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Allyn Mather, letter, to Eleazar Wheelock, 1767 November 20

ms-number: 767620.1

abstract: Mather writes that he is not content at college.

handwriting: Handwriting is small and slanting, yet formal and clear. The trailer is in an unknown hand.

paper: Single large sheet is in good condition, with light staining, creasing and wear. There are signs of old tape on one verso.

noteworthy: An editor, likely 19th-century, has added a note under the trailer on one verso. This note has not been included in the transcription.



Rev.d & Honoured Sir/
Senſible of the oblagations that I am under
of Duty & affection. — I would in a submiſsive humble
manner addreſs you with a few Lines,— Your kindneſs
& Paternal care you have exerciſed towards me, give
me the greateſt reaſon to think that you are alwais con‐
ſulting my good, & happineſs, & that it would be exceding
agreable to hear from me, every opportunity.
which I would enforme you through a kind & indulgent
providence, Injoy a Tollerable good state of heath, & ſhould be
able to follow my Studies with eaſe & delight, if it was
not for thoſe many arrands which do almoſt keep me upon
continual run, for this I have been obliged to study Evinings, till
my Eyes have felt the bad affects thereof.
Reſpecting College affairs, I believe ingeneral are conducted
very wiſly, peace & good ordere seems to prevail.
the Preſidend appeairs to be frindly, & Tutors likwiſs
Notwithſtanding I enjoy not that contentedneſs of Mind which
I uſe to do while under your care & inſtruction, for my
priviliges are not so great as they were then, particular
as to divinity, I am as ignorant as when I came from home
if not more so —, the Preſident has set apart Satturday
for that purpoſe that we may study Divinity, I hope it will
be somwhat better, but I am afraid not, we recite the Aſsem‐
blies shorter Catechiſm.— It is my preſent thought this is not the place
to qa[illegible][guess: l]lify a Miſsionary for Indian service, som private School I shoud
I should think would be better fror that purpoſe, I have som
reaſons to give tim why, it is so, itf time would parmit it is now[illegible]
twelve oclock at Night, I muſt aſk liberty to subſcribe
my self. —
Your Dutifull Pupil
& Moſt obedient humble Servent

Allyn Mather
To the Rev.d E Wheelock D.D.
Allyn Marthers
Nov.r 20. 1767
Mather, Allyn

Allyn Mather was an Anglo-American charity scholar at Moor’s Indian Charity School who had a brief career as a minister before succumbing to illness. Mather arrived at Moor’s in 1766 and entered Yale in 1767. He had a strong distaste for the college: hazing bothered him, and he found the atmosphere singularly unreligious (his dislike was not fleeting: in 1778, he wrote to the Connecticut Courant to criticize the college course of study). Mather volunteered for missions in 1768. He accompanied Ralph Wheelock on his ill-fated third trek to Oneida territory, where Ralph acted intemperately at the tribal council at Onaquaga. Mather then attended Fort Stanwix with Rev. Ebenezer Cleaveland to try to patch up the damage done to Eleazar Wheelock’s agenda by Jacob Johnson. After his adventures, Mather returned to Yale, where he obtained his degree in 1771. However, he did not return to the missionary business: instead, in 1772, he became the pastor of Fair Haven Church, or Fourth Presbyterian, in New Haven, CT. It was a conservative Old Light (or more properly, Old Side) church, largely populated by parishioners who had defected from Jonathan Edwards’ congregation. It is unclear how strongly Mather himself identified with Old Side beliefs; he seems to have described the church to Wheelock as “despised” (773208), but he may have used strong language because he was trying to get out of paying his debt as a defunct charity scholar. Wheelock never seems to have collected from him, nor did he pursue Mather as vigorously as he pursued some other students. In 1779, Mather began having serious health issues, which forced him to travel south regularly. He died in 1784 on one such trip, in Savannah, Georgia.

Wheelock, Eleazar

Eleazar Wheelock was a New Light Congregationalist minister who founded Dartmouth College. He was born into a very typical Congregationalist family, and began studying at Yale in 1729, where he fell in with the emerging New Light clique. The evangelical network that he built in college propelled him to fame as an itinerant minister during the First Great Awakening and gave him many of the contacts that he later drew on to support his charity school for Native Americans. Wheelock’s time as an itinerant minister indirectly brought about his charity school. When the Colony of Connecticut retroactively punished itinerant preaching in 1743, Wheelock was among those who lost his salary. Thus, in 1743, he began operating a grammar school to support himself. He was joined that December by Samson Occom, a Mohegan Indian, who sought out an education in hopes of becoming a teacher among his people. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to train Native Americans as missionaries. To that end, he opened Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754 (where he continued to train Anglo-American students who paid their own way as well as students who functionally indentured themselves to Wheelock as missionaries in exchange for an education). Between 1754 and 1769, when he relocated to New Hampshire, Wheelock trained approximately 60 male and female Native American students from nearby Algonquian tribes and from the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) of central New York. At the same time, he navigated the complicated politics of missionary societies by setting up his own board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge, although he continued to feud with the Boston Board of the SSPCK and the London Commissioners in Boston (more colloquially called the New England Company). By the late 1760s, Wheelock had become disillusioned with the idea of Native American education. He was increasingly convinced that educating Native Americans was futile (several of his students had failed to conform to his confusing and contradictory standards), and, in late 1768, he lost his connection to the Haudenosaunee. With his inclination and ability to sponsor Native American missionaries largely depleted, Wheelock sought instead to fulfill his ultimate ambition of obtaining a charter and opening a college, which he did in 1769. To fund this new enterprise, Wheelock drew on the £12,000 that Samson Occom had raised for Moor’s Indian Charity School during a two-and-a-half year tour of Great Britain (1765 to 1768). Much of this money went towards clearing land and erecting buildings in New Hampshire for the Charity School’s relocation — infrastructure that also happened to benefit Dartmouth. Many of Wheelock’s contemporaries were outraged by what they saw as misuse of the money, as it was clear that Dartmouth College was not intended for Indians and that Moor’s had become a side project. Although Wheelock tried to maintain at least some commitment to Native American education by recruiting students from Canadian communities, the move did a great deal of damage to his public image. The last decade of Wheelock’s life was not easy. In addition to the problems of trying to set up a college far away from any Anglo-American urban center, Wheelock experienced the loss of relationships with two of his most famous and successful students, Samson Occom and Samuel Kirkland (an Anglo-American protégé). He also went into debt for Dartmouth College, especially after the fund raised in Britain was exhausted.

Daggett, Naphtali
HomeAllyn Mather, letter, to Eleazar Wheelock, 1767 November 20
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