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Samson Occom, journal, 1785 October 4 to 1786 December 4

ms-number: 785554

abstract: Occom describes the events of the period between October 4, 1785, and December 4, 1786; they include an Indian wedding, the naming of Brothertown and other Brothertown business.

handwriting: Handwriting is mostly clear and legible. There are several uncrossed t’s and crossed l’s, which the transcriber has corrected.

paper: Several small sheets folded into a booklet and bound with thread or twine are in good condition, with light staining and wear. There is some fading, and the opening and closing pages are more worn than those inside them.

ink: Brown ink varies in intensity.

noteworthy: On 18 recto, the identity of David Fowler's daughter is uncertain, and so she has been left untagged. On 19 recto, the identity of Elijah Wympy's son is uncertain, and so he has been left untagged; however, he may possibly be Elijah Wympy, Jr. On 23 recto, the identity of John Post's son is uncertain and so he has been left untagged. An editor, likely 19th-century, has written notes in black ink on one recto; these notes have not been included in the transcription. The date for “Sabbath Oct 30” should be 31. The date “Nov 2” should be Nov 20. Names and place names that are illegible have not been tagged. It is likely that the two Mr. John Smiths mentioned in this document are two different people.


[illegible][guess: Oct. 4,]
[illegible][guess: to Dec. 4.]

Blank page.

1785 N: III
Tueſday Octr 4

After Brea
faſt, took leave of the Famy
and went on towards Ablbany
got there about 11: I turnd
to Mr John McKinnys a
Tervern keeper, and it
Raind extream hard. the
Rain Catcht us juſt as
we got over t[illegible]he Ferry, —
when the Rain abated I went to
See Some Friends, but moſt of
my particular Friends were
gone out of the City, went to
our good friend Hollenbacks
Inqured of him of my Daugh
Christiana
but he Coud not tell
anything about them, he deſird
me to Baptiſe his Child, that
was born the Sabath Day Day
before which was the Second Day
of the Month, and I Examend
them Concerning their knowledg
of the Nature of Baptiſm.
and their Duty to bring up
their Children in the Fear of god
and non to do it only out of Cus
tum and Faſhon, and they
promiſe to do their Duty, — and
in deed it was a great Trial to
me, and finally I Conſented —
and Some Time in the evening
I Baptiſed the Child by the Name
of J[illegible]enney, with the great Name
of the ever Bleſsed Trinity —
Lodgd at the Same Houſe, and
was kindly intertaind, —

Wedneſday Octr 5

was in the City
till after noon, Dined at mr
Hollenbeck
s, and Soon after D–
Sot of from Albany, and got
to Loudensd Ferry and we coud
not get over, and Lodgd at
Mr F[illegible][guess: u]ndys. and they were
very agreable Folks —

Thirdsday Octor 6:

went of
very early in morning and
went up to the Northward
becausſe we coud not get
at this Place and we wen[illegible][guess: t]
So far as to Mr Whitney's in
Neſ[illegible]ia, and we wan
der about backwards and
forwards all Day, — got over
the River lower part of Nes
[illegible]ia, and Lodgd at poor
Tervern one Mr John
Smith
s, —

Fryday octr 17:

got up
very early in the morning
and Sot of for Saratoga and
we Stopt at Sevely prlaces by
the way, and we found
no frinds in the Road, —
got to Still Waters about 12
Stopt Mr [gap: omitted] a Tervern and
Several knew me, and they offerd
us [illegible]Dinner and we acepted of
it kindly,— and here found out
the People had Concluded to have me
keep Sabbath with them, good
old Mr Campell is a Miniſter
of this Place, and he was Sent
for he Came Directly to See me
and Concluded further to be with
them on the Sabbath, and two
went on but the Bridges were
So gone and Shatterd by the
Flood, that we Coud not go a
long by the River, and turnd
right off from the River, and
inquried after Mr Kalley, and
found him in the Duſk of the
evening, and was kindly recevd
his wife was not well; and I
went to another Family to Lodge
one old Mr Concling Lodged
with me, — — —

Saturday Octr 9:

Soon after
Breakfaſt Sot of and went to the
River, got to the River ab 12:
Call in at Mr McCartys and
the offer us Dinner and we
Sot down to eat, — and here
we underſtood my Daughter
was eaſt Side of the River Cloſe
by the River, Soon after Dinr
We Sot of again I went a foot
and left my Horſe with Mr
Mccarty
, got over the River
about 2: in ther after noon
and went to the place where I heard
my Daughter was, got to where Siſter
Dina
lives, and there was no body
at home bout old mother Margery
after a while Isaac Tattleton
Came hom, and I got his mare to
go to where my Daughter lives, a
bout 7 miles further, and we
got to the Place Some Time in
the evening, and not well but
better than She had been
for She has been very Sick
the reſt were well, Thanks
be to the great god for his mercy
to me in the preſervation of
me and my Daughter and her
Family Lodged here —

Sabbath Octr 9

got up very
early and Sot of to go Still waters
to preach in Mr Campels m–
got to the River a bout 9, and
Sent the mare back by James
waucus
for he Came down with
with me; got over Soon and I
on a foot and tryed to get a Horſe
at the firſt Houſe, but I Coud not
and went on foot, and two or three
Places. and all in Vain, a wagon
Came by me goining to meeting
[illegible][guess: and] I deſired him to help me
a long, but he woud not, at
laſt I gave up, and Sendt word
forward to have Horſe Sent me
and I went into a Houſe, told the
man of the Houſe of my difficul
ties, and he aſked me whether
I was going to hear the Strange
miſter, I told I Suppoſe I Should
hear him, and then told him,
the People Could not See that
Strange Creature till I got
there, and then he aſked me
whether it was I that they expected
—I told him Yes,—and he was
Surpriſed, and there were then
Several People going by, he
Called to them and told them I
was in the Houſe and wanted
help, and one of the men got
down and offerd me his
Horſe to ride to meeting, and
I took it, and went on, got
there at half after 11, and there
was a prodigious large Congre
gathon the bigeſt that ever
was Seen in the Place, and I
went in, gave them a Short
diſcourſe, from Jona [gap: omitted] 5 verſe
in the after noon from another
the g People attended with great
and Solemn attention and with
many Tears, — as Soon as the
meeting was done, a gentleman
took me in his wagon, and Cari
ed me to Mr Powerss, the good
man recevd me with tender
neſs and Friendſhip, at Candle
lighting we went to meeting
in a Small Log meeting Houſe
and it was Crouded like a Bee
Hive, and the attended like
Criminals at the Bar, I beliv
they felt the power of the word
tho I was much Spent —Lodgd
at Elder Powerss —

Monday Octr 10

was at Mr Powers
till near meeting Time, Elder
Powers
let me have his Horſe
to ride to Mr Kalleys meeting
got there near 12 Stopt a while
at a Houſe near the meeting H–
and Mr Kalley Came to me, &
we went to another Houſe, and
there we took Dinner — and Soon
after eating we went to meetg
and there was a Multitude of
People, and I preachd to them
from [gap: omitted] and there
was an affectionate attention
the Chriſtians were Some what
Elivated, and the Sinners were
alarmed, and I belive the Hypo
crites were Surpriſed and we
had a little intermiſtion, and
went to meeting again at Can
dle Lighting, and there was a
great number of People again
and they attended Solmnly,—
after meeting I went home with
with one Mr John Smith Carperter about
one Hundred Rods from the
meeting Houſe, and was extrea
well entertaind, we had very
agreable Converſation with the
man and Woman after Conver
ſation, I went to bed quietly,—

Tueſday Octr 11:

about 9: in
the morning Mr Kalley and I
went towards the North River,
Call'd on Mr Powers, and he was
geting ready to go with us, and
So we went on; got to mr Bacon's
about 11: and the People began
to Collectogerther, and about half
after one we began the meeting,
and the People Seemed to be tied
to the word, and I believe they
felft the Power of the word, Soon
after meeting we went to Mr
McCarty
s where I had left my
mare and the man C[illegible]harged
me nothing for keeping my
mare, and went on preſently
and Calld on Mr John Smith
and took DTea with them, and
directly went on to the Ferry —
got over about Sun Sit, and
went to Mr Matt Vanburans
and the People Collected toge
ther, and we had a meeting
and there was Conſiderable Nr
number of People, and they
behaved well, Stayd at the
Same Houſe, —

Wedneſday Octr 12:

I saw Tattleton
and I went to my Daughters, &
we got there about 12: and I
reſted a little at my Daughters
and then we went to meeting
to Mr [gap: omitted] and the People
behaved well generally but
not So Solemn as at other P[illegible: [guess: s]]
after meeting, went back to
my Daughters, and reſted a
little, and in the evening, the
People Collected, at Mr Begle's
and we had a little meeting
after meeting went to my D's
again, and went to bed very
Soon

Thirdsday Octr 13:

after Bre
left my folks and went on
to Mr Jonathan Thomſons,
got there before noon, and took
Dinner with them, — at 2
we went to, Mr Tomſons Son's
a few Rods, and there we
had meeting, and there was
Conſiderable number of People
and they attended well, — as Soon
as the meeting was done, they
deſired me to preach to them
again in the evening, and
I Complied, and I begun a
gain in about ha[illegible]lf an H
and there was greater at
tention Still, the People were
much affected, Lodged at Mr
Tomſon
's,

Fryday Octr 14:

Some Time
after Breakfaſt, Mr Tomſon
and I took our Horſes and we
went to Still waters, — got there
Some Time before meeting, a
bout 1 we went to meeting, and
there was a great number of
People, and they attended
with great affection, after
meeting went to mr Campell's
and, near Sun Sit we[illegible] went
to Mr Bakers and had an
evening there, and there was
a great Number of People a
gain, and they attended with
all gravity, and after the
People were diſmiſt, a num
ber Stay'd, and I gave out
out my Cards to the People
and we had agreeable Exer
ciſe, and Some Time in the
evening the People diſperſt
and I went to bed Quietly
once more. Thanks be to god
The People in this Place are
exceeding Friendly and kind
to me, Mr Campel is as a
Father to me.

Saturday Octr 15

Some Time
after Breakfaſt went on my
way; Stopt at Mr Campels
a few minutes, and then took
leave of them, and went on
my way towards Ball Town
got to Capt Dunnings about
12: Dined with them, in the
evening we had a meeting
in Mr Gregorys Houſe, and
there was a goodly number
of People — and it was a So
lemn meeting — after meetg
went home with Capt Dunning
again. and Lodged there,
the Capt and his whole Family
are exceeding agreable
Folks —

Sabbath Octr 16:

went to
meeting with the People and
it was as a bad way as ever
I was out in all my Travils
Mirey the bigeſt of the way
went we got to the Place the
People had got together a
great Number, — they have
a new meeting Houſe very
large for a new Settlement
I preach to them from Danile
 mene &c
in the after noon from John
ye are my Friends &c —
Soon after meeting, went to the
old meeting Houſe weſt Side of
the Lake— and preatchd in
the evening, and there was
a Conſiderable number of
People, here I [illegible]Met my old
aquaintaince Mr Dake, I
lodgd at one Mr weeds, and
his Son in Law—Mr Cable
with his wife Deſird me to
Baptiſe their Chile, and when
I had Examined them about
the Nature of Baptiſm —
and finding them well
ground in the goſpel Faith
I Baptiſed their Child, and
after I had performd my
ofice, one Mr Bright made
an objection, and we talke
upon the matter a while,
and I Coud not be Convincd
that I was wrong, and we
diſſiſted, and they went a
way, and I went to begd
quietly once more —

Monday Octr 17:

after Break
faſt I went to 5000. Aires; before
I had got to the Place, I met Mr
Dake
, and he went back, with
me, and I went with him to his
Houſe, about from the meeting
Houſe, and took Dinner with
him, and Soon after Dinner Mr
Dake
and I went to meeting &
there was a Conſiderable number
of people their meeting Houſe
is made of Logs, and I preachd
to them from Matt [gap: omitted] thou Shalt
worſhip the Lord &c: and there
was an Awful Solemnity in the
Aſembly,— after meeting I went
home with one Mr Holms, and
I was very kindly entertain'd. The
old People apper'd very Religi
ous, Some Time in the evening
I had Some Exerciſe with the
Children of the Houſe. They were
all grown up but one, and they
appear'd very Solemn in the
exerciſe, and then we prayd
together, and after that I went
to Bed Quietly once more —

Tueſday Octr 18:

Soon after
Breakfaſt took good and Friend
ly leave of the Family, and I
went on to Galaway, and I miſt
my way, loſt about 3 qrs of a
miles and it was very diſagre
able, to my mind, I was obligd
to go right back, and it put
me in mind of miſsing a way
to heaven it muſt be dreadful
beyound all Expreſsion to miſs
Heaven finaly at laſt: I got
to Galaway, before 12: and Calld
in at Good Mr Otis's one that
went from New London North [illegible][guess: P]
near by where I live, and he &
his wife receiv'd me with all kind
neſs, — about 2 o: c we went to
meeting a few Rods from Mr
Otis
s Houſe — and there was a good
Number of People, I preach'd
to them from the words— we will
go three Days Journey &c gen 8.27, in the
evening I preachd again in
the Same Houſe and there was
a good number People of again
I Spoke from Ruth — what
is thy Petition &c — Sot Some
Time after meeting had Some
Converſation with Some Friends
and it was agreable, and then
went home with Mr Otis, and
I went to bed Peacabl[illegible]y once
more thanks be to Heaven —

Wedneſday Octr 19:

after Breakft
about 9: I took Friendly leave
of Mr otis and his Family, and
one mr Dean went with me
6 or 7 miles, to direct me in
the way — got to Mohauk River
near 12: and So I went on
got to Caukunnawaka in the
evening and I put at one
Vuders a Dutch Tavern

Thirdsday Oct.r 20,

Sot of very
early in the Morning, and
went over to Southſide of the River
a little above the Noſe and kep on
till I got to one Mr Mabee's and
I took Breakfaſt, and Soon after
Breakfaſt went on, and about
11 it began to Rain hard, and
I Stopt at one Esqr Henry Wa[illegible][guess: u]
rath, agreable gentleman; Stayd
here all Night, —

Fryday Octr 21:

got up very
early even before break of
Day a great while, and the
Esqr got up too Soon after —
at broad Day light, I got up
on my Horſe and puſhd on
my way, reach'd at Widow
Tyger
s about 9: and took
breakfaſt there, and after
eating went on again, here
I heard Tour Anthony and James
Waucus
Slept, and one Mr Prince
with them, and I never over
took them, till I got to the
turn of the New Road to our
Peoples Settlements, Juſt as I
was going to one of the Houſes
Antony Calld me, and I look
ed back and there was Antony
Smiling, and we went into Houſe
together, and Concluded to Stop
here,— and he Calld Mr Prince
and Jamy, and they Came
back,— and to one Mr Folts
and Lodged there, —

Saturday octr 22,

we got up
quite Early and got ready
to go on our way, juſt as we
were going off, Elijah Wympi
Came to our Lodgings, and he
told us David and Jacob Fowler
and moſt all our men were
in another Houſe juſt by, and
I sent James, and they Soon
Come to me, and it was a Joy
ful meeting,— and then I went
to where the reſt of them were
and they all rejoice to See me
and was with them a little while
and then went back to Mr Folts
and Concluded not to go thro the
woods this Day, becauſe it was
a miſty kind of weather,— Some
went thro, but I Stayd and Some
others, I taried at Mr Fols,—

Sabbath Octr 23:

This morning was
a Snowy Morning, and it Raind all
laſt Night,— and I taried at Mr
Conora[illegible]d Fol
s, all Day, they were
quite agreable Family, Stayd
here again this Night —

Monday Octr 24:

Some Time after
Breakfaſt Brother David Fowler
and I Sot of to go thro' the Woods to
our Indians new Settlements, and
preſently after we Sot out it began
to Rain and it Rain'd all the way
not very hard, — and it was extream
ly bad muddy riding, and the
Creeks were very high, and Some
Places very Mirely, and we were
over taken with Night before we
got in, and Some places were very
Dark where Hamlock Trees were
our Eyes did us [illegible]but little good, we travild
about a mile in the Dark, and
then we arrivd at Davids Houſe
as we approach'd the Houſe I heard
a Melodious Sining, a number were
together Sining Pſalms hymns and
Spiritual Songs, we went in amongts
them, and they all took hold of my
Hand one by one with Joy and Gladneſs from
the Greateſt to the leaſt, and we
Sot down a while, and then they
began to Sing again, and Some
Time after, I gave them a few words
of [illegible]Exhortation, and then Concluded
with Prayer,— and then went to
Sleep Quietly, the [illegible]Lord be praiſed
for his great goodneſs to us —

Tueſday Octr 25

Was a Snowy Day
was very uncomfortable weather I
kep still all Day at Davids Houſe
and it was Crouded all Day. Some of
onoydas Came in — In the evening
Singers Came in again, and they
Sang till near ten o: c: and then
I gave them a word of Exhortation
and Conclude with prayer, So we
ended another Day —

Wedneſday Octr 26:

Snow is about
is about ancle Deed this Morng
and all Poſh under the Snow and
the Land is foul of water every
where, and the Brooks are very
high— it is not Clear wheather
yet — in the evening we had a litte
Singing again — This morning
I rench'd my Back, only puting
on my Stockings, and was put to Some
difficulty to go out all Day —

Thirdsday Octor 27:

Cloudy but
moderate, my back Continues as
it was yeſterday,—

Fryday Octor 28:

it was warm
and pleaſent Day but Coloudy
the begeſt part of the Day — in
the evening they Sung in Abram
Simon
s Houſe, a mile from David
Fowler
's

Fryday Octr 29


David intended to gather his Corn
but it lookd very much like for
Rain, and So difer it to anſother
Day, — the Young Folks went
in the evening to Abraham:
Simon
s a mile of from David
Fowler
s to Sing, but I did not
go my back Continued out of
order, —

Saturday Octr [illegible]29:

David gatherd
his Corn he had a number of
Hands tho' it was Cloudy in the
morning, and little Rain, and
in the after noon he huſked his
Corn, and the Huſkers Sung Hymns
Psalms and Spiritual Songs the
bigeſt part of the Time, finiſhd
in the evening,— and after Supper
the Singers Sung a while, and
then diſparſed —

Sabbath Octr 30:

Had a meeting
in Davids Houſe, and a Number
of Stockbridgers Came to meeting
to the diſtance of Six miles, they
had eleven Horſes and there
was a number of foot People, and
there was a Solemn Aſembly, the
People attended the word with
affection many of them— I Spoke
from Mathew IV. 10: in the after
Noon from XXXII: 1: in the even
ing we had Singing a long
while and then gave them a
word of Exhortation and Conclu
ded with Prayer —
Monday Tueſday and wedneſday
nothing hadpen'd remarkable
only Rainy and Snowy weather
and I was much Confind with my
wrentch Back —

Thirdsday Novr 3: 1785

Towards
Night we attended upon the
antient ordernace of marrage
the firſt that ever was Selebra
ted by our People in their New
Settlement
in that wildirneſs,
The Cupple to be married and
the Young People, formed in a
Neighbouring Houſe and Came to
the Houſe of Weding in a Regu
lar Proceſsion according to their
age and were Seated according
ly — and the old People alſo Seat
ed themſelves Regularly, and
A great Number of Stocbrid
gers
Came from their Town
to attend the Weding, but many
of them were too late —
When I got up, I Spoke to
them Some Time upon the
nature of Marrage, the Ho
nourableneſ and Lawfulneſs
of it whereby we are diſtin
guyſhd from the Brutal Crea
tion: Said Some of the firſt
marrage in Eden & of the
Marrage where Chriſt [illegible]and
his Diſciples were invited
and the Honour he did to it
by working the firſt mericle.
he wroght in the World in
turning water into Wine
and then we prayed, after Prayer
I orderd them to take each other
by the Right Hand alternately
and then I declared them in the
Face of the Aſembly to be a Law
ful Huſband and wife, according
to the Law of god — and then prayd
again, & prayer being ended Mariage Salutations [below]went round Regularly — and Concluded with by
Singing a Marriage Hymn, —
and then the People Sat down,—
and Jacob Fowler who was ap
pointed Maſter of the Sereimonies
at this Marriage, gave out Some
Drink a Round; the Company
and then Supper was brought
Sot in order on a long Board,
and we Sot down to eat, and
had Totty well Sweeten'd with
wild Sugar made of Sugar Trees
in the Wilderneſs; and after Sup
per, we Spent the Evening in
Singing Psalms Hymns and
Spiritual Songs, — and after that
every went home Peaceably
with andy Carouſing or Frollicing

Fryday Novr 4.

The young Peopl
put on their beſt Cloaths and
went to a Neighbours Houſe, all
on Horſe back, and they appeard
agreeable and Decent, and they
had no Carouſing, they had Some
Pleaſent Chat and agreable Con
duct, Some Singing of Psalms Hymns
and Spiritual Songs, Some Time
in the after Noon they dined toge
ther, and after Dinner every one
went Home Quietly,— So the wed
ing ended, and it was Conduct
ed, Caried on, and finiſh'd with
Honour and great Decency —
and the Lord help this People
to go on Regularly in all their
Concerns —

Sab: Novr[illegible]6:

Brother Jacob Fowler
and I went of early in the Morg
for Stockbridge Indians that
lately Settled at old onoyda, got
there Some Time before meeting
went to Sir Peter Pauquunnuppeets
Houſe, he is a Collegian brought
up and Educated at Dartmuth
DCollege
, and he receivd with all
kindneſs Friendſhip,— about 11
went to meeting, and many of
our People from our new Settle
ments Came to meeting, to the diſ
tance of Six miles, — I Spoke to
them from Joſhua 24: 22: and
Esther 7: 2: in the Evening we
had another meeting, and we
had Solemn Day and evening
the People attended with great
attention and Solemnity, after
I had done Speaking; we Sot down
and the Singer roſe up and they
Sung Some Time, and then diſ
perſed, every one to his quarter,
and Siſter Hannah and Siſter
Esther
and I Lodgd at Widow
Quinny
's where the meeting
was —

Monday Novr 67:

Some Time
after Breakfaſt Sun Riſe — I Sot of with
Brother Roger and his wife
to our Place; and Sotpt at
Roger's and I took Breakfaſt
with them, they live [illegible][illegible][guess: near] twothree
miles from the reſt of the People
and after eating I went on to
the Town, got there about 12
and found them all well,—
in the Evening we met on
our Temporal and Religious
Concerns, — we met once before
but we did not Come to proceed
any Buſineſs — But now we pro
ceeded to form in to a Body Poli
tick,— We Named our Town by
the Name of Brotherton, in
Indian Eeyawquittoowaucon
nuck
J: Fowler was choſen Clarke for this [below]Town Roger waupieh, David
Fowler
, Elijah Wympy, John
Tuhy
, and Abraham Simon
were Choſen a Committee or
Truſtees for the Town, for a Year
and for the future, the Committee
is to be Choſen Annually, — and
Andrew Acorrocomb, and Thomas
Putchauker
were Choſen to be
Fence Vewers to Continue a Year.
Concluded to have a Centre near
David Fowlers Houſe. the main
Street is to run North and South & No[illegible][guess: th]&
Eaſt and weſt, to Croſs at the Centre
Concluded to live in Peace, and
in Friendſhip and to go on in
all their Public Concerns in Harmony
both in their Religious and Tem
poral Concerns, and every one
to bear his Public part of Pub
lic Charges in the Town, —
They deſird me to be a Teacher
amongſt them, I Conſented to
Spend Some of my remaining
with them, and make this Town
my Home and Center —

Tueſday — Novr 8:

got up early
and Sot of for Stockbridge Indians
got there Some Time before meet
ing, this is a Day of faſting and
Prayer, with the People here
and they deſired me to aſsiſt them
the Deſign of this faſt is to Confeſs
their Sins before god, and to repent
and beg the Pardon of all their Sins
and deſire the Bleſsing of god up
on them, and to Proſper them in
their New Settlemet, and alſo bleſs
them in their Religious Life —
and I preach to them, in the fore
Noon from Jonah 3: 8: in the
after noon from Prover 23: 26
and it was a Solemn Faſt Day
many were deeply afected, all
attended like Criminals before
the Barr; in the Evening they
met again, and they adviſd
and gave Councel to one another
to Conduct well and be Careful
in all their Conduct the enſusing
winter as they were about to
diſperſe, for the winter, that
they may get together in the
Spring in Love and Peace, —
and after advice, they Spent
Some Time in Singing of
Spiritual Songs, and when
they had done, I gave them a
word of Exhortation, adviſing
them to uſe their Natural Powers
and Conduct as becomes Rational
Creatures, and break off from
all out breakings of Sin, and
Especially to break off from that
abominable Sin of Drunkeneſs
and give themſelves to watching
and Prayer, and So Conclude
with Prayer, — and the People
diſperſd in Peace — I Lodged
at Sir Peter Pauqunnuppeets

Wedneſday Novr 9:

[illegible]Break‐
faſted with Capt Hindreck &
Soon after Eating, I Sot off for
Home, got to our Place about
12 and found our Folks well—
Thirdsday Fryday and Saturd
lookd a bout a little to See the
land and it is the beſt land I ever
did See in all my Travils. John
Tuhy
Planted Juſt about one
acre of ground, which he
Cleared laſt may, and this
Fall he took of 20 Buſhels of
good Corn 56 Buſhels of Potatoes
about 200 Heads of Cabage, and
about 3 Buſhels of Beans, and
about 2 Buſhels of Paſnips &
Beats together. beſides Cu
cumbers and Watermelons; of
the Same ground, and it was not
Plowd nor dug up with a
Hoe, only leaves and Small
Buſhels were burnt on it
and great many Lodgs ly on it
now — and I was told laſt
week among the Stockbridge
Indians
, that in their Clearing
Some Spots of land, where it has
been improved, in Years paſt, they
Plowd up, and dug up good many
Potatoes; where they had been Plan
ted parhaps 10 or 12 Years ago.
one man got 3 Skipples, and
he p[illegible]lanted them, and he has
raiſed a fine paſsel of them.
and Brother David Fowler told
me and his wife and others Con
firmed it that he had one Cabage
Stomp Stood three Summers and
it headed every Year, the laſt
it Stood, it three Heads —

Sab, Nov.r 13:

Preachd at David
Fowler
s and many of the Stock
bridgers
Came to meeting, and
there was good attention, and
[illegible]I believe Some felt the Power
of the word, in the Evening
we had Some Singing, —

Monday Novr 14

was geting
ready to return homward, —

Tueſday Novr 15:

got up very
early in the morning, and we
were fitting to go off, and little
after Sun riſe we Sat off, DBrother
David
and his wife Daughter
and James Waucus went together
Elijah Wym[illegible]py, two Daughters
and others Some Stockbridgers
there were Eight Horſes of [illegible]a
mongſt us, and many foot men
and we got thro the woods Juſt
as the Sun was going down
I put up at Mr Fols's —

Wedneſday Novr 16:

we Sot
of very early in the morning
and I got to Esqur Wa[illegible]rets
in the Evening, and Lodged
there, and [illegible]three Stockbridgers
were there alſo —

Thirdsday 17:

I Sot off very
early and about 11: I got
to Capt Roof's and there I
Stopet, and finiſh'd writings
for our Folks, Juſt Night
David Came in — and here
we Lodged —

Fryday Novr 18:

I went
to Bomens Creek, and Got
there about 1: put up at
Esqr CKimbets and they
were very Glad to See me
and I was as glad, and Lodged
there, had a meeting here
this Evening, and there was
a Conſiderable of People, and
they attended well, —

Saturday Novr 19:

I left
the Family, Docr White went
with me about four miles
and So we parted, and I
to Esqr Manbee's about 3
o: c: and here I put up, &
was received with kindneſs —
here I overtook my Son Anto
ny Paul
,—

Sabb. Nov r 2:

Preachd here
to Conſiderable Number Peo
ple, and they attended with
with all Seriousneſs they
were moſt all Dutch; Spoke
in morning From Acts 9
Lord What Wilt thou — in
the after noon from Luke
So is he that Sayeth &c
Elijah Wympeh and his
Son, and 3 Stockbridge
girls were here alſo —
I Lodged here again,

Monday Novr 21:

Some
in the morning it was
about 8: I Sot off, and got
So far to Mr P[illegible]eter Van
Wormer
, about a mile
from Mohauk River in the the
Woods North Side —
This Day I Saw the Revd
Mr Romine
a Dutch Miniſter
in Cacanawaka by Mohauk
River
, I met with him at a
public Houſe, and he apear'd
quite Friendly at once, he
deſired me me, that if I Shoud
Come along this way again
at any Time, to Call upon
him, and have a Diſcourſe
with his People, and I told I
wou'd —

 Tueſday Novr 22: got up


very early, and it was
very Cold morning, and did
not Sit out So early as I intend
ed, took Breakfast before
I Sot out, about 8: I went on
my way, thro the Woods and it
was very Riding it was not froſe
had enough to bear a Horſe
in Muddy holes; I got to Mr Otis's
in Gallaway a little after 12
and found them all well, and
put up here, and took Dinner
with them, Concluded to have a
meeting this Evening. about
Daylight in I went Mr Dean's
to meeting and there was a Con
ſiderabl of People, and I Spoke
from Joſhua, 24: 19: and the
People attended with Serious
neſs,— after meeting went back
to Mr Otis's and Lodged there —

Wedneſday Novr 23:

Some after
Breakfast Sot of to go to a Place
Called Smith Field about 6 miles
of, Mr Meſsenger went with me
and it was thro a Deſert other
way,— got there Juſt before 12
went into M.r Smith's Houſe,
where the meeting is to be, a
bout 2: we began the meeting
and there was Conſiderable
Number of People Collected toge
ther, [illegible] for they had but Shrot Notice
and it is a New Settlement,
and the People attended with all
gravity and Solemnity, I believe
Some felt the Power of the word,
Soon after Meeting, one Mr
Coffin
, a Univerſaliſt Preacher
deſired to have Some Co[illegible]nverſation
with me, and we had Conver
ſateon a little while together
without much Debate, for we
diſagreed altogether,— and the
People diſperſt and I Stayd at
the Houſe all Night, and Mr
Meſanger
went home; and Mr
Smith
and his wife and I had
very agreeable Converſation
and their Son in Law his Name
was Alexander, Scotchman by
Nation, was very much
biggoted to their Verſton of
Psalms we had Some debate a
bout them, and upon Some o
th[illegible]er Points — Sot up late, and
was Extreamly well Treated
by the Heads of the Family and
all the Young People; Slept
very Comfortably,—

Thids Novr 24

got up
quite early, Stay'd till after
Breakfaſt, and then Sot of
Mr Hughwee Alexander went
with me, and we to Gallaway
about 10, Call'd at Mr Meſengers
and Dined with them, and had
agreable Converſation — Soon
after Dinner went to Mr Otiss &
from there to meeting about
a mile, where was a Sick
woman, we Soon got there
Mr Otis went with me and
another man, had Some Con
verſation with the Sick woman
and found her reſignd to the
will of god, & was Comfortable
in her mind; and then we
began the Worſhip of god, there
was but few People and they
attended with great Seriousneſs
and Some affection — I Spoke
from Matt 6: 10: after meeting
Mr Cullock invited me to go
home with him to Stay all Night
and was Treated very kindly &
Tenderly, —

Fryday Novr 25:

got up early
and Stayd till after Breakfaſt
and then went back, Calld
at Mr Meſengers and Dinner
with him, and afterwards
went to Mr Otiss,— and in
the evening went to meeting
again in Mr Deans Houſe
and there was Conſiderable
Number of People and there
was great Solemnity among
the People, I Spoke from
James [illegible][guess: 4]: 17: after meeting
went back to Mr Otis's
and Lodged there, had
a number Friends to viſet
me this Evening, Some Scotch
People and we had quite
agreable interview —

Saturday Novr 26

did not preach
his Day, juſt at Night went to
Warran's a little diſtance and
was wellcomd, and treated very
kindly, he is a Baptiſt man by
Denomination, Sot up Some Time
for had Some Company, Mr Mc
Larran
a Scotchman was with
us and very agreable Converſa
tion, and good be[illegible]d Time I went
to [illegible]Red queetly once more —

Sab. Novr 27:

about half after
ten we went to meeting, a few
Rods in a Barn, and there was
a great Number of People, for
a new Settlement, and I Spoke
from I. Samuel. 15: 14 in the after
noon from Joh 11: 28: and there
was great and Sober attention
through the Aſembly, and I believe
Some felt the preſence of god —
after meeting went home with
mr Warran and took Dinner
with them, — and in the even–g
went to Mr William Kalley
a Scotchman, and had a meet
ing there and there was a good
number of People, and I preachd
to them from Joh. 11: 26: and
I believe we had Some aſseſtan[illegible][guess: c]
both in Preaching and in
hearing — Lodgd at the Same
Houſe — and was kindly en‐
tertaind, —

Monday Novr 28

was at
Mr Kalleys till after Break
faſt, then went to Mr Otiss and
was there till about 2 in the
after, and then Mr Otis his &
Mr Meſsenger and his and went
to a weding, and there was
a number of People, but great
many, and I married the Cup
ple, thereir Names were Mr
Jonathan Bunyan Cotes and
Polley Doulin,— and the People
behaved exceeding well, — Juſtwe
good Cake and Cheeſe to eat &
Totty to Drink,— juſt before
Sun Sit we that Came together
went back again, I Calld in
at Mr Meſsengers, and was there
till the Young Wedendners Came
home, and then[illegible] I went to mr Otiss
and Lodged, once more, and his
Brother Lodged there alſo, —

Tueſday Novr 29:

Took my
leave of mr Otis and his Family
about 9: O'C: and I directed my
Courſe towards Scenactady, Mr
Meſsenger
went with me, and
we parted before we got to the
Place, and I went on to the
Town, got there Some Time
before Night; Calld at mr
Shooter
's, and Sat a while and
then went to See Mr Poſt my old
Friend, and found them all well
and was there a while, and his
Son Came in, and he invited ^ to
go home with him, and there I
Lodged, and kindly Treated, &
[illegible]Slept very Comfortable,—

Wedneſday Novr 30:

got up early
took Breakfaſt with Mrs Poſt, Mr
Poſt
was gone out,— after eating
I went to See Several Friends
payd my viſited the Revd Mr
Romine
, the Dutch Miniſter of
the Place, and he appeard very
Friendly, but I Stayd not Long
about 10 O: C: I went over the
Ferry again to go to the 5000
Acres
; Mr Meſsenger went with
me again, we travild together
about 7. miles, and there we
parted in Friendſhip — I went
on, Calld at one Mr Sharewoods
to warm my feet, and I had Sot
but few minutes, before the wo‐
man, aſked me whether I woud
Stay till She Can [illegible]make Some Tea
[illegible]I told her I woud, and She C got
it ready Quick, and I eat very
Hearty, and juſt as I had done
the man of the Houſe Came in
and appeard very agreeable
and as I was going away, he
deſired me to Come See him a
gain before I left the Place, &
I told him I woud, then went
on to Mr Holmss Soon got there
and found them all well, and was
kindly receivd by the Family, and
I put up there,—

Thirdsday Decemr 1: 1785:

Was at
Mr Holms's till near Noon, and I
went to Mr Woods a little diſtance
and Dined there, and [illegible]juſt
before Sun Sit, I went to one Mr
Rogers
, and Lodged there, I found him
and his wife very underſtanding
in the Scriptures and I believe
they were Experiencd Chriſtians
they are Ireiſh Folks, we had
very agreable Converſation &
Sot up Some what late, I Saw
the man was not well pleaſd
with Docr Wattss P[illegible]salms and
we had a long talk upon them, we
did not agree about them, but
we did not Contend about them, after
Converſation, we Sung a Psalm
and Read a Chapter, and Prayd
together and then went to^ Peaceable
and I had a Comfortable Sleep —

 Fryday Decer 2:

Got ^ early and
took Breakfaſt with them after
eating we Sung and Read, and
then I had Some Exerciſe in the
Family with my Christian Cards
and it was very Solemn and
agreable; — about 10 I took
my good leave of the Family, and
returnd to Mr Holmss, — and in
the after noon about 1: OC: I went
to Mr Clarkes and there was a goodly
number of People and I preachd
to them from, Acts 2: 37: and
there was great Solemnity and
Some affection I believe they felt
Some thing of the Power of the word
after meeting a Number of the
People Stayd, and in the Evening
I had Exerciſe a long while with
Family, with my Chriſtian Cards
and it was very agreable
and Some Time in the Evening
we went to Bed quietly, —

Saturday Decr 3:

about 10 went
to Mr Holmss and Sot a while and
I went to Mr Sharewoods a bout
half mile of, and him wvery
kind to me, and Converſable &
he is an underſtand Man took
Dinner with him, and was there
till Tea was got, and took with
them, and Juſt night returnd to
Mr Holmss again, and Lodged
there, —

Sabb: Decr 4:

Mr Holms went
to meeting with an ox Slead, and
his whole Family went and
I went with them, the meeting
was again in Mr Clarks H[gap: worn_edge]
and there was a Vaſt Number
of People tho' it was Stormy
Day, I Spoke from Isaah 5: 3
and was uncommon attention
and Flow of Tears, from old and
Young, and I am perſwaded the
Power of the was felt by many
Souls, I preachd only once —
after meeting, I took Dinner
with Mr Cleark, and after eat
ing we Sot and Some Religious
Converſation — about Sun Sit
we went to good old Mr Nothrops
and the we had a Comfortable meeting, and
it was very Comfortable meet
ing, and was great many Peo
I Spoke from Matt 5: 13. Mr
Nothrop
gave me the Text
and after the meeting was over
a Number Stayd, and we had
agreable Religious Converſation
I Loddgd at the Same Houſe
Blank page.Blank page.
Oneida Nation
The Oneidas are one of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Six Nations. During the 18th century, they were largely considered the most Christianized Haudenosaunee tribe. The Oneidas had a rich tradition of indigenous ministers, including Good Peter, Deacon Thomas, and Isaac Dakayenensere, and played host to several Moor’s missionaries, including Samson Occom, David Fowler, Samuel Ashpo, Joseph Johnson, Joseph Woolley, Titus Smith, and Samuel Kirkland (who went on to found Hamilton Oneida Academy, now Hamilton College). They were also the interpreter James Dean’s adoptive tribe. Notable Oneida towns included Onaquaga, Kanawalohale, and Old Oneida. Onaquaga was the central fire of the Six Nations. By the 18th century, it also had a sizeable contingent of Onondagas and Tuscaroras. Good Peter and Isaac Dakayenensere taught there, as did Joseph Woolley. Kanawalohale and Old Oneida were more predominantly Oneida. The Oneidas were involved in several crucial moments in the history of Moor's Indian Charity School. Onaquaga was the site of the 1765 confrontation between Wheelock and the New England Company, in which the New England Company disrupted Titus Smith's mission, first by sending their own missionary, and second by repossessing Elisha Gunn, the interpreter they had agreed to "loan" to Titus Smith. Left without an interpreter, Titus Smith was forced to abandon his mission (Wheelock repaid the favor a few years later by hiring James Dean away from the New England Company). A few years later, in 1769, Deacon Thomas led the Oneidas in withdrawing all their children from Moor's. The Oneidas' departure struck a devastating blow against Wheelock's Indian education plans, and provided more momentum for his shift to educating predominantly Anglo-Americans. The Oneidas sided with the colonists during the Revolution, but they were still affected by the general devastation in Six Nations territory, especially the Sullivan Expedition (1779). After the Revolution, the Oneidas granted tracts of their land to two Christian Indian organizations: the Brothertown tribe, a composite tribe of Moor’s alumni from New England, and the Stockbridge Indians. It was not long before the groups came into conflict with one another. Encroachment from the new State of New York put increasing pressure on Oneida land, and the Oneidas tried to renegotiate their treaties with the Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians to compensate. The Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians fought back, but by the 1820s all three groups had lost, and many of them relocated to Wisconsin.
Stockbridge Tribe
The Stockbridge Indians were the inhabitants of the town of Stockbridge, Massachusetts, a Christian Indian town modeled on John Eliot’s 17th-century “praying towns” (Indian towns where the inhabitants lived an Anglicized life style). Established in 1734, Stockbridge was composed of Mahicans, Housatonics, Wappingers, and Esopus (at the end of the 18th century, the Stockbridge Indians also adopted many New Jersey Delaware). The Stockbridge Indians had close ties to the Brothertown Nation, a composite tribe of Algonquian Indians from around the Long Island Sound which was organized by alumni of Moor’s Indian Charity School. The town played host to a series of famous missionaries and ministers, including John Sergeant Sr., Gideon Hawley, Jonathan Edwards, and John Sergeant Jr. (Sergeant Sr. established a boarding school at Stockbridge that provided the model for Eleazar Wheelock’s Moor’s Indian Charity School.) Eventually, the problems that the Stockbridge Indians encountered with white families who owned land in their town (most notably the Williams family) convinced them of the dangers of white land expansion and influenced their later land policies. In 1785, the Stockbridge Indians relocated to a tract of land in Oneida territory adjacent to the Brothertown settlement. (During the Revolution, Stockbridge played host to displaced Brothertown and Oneida Indians who had fled central New York. These ties were extremely influential in the decision to relocate.) They called their town New Stockbridge. By the turn of the 19th century, land pressures again overwhelmed the Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians and, along with many Oneida, they sought land in the west where they could attempt to escape white expansion.
Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College is small liberal arts institution in Hanover, New Hampshire. It has about four thousand undergraduate students taking courses in Arts and Sciences, and another two thousand in graduate schools in the Sciences, Comparative Literature, and Liberal Studies, as well as the Geisel School of Medicine, the Thayer School of Engineering, and the Tuck School of Business. It is a member of the Ivy League, and the ninth oldest institution of higher learning in the U.S. The charter establishing the College was signed in 1769 by John Wentworth, Royal Governor of New Hamsphire, who wanted an academy of higher learning in the colony. Its founder, Eleazar Wheelock, was a Congregational minister from Connecticut who, after his success in educating Samson Occom as a school teacher and Indian missionary in the 1740's, started Moor's Indian Charity School in 1754 to continue what he regarded as a divine mission to educate Native boys and girls to become missionaries. As the school grew, Wheelock began looking for a new location closer to Indian Country where he could expand. But in the 1760's he became disillusioned by the relative failure of his progam and began turning his attention to the education of Anglo-American men as missionaries. After a protracted search, he secured the royal charter in New Hampshire and in 1769 moved his family and base of operations to Hanover, where he established the College. It is named for William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth, who contributed to the funds raised by Occom and Whitaker on their fund-raising tour of Great Britain in 1766-68 and became a member of the London Trust that administered those funds. The College's charter announced its purpose as "the education and instruction of youth of the Indian tribes in this land [in] all parts of learning which shall appear necessary and expedient for civilizing and christianizing children of pagans…, and also of English youth and any others." But Wheelock's priorities were, in reality, the reverse. While he gave public notice in 1770 that "My Indian charity school … is now become a body corporate and politic, under the name of DARTMOUTH COLLEGE," he created this parallel structure to allow him to use the funds that were collected specifically for the education of Indians. Only around 75 Native students enrolled at the College before 1972, when it rededicated itself to educating Indians and established the Native American Studies Program. This is also the year Dartmouth went co-ed. Occom was angry and embittered at Wheelock’s abandonment of his “great design,” for which he had sacrificed so much. Their relations cooled after Occom’s return from England, and he never visited his mentor again, or, for that matter, Dartmouth College.
Universalist Church
The Universalist Church was a Christian religious denomination that developed in America from Pietist and Anabaptist movements, inculding Quakers, Moravians, Methodists, Lutherans and others. Its defining theology is universal salvation, and thus it runs counter to the central Calvinist belief in predestination, in which some souls are predestined for damnation. As a Presbyterian, Occom held to the Calvinist view and vigorously disagreed doctrinally with adherents of Universalism. The first Universalist Church in America was founded by John Murray in Gloucester, MA in 1779, and in 1790 the Universalists adopted a a doctrinal statement and plan for church government. In 1961 the Universalists consolidated with the Unitarian Association to form the Unitarian Universalist Church.
Baptists/Seventh Day Baptists
The Baptists were a dissenter sect that became especially popular in New England after the First Great Awakening. They diverged from Protestant belief mainly in insisting that only believers should be baptized, and that it should be done by immersion in water and not by sprinkling or pouring water, but they represented the most radical of the radical New Lights and were known for lay preaching and personal spirituality. Wheelock and most of his former students were more moderate New Lights and opposed this sort of radical Christianity. Occom, however, had many connections with Baptist ministers in central New York. On his preaching tour in 1774, he records visiting several Baptist ministers, largely white, and speaking to large crowds, sometimes in the woods. He also records meeting with a "Seven Day Baptist" minister. The Seventh Day or Sabbatarian Baptists differ from Baptist beliefs mainly in observing the Sabbath on Saturday, in accordance with the ten commandments. Baptist belief held a strong attraction for Native peoples because it protected their autonomy and embraced preaching and leadership by lay people. Divides over theology became problematic at Brothertown, where Occom’s moderate sect clashed with the more Baptist sect over whether or not to lease their land to Americans. After Occom’s death, Samuel Ashpo, a Baptist Mohegan minister known for his separatism, began spending more time at Brothertown and built up a substantial Baptist congregation there.
Albany

Albany is a city located in eastern New York. When Netherlander Henry Hudson arrived in what would become Albany in 1609, the Mohican Indians lived in several villages in the area. The Mohicans gave Hudson’s crew furs, and the Dutch East India Company sent representatives to trade with the Native peoples. The Dutch established the village of Beverwyck within the territory of the New Netherlands. Beverwyck hosted a diverse population of Germans, French, Swedes, English, Irish, Scots, Dutch, and Africans. After the fall of New Netherlands to Britain in 1664, Beverwyck was renamed Albany in honor of the colony’s proprietor James, Duke of York and Albany. In 1686, Albany was granted a charter that incorporated the city and provided it the sole right to negotiate trade with Native Americans. During the French and Indian War, Albany was designated as the British military headquarters in the Americas. During the Revolutionary War, most Albany residents supported the revolution because of their opposition to British trade restrictions.

Loudens Ferry
Stillwater
Hudson River

The Hudson River, frequently referred to as the North River in Occom Circle documents, runs 315 miles from Newcomb in upstate New York to the Long Island Sound. The Algonquin-speaking tribes that originally inhabited both sides of the river called it Mahicantuck, or river that flows both ways. In 1609, Henry Hudson, an English explorer employed by the Dutch East India Company, sailed up the river while looking for a passage to India and instead found thousands of Algonquians living in the river's valley. Hudson sailed as far north as Albany before turning back. Dutch traders settled the river’s banks and established trade in the colony that would become New Netherland. The Dutch called it Noort Rivier, or North River, by contrast to South River, the Delaware River. Only when the English began to assert their claim over the North River in the 1600s did it become commonly referred to as the Hudson River, to emphasize its "discovery" by an Englishman. The Dutch eventually ceded the river to the English in 1674 under the Treaty of Westminster, but the name North River persisted into the early 20th century. In their writings, Occom and his contemporaries refer to the Hudson as North River. Occom travelled along the North River from Mohegan to Albany during his preaching tours in the mid-1780s. Eventually, Occom sailed up North River for good, settling in New Stockbridge in 1789. Today, the name North River still refers to the section of the Hudson between New Jersey and New York City.

Ballston

Ballston is a town in central New York state, north of Albany. The area was occupied by Mohawk Indians, who resented the appropriation of their sacred grounds by European settlers. The first settlers, the MacDonald brothers, built a homestead on the west bank of Ballston Lake in 1763. Reverend Eliphalet Ball arrived in 1770 with his three sons and members of his congregation from Bedford, NY, bought the land from the MacDonalds, named it Ball's Town, and established a Presbyterian church there in 1771. Soon, settlers arrived from other parts of New England, New Jersey, Scotland and north of Ireland. In 1774, a stockaded fort was built in Ballston, which was attacked by the British and their Indian allies from Canada in 1780 and 1781. It became a town of Albany county in 1785 and was part of the religious circuit in upstate New York in which Occom travelled.

5000 Aires
New London

New London is a city located in southeastern Connecticut along an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean called Long Island Sound. The area that would become New London was inhabited by the Pequots who called it Nameaug when the Europeans arrived in North America. Pequot villages bordered Long Island Sound and the Tribe had authority over the neighboring Tribes of the Mohegans and Niantics (all Algonquian-speaking tribes). The Dutch first explored this land in 1614 and established trade with the Native peoples, but the English soon gained possession of the land east of the Hudson in the 1630s. English animosity toward their Indian neighbors led to the Pequot War (1634-38), part of which took place in the present city of New London. The Pequots lost the war and their population deteriorated due to the violence and disease. The General Court of Massachusetts granted John Winthrop possession of Pequot territory in 1644 after which it was to be opened for settlement. By 1646, which is considered the official year of its founding, New London had permanent colonial inhabitants and municipal laws, and jurisdiction was granted to the colony of Connecticut in 1647. In 1658, the inhabitants renamed the town New London after London, England. New London was the colony of Connecticut’s first trading port and was a hub of trade with the West Indies and other colonies. Though initially part of the town of New London when it was first settled by the colonists, Groton, Montville, and Waterford were each separated from New London in 1705, 1786, and 1801 respectively. Present-day Salem was also part of New London when it was settled, but in 1819, it became a separate incorporated town composed of parts of Lyme, Colchester, and Montville. Occom kept a school in New London in the winter in 1748. New London was the home of Captain Nathaniel Shaw, one of the wealthiest merchants in the area, who gave money to Occom in the 1750s for the missionary cause and also sold materials to Occom for the building of his home. However, their positive relationship ended when Shaw refused to provide supplies for Mary Occom while Occom was in England. New London served as the port from which Occom and other missionaries traveled to reach Long Island. During the American Revolution, New London’s location and its status as a seaport made it both vulnerable to invasion and integral to colonial naval operations as well as the exchange of prisoners.New London was incorporated as a city in 1784.

Mohawk River
Caughnawaga

Caughnawaga was one of four palisaded villages or "castles" of the Mohawk tribe located along the Mohawk River in eastern New York state near the present-day town of Fonda. The name derives from a Mohawk word kahnawa:ke, meaning place of the rapids, referring to the rapids of the Mohawk River. When Europeans first arrived in the 16th century, there were nearly 8,000 people living in these four villages, which were made up of bark longhouses, organized matrilineally. In 1664, the English captured Albany and tried to bring the Mohawks under their influence. French Jesuits established a mission in the village, which operated from 1668 to 1679, teaching the Mohawks French and converting them to Catholicism. Under French influence, a band migrated in 1667 from the New York region to La Prairie, a Jesuit mission on the St. Lawrence river in Quebec, finally settling just south of Montreal at a site they called Caughnawaga after their original village in New York; it is now known as Kahnawake. (Among the migrants was Kateri Tekakwitha, a young Mohawk convert who in 1993 was canonized as a saint of the Catholic Church.) The traditional longhouse village of Caughnawaga was abandoned in 1693. Joseph Brant, an influential Mohawk chief and brother-in-law of Sir William Johnson, British superintendent for Indian Affairs, urged the Six Nations to support the British during the Revolutionary War. Because of this alliance, the Mohawks were forced out of the Mohawk Valley and fled to Ontario and Montreal. In the 1780s, English settlers established a new town north of the Mohawk River named Caughnawaga, after the Mohawk village, which Occom visited several times on his preaching tours of the area in 1785 and 1789. The original site of Caughnawaga was discovered in 1950, and is now the only completely excavated Haudenosaunee village in the country, showing the outlines of 12 longhouses and the defensive stockade.

Stockbridge

Stockbridge is a town in Madison County in central New York state, named for the Stockbridge Indians of Western Massachusetts. During the Revolutionary war, the Stockbridge Indians had befriended the Oneidas, whose villages were burned down by Indians allied to the British. When the Stockbridge tribe lost ownership of their Christian Indian town, the Oneidas invited them to settle on a six-mile square township, known as "The New Stockbridge Indian Territory." Although the details are unclear, a letter from the Stockbridge chief, Hendrick Aupaumut, to Governor George Clinton of New York suggests that the Oneidas gave the Stockbridge Indians a written deed in 1784, possibly at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix that year. The state of New York confirmed the Tribe's ownership of the town on several later occasions, but would ultimately rescind its promise, forcing the Stockbridge Indians to remove further west to Indiana and Wisconsin, where they ultimately settled in the early 19th century. By 1785, the majority of the Stockbridge tribe from Massachusetts had moved to the town of New Stockbridge, originally called "Tuscarora" or "Old Oneida" by the white settlers. In 1787, the Scottish Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge hired John Sergeant, son of the original missionary in Massachusetts, as minister for the tribe; Sergeant travelled between his home in Stockbrige, MA, to New Stockbridge every year for nearly forty years in that capacity. In 1788, Occom, who had been invited as minister for the Brothertown settlement nearby, opposed Sergeant's mission but Occom's death in 1792 settled the conflict. In 1795, three New York Quakers visited New Stockbridge and began an exchange that helped the village to flourish. The first Europeans settlers arrived in 1791, and the present day town was created in 1836 from parts of four adjoining towns.

Niskayuna

Niskayuna is a town in east central New York State on the Mohawk River, just east of the city Schenectady. The name Niskayuna means "extensive corn flats," and is said to come from the Connestigione Indians who occupied a large area on both sides of the river when Dutch settlers arrived around 1642. The Dutch negotiated land deals with several Connestigione chiefs, and began to build homes and farms in the area in the 1660's. In 1746, George Clinton, Governor of New York colony, built one of a line of blockhouses ranging from Fort Massachusetts to Fort Hunter in Niskayuna, and in 1799, the Albany-Schenectady Turnpike (now Route 5) was built through the town. In 1822, the Erie Canal crossed the Mohawk River into Niskayuna, and in 1843 the Troy and Schenectady Railroad was built along the Mohawk River with a station in Niskayuna. The reformed Church of Niskayuna, organized around 1750, is the church at which Occom mentions preaching in his journal of 1787. Around the time that Occom and other Moor's graduates founded Brothertown on Oneida land in upstate New York, Occom commuted back and forth from Mohegan to Brothertown, often stopping to preach to large, enthusiastic crowds in churches and settlements in the area. He mentions preaching at Niskayuna and staying with acquaintances in 1786, 1787 and 1790, often in winter and braving difficult traveling conditions. He likely traveled on the trail that in 1799 became the Albany-Schenectady Turnpike.

Vedder's, a Dutch Tavern
Brothertown

Brothertown was a multi-tribal Indian settlement in the center of what is now New York state. In the 1760s, Indians in New England and New York were devastated by war, disease, and European settlement, and many who had converted to Christianity believed that pressures and influences from surrounding European settlers impeded them from living Christian lives. The Brothertown Indians began as a group of Christian Indians including members of the Mohegan, Pequot, Narragansett, Montauk, Tunxis, Wangunk, and Niantic tribes. In the 1770s, led by Occom and Joseph Johnson, this group of Indians moved to land granted to them by the Oneida in New York. They named the land Brothertown to both reflect their intention to live with fellow tribes as brothers and also to pay tribute to Brotherton, a Delaware Indian reservation in New Jersey that served as an inspiration for the Christian Indian settlement. When the Revolutionary War began, the Indians of Brothertown sided with the Patriots, and as a result, British sympathizers burnt the Brothertown settlement in 1777. After this, many Brothertown settlers moved east while others remained and fought alongside the colonists.In the 1780s, many more New England Indians, including Occom and his family, moved to Brothertown and the nearby settlement of New Stockbridge, forming a town government, church and schools. In the early 1800s, the state of New York began to purchase tracts of Oneida land, and the Indians were forced to leave New York and settle in Greenbay, Wisconsin.

Bowman's Creek

Bowman's Creek is a small village about four miles long within the town of Canajoharie in central New York's Montgomery County. Canajoharie (also known as Indian Castle or Upper Castle for the Mohawk fortifications surrounding the town) was a major Mohawk village that became a central location for the missionary activity of Wheelock and others. By the time Occom visited the area in the late 1780s, disease and war had decimated the Mohawk population and only around 250 Indians remained in the area. The village is named for Jacob Bowman, an English colonist who purchased land at the head of the creek in 1760. Occom notes the village as a location distinct from Canajoharie, which he also mentions visiting, and it was a frequent stop on his preaching tours of the 1780s. While in Bowman's Creek, Occom preached to the town's residents, likely at the Presbyterian church. In one entry, he notes baptizing a resident.

Schenectady

Schenectady is a city located in eastern New York State. The area that would become Schenectady was originally controlled by the Mohawk Indians, the easternmost and most powerful of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy. The land making up Schenectady was one stop on the much larger Mohawk Trail, which extended from Schenectady to what would become Albany, New York. The name of Schenectady was a derivation of the Mohawk word, Schau-naugh-ta-da, which meant the place beyond the open pines. The first Europeans to arrive at Schenectady were the Dutch who established a settlement there in 1661. Schenectady would come under British control as Dutch power in the Americas waned and the British established the colony of New York. In 1690 during King William’s War, Schenectady became the target of French and Indian soldiers who attacked the town and killed 60 of its residents, an event that became known as the Schenectady Massacre. There was a smallpox outbreak in Schenectady in 1767, as noted in this collection’s documents. In 1780, Oneidas found refuge from Loyalist and Mohawk attacks in Schenectady, and the town served as a stop on the way to Brothertown, the pan-Indian settlement founded by Occom and other graduates of Wheelock’s school. Schenectady was designated a borough in 1765 and eventually incorporated as a city 1798.

Smith Field
Oneida

Oneida is a city in Madison County located at the geographical center of New York state. Before European settlement of the area, the Oneida Tribe, one of the Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy, inhabited a large territory adjacent to nearby Oneida Lake. Around 1533, they built their first village on the south shore of the lake, at or near the mouth of Oneida Creek. At the end of the 17th century, this area began suffering raids by parties from the French colony of Quebec, in a battle to control the fur trade. In 1696, Oneida village was burned by the French. As a result, the Oneidas moved their chief village east of the original site, called Old Oneida, to a new site called Kanawalohale, also known as Oneida Castle, which was fortified by tall palisades and a moat. This is the site of the present-day village of Oneida Castle, a small hamlet west of the city of Oneida in the northwest corner of the town of Vernon. When used in Occom Circle documents, the place name "Oneida" usually refers to the territory inhabited by the Tribe east of Oneida Lake, but can also refer specifically to Oneida Castle. Although the Oneidas sided with the patriots during the Revolutionary War, much of their territory was sold or appropriated by the state of New York. In 1790, the first European settlers moved into the area of Old Oneida village, and the district began to expand. In the 1830s, the state built a feeder from Oneida Creek through the present city site to provide water for the new canal system, which enabled canal boats to ship freight into the town. Eventually, the railroad came through the town and helped with its expansion. This led to the incorporation of the Village of Oneida in 1848 and the establishment of the Town of Oneida in 1896. The town was chartered as the City of Oneida in 1901, and with two more railroad lines transecting the area, it became a thriving manufacturing center for the first half of the 20th century.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Wympy, Elijah Jr.

Elijah Wympy Jr. was a Farmington-Tunxis Indian involved in the Brothertown movement. He was born in 1765 in Farmington, Connecticut to Elijah and Eunice Wympy. Wympy Sr. was a key figure in the establishment of Brothertown, and Wympy Jr. supported his father. Like the Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Niantics and Montauketts, the Tunxis Indians shared a history of encroachment by Europeans and increasing governmental authority that produced the shared identity fueling the creation of Brothertown. Occom notes Wympy Jr.'s presence in Brothertown several times in his journals for 1786-87. Wympy Sr. was a controversial figure who initially supported leasing lands to white settlers in Brothertown, but when he changed his position on this policy, he and his son signed a petition identifying white settlers as trespassers. Wympy Jr. married the widowed Elizabeth Peters, who had a daughter from her first marriage. Together, he and Elizabeth had a son and a daughter. In 1796, Wympy Jr. served as the schoolmaster for the school in Brothertown, but he was discharged after three months and replaced by Hannah Fowler, David Fowler's daughter. Wympy Jr. died in Brothertown in 1812.

McKinny, John
Hollenbeck
Paul, Christiana (née Occom)

Christiana Occom was born in 1757 in Mohegan, CT as the ninth child of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Christiana spent her childhood in Mohegan, where she married the Reverend Anthony Paul in 1777. The couple eventually settled in Brotherton in 1784. There, they raised at least six children, four of which Samson Occom baptized. Occom's journals tell of many joyful visits he paid to his daughter and son-in-law while on his travels. Christiana and Anthony finally left Brotherton in 1797 to settle in Lake George, NY.

Hollenback, Jenney
Smith, John
Smith, John
Kalley, William
Dina sister
Margery old mother
Tattleton, Isaac
Waucus, James
Carperter, John
Vanburen, Matt
Thomson, Jonathan
son, Mr. Thomson's
Dean, James

James Dean, an adopted member of the Oneida tribe, was an interpreter and American government agent. When he was nine years old, his parents sent him to live with the Oneidas at Onaquaga; they may have thought that interpreting would be a secure career, or they may have acted out of a missionary impulse. Dean lived at Onaquaga for four or five years and was formally adopted by the Oneidas. He may have lived at Good Peter's house. Dean learned an array of Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) and Indian languages. In 1762, Rev. Forbes retrieved Dean on a mission to Onaquaga under the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. After that Society folded, the New England Company educated Dean and employed him as a missionary. Naturally, Wheelock coveted the services of this Anglo-American boy who was fluent in multiple Indian languages. Dean was also interested in working for Wheelock because he wanted a college education, which the New England Company was not going to provide. Thus, Dean became yet another point of contention between Wheelock and the New England Company: the New England Company's Boston Board accused Wheelock of trying to poach their best interpreter, while Wheelock maintained that it was Dean who was pursuing him. Dean finally joined Dartmouth College in November of 1769; as Chase points out, by this time Wheelock's relations with the Boston Board were irreparable and he had nothing to lose by accepting Dean as a student. Dean graduated from Dartmouth in 1773 and served Wheelock for the next two years. He worked primarily with Abenakis in Canada and the Oneidas, and was often paired with Kirkland. In August of 1775, Wheelock gave Dean his blessing to leave the missionary service and work as an interpreter and Indian agent for the Continental Army. Dean interpreted at several important conferences and, along with Kirkland, was instrumental in convincing the Oneidas to side with the colonies during the Revolution. After the war, Dean continued to work as a liaison between Indian tribes and American governments, especially between the Oneidas and the New York Government. Although one might expect Dean to have protected his adoptive tribe's interests, he did not. Dean was heavily involved in land speculation, and did not see a cooperative future between Indians and Anglo-Americans. He helped New York State acquire massive amounts of Oneida land, and amassed substantial territory for himself in the process. While Dean did not help the Oneidas hold on to their land, he did make some efforts to defend Oneida sovereignty from New York intervention. Dean farmed his land and turned it into the settlement of Westmoreland. He was a prominent citizen in Central New York: he served as a judge and assemblyman and played an important role in establishing the region's trade lines. Occom refers to visiting Dean several times in his later diaries.

Paul, Anthony

Anthony Paul was born in Charlestown, Rhode Island, to Mary and James Paul. His family was a part of the Narragansett peoples who lived in Charlestown. There is not much information detailing Paul's early years, but he is believed to have attended Wheelock's school in Connecticut. It is through this connection that Paul is likely to have met Christiana Occom, daughter of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Paul married Christiana in 1777 and, after spending some time in Mohegan, the two settled in Brotherton in 1784. Paul worked as a preacher and helped raise at least six children with Christiana. Occom was fond of his son-in-law, and his journals tell of many happy times visiting the couple, including fishing trips and the day in 1787 when Samson baptized Paul and four of his children. As further indication of Occom's fondness for his son-in-law, he is believed to have left the books and papers that he kept in his New York home with Paul. In 1797, Paul and Christiana left Brotherton to live in Lake George, NY, where they spent the rest of their years.

Folts, Conrad Jacob

Conrad Folts was the son of Jacob Melchert Folts (1710-1808) and Anna Catherine Petrie Folts (1714-1799), who settled in the area around Herkimer, near the Mohawk River in central New York. The Folts were probably part of the large German settlement concentrated around German Flatts. Conrad was a Captain, though the records do not indicate where or whom he served. In the 1780s, when Occom, David Fowler and others from Mohegan and Stockbridge began moving Christian Indians up to the Oneida lands they had been given to settle, Occom met and befriended Folts and his family, who lived close to the settlements of Brothertown and New Stockbridge. On October 21, 1785, Occom recorded the first time he lodged with "one Mr. Folts," a phrase he used to denote this as an initial meeting. By September 11, 1786, however, Occom noted, "put up at my good friends Mr Conrod Fols." He lodged and "tarried" with the family several times during 1787 after visits to and from Brothertown. Folts is buried in the Oakview Cemetery in Frankfort, Herkimer County, NY.

Wympy, Elijah

Elijah Wympy was a prominent Farmington Indian who was instrumental in establishing Brothertown, yet he subsequently led a group that disregarded the primary vision of the community. In his early years he was a student at the school in Farmington, CT, and in 1757 he served in the Seven Years’ War. During negotiations around 1773 between the Oneida and New England Indians concerning a tract of land, Wympy acted as a delegate for Farmington and asked other tribes to send envoys too. The Oneidas granted the territory the following year, and in 1775 Wympy was among the first to move to what became Brothertown. He was chosen as a trustee of the town in 1785, but around this time the Oneidas attempted to reclaim the land. Accordingly, Wympy participated in the effort to maintain the territory. Fortunately, when the state of New York gained Oneida territory in 1788, it acknowledged the Christian Indians’ right to the tract as it had originally been granted; the state passed an act in 1789 that recognized the Indians’ property and instituted a 10-year limit on leases for lots. Wympy and his followers, comprised mainly of outsiders, thus leased numerous parcels, including invaluable ones, to white settlers. Occom strongly opposed this and petitioned the Assembly, which passed an act in 1791 restricting the power to lease lands to the council. While Occom and Wympy had previously been friends -- Wympy had even partaken in the movement to establish Occom as the local minister -- their disagreement on the issue of leasing Brothertown lands to whites opened a strong divide between them. Wympy apparently regretted his actions, for in 1794 he was among the signers of an address to the governor seeking to remove the whites. He remained in Brothertown until his death around 1802.

Fowler, David

David Fowler was Jacob Fowler's older brother, Samson Occom's brother-in-law, and an important leader of the Brothertown Tribe. He came to Moor's in 1759, at age 24, and studied there until 1765. While at school, he accompanied Occom on a mission to the Six Nations in 1761. He was licensed as a school master in the 1765 mass graduation, and immediately went to the Six Nations to keep school, first at Oneida and then at Kanawalohale. Fowler saw himself as very close to Wheelock, but their relationship fragmented over the course of Fowler's mission, primarily because Wheelock wrote back to Kirkland, with whom Fowler clashed, but not to Fowler, and because Wheelock refused to reimburse Fowler for some expenses on his mission (767667.4 provides the details most clearly). Fowler went on to teach school at Montauk, and played a major role in negotiations with the Oneidas for the lands that became Brothertown. He was among the first wave of immigrants to that town, and held several important posts there until his death in 1807.

Fowler, Jacob

Jacob Fowler was a Montauk Indian whose life was dramatically shaped by Samson Occom, his brother-in-law. Occom taught Jacob when he was a child, and in 1762, Jacob followed his older brother David Fowler to Moor's. After three years he was approved as an usher in the 1765 examination, and in 1766 he went to assist Samuel Johnson at Canajoharie. He taught among the Six Nations until at least mid-1767. In early 1770, Occom procured him a job teaching at Mushantuxet through the Boston Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Jacob taught and preached among the Pequots at Mushantuxet and Stonington until 1774, when Wheelock hired him to teach at Moor's, which had relocated to Hanover, NH as a complement to Dartmouth College. During this time, Jacob also assisted Joseph Johnson with efforts to rally the New England Christian tribes for a move to Oneida territory (the Brothertown Movement). By 1776, there were no Indians enrolled in Moor's and Jacob moved on to serve Governor John Trumbull of CT as a messenger to the Six Nations during the Revolution. After the Revolution, he continued organizing the Brothertown Movement and was among those who initially emigrated in 1784. He was elected clerk at Brothertown, and died sometime in the spring of 1787.

Van Wormer, Peter
Simon, Abraham

Abraham Simon was a Narragansett Moor’s student who played a prominent role in Brothertown’s early civic life. Abraham was born in 1750 into the prominent Simon family, a Charlestown Narragansett family that sent five children to Moor’s (James, Emmanuel, Sarah, Abraham, and Daniel). The minister at Groton, Jacob Johnson, recommended Abraham Simon to Wheelock during the Fort Stanwix Congress in 1768 (how Jacob Johnson knew Abraham and why he had brought him to Stanwix is unclear. His ministry was only 30 miles away from Charlestown, so that may have been the connection). Abraham studied at Moor’s from 1768 until 1772, and, with his brother Daniel, was one of the few Indian students to relocate with Wheelock from Connecticut to New Hampshire. In 1772, Abraham made a brief journey on Wheelock’s behalf to the Tuscaroras, who proved uninterested in missionaries or schoolmasters. The next written record of Abraham Simon dates to 1774, when he wrote to Wheelock to inform him that he was going to keep school among the Pequots, which he did for approximately six months. In 1775, he enlisted in the army and served as a medic at Roxbury for at least part of the Revolution. Abraham immigrated to Brothertown in 1783 and was elected to the town’s first council. His house was a center of communal life, and appears many times in Occom’s diary as the location of religious meetings. Abraham died in Brothertown sometime before 1795, when his land was recorded under his widow’s name. Some confusion exists regarding Abraham’s death and burial. In 1925, some Dartmouth students became aware of an Indian named Abraham Symons who had lived in East Haddam, Connecticut, from 1790 until 1812. They assumed that this Abraham Symons was the Narragansett Abraham Simon, and erected a tombstone for him in East Haddam. Had they consulted William DeLoss Love’s account of Brothertown, perhaps they would not have done so. The town of East Haddam remains convinced that Abraham Simon is Abraham Symons, despite the fact that their account of Abraham’s life and connection to East Haddam relies on conflating his life with his brother Daniel Simon’s.

Pauquunnuppeet, Peter

Sir Peter Pauquunnuppeet (there are several variant spellings), a son of an Indian deacon by the same name, was a Stockbridge Mohican Indian and student of Eleazar Wheelock, who studied at Moor’s Indian Charity School from 1771 until 1775, and graduated from Dartmouth College in 1780. Together with Daniel Simon, class of 1777, and Lewis Vincent, class of 1781, he was one of the three Indian students to graduate before the turn of the century, and they became the last native graduates until 1835. The “Sir” that precedes Pohquonnoppeet’s forename originated from his status as a senior in school, and remained a part of his name for the rest of his life. After graduating, Pauquunnuppeet returned to Stockbridge, where he taught school and was involved in tribal affairs. Joseph Quanaukaunt (Quinney) became sachem in 1777, and along with Hendrick Aupaumut and John Konkapot, Pauquunnuppeet was a member of the his council. Pauquunnuppeet was also influential in the Brothertown movement and the founding of New Stockbridge six miles from Brothertown, New York. In 1785, when Americans in New York were driving the Oneidas to cede land that bordered Pennsylvania, Pauquunnuppeet represented the Stockbridge Indians in what became the Treaty of Herkimer. Pauquunnuppeet had an influential friendship with Samson Occom. Occom recorded many occasions in his diary during his missionary tours of 1785-1787 when Peter hosted him, and noted a few instances when they traveled together. Often during Occom’s visits to New Stockbridge Captain Hendrick and Pauquunnuppeet would translate his sermons for those who could not understand English. The Stockbridge Indians favored Occom over the white missionary John Sergeant, Jr., and on August 29, 1787 Pauquunnuppeet was one of nine Indians to write to Occom declaring their devotion and inviting Occom to become their minister. However, the tribe had no means by which to pay Occom, and so, in the winter of 1787 Pauquunnuppeet, Occom, and David Fowler embarked on a fundraising journey through New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York. They were not, however, able to raise as much money as they had sought to collect. Pauquunnuppeet’s strong presence within the tribe may have led to his death, although the precise date and circumstances of his decease is unknown. Sectionalism within New Stockbridge was growing due to the friction between those who supported Occom and those who preferred Sergeant, Jr. as their minister. The politics of Brothertown as an independent entity contributed to the tension. Finally, when Hendrick Aupaumet rose to the position of chief, Pauquunnuppeet became the leader of a rival faction. It has been suggested that Pauquunnuppeet’s increasing authority provoked his enemies to poison him.

Fowler, Hannah (née Garrett)

Hannah Fowler (née Garrett) was a Pequot woman who married David Fowler. The Garrett family boasted sachems and interpreters and was influential among the Stonington Pequots. Hannah grew up among the Charlestown Narragansetts, as her parents had affiliated with that tribe (a not-uncommon occurrence, given the close ties between the groups, especially in the realm of Christian spirituality). At Charlestown, Hannah received her basic education and was recruited for Moor’s Indian Charity School. She studied at the school from 1763 until she married David Fowler in 1766. Hannah and David’s marriage is especially noteworthy because it is the only instance where a female Moor’s student married a Native American missionary from Moor’s and joined him on missions — which had been Wheelock’s intent in admitting Native American women in the first place. Hannah assisted David on his mission to Kanawalohale from the time of their marriage in 1766 until his departure for Montauk in 1767. In 1783, the pair moved to Brothertown, where their house was the town center. Both Fowlers proved influential in town affairs, and their children and grandchildren also played a central role in the town’s administration.

Fowler, Esther (née Poquiantup)

Esther Poquiantup was a Mushantuxet Pequot, the daughter of Samson Poquiantup (Pequot, 1725-1787) and Esther (Mohegan, 1725-1822) and sister of Prude Poquiantup Harry (1752-1828). The Poquiantups (also spelled Pouquenup, Pauhqunnup, Uppuiquiyantup) were a prominent family of Christian Indians with one branch living in Groton and the other at Niantic, CT. In 1766, Samson and Esther were living at Groton. Samson was a church deacon who occasionally hosted Occom's religious meetings. We don't know when Esther married Jacob Fowler, a Montaukett Indian, younger brother of David, and Samson Occom's brother-in-law, but we do know that by 1774, Esther and Jacob were living in Hanover, NH, in a Dartmouth College building down the hall from Elizabeth Walcutt and her daughter Lucy. Jacob, who attended Wheelock's School, had become a preceptor there. Esther and Jacob were part of the first group to emigrate from New England to Brothertown in Oneida country. By 1787, Occom refers to Esther as a widow, and lodges frequently at her house.

Quinney, Widow
Waupieh, Roger

Roger Waupieh was one of the founders of the Brothertown community. In early life, he lived in Stonington and served in the Revolutionary War. The maiden name of Occom's mother, Sarah, was Wauby, suggesting that Occom and Roger Waupieh may have been related. Some sources suggest "Woyboy" as an alternate spelling of Waupieh; Roger Waupieh may have been related to the Woyboy who was an early student at Moor's.

Wauby, Mary
Tuhy, John
Acorrocomb, Andrew
Putchauker, Thomas
Aupaumut, Hendrick

Hendrick Aupaumut, most likely a descendant of the Mohawk chief Hendrick, was a Mahican Indian who was born in Stockbridge, Massachusetts in 1757. He was educated by the Moravians and became very involved in tribal affairs and relations with the United States. Along with other Stockbridge Indians, Aupaumut fought as part of Captain William Goodrich’s company in the Revolutionary War, rising to captain in 1778. In 1777, when Joseph Quanaukaunt became sachem, Aupaumut became a member of his council along with Peter Pohqunnoppeet and John Konkapot. He also became close friends with Samson Occom and would often host the preacher or translate his sermons when the latter visited New Stockbridge, to where the Stockbridges moved in the mid 1780s. In 1787 he was one of nine Indians to write to Occom declaring their faith and asking Occom to become their minster. He was also one of the Indians to sign the proclamation that Occom, Pohqunnooppeet, and David Fowler carried during their tour to raise funds to support Occom as their pastor. By the 1790s, Aupaumut was acting as an agent for the United States. He helped the government combat Tecumseh and his brother Elskwatawa, and he fought under General Harrison in the War of 1812. Both conflicts interrupted the various land deals between tribes, as well as treaties and other negotiations, in which he was involved. Although he encouraged Indians to convert to Christianity and learn English, Aupaumut opposed leasing land to whites. Occom and Aupaumut agreed that the Stockbridges must move west to escape the influence of outside cultures, and to preserve their Christianity. In the 1820s, Aupaumut led land deals with Wisconsin tribes, and he finally moved west in 1829 along with the remainder of the Stockbridge tribe.

Kimball, Jesse

Jesse Kimball was a member of the extensive Kimball family, whose ancestors immigrated from England at the end of the 17th century and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. His father was John Kimball (b. December 12, 1731) of Preston, CT, and his mother was Ruhama Sanders of Lyme, CT; they married on September 21, 1752 and had three sons and 13 daughters. Jesse was the second son. John served in the Revolutionary war and Jesse, though quite young, took the place of his brother Samuel, who contracted measles on the eve of his enlistment. Jesse served three years under Captain Adam Chapley and was stationed in New London, CT. After his service, Jesse moved to the frontier settlement of Bowman's Creek, in the present-day town of Canajoharie in Oneida country, and joined the militia. There he entertained Occom several times on Occom's preaching tours of 1785-87; the two often fished in the creek, to Occom's delight. The date when Kimball's Bowman's Creek house burned down is uncertain, but real estate records have him buying and selling land in Bowman's Creek as late as 1790, and he is listed in the first US Census for New York in 1790 as being the head of a household. His first marriage ended in divorce and in 1793 he married Elizabeth Roelofson (d. 1843). By that time, he had moved to Kentucky, where he was a farmer and miller and started his family. Some records report that he also made whiskey, and when he would not sell it to the local Indians, he was driven from his home and settled in Posey County, Indiana, where he died in 1857.

Romeyn, Thomas
Messenger
Smith

Unidentified Smith.

Cotes, Jonathan Bunyan
Doulin, Polley
Post, John
Sharewood
Alexander, Hughwee
Watts, John
HomeSamson Occom, journal, 1785 October 4 to 1786 December 4
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