miles to
go, found my poor Family
thro' the great goodneſs of
god, in good Health, Bleſs
be the Name of the Lord,
that I Lodge in my own Houſe
once more after a long ab
ſence and had experiencd
much of the goodneſs of god

April 1

went to the Bridgge to
fetch my thing up, —

Wedneſday April 9

My wife
and I went to New London in
order to go over to Long Island
and we got to New London Juſt
before Sun Set and we found
a Boat going over to Plum Is
and we went a Board directly
and was on the water all Night
juſt about break of Day we
got a Shore, and we went to
a Hutt and turnd in till broad
Day Light, and then we went
into Mr Bebees Houſe and there
we took Breakfast, the Family
was very kind to us, — and we
were very Soon Calld to go aboard
a gain, and Saild on for Na
and we arrivd there be-
fore noon, and we went to the
Pines and there we Saw
Siſter Phebe Pharaoh, and
Young David Fowler — and
So we all went together to eaſt
part of Hetherwoods and then

we found Mother Fowler,
here are three or four Fami
lies of Indians and one Fami
ly Engliſh, — —

Fryday April 11

was at
Mothers all Day, was much
tired of Yeſterdays Journey —
in the Evening we had a meet
ing in Mr Hands Houſe, and
there was a Conſideraber Nr
of People Indians and Engliſh
and they appeard Solemn —

Saturday April 12:

10 I Sot out for Eaſt hampton
got there a little before Night
and put up the Revd Mr Buells
and we were glad to Se one
another once more — —

Sabb: April 13:

SWent to
meeting about 10: Mr Bu[illegible]ell
began and I finiſhd the
fore noon Service, in the

after Noon I preachd from
Jona III:5: and there was
a great Aſembly and they
were exceeding Solemn —
towards Night I went to winſcot
and there I preachd, Spoke
from [gap: omitted] and the was
good attention I Lodge [illegible] at
the[illegible] Same Houſe, the man name
was Mr Conkling — —

Monday April 14:

Sot off early
Calld a few minutes at Colo –
to See Mr Woolworth
and he had not got up I juſt
Saw him, and went on again
Calld at the Revd Mr Williamss
in Southhamp[illegible]ton and to vic
tuals there, he was not at H
from there went to the Indians
in Cold Spring, and there
was a number of Indians
Some frome Weſtward, and
Some from Montauk, and
them that belong to the Place

in the after noon I went to
Shenecock, and it began to
Rain juſt as got there, and
here I Saw one Benjamin
a New Exhorter
one that Came from New-
. — in the evening
we had a meeting, and there
was a Conſiderable Number
of People tho' it was very Storm
I Spoke from Psallm CVII and
the People were much moved
Some made Noiſe — after
meeting the Spent Some in
Singing Psalms and Hymns
and Spiritual Songs — I lodgd
at the Same Houſe — —

Tueſday April 15:

I got up
very early, and went on my
way towards Montauk again
Stopt at Mr Williams and took
Breakfaſt [illegible]with them, and
Soon went on again, Stopt

a few minutes at Mr Woolworth
and So past on, Stopt at Mr
s alſo, and ate my din
ner there and kep on, Calld
at Htwo Houſes in Ameganſet
and paſt on Spot at Mr
Benjamin Hedgess
, and So
on got to Mother Fowlers
a bout Day light in and
went to Bed Soon I was good
tired and had a bad Cold — —

Wedneſday April 16:

at the Place all Day — —

Thirdsday: April 17:

9 took leave of our People
and went to Napeek, god
there about 10: and aboard
of Mr Horton, and went
Strate to New London, got
there Some Time before Nt
and we Slept a little while
and So went on to Pomme[illegible]cha

and we went a Shore &
My wife and I went home
mother Fowler & Betty
Stayd at Mr Adgates — —

Fryday April 18:

in the
morning went with the
Cart to fetch our things
The Lord be thanked for
his goodneſs to us —

Monday May 26: 1788

about 11 I took leave of
my Family once more &
went on my way towards
Onieda, and got So far as
to one Mr Joness Juſt before
Night, and there I Lodgd:
I Juſt Calld on Mr Tuck as
I Came a long — —

Tueſday May 27

got me up
early and went on my way
Calld on Mr Huntington in
New Ma[illegible]lborough, and took

my Breakfaſt there with
them, and Soon after went
on, Calld at Mr Stevenss, and
at Mr Eelss and took Dinner
there, — and Soon after went
on, and Calld on Mr Marſh
in Weatherſfield, and from
thence went to Esqr Welless
and was there Some Time, a
bout 4 o'c in the after Noon
went on again, and got to
Farmington Juſt after Sun
Sit, Call on Mr Pitkin a few
minutes, and So paſt on, and
got Solomon Moſsucks in the
Evening and found them all
well, and there I Lodged —

Wedneſday May 28:

was at the
Place all Day, and Searchd
into my Olives affair, and
Say Writings about it to my
Satiſfaction, — —

Thirdsday May 29:

Breakfaſt took leave of
the Family, and went on
my way, Stopt a little
while at Mr Wawdsworth,
and left Olive's affair with
him, — and So went on my
way again, Calld a while
at Mr Wiridards and he
was much Sick, and So
we[illegible]nt on again Soon, and
Stopt at Mr Meechems in
Hervington, and found
him a Strange poſture
alike a little Child, took
Dinner there, and Soon after
went on again, and in
the evening got to a Place
Calld wauven, and there
I Lodgd in a Public H

and there was a number
of People, and they wanted
to have me preach to them &
I told them it was too late
and they inſiſted, I Shoud, &
I Sayd again it was too late
but if they woud get toger the
in the morning I woud gra
tify them, and So we left
the matter — —

Fry Day may 30:

Juſt af
ter Six I went to Mr Stars the
miniſter of the Place, and
the Pl People got together
a little after 8 and deliverd
a Short Diſcourſe to them, &
Soon after I went on my
way again, I Stopt atll
Mr Bodwells and took
Dinner there, and about
2 in the after, I went on again
and got one Mr Canfields

a Publick Houſe and Lodgd
there and went to reſt Soon — —

Saturday May 31:

got up
early and went on my way
reach'd to the Hallow about 8
and took Breakfaſt, and Soon
after paſt on and Stopt a
little at Esqr Newcoms &
then went to Mr Caſe's and
Stopt there a few minutes &
on again Calld at Mr Firm
s and took Dinner there
and Soon after left the Valley
and went on to Mr Gaſleys
in Bethel, and it Raind Con
ſiderably, got there there Time
in the after Noon, and we [illegible]
were Glad to See each other
and there I put up, — —

Sabb: June 1. 1788,

about 8
we went to meeting one [illegible]of
Mr Gaſleys Daughters Carryd
me in a Chair, and there

was a great Number of Peop
Collected together, and I Spoke
from Jona III:5: [gap: omitted]
Soon after Meeting we went to
Colo Blooms and took Dinner
there, and after eating I went
home with Mr Elias Mulford
of Long Island, he was one of
Schoolars formerly at Montauk
and he entertained me with
all kindneſs, and ther I found
widow Betty Peter from Long
. — —

Monday June 2:

Preach at
Mr Mulfords and there was
a great Number of People —
Soon after meeting I went
of with Some People to another
Place and Stopt at Mr Sherrils
and Lodged there, — — —

Tuſeday June 3:

Some Time
before Noon I went on to oncee

Esqr Ganſeys, and ther I
preachd began about 2
and there was a large Numbr
of People and I Spo[illegible]ke from
the words I have a meſage &c
and there was an affectionate
attention a mongſt the People
and Soon after meeting, I went
home with one Mr Hunting,
there I Lodged, and was exceed
ingly well entertaind — —

Wedneſday June 4:

on my way early, and I
So far as to kinderhook and
Lodged at a Tervern — — —

ThirdsDay June 5:

got up
early and went on my way
and got Esqr Woodworths a
10, and found them all well
and was there till Some Time
in the after Noon, and then
went to eaſtward, having
heard, that Mr Macdonal had

not got, home from Philadilphia
and I wanted to See him,[illegible] in
the evening to went to So far as to Mr
s, and there Lodged —

Fryday June 6

got up early
and was going on, and one
Mr Burdick In[illegible]vited me to
go into his Houſe and take
Breakfaſt with him, and I
did, and Soon after I went
on, and got to Mr Robbinſon's
a bout 10: and was there but
a little While, and Concluded
to keep the Coming Sabbath
in this Houſe, and So went
on to Mr Dymonds and [illegible]got
there Juſt before noon and
there I Stayd found my
good Friends in good Health
and was glad to See them — —

Saturday June 67:

was at Mr
s all Day — —

Sabb. June 8:

about 9 went
to Mr Robinſons to meeting
and there was a great Numbr
of People, and I Spoke from
Jeremiah X: 10: and Johnb XXIII.8 XXIII 23
and the People attended with
great Seriouſneſs: — and after
meeting took Dinner, with
Mr Robinſon, and Soon after
I went to Mr Tobias's Mr Robinſ
went with me, and we found
a vaſt Number of People of
[illegible]All Sorts and I preach to
them from John XV:23: and
the People were, many of them
much affected — after meeting
I went with my good old Friend
Mr Phillip Lott, one who I
was acquainted with in
Noble Town, and now he has
Juſt moved in theſe Parts,

and we were exceeding glad
to See one another, and there
I Lodgd; and had a Comfort
able reſt once more — —

Monday June 9

about 3 in
the after noon I preachd in
Mr Lotts Barn and there was
a large number of People
and I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People attended well,
I Lodgd at the Same Houſe
a gain — — —
Tueſday June 10: aſoon as
we broke our Faſt I went to
a Certain Houſe where there
was a woman Died Yeſterday
and I deliverd, a Diſcourſe up
on the Ocation, and thre was
a large number of People
and I Spoke from James, the
words were, for what is Yr Life
and there was a Solemn atten
tion, and Soon after I went to

New Bethleham, and Preachd
there thin a Logd meeting H
and was not a great Nr
of People and they were
Solemn I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People behaved well
Soon after meeting, I went
with Mr Mofat, to his Lodgings
at Mr Miress and there Lodgd
and was much Tired. —

Wedneſday June 11:

got up
early, and I went on to Esqr
, Soon got there,
and took Breakfaſt with
them, and about 10 we
went to meeting at the oake
Tree, I preach'd in a New
Dutch Meeting Houſe
there was a great mayny
People, it was a Day of
Faſting and Prayer a
mongſt the Dutch Churches

thro' New York and Jerſey
States, and I Spoke from
Iaſaiah LVIII.[gap: omitted] & Acts [gap: omitted]
Soon after the Service was
over, I went on to Albany
got to the City Some Time be
fore Night, went to See Mr
Mc Donal
, a Preſbutery mi
niſter, but I heard nothing
by him Concerning my Letter
I Seant to Docr Duffield. &
I went to See Mr Weſtorlo and
he was glad to See me once
more. from there went to
my Lodgings at a Public
Houſe & went to Bed Soon —

Thirdsday June 12:

to See Some Friends again
and about 10 I went out
of the Place, and went
on to Bought, and got

the Place before Night
Some Time, Cal[illegible]ld on Several
Friends, Lodgd at Mr Ford's
my Friends were all very
glad to See me once more
and I was as Glad. — —

Fryday June 13,

I went
over to half Moon, and Lodgd
at my old Friend John
— — —


was there all
Day, towards Night went
to See the old People —
Sabb June 15: about 9
went to meeting. to Half
moon meeting Houſe
, and
there was a great Numbr
of People, and I Spoke
from John XVII.3: & Titus.I.16

Soon after meeting went to [illegible]
Bought, and preachd there
and there was a vaſt number
of People, I Spoke from Jud 3:20
one Mr Striker a young Dutch
Preacher, preach'd here to Day
as Soon as the meeting was done
I went home with Major Funda
and Lodged there and was very
kindly entertaind. — —

Monday June 16

viſited all
Day Juſt at Night went
to Mr Clute's near the Mohawk
, and there Lodged, — —

Tueſday June 17

Some Time
after Breakfaſt I took leave
of my Friends and went on to
towards Neſkee[illegible][guess: u]ney got there
Some Time before Noon, and
Stopt at Mr Simon Fordts, and
took Dinner there, and about
3 went meeting, and it began

to rain, about 4 we began
the Service, and there was a
large Number of People &
I Spoke from Lam. 3:40 and
the People attended with great
Solemnity. Soon after I went
over the River, and I put
up at Mr Fiſher's and they
were glad to See me and I
was as Glad to See them —

Wedneſday June 18:

Some Time
after Breakfaſt, I took leave
of the Family, and went to
Mr Peters — and took Dinner
there, about 1 went to meeting
at onee Mr Smith's about 4
miles off, and there was a
lardge number of People, and
I Spoke from Prver IV:[gap: omitted]
and there was a Solemn atten
tion among the People, Soon
after went towards Ball Town
in queſt of Mr Gazley, and

juſt before Night I found
him, and we were exceſsively
glad to See each other, and was
there a few minutes, and a
Company Came, to Stay all
Night, and one Mr Naſh
invited me to go home with
him, and I went with him &
Lodged there. — — —

Thirdsday June 19.

after eating
I return'd to Mr Gazlays, and
taried there till Some Time
after Dinner, and I went
to Esqr Ganzys Mr Gazlay
went with me, and about 4
in the after noon, the People
had Collected, and we began
the Service, we met in Mr
s Barn and there was
a great Number of People
and I Spope from John XV.23
and the People attended well
and Some were affected much
Calld in Esqr Ganſeys after

meeting, and took Some
Bread and Cheeſe, and
directly after, weth home
with Mr Gazlay, got there
before Day Light in, and
Sot up a while, and then
went to Bed — — —

Fryday, June 20:

was poor
ly, yet Juſt at Night, went
towards the Lake, Calld at
Mr Scribners and Sot there
a while, and then went back
to Mr Gilberts and there I Lod
ged and was kindly Treated
went to Bed Soon — — —

Saturday June 21,

after Break
went to Mr gazl[illegible]ays, and the
Company that was at Mr Gaz
was geting ready to go home
to Albany, Mr Heart and Mr
and there wifes and

their Children, and one
woman Compoſed the Compa
ny, and they Soon Sot off, and
I was there till towards noon
and Mr Gazlay and I went
to the Lake a fiſhing, and we
took Dinner at Mr Kallocks
and after Dinner went to the
Lack and fiſhd, and we [illegible]Catch
a fine Paſsel, and went back
got hom about 4 in the after
noon — and Lodged there once
more — — — —

Sabb. June 22:

about 9 went to
the meeting-Houſe, and there was
a large Aſembly Collected, and I
Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and there was a Solemn attention
Soon after meeting went back to
Mr Gazlays, Stopt at Mr Gilbert's
and took Tea there, and Soon after
went on, and the People Colleted
thick at Mr gazlay's and I Spoke

to them from [gap: omitted]
and the People attended well
I Lodgd at the Same Houſe &
was very tenderly Treated, —

Monday June 23:

Lay a bed
late, took Breakfaſt with
them, and after Breakfaſt
I went of to go to Schenactada Mr
and his Siſter Diadama
went with me, got to the Place
a little paſt Noon, — and I did
my Buſineſs Soon, and a
bout 5 we return back and
directed our Courſe to Freehold
got to the Place in the Duſk of
the evening, I Lodgd at my
Daughters, — —

Tueſday June 24,

about 3 I p
in the meeting Houſe, and there
Conſiderable Number of People
and I Spoke from 2 Corin V:26
and the People were much affec

ted, after meeting went back
to Mr Northrops, and there Mr
and his Siſter took leave
of me with much affection, — &
in the Evening a Number of
People Collected together at Mr
Wilſon Northrops
, and we had
a Short Exerciſe — and I Lodged
at the Same Houſe. — — —

Wedneſday June 25

got up
Some what late, and we got
ready, and my Son in Law
Anthony and I went to Ball
, and did our Buſineſs
and I went of to Schenactada
got there Juſt after noon, I
took Dinner at Mr John Glands

Wedneſday June 25:

Some Time
before Noon, I went towards Gal
, to attend[illegible] upon a meet
ing, but they no notice, and So
I went back to Freehold, got

there Some Time in the after
Noon., and in the Evening
we a meeting in Mr Wilſon
, and the was Con
ſiderable Number of People
I Spoke from the word, thy
Kingdom Come, and there
was a Serious attention amon[below]g
the People, I Lodgd at the Same
Houſe and it was late — — —

Thirdsday June 26:

Some Time
in the morning, I went to b
Ball Town, Atho[illegible]ny Paul
wen with me, we Soon got
got there, and waited on
Mr [gap: omitted] upon our L
afairs and he gave us ad
wvice, and Soon after I went
on to Schenactada, got there
a bout 1: and did my Buſi
neſs, and went back to Free-
, got to Mr Rodgerss
Juſt about Sunt Set and

they were very Glad to See me
and there I Lodged — —

Fryday June 27

was at the
Place all Day, and it was a
Rainey Day, Juſt at Night I
went to Mr Holmss and there
Lodgd, — — —

Saturday June 28

Some Time
in the after Noonmorning, I Sot off, and
went to Gallaway, Got to Mr
's Juſt before Sun Set and
very kindly recevid. — —

Sabb June 29:

went to meeting
and we met in a Barn and
it was a Rainey Day, Yet there
was a large Number of People
and I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People behaved well
after meeting, wient back to
Mr Otis's and in the evening
had a meeting in Mr [gap: omitted]
Houſe, and there was a Conſide

Number of People and I Spoke
words to them, — and I Lodgd at
the Same Houſe, and reſted Com
fortably. — —

Monday June 30:

went to Mr
s and took Breakfaſt
there, and Some Time before N
Sot off and went to Scotchbuſh
got there Some Time before Noon
and put up at Mr Franklin
about 2 went to Mr Mans and
there we had a meeting and there
a large Number of People, &
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
and the People attended well, &
and I Baptized four Children
two For Mr Franklin, by the
Name Sophia and Eliſabeth,
two for Mr Ehphraim Potter by the
Lucy & Lucinda, and Soon after
Meeting, I went with Mrs [gap: omitted]
a bout 3 miles off. and there &
was well entaind, and reſted
Comfortably — —

Tueſday July 1:

got up ear
ly and took Breakfaſt and [illegible]then
went on my way, Stopt a while
at Mr Vedders by Mohawk River
and took Dinner there, and Soon
after Denner, went on again
Call on Capt Crages a little
while and So paſt on, — got So
far as to Domine Romine's and
Lodged there, was kindly re-
ceive and Lodged there — —
Wedneſday July 2: Some T
after Breakfaſt, took leave
of 'em and went on again
got to Esqr Maybees before N
and twas there a little while
and paſt on, and went Fort
and did my Buſineſs
there, and turnd about and
towards Bowman's Creek &
got there Some Time before

Night, and put up at Esqr
s and kindly recevd
and Lodged there — —

Thirdsday July 3

Some in the
morning I to fiſhing, and had
got Suckceſs, while I was
Buſy, I was Calld in, and as
I was going Mr Eliott met me
he is from Warren Buſh, &
we were glad to See each,
and when I had got in, behold
Elder Mudge was there, and
a nother man, and we had a
greable Converſation. — about
3 in the after noon we went to
meeting, and there was Conſi
derable number of People &
I Spoke from John, Search the
S[illegible][guess: cr]ptures &c — and the People
attended well — Elder Mudge
and I Lodgd at the Same Houſe
where the meeting was, which
was Mr John whites, and we
had a Cold night on it, —

Fryday July 4

Some Time
before noon took leave of the
People, and went to Esqr Young
at a [illegible] oak hi[illegible]ll, and there
I had a meeting, and there was
a Conſiderable number of People
tho' it was a Rainey Time, I Spo
from [gap: omitted] and Soon af
ter meeting I went onto Cherry
, and Calld at Mr Way, he
he not at Home but the woman
was, and there I Taried all N
and was tenderly treated —

Saturday July 5

after Break
faſt went to Mr Nicholas Pick
s and there Stayd till
Some Time in the after Noon
then I went to old Mr Pickard's &
there I Lodged — —

Sabb July 6

a bout 10 began
the meeting, and there was a
great Number of People &
I Spoke from [gap: omitted]

and the People attended with
great Solemnity, — towards
Night went to Mr Nicholas
s, and I Baptized 3
Children, one for him by the
Name Jona, one for Adolf
, by the Name SuſanaWil
liam, and one for Mr Stokes
by the Name Suſana
William — and Soon after
I went back to Old Mr Pickard
and from there to Mr Crepins
and there was a meeting Mr
Preachd, and it
Raind very hard before he
had done, and many Lodgd
at the Same Houſe — —

Monday July 7:

Some Time
after eating I took [illegible]leave of
the Family, and I went on
my way and got Mr Fols
Juſt after Sun Sit and there
I Lodged — — —

Tueſday July 8:

a bout 10
Jeremiah Tuhy Came to me
and I got me ready and went
with him, to go thro the Woods
Elijah Wymby and Ben
garrat Fowler
alſo went,
and we got to Brotherton a
bout Sun Set, and was glad
and thankful to See our People
once more; Thanks be to god
for his goodneſs to us. Lodged
at Brother David Fowlers —

Sabb July 13

about 10 we began
the meeting at the School-Houſe, which
was made for meeting Houſe too, and
there was not a great Number of
People, being a Rainey Day, and I
Spoke from CXVII Psalm, and I Cron:XVI[illegible]10
and the People attended with great ten
derneſs, many affected, — after meeting
went back to Brother Davids — —

Monday July 14,

Some Time in
the morning, I went to Clenton, &
Came back in the evening. — —

Wedneſday July 16:

in the even
ing had a Singing Meeting and
I gave a word of Exhortation to
the People from the words, do thy-
ſelf no harm — and I Lodged at
Siſter [illegible]Est[illegible]her Fowler's, and as
the People were returning, Elijah
was attaced by by G
and Jeremiah Tuhy &
they abuſed him much, and it
was difficult to part them, and
fell upon Young David Fowler
but David was too much for him
and it was a Sad night with 'em
and very Sameful — — —

Fryday 18.

about 9 I went to
New Stockbridge; Stopt at Roger
and took Dinner there, and
about 2 went on again, got to
Stockbridge a bout 3, and towards
evening there was a meeting, Mr
Preachd, and it was

in Indian and it was no Edifi
cation to me — after meeting went
to Sir Peters and took Supper there,
and then went to Capt Hindrecks
and there I Lodged. — —

Saturday July 19:

was at the Place
all Day — Yeſterday the oniedas
a Number of them went to Bro
[illegible][guess: run] the Line — —

Sabb July 20,

a bout 10 began
the Service, and there was a large
Number of People, and I Spoke
from Judges III.20.[gap: omitted] and the
People attend with Seriousneſs, I
Baptized tow Children one for
Capt Hindreck Aupaumut &
the Name it was Joſhua, and
the other Child, was Joseph Qin
[illegible][guess: neys]
and his Name is [gap: omitted]
and I Lodged at Capt Hindreck
— — — in the
E[illegible]vening I went Home to Bro
Lodged at B: Davids

Monday July 21

Sot of very
early in the morning to go
to Fort Schilyrs, got there a
bout 12: and there I found
my Daughter Christiana &
her Family, I Lodged at a
widow Dutch womans Houſe
but they were unruly — —

Tueſday July 22:

Some Time
in the morning Sot off again
for Home[illegible], but wed did not
get any further than Clenton
I Lodged at Mr Lovels — —

Wedneſday July 23:

it was
Some Time before our Team
Came up to where I was, for
had a [illegible]hevy Load, and we
undloaded, and Stayd till
after noon, and then we
went on, left our Load, and

got Home Some Time before
Night, and I went to meeting
Juſt at Night, and after
meeting went to Siſter
Esthers Fowler
s & Lodged there —

Thirdsday July 24:

Time in the morning I went
back to my Daughter and
towards Night our Team
Came to my Daughters, —

Fryday July 25:

towards Noon
I went to N. Stockbridge got there
a bout 3, near Night went to meet
g. Mr Sergeant Preachd, Lodgd
at Mr Peter Peets. — —

Saturday July 26:

about 9 we
met together to have a debate
with Mr Sergeant but he Chuſe
not to Debate, I deſired him to
pointed out the Errors he had
Chaged us with, but he declin'd

and finally Conclugded, that
every one Shoud have full Li
berty to Chuſe and act in accord
ing to the Light and underſtand
ing he has in his Religious
Concerns, and So we parted in
Friendſhip, Concluded to agree
and to diſagree, and So we re-
turnd to Brotherton, got to my
Daughters before Night — —

Sabb July 27.

about 9 I went
to the meeting Houſe, and about
11 we began the Holy Service, &
I Spoke from Luke XX.6: Prov X.5
and there was Some Seriousneſs
among the People — after meet
ing went bait to my Ds's — — —

Wedneſday July 30:

had an
evening Singing, and I gave
a word of advice and Councell
to the Young People. — —

Sabb Augt 3

went to New
, got there Juſt as
the People were Collecting toge
thert and there was a large
number of People, and I Spoke
from Jerem II.12.13: John I.12
and there great attention among
the People, in the Evening went to
meeting again, and Capt Hendrick
and Sir Peter Peet rehearſed what
was deliverd in the Day — I Lodgd
at Capt Hendricks, — — —

Monday Augt 4:

Anthony Paul
Benoni and Andrew Gifford
Acompanied me to the Lake we
went there to Fiſhing, got there
Some Time before Night, and
there was a great Number of
of oniedas and Some Stockbr
at Colo Laweys, to receive a
preſent of Corn and Some Pork
Sent to them, by [gap: omitted] a French
Merchant, but I and my Sons

went to the Lake, which was
but about half mile off, &
it was Juſt Night, and we
Fiſh'd, and we Catchd a fine
parſel of Fiſh preſently, &
made up a Fire by the Creak
and had fine f Supper of F
and afterwards Prayd, &
then we went to Sleep by
our Fire quietly — —

Tueſday Augt 5:

we Fiſhd
by Spels all Day, but we
got but few, — — —


we tried again
but we got but few, I killd
a great gray Eagle, and a
Raven this Day — — —

Thirdsday, wAugt 7:

we tryd
to fiſh a little while, and but
but 5:— and So we Sot off for
home, we Stopt at Mr Olcuts

but they were not at Home
one of the Stockbridge women
was there, and She Cookd a
Dinner for us, and Soon after
eating we went on again & —
I Stopt at N. Stockbridge &
and my Sons went on — I Lodgd
at Sir Peter Peet's — —

Fryday Augt 8:

I was at N.
all Day, in the
Eevening we met and I gave a
word of Exhortation from the ws
and there was good attention
Lodgd at Peters again — —

Saturday Augt 9:

Some Time
before Noon I Sot off for Bro
got to Brother Davids
and found Young David very
Sick, to home before Noon —

Sabb Augt 10:

went to meeting
a bout 9. and the People Juſt

to the Lake and went to fiſh
ing and we Caught a fine
parſel of Fiſh for the little
we to fiſh, and we made
up a fire by the Creek &
there we Lodgd, — 03 [illegible]

Tueſday Augt [illegible] 3 6

To [illegible][guess: 9] days works
18 8
27 3
B C [illegible]2-0
S C — [illegible][guess: 0]-1-6
[illegible][guess: 1-3 III]
Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Peter, Betty
Wympy, Elijah

Elijah Wympy was a prominent Farmington Indian who was instrumental in establishing Brothertown, yet he subsequently led a group that disregarded the primary vision of the community. In his early years he was a student at the school in Farmington, CT, and in 1757 he served in the Seven Years’ War. During negotiations around 1773 between the Oneida and New England Indians concerning a tract of land, Wympy acted as a delegate for Farmington and asked other tribes to send envoys too. The Oneidas granted the territory the following year, and in 1775 Wympy was among the first to move to what became Brothertown. He was chosen as a trustee of the town in 1785, but around this time the Oneidas attempted to reclaim the land. Accordingly, Wympy participated in the effort to maintain the territory. Fortunately, when the state of New York gained Oneida territory in 1788, it acknowledged the Christian Indians’ right to the tract as it had originally been granted; the state passed an act in 1789 that recognized the Indians’ property and instituted a 10-year limit on leases for lots. Wympy and his followers, comprised mainly of outsiders, thus leased numerous parcels, including invaluable ones, to white settlers. Occom strongly opposed this and petitioned the Assembly, which passed an act in 1791 restricting the power to lease lands to the council. While Occom and Wympy had previously been friends -- Wympy had even partaken in the movement to establish Occom as the local minister -- their disagreement on the issue of leasing Brothertown lands to whites opened a strong divide between them. Wympy apparently regretted his actions, for in 1794 he was among the signers of an address to the governor seeking to remove the whites. He remained in Brothertown until his death around 1802.

Wympy, Elijah Jr.

Elijah Wympy Jr. was a Farmington-Tunxis Indian involved in the Brothertown movement. He was born in 1765 in Farmington, Connecticut to Elijah and Eunice Wympy. Wympy Sr. was a key figure in the establishment of Brothertown, and Wympy Jr. supported his father. Like the Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Niantics and Montauketts, the Tunxis Indians shared a history of encroachment by Europeans and increasing governmental authority that produced the shared identity fueling the creation of Brothertown. Occom notes Wympy Jr.'s presence in Brothertown several times in his journals for 1786-87. Wympy Sr. was a controversial figure who initially supported leasing lands to white settlers in Brothertown, but when he changed his position on this policy, he and his son signed a petition identifying white settlers as trespassers. Wympy Jr. married the widowed Elizabeth Peters, who had a daughter from her first marriage. Together, he and Elizabeth had a son and a daughter. In 1796, Wympy Jr. served as the schoolmaster for the school in Brothertown, but he was discharged after three months and replaced by Hannah Fowler, David Fowler's daughter. Wympy Jr. died in Brothertown in 1812.

Brainerd, John

John Brainerd was an ardent missionary with an important role in Wheelock's design. He was the younger brother of the famous missionary David Brainerd, who died as a young man after being expelled from Yale and serving as a missionary to New Jersey tribes. John completed his Yale degree and was immediately commissioned to replace David. Even in his own time, he was seen as a man as pious as, but less talented than, his brother, though Brainerd missioned to Indians during a more volatile period, and saw his congregation forcibly removed from their lands in 1755 and relocated at Brothertown in 1758 (this Brothertown should not be confused with the one founded in New York after the Revolution by many Moor's alumni). Brainerd was extremely devoted to the Indian cause. He often had the opportunity to serve wealthy English congregations, but preferred to remain an Indian missionary. He invested signficant sums of his own money into his missions, for which he was never reimbursed. Brainerd was a very prominent Presbyterian figure, active in the Presbytery and Synod of New York, holding several elected positions, and in the Presbtery and Synod of New York and Philadelphia once the two reunified in 1758. He was a Trustee of the College of New Jersey from 1754 until his death, and a member of the New York Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Occom had planned to work with Brainerd in 1750, but political upheaval prevented it. Brainerd was one of several men nominated to accompany Occom to England, but the New York Board refused to let him go. While Brainerd and Wheelock were not close personal friends, the two had a similar interests and a long-lasting correspondence. John Brainerd sent Wheelock his first Indian boys, and also recruited female students in the 1760s. Throughout their lives, Brainerd and Wheelock updated one another on Indian missions, and Brainerd seems to have been one of Wheelock's "point people" in the Presbyterian Church.

Buell, Samuel

Buell was a popular Presbyterian minister during the second half of the 18th century in Long Island, as well as a close friend of Samson Occom. He was ordained in November 1743, and was a popular itinerant minister before settling at Easthampton. He preached at Occom's ordination, published the sermon in 1761 to raise funds for Occom (he also wrote the letter addressed to Bostwick prefacing his publication), and stayed in close contact with Occom even after Occom's public break from Wheelock. Occom's diary is full of references to visiting Buell and to their close friendship. During the Revolution, Buell was the only minister on Long Island for 40 miles, and was very active in assisting the American cause. He also founded Clinton Academy on Long Island in 1785, which was the first private school chartered by the New York Board of Regents. This academy was also remarkable in that it admitted women. Multiple historical sources have misconstrued Samuel Buell as Sol or Solomon Buell, likely because Buell sometimes signed his name Sa.l, a creative abbreviation of Samuel. However, there was no Reverend Solomon Buell in Easthampton, or, it seems, Long Island, in the second half of the 18th century: Samuel had no brothers, and were there to be two Reverend S. Buell's within 10 miles of one another during the same period, related or not, doubtlessly someone would have commented on it. In addition, the handwriting in letters ascribed to "Sol" and those assigned to Samuel is identical. Lastly, the only source besides collection manuscript 765530.3 describing a "Solomon Buell" is an anthology of letters from the Revolution, which contain letters from a Rev. Sol. Buell, or S. Buell, about aiding the American cause. These letters correspond well with descriptions of Samuel's life in an 1809 biography of his life, and, as he was the only Reverend but one for 40 miles during the Revolution, it is likely that these letters belong to him.

Occom, Mary (née Fowler)

Mary Occom (née Fowler) was a Montaukett woman who married Samson Occom. Although information about her is limited and often comes from male, Anglo-American sources, it offers a tantalizing glimpse of her strength, as well as an alternative to the Eleazar Wheelock-centered narrative of Occom’s life that often dominates the latter’s biography. Mary was born into the influential Fowler family at Montauk, Long Island. She met Samson during his missionary service there (1749-1761). Mary studied at Samson’s school along with her brothers David and Jacob, and was almost certainly literate. She and Samson married in 1751. Wheelock and several other Anglo-American powers opposed their union because they worried it might distract Occom from being a missionary (as, indeed, family life did), and thus many scholars have read in Samson and Mary’s marriage an act of resistance against Samson’s domineering former teacher. Little information about the minutiae of Mary’s life survives, but existing sources speak volumes about her character and priorities. In front of Anglo-American missionaries visiting the Occoms' English-style house at Mohegan, Mary would insist on wearing Montaukett garb and, when Samson spoke to her in English, she would only reply in Montaukett, despite the fact that she was fluent in English. Mary Occom was, in many ways, Wheelock’s worst fear: that his carefully groomed male students would marry un-Anglicized Indian women. It is not a stretch to imagine that Mary provided much of the incentive for Wheelock to begin taking Indian girls into his school, lest his other protégés replicate Samson’s choice. Much of our information about Mary comes from between 1765 and 1768, when Samson was fundraising in Great Britain. Despite promising to care for Samson’s wife and family (at the time they had seven children), Wheelock, by every objective measure, failed to do so, and Mary’s complaints are well documented. Hilary Wyss reads in Wheelock’s neglect (and in letters from the time) a more sinister story, and concludes that on some level Wheelock was holding Samson’s family hostage, in return for Occom curtailing his political beliefs on the Mason Case. Wyss also notes Mary’s remarkable survivance in this situation. Mary drew on various modes of contact, from letters to verbal communication with influential women (including Sarah Whitaker, the wife of Samson’s traveling companion, and Wheelock’s own daughters), to shame Wheelock into action and demand what she needed. One of the major struggles in Mary’s life, and in Samson’s, was with their sons. Both Aaron and Benoni failed to live up to their parents’ expectations. Aaron attended, and left, Moor’s Indian Charity School three times, and both Aaron and Benoni struggled with alcohol and refused to settle down. The Occom daughters did not cause similar problems. Given the nature of existing sources, little is known about Mary after Samson and Wheelock lessened their communication in 1771. Joanna Brooks has conjectured that Mary was likely influential in Samson’s Mohegan community involvement later in life, for instance, in his continued ministry to Mohegan and, perhaps, his increasingly vehement rejection of Anglo-American colonial practices.

Fowler, David

David Fowler was Jacob Fowler's older brother, Samson Occom's brother-in-law, and an important leader of the Brothertown Tribe. He came to Moor's in 1759, at age 24, and studied there until 1765. While at school, he accompanied Occom on a mission to the Six Nations in 1761. He was licensed as a school master in the 1765 mass graduation, and immediately went to the Six Nations to keep school, first at Oneida and then at Kanawalohale. Fowler saw himself as very close to Wheelock, but their relationship fragmented over the course of Fowler's mission, primarily because Wheelock wrote back to Kirkland, with whom Fowler clashed, but not to Fowler, and because Wheelock refused to reimburse Fowler for some expenses on his mission (767667.4 provides the details most clearly). Fowler went on to teach school at Montauk, and played a major role in negotiations with the Oneidas for the lands that became Brothertown. He was among the first wave of immigrants to that town, and held several important posts there until his death in 1807.

Duffield, George

George Duffield was a Presbyterian minister who served as pastor to the famous "Church of the Patriots" in Philadelphia, a missionary, and a faithful supporter of Occom and the Brothertown movement. He was born in Lancaster County, PA in 1732, and educated at Newark Academy in Delaware and the College of New Jersey (now Princeton), a Presbyterian stronghold. Graduating in 1752, he served as tutor there for two years and was ordained in 1759. Duffield married Elizabeth Blair in 1756, but after her early death in 1757, he remarried Margaret Armstrong in 1759. That same year, Duffield was appointed minister to Presbyterian churches on the Pennsylvania frontier in Carlisle, Big Spring (now Newville) and Monaghan (now Dillsburg). In the summer and fall of 1766, he and Reverend Charles Clinton Beatty conducted a missionary tour through the western valleys of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, establishing churches, converting Indians, and ministering to the scattered settlers. Duffield published an account of this tour in 1766. In 1771, he was offered the pulpit of the Pine Street (now Third) Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, which he almost did not take because Old Side (Old Light) members objected to his adherence to New Side (New Light) revivalist ideas. Weathering the controversy, Duffield served at Pine Street until his death in 1790, preaching American independence from the pulpit with fervor and eloquence, and leaving during the War to serve as both Chaplain of the Pennsylvania Militia and co-Chaplain of the Continental Congress. Sixty of his parishoners followed him, and the British put a price on his head. After the war, Pine Street Church became known as "The Church of the Patriots."

Occom, Andrew Gifford

Andrew Gifford Occom was the youngest son of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler Occom. He was named for Andrew Gifford, a Baptist minister whom Occom met in London. In 1789, Andrew Occom moved with the Occom family to Brothertown, where he owned land that was deeded to his widow upon his death in 1796.

Aupaumut, Hendrick

Hendrick Aupaumut, most likely a descendant of the Mohawk chief Hendrick, was a Mahican Indian who was born in Stockbridge, Massachusetts in 1757. He was educated by the Moravians and became very involved in tribal affairs and relations with the United States. Along with other Stockbridge Indians, Aupaumut fought as part of Captain William Goodrich’s company in the Revolutionary War, rising to captain in 1778. In 1777, when Joseph Quanaukaunt became sachem, Aupaumut became a member of his council along with Peter Pohqunnoppeet and John Konkapot. He also became close friends with Samson Occom and would often host the preacher or translate his sermons when the latter visited New Stockbridge, to where the Stockbridges moved in the mid 1780s. In 1787 he was one of nine Indians to write to Occom declaring their faith and asking Occom to become their minster. He was also one of the Indians to sign the proclamation that Occom, Pohqunnooppeet, and David Fowler carried during their tour to raise funds to support Occom as their pastor. By the 1790s, Aupaumut was acting as an agent for the United States. He helped the government combat Tecumseh and his brother Elskwatawa, and he fought under General Harrison in the War of 1812. Both conflicts interrupted the various land deals between tribes, as well as treaties and other negotiations, in which he was involved. Although he encouraged Indians to convert to Christianity and learn English, Aupaumut opposed leasing land to whites. Occom and Aupaumut agreed that the Stockbridges must move west to escape the influence of outside cultures, and to preserve their Christianity. In the 1820s, Aupaumut led land deals with Wisconsin tribes, and he finally moved west in 1829 along with the remainder of the Stockbridge tribe.

Adams, Olive (née Occom)

Olive was the fourth child and third daughter born to Mary Fowler Occom and Samsom Occom during their residence in Montauk on Long Island, where Occom served as minister and schoolteacher to the Montaukett Indians. She would have moved with the family back to Mohegan in Connecticut in 1763, but little else is known about her life. From a letter Occom wrote to Joseph Johnson on April 14, 1775 (manuscript 775264), we know that Olive married Solomon Adams, a Farmington Indian. Love reports that they had three children, that Solomon died around 1783, and that Olive lived on her husband's land in Farmington. However, Occom records in his journal for 1786 visiting Olive on his preaching and fundraising tours of New England to raise money for the Brothertown project, and she is living between Old Windsor and Bolton, CT, a location northwest of Farmington and on the other side of Hartford. The following year, Occom twice mentions in his journal "Olive's affair," that he "searched into" it "and Say Writings about it to my Satisfaction," and then "left" it with a Mr. Wadsworth (manuscript 787660.1). Love notes that Olive emigrated to Brotherton, and that her children sold the family plot at Farmington in 1801. J. Brooks speculates that the "affair" Occom negotiated for his daughter probably concerned the disposition of Olive's husband's Farmington lot.

Pauquunnuppeet, Peter

Sir Peter Pauquunnuppeet (there are several variant spellings), a son of an Indian deacon by the same name, was a Stockbridge Mohican Indian and student of Eleazar Wheelock, who studied at Moor’s Indian Charity School from 1771 until 1775, and graduated from Dartmouth College in 1780. Together with Daniel Simon, class of 1777, and Lewis Vincent, class of 1781, he was one of the three Indian students to graduate before the turn of the century, and they became the last native graduates until 1835. The “Sir” that precedes Pohquonnoppeet’s forename originated from his status as a senior in school, and remained a part of his name for the rest of his life. After graduating, Pauquunnuppeet returned to Stockbridge, where he taught school and was involved in tribal affairs. Joseph Quanaukaunt (Quinney) became sachem in 1777, and along with Hendrick Aupaumut and John Konkapot, Pauquunnuppeet was a member of the his council. Pauquunnuppeet was also influential in the Brothertown movement and the founding of New Stockbridge six miles from Brothertown, New York. In 1785, when Americans in New York were driving the Oneidas to cede land that bordered Pennsylvania, Pauquunnuppeet represented the Stockbridge Indians in what became the Treaty of Herkimer. Pauquunnuppeet had an influential friendship with Samson Occom. Occom recorded many occasions in his diary during his missionary tours of 1785-1787 when Peter hosted him, and noted a few instances when they traveled together. Often during Occom’s visits to New Stockbridge Captain Hendrick and Pauquunnuppeet would translate his sermons for those who could not understand English. The Stockbridge Indians favored Occom over the white missionary John Sergeant, Jr., and on August 29, 1787 Pauquunnuppeet was one of nine Indians to write to Occom declaring their devotion and inviting Occom to become their minister. However, the tribe had no means by which to pay Occom, and so, in the winter of 1787 Pauquunnuppeet, Occom, and David Fowler embarked on a fundraising journey through New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York. They were not, however, able to raise as much money as they had sought to collect. Pauquunnuppeet’s strong presence within the tribe may have led to his death, although the precise date and circumstances of his decease is unknown. Sectionalism within New Stockbridge was growing due to the friction between those who supported Occom and those who preferred Sergeant, Jr. as their minister. The politics of Brothertown as an independent entity contributed to the tension. Finally, when Hendrick Aupaumet rose to the position of chief, Pauquunnuppeet became the leader of a rival faction. It has been suggested that Pauquunnuppeet’s increasing authority provoked his enemies to poison him.

Sergeant, Jr., John

John Sergeant Jr., like his father, served as a minister in Stockbridge, MA. In 1773, Stephen West, the minister to the Stockbridge Indians since 1757, decided to leave his post and turned over ministering duties to John Sergeant Jr. Stockbridge, MA, which John Sergeant Sr. helped establish, failed as a Christian Indian town when the Stockbridge Indians lost ownership of their land. When the Oneida Tribe offered the Stockbridgers land in central New York after the American Revolution, many of them moved to the Brothertown and New Stockbridge settlements. The Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge funded Sergeant Jr. in 1787 to continue serving as a minister to the Stockbridge Indians who moved to New York. Sergeant travelled from Stockbridge, MA, to New Stockbridge every year to serve as their minister. In 1788, the Stockbridge Indians at New Stockbridge were divided in their support for Occom or John Sergeant as the town’s minister. Mohican sachem Hendrick Aupaumut led the community members who favored Occom. According to Sergeant, 30 members of the Tribe were in favor of Occom while 50 were in favor of him (later, half of Occom’s supporters defected to Sergeant). The relationship between Sergeant and Occom was contentious, with Occom disliking Sergeant’s manner of preaching. Occom moved to Munhegunnack or New Stockbridge in 1791 and suggests in a letter that many of Sergeant’s supporters were shifting support to Occom. In his sermons, Sergeant blamed the Indians’ loss of land on what he described as their drunkenness and idleness. He suggested that the whites’ encroachment on their lands was God’s punishment for their sins. Sergeant remained the New Stockbridge minister until his death in 1824.

Simon, Daniel

Daniel Simon was a member of the Narragansett Simon family (Mrs. Sarah Simon, Miss Sarah Simon, Abraham Simon, Daniel Simon, James Simon, and Emmanual Simon—all five children attended Moor’s Indian Charity School for at least some time). Daniel arrived at Moor’s Indian Charity School with his brother Abraham either very late in 1768 or early in 1769. The two brothers remained with Eleazar Wheelock during his relocation to Hanover, New Hampshire. Daniel Simon graduated from Dartmouth College in 1777 (the college’s first Native American graduate, and the only one during Wheelock’s lifetime). He was licensed as a minister by the Grafton Presbytery on January 19, 1778. After a stint keeping school at Stockbridge, MA, he took over John Brainerd’s ministry at Cranbury, NJ in 1783 (John Brainerd, the long-term Anglo-American missionary in the region, had died in 1781). In 1784, Simon was suspended from the ministry on charges of intemperance, and began serving “informally” as minister at Brotherton, NJ, until at least 1788. He married a sister of Hezekiah Calvin (a Delaware who had attended Moor’s, and who became prominent at Brotherton), which may explain why he settled at Brotherton, NJ, instead of Brothertown, NY (where all four of his siblings resided).


Unidentified Smith.

Massuck, Solomon

Solomon Massuck was a Farmington Tuxnis who was a prominent community member and converted Christian. His son, Daniel Massuck, attended Moor’s for a brief time in 1762. Solomon often played host to Joseph Johnson during the latter's time at Farmington. Both Samuel and Daniel were very involved in the early push to found Brothertown (a composite tribe of Algonquian Indians from the Long Island Sound region, organized and populated largely by former members of Moor’s Indian Charity School): both appear frequently as signatories on letters on the topic, and it was Solomon Massuck who asked for a Connecticut law book to produce the new settlement’s laws. However, neither Samuel nor Daniel actually emigrated to Brothertown (although Luke Massuck, either Solomon’s son or his grandson, did, for a brief time). Perhaps because they had been brought into the movement by Joseph Johnson, after Joseph Johnson’s death (sometime during the Revolution years) they were no longer invested.

Ewing, John

John Ewing was an influential Presbyterian minister in Philadelphia, a professor, and a noted mathematician. He and a twin brother, James, were born on June 22, 1732 in Nottingham, Maryland to Nathaniel and Rachel (Porter), who had emigrated from Ireland. He received his early education with Francis Alison, a noted Presbyterian clergyman, and remained at Alison's academy for three years as a tutor in Latin, Greek and mathematics, in which he excelled; he graduated the year he matriculated at the College of New Jersey (now Princeton) in 1754. He served as tutor at the College for two years and was licensed to preach. In 1759, he was called to pastor at the First Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia, where he served as a popular and eloquent preacher until his death in 1802. He also joined the faculty of the College of Philadelphia as Professor of Ethics from 1758 to 1762 and Professor of Natural Philosophy from 1762 to 1778. Joining the American Philosophical Society in 1768, he contributed to several noted scientific experiments (charting the transit of Venus) and public works (surveying the boundary with Delaware). In 1773, he was commissioned to travel to Great Britain to solicit funds for the Academy of Newark, in Delaware, where he received an honorary Doctorate of Divinity from University of Edinburgh and met with promiment figures (including Lord North, the prime minister, and Samuel Johnson) to advance the cause of American independence. When the College of Philadelphia was reorganized as the University of Pennsylvania, Ewing became its first provost in 1780. Occom preached and collected funds in Ewing's Church on his tour of Philadelphia in 1771. While in London, Ewing likely met members of the Trust for Wheelock's Indian School, because Occom reports to John Thornton in 1777 that he learned about the exhaustion of the Trust from Ewing (manuscript 761290), one of the influential ministers who collected money for Occom and Brothertown in 1771.

Fowler, Elizabeth (née Pharaoh)

Elizabeth (Betty) Fowler was an influential Montauk woman and the mother of Mary Fowler Occom, David Fowler, and Jacob Fowler. She was a member of the powerful Pharaoh/Faro family, a family which boasts the current (as of 2013) Montaukett sachem. Elizabeth was married to James Fowler. Occom married their daughter Mary, and as a result the Fowler family received extra attention from the minister and became deeply Christian. James Fowler died in 1774, but Elizabeth lived until 1795. She migrated to Brothertown with Mary, David, and Jacob, where she died sometime after 1795.

Quaquaquid, Henry

Henry Quaquaquid was a Mohegan Indian who was active in both political and religious tribal affairs. In 1742 he, as a counselor, signed a petition that declared John Uncas as the rightful successor of Sachem Mahomet; however, the following year Quaquaquid, along with Occom and nine other counselors, signed Ben Uncas’s counter proclamation. As supporters of Ben Uncas, Occom and Quaquaquid lived in Ben’s Town rather than John’s Town, the home of the Ashpos. Nonetheless, they eventually changed their minds and joined the Ashpos in an effort to counteract tribal corruption and disunion. Around 1760, Ben Uncas III claimed that the rival faction had established Quaquaquid as sachem. Quaquaquid was also involved in the Mason case and acted as a messenger. He sought to protect the Mohegans’ native rights, and in 1785 signed a petition, along with Occom and four others, to the Connecticut General Assembly asking for unrestricted fishing privileges. In 1789, Quaquaquid and Robert Ashpo appealed to the Connecticut Assembly again seeking aid, and as in the original petition, stressed their friendship. Additionally, Quaquaquid often accompanied Occom during his missionary tours, such as those of 1757 and 1785. He also acted as a deacon, possibly at a church that Occom established in Mohegan. Quaquaquid did not move to Brothertown, but remained in Mohegan with his family.

Occom, Benoni

Benoni Occom (also known as Benjamin, Noney, and Nony) was Samson Occom and Mary Fowler’s seventh child and second son. Like Aaron Occom (Benoni’s elder brother, who died in 1771 after a wild young adulthood), Benoni did not live up to his parents’ standards for behavior. Unlike Aaron, he was not sent to Moor’s Indian Charity School; the difference may reflect Samson and Mary’s declining opinion of Eleazar Wheelock. Benoni’s behavior led Samson and Mary to kick him out of the house in July 1780, but the family had reconciled by 1788 (perhaps following 1787 rumors that Benoni had been hanged in Boston for murder). Although Benoni remained at Mohegan instead of moving to Brothertown, later letters from Occom to Benoni suggest that they were close and that Benoni visited his parents frequently. Later in life, Benoni was active in attempts to define Mohegan identity by petitioning to exclude anyone of African descent from tribal membership. His petition in this affair might indicate broader political involvement in tribal matters.

Aupaumut, Joshua
Hedges, Ben
Paul, Anthony

Anthony Paul was born in Charlestown, Rhode Island, to Mary and James Paul. His family was a part of the Narragansett peoples who lived in Charlestown. There is not much information detailing Paul's early years, but he is believed to have attended Wheelock's school in Connecticut. It is through this connection that Paul is likely to have met Christiana Occom, daughter of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Paul married Christiana in 1777 and, after spending some time in Mohegan, the two settled in Brotherton in 1784. Paul worked as a preacher and helped raise at least six children with Christiana. Occom was fond of his son-in-law, and his journals tell of many happy times visiting the couple, including fishing trips and the day in 1787 when Samson baptized Paul and four of his children. As further indication of Occom's fondness for his son-in-law, he is believed to have left the books and papers that he kept in his New York home with Paul. In 1797, Paul and Christiana left Brotherton to live in Lake George, NY, where they spent the rest of their years.

Paul, Christiana (née Occom)

Christiana Occom was born in 1757 in Mohegan, CT as the ninth child of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Christiana spent her childhood in Mohegan, where she married the Reverend Anthony Paul in 1777. The couple eventually settled in Brotherton in 1784. There, they raised at least six children, four of which Samson Occom baptized. Occom's journals tell of many joyful visits he paid to his daughter and son-in-law while on his travels. Christiana and Anthony finally left Brotherton in 1797 to settle in Lake George, NY.

Folts, Conrad Jacob

Conrad Folts was the son of Jacob Melchert Folts (1710-1808) and Anna Catherine Petrie Folts (1714-1799), who settled in the area around Herkimer, near the Mohawk River in central New York. The Folts were probably part of the large German settlement concentrated around German Flatts. Conrad was a Captain, though the records do not indicate where or whom he served. In the 1780s, when Occom, David Fowler and others from Mohegan and Stockbridge began moving Christian Indians up to the Oneida lands they had been given to settle, Occom met and befriended Folts and his family, who lived close to the settlements of Brothertown and New Stockbridge. On October 21, 1785, Occom recorded the first time he lodged with "one Mr. Folts," a phrase he used to denote this as an initial meeting. By September 11, 1786, however, Occom noted, "put up at my good friends Mr Conrod Fols." He lodged and "tarried" with the family several times during 1787 after visits to and from Brothertown. Folts is buried in the Oakview Cemetery in Frankfort, Herkimer County, NY.

Kimball, Jesse

Jesse Kimball was a member of the extensive Kimball family, whose ancestors immigrated from England at the end of the 17th century and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. His father was John Kimball (b. December 12, 1731) of Preston, CT, and his mother was Ruhama Sanders of Lyme, CT; they married on September 21, 1752 and had three sons and 13 daughters. Jesse was the second son. John served in the Revolutionary war and Jesse, though quite young, took the place of his brother Samuel, who contracted measles on the eve of his enlistment. Jesse served three years under Captain Adam Chapley and was stationed in New London, CT. After his service, Jesse moved to the frontier settlement of Bowman's Creek, in the present-day town of Canajoharie in Oneida country, and joined the militia. There he entertained Occom several times on Occom's preaching tours of 1785-87; the two often fished in the creek, to Occom's delight. The date when Kimball's Bowman's Creek house burned down is uncertain, but real estate records have him buying and selling land in Bowman's Creek as late as 1790, and he is listed in the first US Census for New York in 1790 as being the head of a household. His first marriage ended in divorce and in 1793 he married Elizabeth Roelofson (d. 1843). By that time, he had moved to Kentucky, where he was a farmer and miller and started his family. Some records report that he also made whiskey, and when he would not sell it to the local Indians, he was driven from his home and settled in Posey County, Indiana, where he died in 1857.

Waupieh, Roger

Roger Waupieh was one of the founders of the Brothertown community. In early life, he lived in Stonington and served in the Revolutionary War. The maiden name of Occom's mother, Sarah, was Wauby, suggesting that Occom and Roger Waupieh may have been related. Some sources suggest "Woyboy" as an alternate spelling of Waupieh; Roger Waupieh may have been related to the Woyboy who was an early student at Moor's.

Fowler, Esther (née Poquiantup)

Esther Poquiantup was a Mushantuxet Pequot, the daughter of Samson Poquiantup (Pequot, 1725-1787) and Esther (Mohegan, 1725-1822) and sister of Prude Poquiantup Harry (1752-1828). The Poquiantups (also spelled Pouquenup, Pauhqunnup, Uppuiquiyantup) were a prominent family of Christian Indians with one branch living in Groton and the other at Niantic, CT. In 1766, Samson and Esther were living at Groton. Samson was a church deacon who occasionally hosted Occom's religious meetings. We don't know when Esther married Jacob Fowler, a Montaukett Indian, younger brother of David, and Samson Occom's brother-in-law, but we do know that by 1774, Esther and Jacob were living in Hanover, NH, in a Dartmouth College building down the hall from Elizabeth Walcutt and her daughter Lucy. Jacob, who attended Wheelock's School, had become a preceptor there. Esther and Jacob were part of the first group to emigrate from New England to Brothertown in Oneida country. By 1787, Occom refers to Esther as a widow, and lodges frequently at her house.

Fowler, David Jr.

David Fowler, Jr., was the son of David Fowler and Hannah Garrett Fowler. He was born in Brothertown, inherited property upon the death of his father, and served as town clerk in the early 1800s.

Gregg, James

James Gregg was a member of the New York Continental Infantry during the Revolutionary War. He was appointed 2nd Lieutenant on June 28, 1775 and 1st Lieutenant on June 26, 1776. He was a captain when the remarkable incident that Occom records in his journal for June 29, 1786 occurred. According to the military journal of Dr. Thatcher at Fort Stanwix in central New York, on June 25, 1777, Captain Gregg left the Fort with Corporal Madison, both of Colonel Gansevoort's regiment, to shoot pigeons. About a mile and a half from the Fort, they where shot down by two Indians. Though never identified, the attackers could have been from any of the Haudenosaunee tribes allied with the British. Madison was killed and scalped. Gregg was shot, tomahawked in the head and back, and scalped. A dog with them alerted nearby soldiers who brought Gregg and Madison back to the Fort. Gregg survived under the care of Dr. Thatcher, and was taken to a hospital in Albany. Thatcher reports that after a year or so of recovery, Gregg was back on duty. Another muster list records Gregg transferred to the 1st Regiment of New York in 1783. In the 1780s, Gregg and his wife were living in central New York along the Mohawk River in the area east of Brothertown where Occom frequently preached. Occom records dining and lodging with the Greggs on numerous occasions.

Peter, George
Pickard Family

A family in Cherry Valley, New York, whose members include, at least, Nicholas, Adolf, Jona and Susanna (spelling uncertain). Occom lodged with members of the Pickard family and preached at Nicholas Pickard's home during his travels in 1786 and 1787. There appear to be no published sources that verify this family. Some amateur genealogy sites suggest that a family by this name had been residing in Cherry Valley before and after the "Cherry Valley Massacre" in 1778, including one Nicholas Pickard who was killed in 1776.

Stansel, Henry
Vasnderwarker, John
Fordt Simon

Simon Fordt was a resident of Niskayuna, a town in east central New York State on the Mohawk River just east of the city of Schenectady and the site of a blockhouse built by Governor George Clinton in 1746. Fordt was probably of Dutch descent, as were many of the settlers in this area. He hosted Occom several times in 1786 and 1787 as Occom preached across the area, and should not be confused with a Mr. Fordt (also spelled Ford), who on June 19, 1787, had his slave give Occom breakfast and then took him over the Mohawk River to the house of Simon Fordt. The name Simon Fordt also appears, with only one other name, on the first page of Occom's journal for June 1786. There were many Fords and Fordts in this area of New York. A Roster of State Troops in New York during its colonial history lists 17 Fords, one Forde and eight Fordts, including two Simons: a quarter master who served in Van Schoonhoven's Regiment and a private who served in the same regiment, Vandenburgh's company.

Fonda, Jellis Douw

Jellis Douw (also spelled Jelles Douwse) Fonda was a prominent merchant and land speculator in the Mohawk Valley. He was the son of Douw Jellese Fonda (1700-1780) and Maritjie Vrooman, part of the extensive Fonda family in the area descended from Jellis and Hester Jans Fonda who immigrated from the Netherlands to Albany in 1651. Before the American Revolution, Douw Jellis (the father) founded the Dutch village of Fonda at the site of the Mohawk hamlet of Caughnawaga along the Mohawk River about 30 miles west of Albany. Jellis Douw, his son, was the most prominent of the early Fondas. He was the first merchant in the Mohawk Valley west of Schenectady and was a close friend and associate of Sir William Johnson, Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Fonda fought in the French and Indian War and the Revolutionary War, and though he was a Captain commanding a company of exempts in that war, he was known thereafter as Major Fonda, perhaps as an expression of respect. He served as a county judge, justice of the peace, county supervisor in Tryon and Montgomery counties, and Commissioner of Indian Affairs after Johnson's death. Fonda was also one of the executors of Johnson's will and designated guardian of his children. He was elected a state senator from 1779-81 and 1788-91, and died in office. In his preaching tours of the Mohawk Valley, Occom records lodging with Major Fonda several times during the period of 1786-89, and using the "ferry" Fonda had over the Mohawk River.

Gazlay Family

In 1787, Occom records preaching tours for December and June in his journal during which he visited extensively with the Gazlay family, also spelled Gasley. However, it is unclear which members of this large family he means, except for John and Deidamia Gazlay. John (Jr.) was the son of John Gazlay and Elizabeth Sayrs, who emigrated from England in 1715. John was born in Goshen, New York, in 1722 and served an apprenticeship as a mill-wright in Orange County, NY. He moved to Great Nine Partners, in Duchess County, where he purchased 500 acres of land, and married Anna Ward in 1746. They had 12 children. Occom calls Deidamia the "sister" of the Mr. Gazlay he travels to Schenectady with, which would make that person the son of John and Anna, either John Jr., James, or Jonathan. (The twins Joseph and Benjamin, are also possibilities, but would be only 16 years old at the time of Occom’s visit.) It is also possible that he refers to different Gazlay men on different occasions. Occom also refers to a "Mrs. Gazlay and her daughter." This could be Anna, the matriarch, or one of her married daughters and granddaughter.

Vedder, Albert Jr.
White, John
Adgate, John Hart
Lott, Philip
Pharoah, Phebe
Townsend, Benjamin
Mulford, Elias
Heartt, Deidamia Gazlay

Deidamia Heartt, née Gazlay, was the sister of Mr. Gazlay and a member of the Gazlay family with whom Occom stayed on numerous occasions during his preaching tour of central New York in the summer and winter of 1787/88. He praised them for their piety, noting: "This family is a Christian family indeed." Occom mentions in his journal that he traveled to Schenectady with Mr. Gazlay and his sister, whose name he spells "Diadama."

Gland, John
Potter, Ephraim
Romine, Domine
Tuhy, Jeremiah
Fowler, Benjamin Garrett

Benjamin Garrett Fowler was the son of David Fowler, Occom's brother-in-law, and Hannah Garrett. Benjamin Fowler became an elder of the Brothertown community, acting in the role of Baptist minister, and was instrumental in moving the community to Wisconsin in the 1820s.

Northrop, Wilson
Franklin, Sophia
Franklin, Elisabeth
Potter, Lucy
Potter, Lucinda
Stokes, William

Mr. Fordt (also spelled Ford) was a resident of a settlement called Boght, which is now in Cohoes, a town in east central New York State, east of Schenectady. This was an area of primarily Dutch people in which Occom preached in 1786 and 1787. On one occasion after preaching Occom lodged with Mr. Fordt; on another, Mr. Fordt ordered his slave to give Occom breakfast and then took him over the Mohawk River to Niskayuna to the house of Mr. Simon Fordt. These two Fordts should not be confused, but are probably related. There were many Fords and Fordts in this area of New York. A Roster of State Troops in New York during its colonial history lists seventeen Fords, one Forde and eight Fordts, including two Simons: a quarter master who served in Van Schoonhoven's Regiment and a private who served in the same regiment, Vandenburgh's company.

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