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Samson Occom, Journal, 1786 June 26

ms-number: 786376

abstract: Occom details his travels during the second half of 1786. As Occom notes, he spends a great deal of time among the Dutch.

handwriting: Handwriting is largely clear and legible. There are several crossed l’s and uncrossed t’s that have been corrected by the transcriber.

paper: Small sheets of paper folded into a booklet and bound with thread or twine are in good-to-fair condition, with some staining and wear, mostly on edges and outer pages. The cover of the booklet is loose, and shows some repair work on the top of the crease.

ink: Brown ink varies in intensity over the course of the journal.

noteworthy: An editor, likely 19th-century, has made notes on the front cover; these notes have not been transcribed. The final transcribed page is not a journal entry, but rather is a list of people (including those for whom Occom has peformed baptisms), and a draft of a message to the people of Kanawalohale. Individuals and places with names that are not legible have not been tagged. Individuals who are not named, and whose names cannot be deduced (for instance, an unnamed daughter) are not tagged. On 18 verso, Occom mistakenly notes the date as September 6 rather than October 6. On 33 verso, he mistakenly notes the date as November 2 rather than December 2. On 39 verso, Occom has written “[illegible]liana, Wealth, Levene and }Griffin.” As the meaning of these words are unclear, they have not been tagged.

James Proud[illegible][guess: f]it
Mr Simon Fordtt

Blank page.

Monday June 26:

Time in the morning I
went over the River, and
'rid down the River, Call'd
at Mr Cragues, and he
was not at Home, but Mrs
was at Home, and She knew
me and was glad to See
me, and I was glad to See
her after She told me whoſe
Daughter She was, for I had
been to her Fathers Houſe in
Blooming grove, many Yrs
back, when She was a little
girl, and She Showd me
a Book, which I gave her,
at her Fathers Houſe, She is
a prety little, handſome dis
creet Woman and talkd
very Senſible; Sot there a
while, and then went on
got to Mr Vedders Some Time
about 12 and there I took Dinr

with them, old Mrs Vedder &
her Daughter Molley Came to
me at her Sons Soon after I
got there, and after a while
the old gentleman Came, and
we Sot together all the after
noon, Juſt at Night I went
with the old Lady to her Houſe
and there I Lodged and was
kindly entertaind they are
Dutch, and exceeding agrea
ble Family, old and Young
a Christian Like Family —

Tueſday June 27:

It began
to rain a bout Break of Day
it rain'd till near Noon, and
as Soon as it Slatchd, I went
on to Esqr Harper's inat Hunt
, got there about 12 and
about 2: we went to meet at fort
, and there was but
few People; and I Spoke from
John 12:[gap: omitted] and after meeting

went with Esqr Harper and
Lodged there again —

Wedneſday June 28:

Time after Breakfaſt, went
to the River, and went over
at Mr W[illegible][guess: am]ps, and the River
was quite Lowhigher, rid over very
well, for all went down on the
North Side; calld at Capt Crageues
at the Door of Mr Young Vedder
and So past on, and Stopt
at a Tavern and while I
was there I diſcoverd my Son
Anthony and his his Family
John Tuhy with them in a
Connoo going up the River
and So went down to the R
and they Stopt a few minutes
and past on, and I went back
to the Houſe, and got up my
mare and went back and
Stopt a while at Mr Vedders
and they paſt on, Juſt at

at Night I went over the River
and directed my Courſe Southw
and it was Juſt Night, and alit
way, I Calld a Certain Houſe to en
gire the way to one Esqr McMaſters
and deſired me to Stay and I acepted
his kind offer, his name was Mr
[gap: omitted] and was kindly treated
found them very agreeable People
went to Bed Soon —

Thirdsday June 29:

got up very
early, and it was very Lowerry
and it began to rain Soon, and
after Breakfaſt, I Sot out, and
got about to the Houſe where I
was to preach, and I was informd
that they had not heard of any
meeting appointed, and I turnd
right about, and went back
to the northward, — Call on Capt
, and he was at home
and I Dind with them, the Capt
is very agreable man, this is
the man that was killd at Fort
in the last war, he was
Shott, by an Indian, thro' the back,
Tomy Hawkd on the Head, and
Scalp'd, yet is a live, and
well, and is as likly to live

to the Common age of man
as [illegible]any man. — Soon after
Dinner I went on again, and
I overtook my Folks Juſt be
fore Sun Set near Major Fun-
's and I went over the Ri
ver there, and went on to Esqr
, and there I lodgd,
and they were glad to See me
and took Supper with them &
after Supper I went to bed once
more quiely —

Fryday June 30

was at Eqr
, till after Dinner
and then I went of to go to B
mans Creek
, got to Esqr Kem
s Some Time before N.
and was kindly receivd by
them, and Lodged there —

Saturday July 1

was at the Esqrs
till about 10 and then I went
to See a Remarkable Spring
about 3 miles of got there
Soon, tho it was a very bad
way, and it was amazing
Sight to me, it is Sulferous

it Boils right out at a bottom
of a mountain, Cloſe by a little
Creek, the hole is near as beg
as a Barel's head, and it makes
all the Stones are white with Brim
Stone, I Drank of the water &
it was very ugly taſte and
it is Cold as Ice, all the poor
Toads that Come to the water
dies . — I Scraped Some of the
Brimſtone of the Stone, and
put in Paper; and I Carried
it to Esqr Ki[illegible][guess: b]bels I put
on a Cold of Fire and it
Burnt and Smelt like B,
after a while I returnd to
the Place, and this Night I
Lodgd at one Mr John Whites
and was kindly treated —

Sabb July 2,

about 9 went to
meeting at Mr [gap: omitted] Barn
and there was a great Numb
of People, I Spoke from [gap: omitted]
[gap: omitted] and the People at
tended with great Solemnity and
affection — Soon after meeting I
took Dinner, and then went of

Springfield got there Sun about
two hours high; the People had
been waiting for me, and ahad
juſt diſparſd, and they gave
out word directly, that I woud
preach, and they immediately
Collected, in a Certain Ducth m'
Houſe, and there was a large
Number of People, and I Spoke
from Ecleſi i. 15 and there was
a deep attention among the
People, after meeting I went
home with two Mr Winters tow
Brothers Youngerly folks, all
have a hope of Experamental
Religion, and they talk and ap
pear as Such —

Monday July 3,

took Breakfast
early, and Soon after went to
meeting, to a Certain Houſe in
the Woods and there was a large
Collection of People, we began
the Exerciſe a little after nine
I Spoke from the words what
think ye of Christ — and there
was an affectionate melting

attention amongſt the People &
Soon after meeting, I Baptiſed
three Children, one by the Name
of Joſeph and theMr Nakolas Piohits Son
the Children Mr Griffin andHanna
Mr Miller& Isaac , — then I went home
with Mr Griffin, (and Baptiſed
another for Mr griffin), took
Dinner with them, and Soon
after eating, I Sot of for the
Garmanflats, Got to Mr Conrod
s after Sun Sun Si[illegible]t. Some
Time, and there I Lodged &
had Comfortable reſt —

Tueſday July 4,

went to See
my folks at Mr Tygert's and
Wedneſday was there there
yet. —

Thirdsday July 6

in the
morning Some Time we Sot
of to go thro the Woods, near
12 we reachd at Ch[illegible][guess: uccaugui]de
we turnd out our Hoour Horſes
and my mare run away

and we were obligd to Stay
there all Night, we Coud not
find her, —

Fryday July 7:

we went
of prety early, and got to
our Settlement Some Time in
the after noon, and we were
glad to See one another, but
many of our People were gone
a way to Seek after proviſions
for food is very Scarce —

Saturday July 8:

and James Fowler Waucus
went after my mare —

Sabb July 9:

we met to go
then [illegible]at Abraham Simon's
there was but few of our folks
and good many Stocbridgers
were with us, I Spoke from
Cron [gap: omitted] Rom VIII and there was
good attention amongst the
People —

Monday July 10:

In the evening
Anthony and Jame Came back
without my mare, they found

her in a mire, Dead, Sunk
almoſt all over, there is the end
of her. —

Fryday July 14

Andrew Corricomb
had a Son Born

Sabb July 16,

Preachd at
Brother David Fowler's, Spoke
from Matt, Jeſus Cried. and
from Romans, if god be for us &c
most of our People were there
and a great number of Stocbred
, and and there was great
and Solemn attention, —

Sabb July 23

went from
Roger Wawby's to the Town
of Stockbridgers
, and many
of our People went and we
had alarge Aſembly, Mr Dean
and four with him Came to
meeting they live about Six
mi[illegible]les of, and I Spoke from
Matt VI: 9: and Psalm 133: 1
and the People attended well.
we had a Shower juſt as

meeting was Concluded, and
we Sot till it was over and
that was Soon, and then we
puſht on homeward, I got
Jacobs Fowler's about Sun
Set, and I was Some what
woried — —

Sabb July the 30

About 9
I went to Brother Davids &
there I preachd, and many
of the Stockbridgers were there
and four young Onoyda men
were there, inand were dreſt
Compleat in Indian way
they Shind with Silver, they
had large Claſps about
their arms, one had two
Jewels in his No[illegible][illegible][guess: o]ſe, and
had a lardge Silver half
moon on his Breaſt; and
Bells a bout their Legs, &
their heads were powderd
up quite Stiff with red
paint, and one of thiem
was white as any white

man and gray Eyes, his
appearance made me
think of the old Britains
in their Heatheniſm, —
I Spoke from Hoſea XIII: 9: &
[illegible] Ecleſi XII. 1 and
there was great attention
among the people, after meet
ing the Singers Sang Some
Time and then we all dis
perſd —

Monday July 31

a number
of us went to the Flats, we
got there before night, and
I put up at Mr Conrod
[illegible] Fol
s, Tueſday was [illegible]at
the place all Day —

Wedneſday Augſt 2

a bout two hours high we
Sot again for hom, and
I got home Juſt about
Sun down, all well, and
found our Folks well.
Thanks be to god . —

Sabb Augt 6:

Preach'd at Jacob
s in fore Noon, and
there was but few, People
it was rainy morning. —
In the after Noon we went
to David Fowlers, and there
was a large number of People
Several of the Stockbridgers
Came, I Spoke from Rom
[illegible][guess: v]II.28 29: & Luke XVI 13 — and the
People attended well. in
the evening I returnd again
to Brother Jacob. —

[illegible]Tueſday, Augt 8:

Some Time
in the morning I went to
Fiſhing at Oriſco Creak, and
I Catchd 5 Dozn and five
Salmon Trouts, — and Juſt
at Night I removd to Brother
David Fowlers to Stay a
while, — .

Saturday Augt 12

In the
after Noon I Sot out for
Stockbridgers, Stopt a while

at Roger Waubys, took
Dinner there, and after eat
ing, went on, got to the [illegible] Place
Some Time before Night,
Lodgd at Sir Peter Pauk
s. —

Sabb Augt 13:

About 10
we began the holy Exerciſe
at the Houſe of Jacob Cunk
, and there a large
Collection of People, Some
white people, — I Spoke
from Jerem XXXV 14. in the
after noon from Luk X. 42
and the People attended with
great Solemnity, and with
Some affection; and it it
was a Rainy after noon,
I Lodgd again at Sir
s — —

Monday Augt 14:

got up
very early, and Sot of for
Brotherton, — Stopt at Roger
s, and took Break
faſt, and Soon after eatg

I went on again; got at
Brothe Davids abot 10 &
found them [illegible] all well —

Wedneſday Augt 16:

Night, the Young People
Came together at Jacob Fowlers
to receive Inſtruction; and
I gave them a Short Diſcourſe
from Proverbs IV. 13: and they
attended exceeding well, they
behaved becomingly, and
were Solemn, and theſre was
Some affection, with Tears
after I had Spoke and Prayd
I orderd them to Sing, and
they Sung three Tunes, with
great Decency and Solemni
ty, and as they were going
out, Elyjah Wimpy firſt gave
me thanks, and all mani
feſted thankfulneſs; The
Lord Bleſs them, and give
them teachable Hearts, that
they be Wiſe unto eternal Sal[illegible][guess: va]

Sabb Augt 20:

Went to [illegible]Da
vid Fowler
s Some what early
and about 10 began the
Holy Service, and there was
a large Number of People
many Stockbridgers Came
and there were four out
of Mr Deans Family, and
one more what man, — I
Spoke from Luke II:10:11
and Psalm XXXI: 1 and there
was great and Solemn atten
tion in the Aſembly; after
meeting our People Stay'd
Some and Psalms — near Sun
Set I went down to Brother
Jacobs, and to bed soon and
reſted quietly once more —

Wedneſday Augt 23

Night the Young People Came
to Jacob Fowlers, to receive in
ſtruction; and I Spoke to them
from Prover [gap: omitted] a little whi
and then we Prayd, and af

ter Prayer I Exerciſed
with my Christian Cards
with them, and they were
agreable to them, and they
Awd with the various Texts
of Scripture, and I believe
they will not forget the even
ing very Soon, there was
one Stockbridge Girl Came
on purpoſe, and there was
one Engliſh Girl, and
they alſo Choſe each of 'em
a Text; and they Conclud
ed with Singing Several
Tunes, and the whole was
Caried on with Decency, &
Solemnity — —

Sabb Augt 27

Had a meeting
at Abraham Simon's ofn a count
of his wife's Sickneſs; he was
not at Home, he has been gone
five weeks tomorrow, — There was
a great Number of People
a number of Stockbridgers
was there, and tow white Men

from the New Town, I S[illegible]poke
from Gene. XXII. 12 and in the
after Noon from John III. 16 &
I believe we had the Preſence of
god with us, there was uncommon
attention, and great Solemnity
and many Tears flowd down the
Cheeks of many; after meeting
a Number of Singers went to
Jacob Fowlers and Sung a
while, and then we Prayd &
So every one went Home Soberly &
quietly —

Wedneſday Augt 30

Soon after
Breakfaſt thirteen of us Sot
out into the Woods they went
after Ginſhang Roots, and I
was going to Mr James Dean's
we travild together a bout 3
miles, and there they incampd
made up great Fire, and
Soon after I went on, Siſter
Hannah Fowler went with

me and then we went thro'
a Hedious Wilderneſs for three
or four miles, we had only
markd Trees to go by and
there was but very poor Trac
we arrivd to Mr Deans Some
Time in the afternoon, found
them all well, and we were
receivd with all kindneſs, and
I[illegible][guess: that] EveningSund down Brother David Came
runing in pufing and Blowing
and all of a fome with Sweat,
he had treed a Couple of Ra
coons and he for a gun [below]and one young man, and
went right back; and Some
Time in the he Came in with
one Racoon — —

Thirdsday Augt 31

11. we took leave of the Fa
and went to New Stockbridge
—- got there Some Time in the
after noon, we Calld on Sir

Peter Pauhquunnupeat [illegible] &
I put up there, —

Fryday Sepr 1:

Som Time
in the after noon, we had
a meeting, and I Spoke
from Psalm, 32:9 and
there was very good atten
tion — I the evening they
got together to Sing, and
after Singing, we had exer
ciſe with Christian Cards, and
it was new them and very a
greable, they attended with
great Solemnity, but all did
not [illegible][guess: C]draw that intended to
draw. it grew late. and So
we broak up. — —

Saturday Sepr 2:

I was at
the Place all Day long, I
viſited Some Families, as I
did yeſterday, in the evening

we met together again
to go thro' the Exerciſe we
began the laſt Night, with
my Christian Cards and it
was very agreable, Some
were much affected, we
Concluded with Singing
a Psalm. —

Sabb: Sepr 3.

About 10 we
began the Divine worſhip
of god and there was a
great number of People
for this wilderneſs Some white
People. — I Spoke from L
Matt XI. 12 and 1 Kings XIX.13
and I be the Lord was preſent
with us, I Some Senſe of the
great things [illegible][guess: I] delivering, and
I believe many felt the
Power of the word, for there
was great Solemnity, and

Auful Atention thro the Asem
bly many Tears flowd from
many Eyes, — as Soon as
the meeting was done, I went
Home with our People, we got
Home Juſt before Sun Sit; and
our Singers got together and
they Sung Some Time, we
had Some new Comers, at
the Singing meeting, — Laſt
Saturday 13: of our People
Came to our Place to Settle,
a Family from Mohegan &
a Family from Montauk
and Some from Naroganſet
and one from Farmington

Wedneſday Sepr 6:

Night, I attended upon our
Young People, and ten Stock
Came to the meeting
old and young, and many
of our old People Came too.

We begun with Singing, and
then Prayd, after Prayer
the Young People rehearſed
the Texts and verſes they
had Choſen at our Second
meeting, and they were very
[illegible] Solemn, and when they had
done, I began a Diſcourſe
with them, from 1 Timothy VI.19
and it was a Solemn Time with
the People, many were much
affected. Concluded with Prayer
and Singing. —

Sabb Sepr 10

In the morn
ing we went Abraham Simons
to meeting, began about 10
and there was a great num
ber of People, many from
Stockbridge and we had
to white men at the meeting
they were going to Niegara
from Johns Town, and

and there was a Solemn
attention thro' the Aſembly
I Spop[illegible]ke from Matt IX [illegible]
In the after noon we went
to David Fowlers, and I
Spoke from Job XXI. 14. 15
and there was greater at
tention many affected deep
ly, after meeting the Singrs
Stopt and Sang Some Time
and Concluded with Prayer
and So we parted —

Monday Sepr 11.

I went
down to the garman [illegible]Flats
Young Elijah Wympy &
I went together, we got thro
Juſt before Sun Sit, and I
put up at my good Friends
Mr Conrod Fols[illegible][guess: 's] was Some
waried and went to bed Soon
but had uncomfortable Nt
of it there were So many Virn

Tueſday Sepr 12

got up very
early, and it was very Lower
ry and So did not Sot out
So Soon as I intended, took
Breakfaſt, and about 10 I
Sot out for Springfield, and
juſt before I got to the Place
I miſt my way, got to South
weſt of the Place good way[illegible][guess: ,]
and towards Night it began
to be Sowerry, and juſt at
Night, I Calld at a Certain
Houſe, to of the way, and it
began to rain, and ask'd me
whether I Might Stay there
and I thankd him told I woud
and So I Stayd; took Supper
with them, — and went to bed
Soon, and had Comfortable
reſt, —

Wedneſday Sepr 13

Got up
very early and got ready
and they woud had me Stayd

to take Breakfaſt with them
but I told them I woud take
it another Time — The mans
Name is Mr Nicholas Lowe
they were very kind to me
the man had heard me at
New York above 20 Years
back. So took good leave of
them and went on my way
got to the Place about 9 and
Calld on Mr Winters but
they were not at Home, the
Women were at H[illegible][guess: ouſe]ome, and
they got me Breakfaſt, they
were exceeding kind, ,— and
from thence I went to mr grif
s, and was there till near
Sun Sit, and then I went to Mr
s, where a meeting was a
pointed, and there was a large
Number of People Collected to-
gether, and I Spoke from Rom
II. 28-29: and the People attended
with all gravity, and believe

Some felt the Power and Love
of god, — I Stayd at the Same
Houſe, it is a Dutch Family
and there is one Young man in
this Houſe, Very Remarkable in
Religion. he is a living Christian
I believe is not aſhamd of his Lord
and maſter, he was Converted last
Winter, and he is much oppoſd by
the moſt of the Family, yet he
keeps on — he and I Lodgd toge-
ther this night, after we had
a long Converſation in the
Family; I was Treated well
by the Whole Family, Reſted
Comfortably —

Thirdsday Sepr 14

and Fryd
was at the place went to See
Some Families Lodgd once
at Mr Dicks and once at
Mr Crippins. —

Saturday Sepr 16:

Juſt after
Dinner we went to one Mr

Nicholas Pickards where
the Chriſtian People were to
have a Conference meeting,
the People Collected Some Time in
the after Noon, and they began
by Prayer and Sung, and they
began to relate their Experi
ances, and there were 12 men
and three women, that related
the work of god on their Souls
and it took them, till near Mid
Night, and it was the moſt
agreable meeting that ever
I was at, there wasere Several
Nations and Denominations &
yet all harmonious, there was
no Jar amongſt them, but
Peace and Love, there experi-
ences were acording to the
Doctrines of the goſpel, —
I Lodgd at the Same Houſe &
was very kindly entert[illegible: [guess: a]]ing
the man is a Dutchman &
his is Ire[illegible][guess: i]ſh woman, and
both I believe were Sincere

Chriſtians —

Sabb Sepr 1617:

Near 10 we went
to meeting, at old Mr Pickards
in his New Houſe only Coverd o
ver head, and there was a Pro
digious Number of People, and
I Spoke from Acts XV XI. 26 in
the after Noon from the last Psa
and the laſt verſe — after meetg
went to Deacon Childs, and in
the Evening, a number of
young People Came to the Houſe
to receve Inſtrution, and I Spoke
to them from Some paſages of
S[illegible]cripture, and after [illegible]that
we had Exerciſe with my
Notes, and there was great So
lemnity amongſt them, they
were moſt all Dutch People
they Stayd late — —

Monday Sepr 18:

It was a
Rainy Day, and I did not Sit
out, towards Night I went
to Mr Pickards from Mr Crippens
Mr Nicholas Pickard went with

me the old gentleman and
his wife recievd me with all
k–ndneſs — and in the evenig
the Young People Came together
again for Inſtruction, and
I Spoke to them the words Re-
member thy Creator &c and
after that we had Exerciſe
with my Cards again, and
the People were much Solemn
niſed, we Sot up Some [illegible]what
late again, I reſted Comfort
ably once more —

Tuſday Sepr 19:

got up
early, and got Breakfast
and then Sot off, and got
to Mr Fols juſt after Sun
Set, went to Bed Soon —

Wedneſday Sepr 20

Sot of
Some what early old E
went with me
and we got thro before
Night we overtook a num

of Stockbridgers juſt Come
from there old Settlement,
found our Folks well —

Sabb Sepr 24

Had a meeting
in David Fowlers Barn, and
there was a large number of
People Collected, great many
from old Town, the bigeſt
Aſembly we have had Since
I Came to this Place. I Spoke
from 1 Corin VII 29.30.31: &
Acts XVI. 28, and I believe
we had the preſence of god
with us many were deeply
affected there was flow of Tears
from many Eyes, — in the
evening the singers went to
Jacob Fowlers to Sing, and
I went there too, and they
Sung near two Hours and
theren gave them a word of
Exhortation and prayd, and
things were done decently
and in order; and So we

parted once more in Peace
and Love, I went back to
Brother Davids and Soon
went to bed quietly one
more The Lord be Praiſed —

Monday Sepr 25

Sot of
about mid Day for old
David went with
me in order to the Lake
to Fiſhing, — Lodgd at widow
s, —

Tueſday Sepr 26,

I did not
feel well, and it lookd like
for Storm, and so we returnd
back got home Some time
before noon —

Fryday Sepr 28:

in the
morning went to Stockbridg
, and toward Night Preachd
a Diſcourſe to them, I Spok
from Gala VI.15 and there

was great Solemnity in
the Congregation — Lodgd
at Sir Peters —

Sabath, Octor 1:

Had our
meeting in Jacob Concoppots
and there was a Prodigi
ous large Congregation
for this wilderneſs, Some
white People — I Spoke
from Psalm 58: 15: in the
after noon from Ezek XXXII: 11
and we had an Awfull Solem
nity in the aſembly, there
was a Shower Tears, I felt
Bowels of Compaſsion towards
my poor Brethren; in the
Evening the Stockbridgers
met at Sir Peters, and they
reharſd what they heard
in the Day, and they were
Very Solemn; at the end
of their reharſal, Sir Peter
a Confeſsion of his wanderings

from God, and Askd the
Peoples forgiveneſs, and he
was very Solemn, and the
People receivd him in their
Charity —

Wedneſday Octr 4:

had a
meeting with our Young
People, and there was many
old People alſo, — I Spoke
from Prover XXII. 1 and there
was uncommon attention a
mongſt the People, Especial
ly the Young People —

Saturd morning Sepr 6:

ter the reading a Chapr
I took notice of Some Paſ
Sages and Spoke to the Fa
mily, and there was a So
lemn attention, and then
I attempted to Pray, and I
had an auful senſe of ourthe

Miſerable Situation of
mankind, and the goodneſs
of god which [illegible]melted down
my Soul before god, and
there was much affection
in the Family,, —

Sabb Octor 7:

Had a meet
ting in Brother Davids &
there was but a little num
ber of People by reaſon
of the uncommon Floods in
all the Creeks and on the
Land [illegible], most of the Bridges
were Carried off, for it had
been Raining Several Days
laſt Week; and it Rains
Yet; Some Stockbridgers
Came to meeting for all all
the dreadful Traviling there
five women and four men

I Spoke from I XL 22 and
I think I had an Auful Senſe
of the Deplorable State of Sin
ful race of Adam, and Some
Senſe of the greatneſs and
goodneſs of God, and there
was an Auful attention
and flow of Tears — in the
after noon I Spoke from
Gene XXIV. 58: and there was
again a gmoving among
the People; I hope they
they will not Soon forget the
Day, — In the evening they
Sung at Davids, and af
ter Singing, I Spoke to the
Young People in particu
lar, and they were great
ly bowed down before the
word, Some were deeply
affected; and it was Some

before we broak up the
meeting, and they went
home with Solemnity, —

Wedneſday Octr 11:

Night had a meeting with
the Young People, and we
had Exerciſe with Chriſtian
Cards out of the Old Teſtamt
and there was an uncommon
affection amongſt them, I
believe there was Scarcely
one but what was Some
what moved, and old People
were moved too, — we Sung
a little after the Exerciſe —
and So parted —

Sabb Octr 15

Had a meeting
in Brother David Fowler's
and there was great Number
of People, and we had a Solemn
Meeting, I Spoke from Matt 5

Monday Octor 16:

a number
of us, I think Sixteen, all
men, went to New-Town to
have a Treaty with the oniedas
we had Calld them to our Town
but they to Chuſe have us Come to
their Town, and we d[illegible]rove
one Creature to them to kill
we got there after Sun Sit
went directly to the Councell
Houſe, David and I Lodgd
there, and there reſt were
orderd elſewhere. I had but
poor reſt all Night, they have
too many Vermine for me —

Tueſday Octor 17:

Some Time
in the after noon, were Calld
to appear before the Councell,
and we were permitted to Speak
for our Selves, — and we rela
ted the whole of our tranſacti
ons with them about the Land
they gave us — for they had
a notion to take it back a

a gain last Summer, and
only allow one mile Square
which we utterly refuſd, and
when we had[illegible][guess: Cou'd] not got thro that
Day, and we were diſmiſt
in the evening, we all went
together in a Certain Houſe
to Sing and Pray together, &
after prayers B David and I
Back to the Councell Houſe
to Lodge —

Wedneſday Octor 18

Near mid
Day we were Calld again to
the Councell, and we reſumd
our relation and Soon finiſhd
and then we went out, and
were Calld again Soon, and
they began to reharſe we had
deliverd, and they Said it was
all good and True, and then
they made a New offer to
to us, to live on the Same
Spot of ground, but to be
bound by any Bounds, but
live at large with them on

their Land, which we re
fuſd, and we told them, we
Chuſe to bounded, and they
had bound us all r[illegible][guess: on]d, all
most all round, and we wanted
only to be bound alround w[illegible]here
we were, and they took it un
der Conſideration, —

Thirdsday Octr 19:

We wer
Calld again, and, about
11 o c: we recived the News
of the Death of our oldeſt
man in our Town, old un
cle Cornelus
Dead the evening
before, and So we were obligd
to Drop our Buſineſs, and went
home ward; I Stopd at old T
Lodgd at Sir Peter Pokqun–s

Fryday Octr 20.

I went off
Early to our Town about
10: Towards Night we all
to the Houſe of mourning, and
I deliver a Short Diſcourſe
from XXXIX.4.5 and from

thence went to the grave, and
we finiſhd Buriing after Sun
Sit and I went home —

Saturday Octr 21:

Soon after
Breakfaſt, Sot of for old Town
Sally Skeſuck and I went toge
ther got there before Noon, I
Sot a while in Widow Quinnees
and then went to Sir Peters—
and was there a while, and there
Came a man, and brought a
Maloncholy word; Concerning
Sally as She was returning
and had Juſt got out of the Town
the Mare got a fit of kicking
[illegible]up her heels, and Crouded up
againſt a fence, and She fell
Backwards and broak her right
Arm; I went directly to See her
and found her in great Miſery, we
Splinted up her arm, and So left
in the evening, went again to
See her, and She was in great
Pains, and I tryd to bleed her
but I Coud not make out

Sabb Octr 22,

at uſual
Time went to meeting and
our Folks had Juſt Come
and moſt of them went back
to try to Carry home Sally
the aſemb[illegible]yle was not So large
as uſual by reaſon of the
above mentiond accident
And I Spoke from 1 Corn. X. 21
in the after noon from Matt III: 11
and there was moſt Soled at
tention thro the Day, I Baptiz
ed Sir Peters wife and Child, —
In the evening a Number of [illegible][guess: men]
met at Sir Peters, and there
were 9: or so Manifeſted, their Exer
ciſes of mind, they never were
So awakend about their Souls
affairs as they are now, there
never was So many men brought
to Such Conſideration as they are
now, they Confeſt, they have
been [illegible][guess: are] vi[illegible]le Sinners, and
determine, by the help of god,
to turn from their [illegible] evel ways
and Seek god, They say, they

it is by hearing me Preach to
them; one old woman Said, She
had, Some thoughts about Religi
on, and was Baptizd Some time
ago, and She thought it was well
enough with her, till She heard
me, She thinks now, She never has
met with any thing, and She thinks
it is a gone Caſe with her; I gave
her encouragement to preſs forward
if at eleven Hour with her, She
may Yet Come in — we Sot up a
long while at last we broke u
up, and I went to bed Soon, —

Monday Octr 23

A little paſt
Noon four of our men Came to
old Town on their way to New
, and I Sot of with them di-
rectly, and we got there Juſt be-
fore Sun Sit, and the Councell
was then Sitting, and were orderd
to a Certain Houſe, and in the
Duſk of the evening of the even
ing we were Calld, and after
we Sot there good while, they
read their Speech and Concluſe
on, and it was if did not accept
of their offer they woud take

the Land back again, and we
woud not accept of their offer
it was take the Land at large
without any bounds — —

Tueſday Octr 24:

our men went to
Ca[illegible][guess: n]aſerake to Fiſhing, and
I Sot of for home, Sotpt at the
old Town, and intended to paſs
along, but they deſired me to
Stay to have a meeting in the
Evening, and I Conſented; in
the evening they Collected toge
ther I believe moſt all the old
People, and many Young P.
I Expound upon II Corin. XIII: 11
and there was deep attention
with flow of Tears, after I had
done [illegible]two or three Spoke in
their own Tongue, reharſeing
what I had diliverd, and their
Chief man aſkd me, as I was
about to leave them, how
they Shoud go on in their
religious Concerns, and I told

them, as they were not formd
into Church State, they Shoud
inter into Chriſtian Fellowſhip
and put themſelves under watch
Care of one another, and Cary
on the public Worſhip of god
in Singing Praying and read
ing of the word of god, and
[illegible][guess: Some] Exhortation, and Some
Explination of the word of god
and maintain Family worſhip
Conſtantly — —

Wedneſday Octr 25

Some Time
in the morning I left old Town
and went to our Town, got there
a little before noon, and found
Davids Family well, but one
Child, was unwell, but not very
Sick — —

Saturday Octr 28:

Our People
pretended to have a Con[illegible][guess: ver]ence
meeting, but one man who was
moſt Concernd in the meeting
did not Come, and So they did
nothing, they Concluded to Cut
the Road thro to the Flats

Juſt at Night two white men
Came to our Town from Spring
, about forty miles from
h[illegible][guess: er]e, they Came on purpoſe to
give us a Christian Viſit, we
expected them and according they
Came, and we were Glad to See
each other, In the Evening we
had a meeting, and there were
Some Stockbridge Brethren with
us, and there was great moving
and Some making, and wthere
was Some Crying out, had the
meeting late, —

Sabb. Octor 29:

Many Stock
Came to meeting, about
ten we began the Exerciſe and
there was great Aſembly. I Spoke
from [gap: omitted] Matt XXIV: 14:
and we had a Solemn meeting
many were affected — in the
evening we had another meet
ing, and there was great mov
ing, and Some making up, and
many were affected, but I believe

there was more Natural affecti
on then Gracious Gracious afn
there was Conſiderable Noiſe we
were late before we left the
Place, —

Wedneſday Novr 1,

I had a
meeting with the Young Peop
at David Fowler’s, and they
repeated the verſes upon the
Texts they Choſe, the laſt
Time they met, and it was
a Solemn Time with us, many
Tears were Shed, Several indeed
are Deep Convictions, and been
So for Some Time —

Saturday Novr 4:

near [illegible]noon
I Sot of for New Stockbridge
Stopt a while at Brother Ro
ger Wauby
s and took dinner
there, and after eating paſt
on got to the Place towards
Night, put up at Capt Hind

in the Evening we had a meetg
I dropt a few words, and many
diſcover’d their Spiritual Exerciſes
and it was a Solemn Time,
many Confeſt and lamented
their paſt Conduct, and deter
mind to live a Regular life
in Time to Come &c —

Sabb. Novr 5:

People began
to Collected together, and there
was a great Number of P
we began the Exerciſe about
ten. I Spoke Jouſhua XXIV: 15
and I believe the Lord acom
panied his word by his Divine
Spirit, the People were Bowd
before the word, — after Speaking
I Baptized
[gap: omitted]

[gap: omitted]
in the Eving we met again
I did not Say much, and there
was a number again that
diſcoverd their Cocern and re
ſolutions, and it was a Solemn
Seaſon, and we held the mg
late, Lodgd at Capt Hindricks
again — —

Monday No[illegible]r 6:

We had
another meeting quite ear
ly, and there was much af
fection, I Spoke to them a
bout the Nature of Baptiſm
very Cloſe, and I Baptized
[gap: omitted]

Some Time towards noon I
left New Stockbridge, Stopt a
little while at Roger Wauby’s
and So paſt on, got to Brother
s Some Time in the after
Noon, — in the eving we had
a meeting, and it was a Com
fortable meeting; — — —

Tueſday Novr 4

was geting
ready to return homward, Viſit
ed Some Families — —

Wedneſday Novr 8:

Viſted again
and was buſy geting ready — —

Thirdsday, Novr 9:

Sot of early
Sir Peter Puhquennappeet,
[illegible] Catty Quinney Betſy Fowler
and Elizy Corricomb went with
me, and we were obligd to
Lodge in the Woods we Coud not
get thro’, and it rain’d Some
we found a good Hutt, and

made out to make fire, and
we lodged quite Comfortable
I had good reſt — —

Fryday Novr 10:

got up Some
Time before Day, and as Soon
as it was break a Day, we ta
cled our Horſes and went on
we got to Mr Folss Juſt after
Sun riſe, took breakfaſt at
Mr Folss: and a bout 8: we
Sot off again, Stopt a little at
Esqr Franks, and near 12 we
went on again, Got to Spring-
, Some Time in the Evening
we put up at Brother Crippins
and we were Gladly receivd
and we were glad to See them — —

Saturday Novr 11:

We we were
at the Place all Day, in the
Evening, we had a meeting in
Mr Crippin's Houſe, and we had
a Comfortable Time, the Christians
were much refreſh’d, and there

was one Boy Spoke, he was much
Exerciſd in his mind, John Tuhy
Came here juſt before meeting
began, — we of my Company Lodgd
at Mr Crippin's — — — — —

Sabb Novr 12:

About 9: we went
to Mr Pickards where the meeting
is to be about 11: [illegible]we began the
Exerciſe, and there was a great
Number of People, and I Spoke
from John XII: 36: and the People
attend with great Solemnity and
many were much affected, — in
the Evening we had another meet
ing in the Same Houſe, and the
People were greatly movd, Seve-
ral Cried out, the Christians were
much Strengthen’d. I Lodged at
Mr Pickard’s — — — —

Monday Novr 13:

Betſey Fow–
and Eliza Corricomb Came to
me very early, they were go
ing home, and I got up, and
went directly to mr Crippin’s

and As Soon as they got break
faſt they went of, poor girls they
were all in Tears, when we part
ed, and I went back to mr Pick
s: and from thence I went to
Brother Nicholas Pickards, and
and after a while Brother Tuhy
and Peter Came to me, and Sot
there a while, and then took leave
of Siſter Pickard, and we went
on to Mr Ways where meeting is
to be, he lives in Cherry-Vally
we got there before Night, we
were receivd with all kindneſs
and Brotherly affection, — took
Dinner there, — in the evening
a few People Came together, I
Spoke to them from the words
what will Ye that I Shall do
unto you, and we had a good
meeting —

Tueſday Novr 14

Some Time
after Breakfast we Sot of and

our Courſe to Bowmans Creek
we got to Esqr Kimbels about
12: and took dinner there, and soon
after Dinner, we went on again
and we got Esqr Maybee’s in the
Duſk of the Evening and I lodgd
there, and John and Peter went
over the River. — — —

Wedneſday Novr 15:

got Break
early and Soon after, I went
over and got to Major Fundees
Soon, there I found my Company
and was there Some Time; and
then Peter Pokquonnoppeet and
I Sot of and went down, we Calld
on Capt Grig, and was there
a few minutes, and went on
again, and I Stopt at Mr
Albert Vedder
s, and was
kindly receivd, Peter past
on, — —

Thirdsday Novr 16,


Time after Breakfaſt, I went
over to Mr Bartlets and was
kindly rece[illegible][guess: v’]d, and Concluded
to have a meeting on the next
Day at Mr Keenes: towards
Night, I went back to Mr Vedder’s
and Lodged there again and
had Comfortable reſt — — —

Fryday Novr 17,

about 12 we
went over to meeting, got there
about 2: and Soon began the
Meeting, and there was a Conſide
rable number of People, I Spoke
from Mark V. 4: and many
were affected, it was a Solemn
Time, — after Sermon we attended
upon the ordernance of Baptiſm
I Baptiſed two white Children
and one Negro Child, one for
Mr David Wright by the name
of Sarah, one for Mr John Robbin
by the Name of Martin, one
Cato Quaſh by the name Simon

after meeting I went home with
Mr Eliot, and there I Lodgd, and
was very kindly treated, — —

Saturday 18,

Some Time in the
morning a number of Neigbours
Came together, and had an Exer
ciſe with my Cards, and it
was very agreable, and Solemn
towards night I went to Mr
’s and there I lodged
and Lodged Comfortably once
more — — —

Sabb Novr 19:

About 9 we
went over the River, and so went
down to Mr HaAhaſuerus
, and there was a
great Number of People and
we begun the Service about
12: I Spoke from Rom: II. 28-29
and the People attended exceed
ing well and was affection,

after meeting took dinner at
the Same Houſe, and there was
one Mr John Connoot Dine there
alſo, he is a Reader of Divine
Service, on Sabbaths, among
the Dutch, he is filing and Pre-
paring, to be a Preacher, he is
a Zealous Young man, — after
Dinner I went back to Mr Vedders
and Lodged there onece more
was very kindly entertain’d — —

Monday Novr 20:

Sot of early
in the morning, and we found it
had to get over ther River, there
good deal of Ice Came down the
River, I went down the river
and got Mr John H[illegible][guess: o]eg[illegible][guess: e]boom’s
about 12: and there I had a
meeting, there was Conſidera-
ble number of People; I Spoke
from Mark VIII. 36: 37, and the
People were much affected, they
were Chiefly Dutch, and Mr
John Cannoot
was here again

I Lodgd at the Same Houſe and
was very kindly Treated — —

Tueſday Novr 21:

Some Time
after Breakfaſt, I took leave
of the Family, and went on to
Schenactada, Call’d on one mr
Elias Guiſley
, but was not at
Home, thiere was only Mr Vedders
Daughter at Home, and I soon
paſt on, and got Mr John
’s about 12: and there I
put up —

Wedneſday Novr 22:

was at the
Place, got Some Cloah for a great
and a Jacket, and got them
made up, and had a Shirt
made alſo,. — —

Thirdsday Novr 23:

wa about
to Set of, but the Engliſh Poep
[illegible]Deſired to Stay over the Sabb
and I Conſented, — — —

Sabb Novr 26:

about 10

went to meeting, and it was
extream Cold, and was but
few People, I Spoke from Mark 66
in the after noon from Jonah 3:5
and there was great Number of
People, and they attended with
great Solemnity, — — —

Monday Novr 27:

Some Time
in the morning, I took leave of
my Friends and went on to
Neſquney, got there about
12: and about 1: went into
the meeting and there was
great Number of People, and
I Spoke from J Hebrew XI: 6
and the People were much
moved many of them, it was in
deed a Solemn Time, they made
a Some Collection, — Soon after
meeting, I went with one
Mr Fordt about a mile &

Eaſtward from the meeting
and there I Lodged, and was
very kindly treated; we Sot
up Some w[illegible]hat late, and
went to bed at laſt, and had
Comfortable reſt — —

Tuſday Novr 28,

It was
very Cold, and Some Time
after Breakfaſt, I took leave
of the Family, and went on
to Be[illegible][guess: u][illegible]ght, I Calld on [illegible]My
old Friend Mr Sanford, and
took dinner with him; and
Soon after Dinner, I went on
and call’d on Mr Cornelius
, and Stayd
there Some Time took tea
there, Juſt at Night, I went
to Mr David Feros, and kind
ly receivd, and Lodged there

about Sun Sit we went meeting
at the Houſe onee Major Fondee
and there was a large number
of People, and I Spoke from [illegible]1 Epes
of John V. 10. and the People at
tended with great Solemnity, and
Shed Tears, Soon after meeting I
went back with Mr Feros Family
in a Slay, and there I Lodged, — —

Wedneſday Novr 29:

Some Time
after Breakfaſt, Mr Henry Fero
and I went to See the Falls, and
it is a grand Sight, the Power
of god is to be Seen in it, after
a while we went back, and I
took Dinner with him; and
towards night, I went to Mr
Jacob Lawnſon
s; and I had no
thoughts of a meeting, but Soon
after Duſk, the People began to
Come in and there was large num
ber of People, and I preachd
to them from, Mark V: 4: and

and there was great Solemnity
and affection among the People
and I believe they will Soon
forget Evening. I Lodgd at
the Same Houſe, and was exceead
I ingly well treated, went to bed
Some what late, and had Com-
fortable reſt, — —

Thirdſday Novr 30:

was at
Mr Lawnſons till about 10
then I went to meeting, I Stopt
a little while at Mr Levinus
, and about 11: we
went to the meeting Houſe,
and there was a large numbr
of People, and I Spoke to them
from Diniel: V. 25 [gap: omitted]
and there was a great Solemni
ty, and may were I believe
felt the Power of the word,
after meeting, went to Mr
Levinus Le[illegible][guess: e]ghſon
s again[illegible], —
and took Dinner with them

and Some Time towards night
I went to Mr David Fero’s, and
the People Collected together again
for a meeting, and there was a large
Number got together; and I Spoke
from Rom. II. 28-29 and the People
attended with much affection, I
believe they will not forget the
Night, very Soon — Lodged at
the Same Houſe and reſted Com
fortable — —

Fryday Decr 1

got up very
early and we were geting
ready to Go to Albany, one
of Mr Feros Sons one Daughters
and a Daughter in Law; we Sot
of in a wagon, before Sun riſe, &
we got to Albany, near 10, it is a
bout 9 miles, I Calld at a Certain
Houſe, from thence I went into
the City, one Mr Blackney went
with me, and as I was going a
long I Caſt my Eyes down Street and

and Saw my good Brother Peter
, and another man
with him they were returning
to Oneida, and we Spent Some Time
together in a Certain Tavern, and
there I Saw Mr Kirkland a minute
or two, about 12 Sir Peter and I
parted, I went to See Mr McDolnal
a Miſniſter of the Preſſbeterian
[illegible] Congregation, found him very
Sociable, and a lively gentleman
took Dinner with him, and Soon
after Dinner, went of to took my
Company, and went to the Same
Houſe, that I went into firſt, &
was there but few minutes and
had an opportunety to return to
Debought in another wagon
and we to Mr [gap: omitted]
and preſently after I we got there
there was a number of Neighbours
Came in to hear Something from
the Word of god, and I dropt a
few words to them, and I Lodge
there and was exceedingly well

Treated, and the People of the
Houſe appeard and talked like
Chriſtians, there was one old gentle
man, helpleſs, has been So for Some

Saturday Novr 2.

Soon after Breakfaſt the
man of the Houſe got his Horſes &
Wagon ready and he carried me
to Mr Fero’s, and I was there a
while, and then took leave of the
Family, and left the Place &
went to half Moon, Stopt at Mr
’s and took Dinner with
him, and Soon after Dinner I went
on and Stopt at Mr Fundees
he keeps a Ferry, and he was
not at home, and preſently after
Mr Le[illegible][guess: e]ghſen, came to me, and
So we went on together to half Moon
he went afoot, and we got to Mr
’s Some Time before night
and I was kindly receivd; and
in the Evening, we went to MrColol
[gap: omitted] and there was a num
ber of men, and we had very a

agreable Converſation, took Super
there, and Some after I returnd
with Mr Clute, and there I Lodgd
and a Comfortable reſt — —

Sabb NovrDecr 3:

about 10: went to
meeting, about a mile, and there
was a large Number of People,
tho’ it was a Cold Day, [illegible] I Spoke
from Marke VIII. 36. 37: and the
People were greatly bowd before
the word, many were deeply afect
ed, — after meeting I with one
Mr Comſtock, and took dinner there
he is an Engliſhman, after Dr
we had Exerciſe with my Christian
Cards with a few People, and it
was agreable to them; — In then
Evening, went to meeting to a
Certain Houſe, but there [illegible]were
So many People, we were obligd
to go to Meeting Houſe again
and there was near as many
this evening as there was in
the Day Time and I Spoke

from 1 Kings XIX 13 and there was
greater Solemnity than in the
Day Time. it was a Night to be
rememberd, — after meeting went
home with Mr Clute, went to bed
Some what Early, and had a
Comfortable Sleep — — —

Monday Decr 4:

Af[illegible]ter Break
faſt, a Number of People Came
in, and we had Exerciſe with
my Chriſtian Cards and it was
very agreable to them —
Some Time towards Noon I took
leave of the Family, and of, &
went to the Point, intended to
go over then[illegible] River there. I
went to Mr John VenVkan
R. Venderwarken
and they
had a great Mind to have me
Stay so as to have a meeting
inening, and Finally I Con
cluded to Stopt, and so in the
evening I went to meeting

So in the evening we went to
the City and had a meeting in
a large [illegible][guess: uper] Room, very elogant
and there was a Conſiderable of
People and I Spoke from John XII
and the People attended with great
and Solemn attention; and after
exerciſe I Sot down a while by the
Fire, and Capt Morgan the man
of the Houſe began to aſk me
Some Queſtions, in favour of
univerſal Salvation, and we
had a mile Converſation, and
many People heard us, and they
may Judge between us — and
So after a while I returnd home
with Mr John R. Venderwarken
and it Snowd quite fast, and
we Sot a long while after we got
hom, and we had very agreable
Converſation, and at lenght I went
to Bed quietly once more — — —

Tueſday Novr 6Decr 5:

We found Con
ſiderable depth of Snow this
[illegible]Morning, and it Continued to

Snow, — This morning I Baptized
a Child for one Mr Stephen Picket
by the Name Stephen Gregory, I
Stayd here all Day. it was Cold
Day, and it Snowd till about 12
in the Evening, we had exerciſe
with my Cards, and it was very
agreable to the Company and was
much Pleaſd; we Sot up Some
what late, and it was very Cold
all Night — —

Wedneſday DecrNovr 6,

It was ex
tream Cold, and I Continued to be
here all Day again, in the
Evening a few Neighbours Came
in, and we exerciſe with my Cards
and we had quite agreable even
ing, the Company was much gra
tifed, and well Pleaſd. —

Thirdsday DecrNovr 7:

Soon after eat
ing, Mr Venderwarken [illegible]Got his
Slay ready, and took me and
Carried me to Mr Fundee’s ferry
I calld at mr Fundees, and

and took Dinner there, Soon
after Dinner, Mr Funde took
me in his Slay, and we went
to Mr Fero’s, we Calld at mr
[illegible]Le[illegible][guess: n]ghſen
s and he went
with us, and we Came back
Soon, and we Stopt at Mr John
s, and there we took
Tea; Soon after Tea, we went
a long; and I Stopt at Mr R.
Le[illegible][guess: n]ghſen
, where meeting is
to be this evening. Juſt at
Duſk, the People began to
Come together, and there was
a large number of People, and
I Spoke from III [illegible]Heb two laſt
verſes, and it wa a Solemn
Time, the People attended
with great affection — I
Lodged at the Same Houſe
and was Treated with

great Tenderneſs and Friend­
ſhip, went to bed in good Sea­
ſon and Comfortable reſt — —

Fryday Decr 8:

I got up a
great while before Day, and
a Young Woman, a Houſekeeper
got up too, and as I was going
down Stares, She took hold of
me, and helpd me down; &
the old gentleman got up too
Soon after, and we had very
agreable Converſation, upon
Religious Concerns; and before
Day we had our Breakfast;
after that we had Exerciſe with
my Cards, there was only one
white perſon, and Several Negroes
and after that we prayd, and
it was broad Day light, and [illegible]
my Horſe was got up, and be
fore Sun riſe Some Time I was
on Horſe back, and I Juſt calld

on Mr John Lenghſen, and So
past on, Call’d at [gap: omitted]
a few minutes, and so paſt on
myy way to Albany; got there
a lilte after 9: put up at a Ta-
vern, — went to See Some Friends —
about 2 I left Albany, and
went over the River, got to
Esqr Woodworths juſt after Sun
Sit and found them well but
one girl, and there Lodgd —
It is remarkable, that Since
I left Onoida; I have been with
Dutch People almost altogether
I have lodg’d in Engliſh Familys
but twice, and I never was
treated better by any People
nor So well, — and I have preachd
amongſt Chifely, and there is
a remarkable attention a
mongſt them, as ever was Seen
amongt hereabouts, indeed
there is great moving amongst

them in Several Places, eſpeci
al at Debought, I preahd there
Six Times, Yea, theye woud get
together, where ever I am, to get
inſtruction, they Seem to be real
ly hungry after the word of god.
at half moon, the Dutch People
are the forwardeſt for meetings
there are a great Number of
Engliſh Families, but not half
So forward for meetings, as the
Dutch are, — I believe the Ld
is about to Call them by his
Divine opperations in a more
Remarkable manner, than they
have had Yet in this Country,
they have been lookd upon, in
general, both by Christian People
and Heathen Indians, as a Care
leſs profane People, as any that
[illegible] pretends to Christianity, or thoſe
that are Calld Christian People

Saturday Decr 9

was at Esqr
s all Day, and it Snowd
all Day, and it was quite Cold —

Sabath DecrDecember 10:

It Snowd Still &
there was a great Body of Snow on
the ground, it was about 3: feet
and 3 [illegible]Inches Deep upon a level
and it was exceeding Cold, about
10 the People gbegan to Come toge
ther, and there was afew got together
Yet as many again Coud be ex-
peted for the weather and Snow,
and about 12: we be[illegible]gan the
Service, and I Spoke from
2 Corin VI. 17. 18 and the People at
tended well, — Lodgd at the Same
Houſe again, and it was extream
Cold Night, I was [gap: omitted]

Blank page.
Brethren of the N Town,
Called Brotherton,
Send greetings to the
Brethren of Canaharohare
and invite them to Come,
to our Town
Mr David Write [illegible] Sarah
John Robbinſon..Mertin
Cato QuaſhSimon
Seth Vedder of Neſquney
Blank page. Blank Page.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Fortt, Simon
Gregg, James

James Gregg was a member of the New York Continental Infantry during the Revolutionary War. He was appointed 2nd Lieutenant on June 28, 1775 and 1st Lieutenant on June 26, 1776. He was a captain when the remarkable incident that Occom records in his journal for June 29, 1786 occurred. According to the military journal of Dr. Thatcher at Fort Stanwix in central New York, on June 25, 1777, Captain Gregg left the Fort with Corporal Madison, both of Colonel Gansevoort's regiment, to shoot pigeons. About a mile and a half from the Fort, they where shot down by two Indians. Though never identified, the attackers could have been from any of the Haudenosaunee tribes allied with the British. Madison was killed and scalped. Gregg was shot, tomahawked in the head and back, and scalped. A dog with them alerted nearby soldiers who brought Gregg and Madison back to the Fort. Gregg survived under the care of Dr. Thatcher, and was taken to a hospital in Albany. Thatcher reports that after a year or so of recovery, Gregg was back on duty. Another muster list records Gregg transferred to the 1st Regiment of New York in 1783. In the 1780s, Gregg and his wife were living in central New York along the Mohawk River in the area east of Brothertown where Occom frequently preached. Occom records dining and lodging with the Greggs on numerous occasions.


Mrs. Gregg was the wife of Captain James Gregg, veteran of the Relutionary War. While serving at Fort Stanwix in 1777, Gregg left the Fort to shoot pigeons and was shot, tomahawked and scalped by unidentified Indians. He recovered, returned to duty, and in the 1780s was living with his wife in central New York near the Mohawk River in the area east of Brothertown where Occom frequently traveled to preach. Occom records staying with the Greggs on numerous occasions. On June 26, 1786, he notes that he stopped at the Greggs to find only Mrs. Gregg at home, who told him that she was the daughter of a man he visited in Blooming Grove many years ago when she was very young, and showed him the book he gave her. There is no more information on Mrs. Gregg or how she and her husband came to know Occom so well, but Mrs. Gregg's memory of Occom and his gift seems to suggests how generous and renowned he was in the region.

Vedder, Albert Jr.
Vedder, Sr. the old gentleman

William Harper was the oldest brother of the Harper family, prominent in the settlement of central New York and the Revolutionary War. His grandfather, James Harper, emigrated from county Derry in Ireland to Maine in 1720, but because of conflicts with the Indians there, moved the family to Boston. His youngest son, John (1705-1785), married Abigail Montgomery of Hopkinton, CT in 1728. They had eight children: William (b. 1729), James (b. 1731), Mary (b. 1733), John (b. 1734), Margaret (b. 1740), Joseph, Alexander and Abigail (b. between 1747 and 1749). John Sr. moved the family from Middletown to Windsor, CT and then to Cherry Valley, NY in 1754, where they purchased land, and began to clear and cultivate. In 1768, John Sr. signed a patent for land between the Delaware and Charlotte Rivers purchased from the local Indians where members of the family moved in 1771, establishing the town of Harpersfield, selling lots to emigrants from New England, and distinguishing themselves. William became a member of the Provincial Congress, a judge in Montgomery and then Otsego Counties, and a member of the State Assembly from Tryon in 1781, 1782, 1784, and from Montgomery from 1785-89. James died of smallpox in 1760. John Jr. attained the rank of Colonel and was appointed commander of the Fifth Regiment of the New York State Tryon County militia during the Revolution, in which his younger brothers, Joseph and Alexander served as Lieutenant and Captain of a company, respectively. Joseph served on the committee of safety of Harpersfield. Alexander kept the first tavern in Harpersfield after the war, the site of town meetings, and served as justice of the peace and treasurer. Abigail married William McFarland, who served as town clerk, and moved, in 1798 with Joseph and Alexander to Ohio where they founded Harpersfield in that state. A history of Harpersfield reveals that during his youth, John Jr. (and possibly William and Alexander) attended Wheelock's School in Lebanon, CT, where he became life-long friends with Joseph Brant, a Mohawk Indian who attended between 1761 and 1763, and became a leader of the Tribe and supporter of the British. This friendship, and the Harper brothers’ knowledge of the Mohawk language and customs, made them valuable leaders and even saved lives; when Harpersfield was destroyed by Indians and British soldiers in 1777, Brant sent John Jr. a secret warning, which allowed the settlers to flee to safety. Occom records visiting "Esquire Harper" in or near Fort Hunter in 1786 and 1787. While this could refer to any of the Harper brothers, it is most likely William, who had the best claim to the title of “Esquire” (whereas John and Alexander would have been titled with their military ranks) and who was the only brother to move to Montgomery county, in which Fort Hunter is located. The Harper family history illustrates how the connections forged at Wheelock's school had wide effects on the course of late eighteenth century political events.

Paul, Anthony

Anthony Paul was born in Charlestown, Rhode Island, to Mary and James Paul. His family was a part of the Narragansett peoples who lived in Charlestown. There is not much information detailing Paul's early years, but he is believed to have attended Wheelock's school in Connecticut. It is through this connection that Paul is likely to have met Christiana Occom, daughter of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Paul married Christiana in 1777 and, after spending some time in Mohegan, the two settled in Brotherton in 1784. Paul worked as a preacher and helped raise at least six children with Christiana. Occom was fond of his son-in-law, and his journals tell of many happy times visiting the couple, including fishing trips and the day in 1787 when Samson baptized Paul and four of his children. As further indication of Occom's fondness for his son-in-law, he is believed to have left the books and papers that he kept in his New York home with Paul. In 1797, Paul and Christiana left Brotherton to live in Lake George, NY, where they spent the rest of their years.

Tuhy, John
Fonda, Jellis Douw

Jellis Douw (also spelled Jelles Douwse) Fonda was a prominent merchant and land speculator in the Mohawk Valley. He was the son of Douw Jellese Fonda (1700-1780) and Maritjie Vrooman, part of the extensive Fonda family in the area descended from Jellis and Hester Jans Fonda who immigrated from the Netherlands to Albany in 1651. Before the American Revolution, Douw Jellis (the father) founded the Dutch village of Fonda at the site of the Mohawk hamlet of Caughnawaga along the Mohawk River about 30 miles west of Albany. Jellis Douw, his son, was the most prominent of the early Fondas. He was the first merchant in the Mohawk Valley west of Schenectady and was a close friend and associate of Sir William Johnson, Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Fonda fought in the French and Indian War and the Revolutionary War, and though he was a Captain commanding a company of exempts in that war, he was known thereafter as Major Fonda, perhaps as an expression of respect. He served as a county judge, justice of the peace, county supervisor in Tryon and Montgomery counties, and Commissioner of Indian Affairs after Johnson's death. Fonda was also one of the executors of Johnson's will and designated guardian of his children. He was elected a state senator from 1779-81 and 1788-91, and died in office. In his preaching tours of the Mohawk Valley, Occom records lodging with Major Fonda several times during the period of 1786-89, and using the "ferry" Fonda had over the Mohawk River.

Kimball, Jesse

Jesse Kimball was a member of the extensive Kimball family, whose ancestors immigrated from England at the end of the 17th century and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. His father was John Kimball (b. December 12, 1731) of Preston, CT, and his mother was Ruhama Sanders of Lyme, CT; they married on September 21, 1752 and had three sons and 13 daughters. Jesse was the second son. John served in the Revolutionary war and Jesse, though quite young, took the place of his brother Samuel, who contracted measles on the eve of his enlistment. Jesse served three years under Captain Adam Chapley and was stationed in New London, CT. After his service, Jesse moved to the frontier settlement of Bowman's Creek, in the present-day town of Canajoharie in Oneida country, and joined the militia. There he entertained Occom several times on Occom's preaching tours of 1785-87; the two often fished in the creek, to Occom's delight. The date when Kimball's Bowman's Creek house burned down is uncertain, but real estate records have him buying and selling land in Bowman's Creek as late as 1790, and he is listed in the first US Census for New York in 1790 as being the head of a household. His first marriage ended in divorce and in 1793 he married Elizabeth Roelofson (d. 1843). By that time, he had moved to Kentucky, where he was a farmer and miller and started his family. Some records report that he also made whiskey, and when he would not sell it to the local Indians, he was driven from his home and settled in Posey County, Indiana, where he died in 1857.

White, John
Piohits, Joseph

Peter Pauquunnuppeet's wife


Peter Pauquunnuppeet's child

Piohits, Nakolas
Griffin, Hanna
Griffin, Isaac
Folts, Conrad Jacob

Conrad Folts was the son of Jacob Melchert Folts (1710-1808) and Anna Catherine Petrie Folts (1714-1799), who settled in the area around Herkimer, near the Mohawk River in central New York. The Folts were probably part of the large German settlement concentrated around German Flatts. Conrad was a Captain, though the records do not indicate where or whom he served. In the 1780s, when Occom, David Fowler and others from Mohegan and Stockbridge began moving Christian Indians up to the Oneida lands they had been given to settle, Occom met and befriended Folts and his family, who lived close to the settlements of Brothertown and New Stockbridge. On October 21, 1785, Occom recorded the first time he lodged with "one Mr. Folts," a phrase he used to denote this as an initial meeting. By September 11, 1786, however, Occom noted, "put up at my good friends Mr Conrod Fols." He lodged and "tarried" with the family several times during 1787 after visits to and from Brothertown. Folts is buried in the Oakview Cemetery in Frankfort, Herkimer County, NY.

Waucus, James
Simon, Abraham

Abraham Simon was a Narragansett Moor’s student who played a prominent role in Brothertown’s early civic life. Abraham was born in 1750 into the prominent Simon family, a Charlestown Narragansett family that sent five children to Moor’s (James, Emmanuel, Sarah, Abraham, and Daniel). The minister at Groton, Jacob Johnson, recommended Abraham Simon to Wheelock during the Fort Stanwix Congress in 1768 (how Jacob Johnson knew Abraham and why he had brought him to Stanwix is unclear. His ministry was only 30 miles away from Charlestown, so that may have been the connection). Abraham studied at Moor’s from 1768 until 1772, and, with his brother Daniel, was one of the few Indian students to relocate with Wheelock from Connecticut to New Hampshire. In 1772, Abraham made a brief journey on Wheelock’s behalf to the Tuscaroras, who proved uninterested in missionaries or schoolmasters. The next written record of Abraham Simon dates to 1774, when he wrote to Wheelock to inform him that he was going to keep school among the Pequots, which he did for approximately six months. In 1775, he enlisted in the army and served as a medic at Roxbury for at least part of the Revolution. Abraham immigrated to Brothertown in 1783 and was elected to the town’s first council. His house was a center of communal life, and appears many times in Occom’s diary as the location of religious meetings. Abraham died in Brothertown sometime before 1795, when his land was recorded under his widow’s name. Some confusion exists regarding Abraham’s death and burial. In 1925, some Dartmouth students became aware of an Indian named Abraham Symons who had lived in East Haddam, Connecticut, from 1790 until 1812. They assumed that this Abraham Symons was the Narragansett Abraham Simon, and erected a tombstone for him in East Haddam. Had they consulted William DeLoss Love’s account of Brothertown, perhaps they would not have done so. The town of East Haddam remains convinced that Abraham Simon is Abraham Symons, despite the fact that their account of Abraham’s life and connection to East Haddam relies on conflating his life with his brother Daniel Simon’s.

Corricomb, Andrew
Fowler, David

David Fowler was Jacob Fowler's older brother, Samson Occom's brother-in-law, and an important leader of the Brothertown Tribe. He came to Moor's in 1759, at age 24, and studied there until 1765. While at school, he accompanied Occom on a mission to the Six Nations in 1761. He was licensed as a school master in the 1765 mass graduation, and immediately went to the Six Nations to keep school, first at Oneida and then at Kanawalohale. Fowler saw himself as very close to Wheelock, but their relationship fragmented over the course of Fowler's mission, primarily because Wheelock wrote back to Kirkland, with whom Fowler clashed, but not to Fowler, and because Wheelock refused to reimburse Fowler for some expenses on his mission (767667.4 provides the details most clearly). Fowler went on to teach school at Montauk, and played a major role in negotiations with the Oneidas for the lands that became Brothertown. He was among the first wave of immigrants to that town, and held several important posts there until his death in 1807.

Waupieh, Roger

Roger Waupieh was one of the founders of the Brothertown community. In early life, he lived in Stonington and served in the Revolutionary War. The maiden name of Occom's mother, Sarah, was Wauby, suggesting that Occom and Roger Waupieh may have been related. Some sources suggest "Woyboy" as an alternate spelling of Waupieh; Roger Waupieh may have been related to the Woyboy who was an early student at Moor's.

Dean, James

James Dean, an adopted member of the Oneida tribe, was an interpreter and American government agent. When he was nine years old, his parents sent him to live with the Oneidas at Onaquaga; they may have thought that interpreting would be a secure career, or they may have acted out of a missionary impulse. Dean lived at Onaquaga for four or five years and was formally adopted by the Oneidas. He may have lived at Good Peter's house. Dean learned an array of Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) and Indian languages. In 1762, Rev. Forbes retrieved Dean on a mission to Onaquaga under the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. After that Society folded, the New England Company educated Dean and employed him as a missionary. Naturally, Wheelock coveted the services of this Anglo-American boy who was fluent in multiple Indian languages. Dean was also interested in working for Wheelock because he wanted a college education, which the New England Company was not going to provide. Thus, Dean became yet another point of contention between Wheelock and the New England Company: the New England Company's Boston Board accused Wheelock of trying to poach their best interpreter, while Wheelock maintained that it was Dean who was pursuing him. Dean finally joined Dartmouth College in November of 1769; as Chase points out, by this time Wheelock's relations with the Boston Board were irreparable and he had nothing to lose by accepting Dean as a student. Dean graduated from Dartmouth in 1773 and served Wheelock for the next two years. He worked primarily with Abenakis in Canada and the Oneidas, and was often paired with Kirkland. In August of 1775, Wheelock gave Dean his blessing to leave the missionary service and work as an interpreter and Indian agent for the Continental Army. Dean interpreted at several important conferences and, along with Kirkland, was instrumental in convincing the Oneidas to side with the colonies during the Revolution. After the war, Dean continued to work as a liaison between Indian tribes and American governments, especially between the Oneidas and the New York Government. Although one might expect Dean to have protected his adoptive tribe's interests, he did not. Dean was heavily involved in land speculation, and did not see a cooperative future between Indians and Anglo-Americans. He helped New York State acquire massive amounts of Oneida land, and amassed substantial territory for himself in the process. While Dean did not help the Oneidas hold on to their land, he did make some efforts to defend Oneida sovereignty from New York intervention. Dean farmed his land and turned it into the settlement of Westmoreland. He was a prominent citizen in Central New York: he served as a judge and assemblyman and played an important role in establishing the region's trade lines. Occom refers to visiting Dean several times in his later diaries.

Fowler, Jacob

Jacob Fowler was a Montauk Indian whose life was dramatically shaped by Samson Occom, his brother-in-law. Occom taught Jacob when he was a child, and in 1762, Jacob followed his older brother David Fowler to Moor's. After three years he was approved as an usher in the 1765 examination, and in 1766 he went to assist Samuel Johnson at Canajoharie. He taught among the Six Nations until at least mid-1767. In early 1770, Occom procured him a job teaching at Mushantuxet through the Boston Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Jacob taught and preached among the Pequots at Mushantuxet and Stonington until 1774, when Wheelock hired him to teach at Moor's, which had relocated to Hanover, NH as a complement to Dartmouth College. During this time, Jacob also assisted Joseph Johnson with efforts to rally the New England Christian tribes for a move to Oneida territory (the Brothertown Movement). By 1776, there were no Indians enrolled in Moor's and Jacob moved on to serve Governor John Trumbull of CT as a messenger to the Six Nations during the Revolution. After the Revolution, he continued organizing the Brothertown Movement and was among those who initially emigrated in 1784. He was elected clerk at Brothertown, and died sometime in the spring of 1787.

Pauquunnuppeet, Peter

Sir Peter Pauquunnuppeet (there are several variant spellings), a son of an Indian deacon by the same name, was a Stockbridge Mohican Indian and student of Eleazar Wheelock, who studied at Moor’s Indian Charity School from 1771 until 1775, and graduated from Dartmouth College in 1780. Together with Daniel Simon, class of 1777, and Lewis Vincent, class of 1781, he was one of the three Indian students to graduate before the turn of the century, and they became the last native graduates until 1835. The “Sir” that precedes Pohquonnoppeet’s forename originated from his status as a senior in school, and remained a part of his name for the rest of his life. After graduating, Pauquunnuppeet returned to Stockbridge, where he taught school and was involved in tribal affairs. Joseph Quanaukaunt (Quinney) became sachem in 1777, and along with Hendrick Aupaumut and John Konkapot, Pauquunnuppeet was a member of the his council. Pauquunnuppeet was also influential in the Brothertown movement and the founding of New Stockbridge six miles from Brothertown, New York. In 1785, when Americans in New York were driving the Oneidas to cede land that bordered Pennsylvania, Pauquunnuppeet represented the Stockbridge Indians in what became the Treaty of Herkimer. Pauquunnuppeet had an influential friendship with Samson Occom. Occom recorded many occasions in his diary during his missionary tours of 1785-1787 when Peter hosted him, and noted a few instances when they traveled together. Often during Occom’s visits to New Stockbridge Captain Hendrick and Pauquunnuppeet would translate his sermons for those who could not understand English. The Stockbridge Indians favored Occom over the white missionary John Sergeant, Jr., and on August 29, 1787 Pauquunnuppeet was one of nine Indians to write to Occom declaring their devotion and inviting Occom to become their minister. However, the tribe had no means by which to pay Occom, and so, in the winter of 1787 Pauquunnuppeet, Occom, and David Fowler embarked on a fundraising journey through New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York. They were not, however, able to raise as much money as they had sought to collect. Pauquunnuppeet’s strong presence within the tribe may have led to his death, although the precise date and circumstances of his decease is unknown. Sectionalism within New Stockbridge was growing due to the friction between those who supported Occom and those who preferred Sergeant, Jr. as their minister. The politics of Brothertown as an independent entity contributed to the tension. Finally, when Hendrick Aupaumet rose to the position of chief, Pauquunnuppeet became the leader of a rival faction. It has been suggested that Pauquunnuppeet’s increasing authority provoked his enemies to poison him.

Concoppot, Jacob
Wympy, Elijah

Elijah Wympy was a prominent Farmington Indian who was instrumental in establishing Brothertown, yet he subsequently led a group that disregarded the primary vision of the community. In his early years he was a student at the school in Farmington, CT, and in 1757 he served in the Seven Years’ War. During negotiations around 1773 between the Oneida and New England Indians concerning a tract of land, Wympy acted as a delegate for Farmington and asked other tribes to send envoys too. The Oneidas granted the territory the following year, and in 1775 Wympy was among the first to move to what became Brothertown. He was chosen as a trustee of the town in 1785, but around this time the Oneidas attempted to reclaim the land. Accordingly, Wympy participated in the effort to maintain the territory. Fortunately, when the state of New York gained Oneida territory in 1788, it acknowledged the Christian Indians’ right to the tract as it had originally been granted; the state passed an act in 1789 that recognized the Indians’ property and instituted a 10-year limit on leases for lots. Wympy and his followers, comprised mainly of outsiders, thus leased numerous parcels, including invaluable ones, to white settlers. Occom strongly opposed this and petitioned the Assembly, which passed an act in 1791 restricting the power to lease lands to the council. While Occom and Wympy had previously been friends -- Wympy had even partaken in the movement to establish Occom as the local minister -- their disagreement on the issue of leasing Brothertown lands to whites opened a strong divide between them. Wympy apparently regretted his actions, for in 1794 he was among the signers of an address to the governor seeking to remove the whites. He remained in Brothertown until his death around 1802.

Wympy, Elijah Jr.

Elijah Wympy Jr. was a Farmington-Tunxis Indian involved in the Brothertown movement. He was born in 1765 in Farmington, Connecticut to Elijah and Eunice Wympy. Wympy Sr. was a key figure in the establishment of Brothertown, and Wympy Jr. supported his father. Like the Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Niantics and Montauketts, the Tunxis Indians shared a history of encroachment by Europeans and increasing governmental authority that produced the shared identity fueling the creation of Brothertown. Occom notes Wympy Jr.'s presence in Brothertown several times in his journals for 1786-87. Wympy Sr. was a controversial figure who initially supported leasing lands to white settlers in Brothertown, but when he changed his position on this policy, he and his son signed a petition identifying white settlers as trespassers. Wympy Jr. married the widowed Elizabeth Peters, who had a daughter from her first marriage. Together, he and Elizabeth had a son and a daughter. In 1796, Wympy Jr. served as the schoolmaster for the school in Brothertown, but he was discharged after three months and replaced by Hannah Fowler, David Fowler's daughter. Wympy Jr. died in Brothertown in 1812.

Fowler, Hannah (née Garrett)

Hannah Fowler (née Garrett) was a Pequot woman who married David Fowler. The Garrett family boasted sachems and interpreters and was influential among the Stonington Pequots. Hannah grew up among the Charlestown Narragansetts, as her parents had affiliated with that tribe (a not-uncommon occurrence, given the close ties between the groups, especially in the realm of Christian spirituality). At Charlestown, Hannah received her basic education and was recruited for Moor’s Indian Charity School. She studied at the school from 1763 until she married David Fowler in 1766. Hannah and David’s marriage is especially noteworthy because it is the only instance where a female Moor’s student married a Native American missionary from Moor’s and joined him on missions — which had been Wheelock’s intent in admitting Native American women in the first place. Hannah assisted David on his mission to Kanawalohale from the time of their marriage in 1766 until his departure for Montauk in 1767. In 1783, the pair moved to Brothertown, where their house was the town center. Both Fowlers proved influential in town affairs, and their children and grandchildren also played a central role in the town’s administration.

Lowe, Nicholas
Stansel, Henry
Pickard Family

A family in Cherry Valley, New York, whose members include, at least, Nicholas, Adolf, Jona and Susanna (spelling uncertain). Occom lodged with members of the Pickard family and preached at Nicholas Pickard's home during his travels in 1786 and 1787. There appear to be no published sources that verify this family. Some amateur genealogy sites suggest that a family by this name had been residing in Cherry Valley before and after the "Cherry Valley Massacre" in 1778, including one Nicholas Pickard who was killed in 1776.

Quinney, Widow
Cornelus, Uncle
Skesuk, Sally
Aupaumut, Hendrick

Hendrick Aupaumut, most likely a descendant of the Mohawk chief Hendrick, was a Mahican Indian who was born in Stockbridge, Massachusetts in 1757. He was educated by the Moravians and became very involved in tribal affairs and relations with the United States. Along with other Stockbridge Indians, Aupaumut fought as part of Captain William Goodrich’s company in the Revolutionary War, rising to captain in 1778. In 1777, when Joseph Quanaukaunt became sachem, Aupaumut became a member of his council along with Peter Pohqunnoppeet and John Konkapot. He also became close friends with Samson Occom and would often host the preacher or translate his sermons when the latter visited New Stockbridge, to where the Stockbridges moved in the mid 1780s. In 1787 he was one of nine Indians to write to Occom declaring their faith and asking Occom to become their minster. He was also one of the Indians to sign the proclamation that Occom, Pohqunnooppeet, and David Fowler carried during their tour to raise funds to support Occom as their pastor. By the 1790s, Aupaumut was acting as an agent for the United States. He helped the government combat Tecumseh and his brother Elskwatawa, and he fought under General Harrison in the War of 1812. Both conflicts interrupted the various land deals between tribes, as well as treaties and other negotiations, in which he was involved. Although he encouraged Indians to convert to Christianity and learn English, Aupaumut opposed leasing land to whites. Occom and Aupaumut agreed that the Stockbridges must move west to escape the influence of outside cultures, and to preserve their Christianity. In the 1820s, Aupaumut led land deals with Wisconsin tribes, and he finally moved west in 1829 along with the remainder of the Stockbridge tribe.

Quinney, Catty
Fowler, Elizabeth

Elizabeth Fowler was the daughter of David Fowler, Occom's brother-in-law, and Hannah Garrett.

Corricomb, Eliza
Frank, Lawrence

Lawrence Frank, also identified in histories of Frankfort as "Lewis," was one of the earliest settlers of the town of Frankfort (originally Frank's Ford), located east of present-day Utica, which was named in his honor. He was the son of Henry Frank (c 1725-1790) and Maria Catharine. Henry immigrated to Pennsylvania from Germany, probably Bavaria, with his brother Christopher in 1740 and was a trader between the Mohawk and Lehigh Valleys in the 1740s and 50s. He settled in German Flatts, an area originally belonging to the Mohawk Nation but populated with German immigrants who bought up the fertile river lands. Lawrence married Mary Myers in 1769 and they helped found the new town of Frankfort on land originally bought from the Mohawks by Dutch settlers. The land was set off as a separate town from German Flatts by an act of the NY Legislature on February 5, 1796. Lawrence Frank owned a large tract of land, and town history reflects that he actively promoted the industrial and agricultural progress of Frankfort, which was severely damaged in the French and Indian and Revolutionary Wars. In fact, Frank and a group of other patriots were taken as prisoners of war during the Revolution and housed in Quebec from August 31 1778 until May 15 1781, when he was released and made his way back home. His popularity is reflected in the fact that the village of Howard's Bush was renamed Frankfort Center and McGowansville was renamed East Frankfort. Later in life, Frank moved with some of his family to a new settlement called Busti in Chautauqua County, NY, which is where he died. On his first journey to the Oneidas in 1761, Occom records paying for lodging at Mr. Franks, a tavern keeper in German Flatts. Although there is no historical record of such a place, Occom returned to this tavern many times on his preaching tours of the area between 1786 and 1790. Frank's Tavern must have been a major establishment because in early July of 1761, Occom notes that William Johnson met him and David Fowler there, and that the next day Johnson met with chiefs of the Oneidas to work out an agreement about an Oneida who killed a Dutchman. In June 1789, Occom records preaching in Esquire Frank's barn to "a vast number of people."

Wright, David
Wright, Sarah
Robbinson, John
Robbinson, Martin
Quash, Cato
Quash, Simon
Marcelus, Ahasuerus
Connoot, John
Hogeboom, John
Guisley, Elias
Fordt Simon

Simon Fordt was a resident of Niskayuna, a town in east central New York State on the Mohawk River just east of the city of Schenectady and the site of a blockhouse built by Governor George Clinton in 1746. Fordt was probably of Dutch descent, as were many of the settlers in this area. He hosted Occom several times in 1786 and 1787 as Occom preached across the area, and should not be confused with a Mr. Fordt (also spelled Ford), who on June 19, 1787, had his slave give Occom breakfast and then took him over the Mohawk River to the house of Simon Fordt. The name Simon Fordt also appears, with only one other name, on the first page of Occom's journal for June 1786. There were many Fords and Fordts in this area of New York. A Roster of State Troops in New York during its colonial history lists 17 Fords, one Forde and eight Fordts, including two Simons: a quarter master who served in Van Schoonhoven's Regiment and a private who served in the same regiment, Vandenburgh's company.

Vendenbergh, Cornelius
Fero, Henry
Fero, David
Lawnson, Jacob
Lawnson, Levinus
Kirkland, Samuel

Samuel Kirkland (b. Kirtland) was Eleazar Wheelock’s most famous Anglo American student. He conducted a 40-year mission to the Oneidas and founded Hamilton College (established in 1793 as Hamilton Oneida Academy). Kirkland won acclaim as a missionary at a young age by conducting an adventurous and risky mission to the Senecas, the westernmost of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Six Nations. After his year and a half among them, which was well publicized by Wheelock, he was ordained and sent as a missionary to the Oneidas under the auspices of the Connecticut Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. He spent most of the rest of his life serving the Oneidas as a minister. Kirkland’s sincere devotion to serving as a missionary was excellent publicity for Wheelock’s program, but it also brought the two men into conflict. Wheelock became jealous of Kirkland when the school’s British benefactors began urging Wheelock to make Kirkland his heir, and Kirkland, meanwhile, was upset that Wheelock had failed to provide him with sufficient supplies on his mission — a complaint that he was unafraid to publicize (and that almost all of Wheelock’s other students shared). The breaking point came in 1770, when Kirkland split from Wheelock’s Connecticut Board and affiliated with the New England Company, a missionary society that had abruptly turned against Wheelock in 1765. Wheelock and Kirkland briefly made up in 1771, but their relationship quickly dissolved into further acrimony. Although Kirkland spent most of his life as a missionary to the Six Nations, he generally held disparaging views of Native Americans. He did not approve of Wheelock’s plan to educate Indians as missionaries, and was haughty towards the Moor’s alumni that worked with him (notably David Fowler, Joseph Johnson, and Joseph Woolley). Prior to the Revolution, Kirkland had been stringent in his refusals to take Oneida land, even when offered to him. The Revolution seems to have shifted his loyalties from the Oneidas to local Anglo Americans. Kirkland served as a chaplain in the American army and was instrumental in convincing the Oneidas to remain neutral (or, more accurately, to side with the Americans). At one point he was the chaplain with General Sullivan’s army, the force sent to ransack Seneca and Cayuga territory in 1779. It is unclear what emotions this aroused in Kirkland, who had served the Senecas less than 15 years earlier, yet after the war, Kirkland freely engaged in Oneida dispossession. Along with James Dean, another Wheelock alumnus with close ties to the Oneidas, Kirkland played a pivotal role in urging the Oneidas to sell land illegally to the state of New York. The land deals that resulted gave Kirkland the property, financial capital, and connections to establish Hamilton Oneida Academy. The last decades of Kirkland’s life were difficult. He found himself in a three-way battle with Samson Occom and John Sergeant Jr., who were also ministers in Oneida territory, for the hearts and minds of their congregations; he was fired as a missionary in 1797, although he continued to serve sans salary; one of his son’s business enterprises failed, leaving Kirkland nearly destitute; and two of his three sons died unexpectedly. Hamilton Oneida Academy, like Moor’s Indian Charity School, largely failed at its goal of educating Indians, and in 1812, four years after Kirkland’s death, it was re-purposed as Hamilton College, a largely Anglo-American institution. At some point in the mid-to-late 18th century, Kirkland changed his name from Kirtland, although the reasons for this are uncertain.

Vasnderwarker, John
Picket, Stephen
Picket, Stephen Gregory
Lenghson, John
Lenghsen, R
Vedder, Seth
Post, John
HomeSamson Occom, Journal, 1786 June 26
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