abstract: A draft of Wheelock’s will.
handwriting: The first two-plus pages of the document are written in a hand that is other than Wheelock's. It is informal and crowded, yet largely clear and legible. Beginning with the second word of the ninth line on two recto, the hand is Wheelock's (there are also additions made in Wheelock's hand throughout). Wheelock's hand is informal, small and occasionally difficult to decipher.
paper: Document consists of one large single sheet and one large sheet folded in half to make four pages. The paper is in fair condition, with moderate-to-heavy staining, creasing and wear. A small tear at the top of two recto/verso results in a minor loss of text.
noteworthy: A tag reading "Part of the Frederick Chase Collection given by his heirs" is affixed to both two recto and three verso.
undertake, & have ⇑at my own Riſque & Expence by the aſsistance & favour of god, founded a charity school for
the education of youths of the several tribes of Indians in this land, and alſo
of a competent number of English youths to accompany them, with a
single view to the spreading the gospel into the ignorant parts of this
Land, eſpecially among the Indians. And by the smiles of heaven
upon every step that hath hitherto been taken in the Affair, the
design is now become respectable in Europe as well as America, inso‐
‐much that large donations have been made, whereby a number of
Miſsionaries & schoolmasters have been, and are supported in the
Wilderneſs, as well as a considerable number now in this school.
filling for the like service when they have finished their learning here
And a ⇑very considerable fund is ⇑additional Sums have been collected in great Britain, chiefly by
the endeavours of the Rev.d Doct.r Whitaker, whom I have ⇑Authorised commiſsioned and sent, in com‐
‐pany with the Rev.d Sampson Occom, in my name, to solicit the charities
of gods people ⇑only for the use & support of s.d Design; And God
having amidst the numberleſs & signal favours, by which he has own'd
this design, put it into the hearts of thoſe most noble worthy & generous
friends & benefactors the Right hon.ble W..m Earl of Dartmouth M.r Baron
Smythe John Thornton Samuel Roffey Charles Hardey & Daniel West Esqr
M.r Samuel Savage M.r Josiah Robarts & Mr Robart Keen all of, or near
the City of London to become Guarantees to the publick for the
safety ⇑Security & due application of sd fund ⇑Monies collected in great Britain for
promoting the great design afores.d, & that this so important Affair
should ⇑might not fail or be obstructed thro' my decease, and it being also neceſsary
for the safety wellbeing & succeſs of ye undertaking that there be also
a trust appointed on this side the water who may & shall receive
all gifts & grants subscriptions or donations any way made in
these Colonies for the use & support of s.d school or miſsionaries
and to dispose of and improve ye same according to ye will of
ye doners; and also to examine & judge of the qualifications of Miſſsys
& school-masters; the numbers from time to time expedient & their
fitneſs for the places they shall be respectively designed for and also of
their fidelity & skill in performing the truths respectively reposed
in them & accordingly to authorize & appoint them to yr respective offices or displace
& remove them as they shall find occasion
affair to god & waiting upon him for light & direction therein — nominate
& appoint my much hon.d & worthy friends afores.d viz the Right hon.ble W.m Earl of Dartmouth, &c
to be trustees of all ye Donations yt have been made or shall be made ⇑of any kind or in any manner of way wtever
thro' yr hands for ye use & benefit of ye genl design afores.d & to them ye s.d trustees I give & bequeath
sd fund allready made or any gifts grants or donations to be made as afores.d to ym & to yr
succeſsors to be by them disposed of & improved in ye best manner only for ye Uses aforesd [illegible][guess: yt]
& to do wtever yy shall judge necessary to be done on yt side ye water for ye safety welbeing prosperity, succeſs & increaſe
⇑[left]of ye great design in view
under such regulations as shall be hereafter mentioned—⇑X & in case of ye death or resignation
⇑[left]of any of ye s.d [illegible][guess: T] 9 Gentleman such vacancy be declared & others chosen by ye majority of ye
remaining Trustees, to fill up such Vacancy or Vacancies
to be my succeſsor in ye immediate care oversight guidance & direction
of this whole Affair, so long & under such limitations & restrictions as shall be here
‐after mentioned in this will — I do also nominate & appoint my faithful &
trusty friends Col: W.m Pitkin Esq.r of Hartford, the Rev.d Benjamin Pomroy of Hebron
the Rev.d James Lockwood of Wethersfield, the Rev.d W.m ⇑Timo Pitkin of Farmington, the Rev.d
Nath.l Whitaker DD of Norwich, the Revd W.m Patten of Hartford & my son Ralph
Wheelock all of the Colony of Connecticut & the Rev.d Saml Kirtland
Miſs.y to be Trustees of all the Donations that have been made or shall be
made ⇑in these colonies American colonies for the Use support & benefit of ye general design in view ⇑the School & Miſsionaries as aforeſd
& to them ye s.d Trustees last mentioned I give & bequeath the Lot of Land
or tenement in this ⇑s.d Society ⇑in Lebanon aforeſ.d given oreginally by M.r Joshua Moore of
Mansfield & since confirmed to me by a deed from his widdow
for the Use & support of sd school ⇑togather w.th ye subscriptions made by divers
well disposed persons for ye support & benefit of ye school, & any & all
other or real or personal estate that has been or shall be given or
any way convey'd or made over to this school ⇑and Miſsionaries or to me for
the Use & benefit of ye same To them & to their Successors to have
& to hold or alienate & dispose of as yy shall judge best only for
ye uses afores.d — And that they or any five of them ye
whole being duely notified (by letters or otherways of ye Time & place of
meeting) shall have full power to chuse another Trustee if they shall
think fit & then to to confirm ye appointment I have made of (my son
Ralph for) my successor or to chuse another of their number in his stead —
& that the same so chosen to be my succeſsor be approved by the R.t honble
noble & worthy Gentlemen of ye Trust in England otherwise that
a new nomination be made by the Teither set of Trustees 'till one be found
in which all may unite & that the one appointed by ye Trust on this
my succeſsor⇑[inline]s be ⇑Succeſsively appointed by will with the Advice of ⇑& or approbation
both of the Trustees here & in England ⇑forever or untill a legal incorporation
shall be obtained ⇑and that he be approved by both Setts of Truſtees or else yt another be by them Chosen as aforeſaid And in case of a vacancy by the death of
‐ſor or Succeſsors shall die with out such will that one be choſen by both ſetts of Truſtees as aforeſ.d, & y.t he
Who ſhall be appointed by the Truſtees on this the water officiate till that matter be ſettled as aforeſ.d & [illegible]in Caſe of a vacancy
by ye death or
bye supplied by others chosen by the major part of the surviving
Trustees —& it shall be ye duty of theſe Trustees to examine & authorize
Miſsionaries & school masters & appoint them to their respective
services and judg of their Skill & Fidelity in performing the Same and accord‐
ingly continue or diſplace and remove them as they Shall jidge fit. and do any
thing for the help and aſsiſtance of my S.d Succeſsor in the vigorous Proſecution of
the Sd great Deſign, ⇑[inline]and to appoint fix upon and determine & fix upon laws rules and orders for ye
⇑[below]Edification Decency, & Good Economy of the Whole affair as they Shall from time to time find neceſs.y
money, in, this whole affair and tranſmitt the Same twice a year, with an accot
of all Succeſses and remarkable Occurrances to the Truſt in England — and that
they ⇑he Shall do the Same, with reſpect to my New Plan which he or they truſt
⇑here Shall think fit to come in[illegible]to, in the Proſecution of this Deſign, when and
as Soon as there is opportunity for it, and if it may be before he enters
upon the Execution of it, in order for their approbation of [illegible] ye ⇑Truſt in England at Home
and the Accots being thus kept and tranſmitted, the Truſt in England ſhall
not have right to proteſt any Bills or Draughts made upon their Treaſurer
[illegible]to pay any Expenses made before my Succeſsor Shall have received the Notice
of their Diſapprobation of the Meaſures he is purſuing. The Same I expect
for my Self So long as I do to the beſt of my Ability proceed according
to the foregoing proposals. and I hope in God who has hitherto So mar
=vellouſly appeard to maintain and promote this Cauſe hitherto which
is his own that he will yet take care of it and perform the higheſt
wiſhes and Hopes of his Saints concerning it, and particularly that
he will open the Hearts of Such as he has Endowed with Ability
to provide a ⇑laſting Fund for the Support ⇑not only of the School but of the Preſident, ⇑Inſtructors and Trustees other
⇑[left]officers neceſsary for of the Same.
Wherefore know Ye that I do by these preſents Give Grant Convey and make over
to my much Hond & Worthy Friends ⇑before named viz the R.t Honle William Earl of Dartmouth
M.r Baron Smythe &c and to their Succeſsors Choſen as before mentioned, forever [illegible] ye Gifts
money already collected which is now in their Hands, and all the Gifts Grants or Donations
of any kind that shall hereafter be made thro' their Hands only for the uses & purpoſes
aforeſd and in the manner aforeſ.d and I do by these preſents bind and oblige myſelf
that the Plan aforeſaid Shall remain and be the form and manner of
this School, only reſerving to my Self the Liberty to change my Succeſ.r
or to nominate another in Stead of him who is now named in my
Will and also to add two more Truſtees ⇑more than are now named or
remove either of these and put another or others in Stead thereof if I
Shall think it Expedient.
Know Ye y.t Whereas I Eleazar Wheelock of Lebanon in the
County of Windham and coloney of Connecticut in N. England
([illegible]) have by my laſt will and Teſtament, Dated this 14th
Day of April 1768. regulated, moddled, ordered and diſposed of
my Indian Charity School in the manner and form ⇑and words following
viz. "Item. and Where as I did &c [illegible]did[illegible] for many &c.
Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.
Ralph Rodulphus Wheelock was Wheelock's oldest son and heir apparent. While Wheelock believed that Ralph showed great aptitude for the "Indian business," others saw Ralph as arrogant and abrasive. He also suffered from epilepsy, which seriously impeded his ability to work. He died in Hanover as an invalid under almost constant care and guardianship. Wheelock's struggle to accept his son's illness and his son's struggle to overcome it provide an undercurrent for some of the stranger events in the history of Moor's Indian Charity School and Dartmouth College. Ralph grew up surrounded by and dedicated to Indian education, but also with an inflated sense of Wheelock's, and his own, importance, which stayed with him for much of his life. Joseph Brant recounts a telling anecdote: Ralph once ordered William Major, Sir William Johnson's son, to saddle his horse on the grounds that he was the son of a gentleman and William Major was not. Ralph was unable to finish coursework at the College of New Jersey, which he attended from 1761-1763, although he graduated from Yale in 1765. He made three tours of the Six Nations (in 1766, 1767, and 1768), assisting ministers in bringing back children and negotiating with tribes. He taught at Moor's for two years, and was briefly considered as a companion for Occom on the Fundraising Tour. Wheelock formally named him as his heir in the 1768 draft of his will. However, Wheelock's reliance on Ralph brought disastrous consequences for the school. In the spring of 1768, Wheelock sent Ralph to the Onondagas and Oneidas to negotiate about schoolmasters and missionaries. Once there, Ralph managed to offend the assembled chiefs beyond repair. Ralph blamed his failure on Kirkland, and it was not until 1772 that Wheelock learned the truth of the matter. It is likely that Ralph's conduct influenced the Oneidas' decision to pull their children out of Moor's later in 1768: Wheelock himself implied as much in his 1771 Journal. By the early 1770s, Wheelock had realized that Ralph was never going to take over Dartmouth College. In a later will, Wheelock provided Ralph with £50 per annum for his care, to be paid out by the College, and stipulated that his other heirs should look after his oldest son. Because Ralph was unable to serve as Wheelock's heir, the presidency of the College passed to John Wheelock, a soldier who had no theological training or desire to run a college.
Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.
Benjamin Pomeroy was a school friend of Eleazar Wheelock and a lifelong supporter of his cause. Like Wheelock, he was a New Light evangelical and a staunch ally of James Davenport, a radical New Light preacher whose beliefs got him in trouble with the law. After graduating from Yale in 1733, Pomeroy received the ministry at Hebron, CT, in 1734, and assisted Wheelock in myriad ways until his own death in 1784. He kept Wheelock's school during 1746, when Wheelock's first wife, Sarah, was dying, and he tutored Occom (primarily in Hebrew) after Occom had completed his studies with Wheelock. Pomeroy also supported Wheelock as a trustee of Moor's, and, later, Dartmouth, and as a member of the Board of the Correspondents in Connecticut for the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Pomeroy and Wheelock also had close family connections: Pomeroy was married to Wheelock’s sister, Abigail, and one of Pomeroy’s daughters, Hannah, married David McClure, one of Wheelock's most illustrious graduates. Outside of his liturgical career, Pomeroy served as an army chaplain in the French and Indian War and the Revolution.
Robert Keen was a London wool merchant and an ardent supporter of George Whitefield, the eminent evangelical. Although it is unclear when Keen and Whitefield first came into contact, by the 1760s Whitefield was writing to Keen frequently. In 1763, Keen, along with Daniel West, was given the task of managing Whitefield’s religious enterprises in London (specifically, his Tottenham Court Chapel and the Tabernacle, another London church), which they continued to do after Whitefield’s death. Keen was also one of the four executors of Whitefield’s affairs in England (along with West and Charles Hardy). As a result of his relationship with Whitefield, Keen was introduced to Occom and Whitaker upon their arrival in February 1766. He was a member of the informal committee that collected donations before October 1766 and provided Occom and Whitaker with advice on their route and strategies. Keen also became a member of the English Trust, the formal organization formed in October 1766 to safeguard donations. As secretary and deputy treasurer of the Trust, Keen played an important role in transmitting accounts and correspondence between the Trust and Wheelock during the tour and the long process of Wheelock’s relocation to New Hampshire. Along with fellow Trust members Samuel Savage and John Thornton, Keen continued to provide financial support to Wheelock after the Trust had been exhausted.
John Thornton was born in Yorkshire on April 1, 1720. As a young man, Thornton inherited money from his father Robert Thornton, who was the Director of the Bank of England, which he used to begin his career as a merchant. In 1753, Thornton married Lucy Watson, with whom he had four children. Watson had a Christianizing influence on Thornton, which ultimately led to his 1754 conversion to evangelical Anglicanism under Henry Venn, the curate of Clapham. Thornton's and Venn’s sons would continue their fathers’ religious traditions, going on to form the “Clapham sect,” an influential group of evangelical Christians who championed social reforms. As a result of his conversion, Thornton pursued charity just as much as trade, a major part of which involved managing the English Trust that oversaw the funds Occom and Whitaker collected for Wheelock’s Indian Charity School. Thornton met and hosted Occom several times during his stay in England, and eventually became the Treasurer of the Trust. After Wheelock moved the School to Hanover, however, he focused on the establishment of Dartmouth College to educate Anglo-American men as missionaries, and was accused of using the Trust's funds to this end. This shift in focus contributed to the rift that developed between Occom and Wheelock upon Occom’s return to America –- a rift Thornton tried to repair. Thornton thought of Occom as an equal and, in his role as Treasurer of the Trust, often reminded Wheelock of Occom's vital role in securing the funds that made the School possible. Thornton financed Occom's further missionary activities and insured that Wheelock did not forget Occom's hard work and Christian morals. In addition, Wheelock –- who knew that Occom respected Thornton –- often called upon the merchant when he himself could not convince Occom to undertake further missionary activity. The exchanges between Wheelock and Thornton ended once Wheelock had used up the funds that Occom had raised in England, yet Occom and Thornton kept in touch up through the Revolutionary War, with Thornton remaining one of Occom's most prominent supporters. He died on November 7th, 1790 as one of the wealthiest men in England, despite giving away nearly half his salary each year. In 1828, Thornton's role in the establishment of Dartmouth was memorialized in the College's naming of Thornton Hall.
William Legge, the second Earl of Dartmouth, was the reluctant namesake of Dartmouth College. Like many of his countrymen, Legge became involved in Eleazar Wheelock’s plans through George Whitefield, the famous evangelical who introduced Samson Occom and Nathaniel Whitaker to Legge shortly after the pair’s February 1766 arrival in London. Legge proved critical in promoting Occom’s tour among the nobility, and took on a logistical role by helping to collect and oversee donations. Although Legge and Whitefield both felt it would be best if Wheelock were in total control of the funds raised in England, Occom eventually collected so much money that a formal trust was necessary to preserve propriety. This trust was formed in late 1766, with Legge as its president, to guarantee that Wheelock used the money appropriately. It soon proved that the Trust and Wheelock had different ideas as to what was, in fact, appropriate, but they were largely able to cooperate until 1769, when Wheelock obtained a charter for his school without informing the trust. (The trust, feeling that a charter would obviate its control over the British funds, had vehemently opposed it.) Adding insult to injury, Wheelock named the resulting institution Dartmouth—again without consulting Legge, and perhaps more to reassure the multitudes who had donated money than to honor the Earl. Legge never wrote to Wheelock again. Outside of his involvement with Wheelock, Legge had a brief political career. Although he was generally more concerned with religious and philanthropic matters, his station and connections (he was the step-brother of Frederick North, who was prime minister from 1770 to 1782) led him to take his first political post in 1765 as a member of the Board of Trade. During his tenure (1765-1767), and again while he was Secretary of State for the Colonies (1772-1775), Legge’s search for cooperative solutions proved unsuccessful during the build-up to the Revolution. His later positions were primarily ceremonial.
Nathaniel Whitaker was an outspoken Presbyterian minister with a long and wide-ranging career. Between his ordination in 1755 and his death in 1795, Whitaker ministered to five different congregations. His longest tenure was at Chelsea, CT (near Norwich), from 1761-1769, during which he joined Occom on his two-and-a-half-year fundraising tour of Britain. While in Chelsea, Whitaker was very involved in Wheelock's project. The two engaged in frequent correspondence, and Whitaker served on Eleazar Wheelock's Board of Correspondents in Connecticut, as well as on the Board of Trustees of Moor's Indian Charity School. At one time, he was Wheelock's presumed successor, but Dartmouth's Trustees demanded that Wheelock appoint another. Wheelock, in part due to his strongly-held belief that Native Americans were childlike and rash, was convinced that Occom needed an Anglo-American supervisor on his fundraising tour. After several candidates turned down the job, Wheelock selected Whitaker. He proved to be a poor choice; he was, by many accounts, a difficult man to get along with, and many of Wheelock’s British allies, including George Whitefield and the English Trust (the organization that took control of the money Occom raised in England) preferred to deal with Occom, although Whitaker insisted on handling the tour’s logistics. Furthermore, in Britain, Occom was the obvious star of the tour, and it was unclear to many why Whitaker asserted himself so prominently. Whitaker’s poor decisions seriously alienated the English Trust and increased their suspicion of Wheelock’s later dealings and treatment of Occom. He gave the English Trust the impression that they would have control over money raised in Scotland (which was in fact lodged with the parent organization of the SSPCK), and he was the executor of the “Eells Affair,” a plan initiated by the CT Board of the SSPCK to bring the money that Occom and Whitaker raised back to the colonies by investing it in trade goods and selling them at a profit (Eells was one of the merchants who was to help with the resale of goods). The English Trust learned about the plan by reading letters that Whitaker had given them permission to open in his absence, and were immediately shocked. The wording of certain letters made it appear that only a percentage of the profit from the resale of the goods would go towards Moor’s Indian Charity School, but beyond that detail, the English Trust was scandalized at the thought of money raised for charity being invested in trade. The English Trust blamed Whitaker entirely for these affairs, and issued specific instructions for Occom to notarize all documents requiring Whitaker’s signature. In short, they wanted Occom to supervise Whitaker, when Wheelock had envisioned the opposite relationship (both Occom and Whitaker seem to have ignored their instructions, preferring to have as little contact with one another as possible). In 1769, a year after his return to Connecticut in 1768, Whitaker found himself dismissed by his Chelsea congregation (likely because he had spent two and a half years away from them). He went on to serve several more congregations before his death in 1795. Whitaker was an outspoken Whig, and during the Revolution he published several pamphlets on his political opinions.
Charles Hardy was a prominent London lawyer, and one of four executors of the affairs in England of the evangelical minister, George Whitefield (along with Robert Keen and Daniel West). Through these connections, Hardy learned about Wheelock’s Indian Charity School, and as early as 1761, he donated £25 to Whitefield for the school. He probably met Occom and Whitaker when they arrived in London at the beginning of their fundraising tour. In 1766, Hardy was one of nine Englishmen who formed the Trust to manage the funds that Occom and Whitaker raised on their tour of Great Britain from 1765-1768. During the fundraising tour, Hardy personally donated £50 to the cause. He continued as member of the Trust until the funds ran out in 1775.
Samuel Savage was a London merchant and a member of the English Trust, the body formed to oversee money raised by Samson Occom and Nathaniel Whitaker in England between 1766 and 1768. His shop was on Gun Street, in Spitalfields, and he was likely a weaver. Few other personal details are known. Like most of Eleazar Wheelock’s English contacts, Savage was a follower of the evangelical George Whitefield, transatlantic celebrity of the First Great Awakening, and it was through Whitefield that Savage became involved in Wheelock’s initial attempts to gain a charter in the 1760s. Once Occom and Whitaker arrived in London in February 1766, Savage was part of the informal committee that handled their correspondence and suggested targets for fundraising. He was also made a member of the Trust when it was formally established in 1766. Savage, like John Thornton, continued to provide Wheelock with financial support after the fund was exhausted in 1775. Although most of the Englishmen who worked with Whitaker and Occom found Whitaker insufferable and praised Occom, Savage displayed a marked preference for Whitaker. Like Wheelock, he was worried that Occom would become prouder than he thought was appropriate for an Indian, and he expressed concerns that Whitaker had not been paid enough to compensate for his long absence from his family (no similar concerns about Occom’s family were voiced). Since Savage’s views on Occom were very close to the New England norm and represent a deviation from most Englishmen’s views, one is tempted to conclude that he had spent time in America or had been born there, but that is pure conjecture.
Samuel Kirkland (b. Kirtland) was Eleazar Wheelock’s most famous Anglo American student. He conducted a 40-year mission to the Oneidas and founded Hamilton College (established in 1793 as Hamilton Oneida Academy). Kirkland won acclaim as a missionary at a young age by conducting an adventurous and risky mission to the Senecas, the westernmost of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Six Nations. After his year and a half among them, which was well publicized by Wheelock, he was ordained and sent as a missionary to the Oneidas under the auspices of the Connecticut Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. He spent most of the rest of his life serving the Oneidas as a minister. Kirkland’s sincere devotion to serving as a missionary was excellent publicity for Wheelock’s program, but it also brought the two men into conflict. Wheelock became jealous of Kirkland when the school’s British benefactors began urging Wheelock to make Kirkland his heir, and Kirkland, meanwhile, was upset that Wheelock had failed to provide him with sufficient supplies on his mission — a complaint that he was unafraid to publicize (and that almost all of Wheelock’s other students shared). The breaking point came in 1770, when Kirkland split from Wheelock’s Connecticut Board and affiliated with the New England Company, a missionary society that had abruptly turned against Wheelock in 1765. Wheelock and Kirkland briefly made up in 1771, but their relationship quickly dissolved into further acrimony. Although Kirkland spent most of his life as a missionary to the Six Nations, he generally held disparaging views of Native Americans. He did not approve of Wheelock’s plan to educate Indians as missionaries, and was haughty towards the Moor’s alumni that worked with him (notably David Fowler, Joseph Johnson, and Joseph Woolley). Prior to the Revolution, Kirkland had been stringent in his refusals to take Oneida land, even when offered to him. The Revolution seems to have shifted his loyalties from the Oneidas to local Anglo Americans. Kirkland served as a chaplain in the American army and was instrumental in convincing the Oneidas to remain neutral (or, more accurately, to side with the Americans). At one point he was the chaplain with General Sullivan’s army, the force sent to ransack Seneca and Cayuga territory in 1779. It is unclear what emotions this aroused in Kirkland, who had served the Senecas less than 15 years earlier, yet after the war, Kirkland freely engaged in Oneida dispossession. Along with James Dean, another Wheelock alumnus with close ties to the Oneidas, Kirkland played a pivotal role in urging the Oneidas to sell land illegally to the state of New York. The land deals that resulted gave Kirkland the property, financial capital, and connections to establish Hamilton Oneida Academy. The last decades of Kirkland’s life were difficult. He found himself in a three-way battle with Samson Occom and John Sergeant Jr., who were also ministers in Oneida territory, for the hearts and minds of their congregations; he was fired as a missionary in 1797, although he continued to serve sans salary; one of his son’s business enterprises failed, leaving Kirkland nearly destitute; and two of his three sons died unexpectedly. Hamilton Oneida Academy, like Moor’s Indian Charity School, largely failed at its goal of educating Indians, and in 1812, four years after Kirkland’s death, it was re-purposed as Hamilton College, a largely Anglo-American institution. At some point in the mid-to-late 18th century, Kirkland changed his name from Kirtland, although the reasons for this are uncertain.